Discuss the Role Parental Involvement plays in the Educational Development of children

Running Head: PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

Impacts of Parental Involvement in the Educational
Development of Children
(Name)
(University)
(Instructor)
(Course)
(Date)

Abstract
It is precisely obvious that parental involvement is very important in the educational development of children. Two-way communication between families and schools is essential both for schools and for. For a variety of reasons, however, many parents and teachers find themselves unable to timely contact each other when they find a need.  This study aims to answer the following questions:
1.  What is the profile of parents’ involvement towards their children’s educational development?
2. What is the level of academic performance and educational development of the students based on their parental involvement?
3. Is there a significant relationship between parental involvement and educational development of the children?
4. What are the roles of parents in the educational development of their children?
5. What are the possible remedies to effectively work on the issue regarding students’ educational development?
It employed the descriptive-correlation design using the two sets of validated questionnaire in which the first part measured the parental involvement while the second had focused on measuring the level of educational development of the children.

Table of Contents
Abstract                                            2
1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction                                    4
Related Literature                                 5
Related Studies                                  7
Statement of the Problem
2 METHODOLOGY
Research Design                                10
Participants                                    10
Research Instruments                                10
Data Gathering Procedure                            10
Data Analysis                                    11
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                    15
Conclusions                                    15
Recommendations                                16
REFERENCES                                        17
CURRICULUM VITAE

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
What can parents do in the educational development of their children?
The topic of family is of great social importance because it pertains to the issues regarding the proper upbringing of parents to their children. Family perspective is closely related to many other understanding processes, including how to up bring children in order to build a successful and strong family ties. Just as in any other situation where people are expected to coexist, family members, most especially children, begin to take on particular roles within the family. These roles could very well be the due result of their family dynamics
What is parental involvement? Children have two main educators in their lives – their parents and their teachers. Parents are the prime educators until the child attends nursery or starts school, but they still remain a major influence on their children’s learning through school and beyond. There is no clear line to show where the parents’ input stops and the teachers’ input begins. The school and the parents all have crucial roles to play, and the impact is greater if parents and schools work in partnership.
Family factors most importantly touch the issue on the children’s academic achievement in the present society. Since it is the responsibility of the parents to raise their children with proper mentoring, school, indeed, has strong impact to this concern. This research will present the relationship of the family with the children’s performance in school, both positive and negative, and thus will provide information about the significance of appropriate upbringing of the offspring. The researcher precisely believes that kin relationship highly impacts the children’s social life, which basically speaks of students’ excellent academic performance.

Related Literature
What is the impact of family learning on children’s achievement? OFSTED (2000) reported that successful programs of family learning resulted in the following benefits. For children: accelerated development of oracy and preliteracy; skills improved standards in numeracy and literacy positive behavioral and attitudinal changes enhanced confidence and self-esteem awareness that learning is a normal activity throughout life pleasure from collaborative learning. For parents: improved competence in literacy and numeracy progression for over 50 percent of participants to FE and training or more challenging jobs increased confidence in contacts with schools, teachers, and the education system, leading to becoming more active partners with schools a greater understanding of child development and of the strategies that can be used to help children to learn at key points in development, improved parenting better relationships with children.
Mothers are often in charge at home. What about fathers and their involvement in their children’s education? Fathers play an extremely important role in their children’s lives, and a plethora of research indicates that paternal involvement is significantly related to positive child outcomes. It is known that fathers are often very involved in their children’s lives. For example, fathers are often the main sitters for children while mothers are working. Research states that in 36 percent of dual-earner families, after the mother, it is the father, more than any other individual, who cares for children. Research evidence relating to fathers reveals that fathers who devote time to their sons are giving them a greater chance to grow up as confident adults. Boys who feel that their fathers devote time, especially to talk to them about their worries, school work, and social lives, almost all emerge as motivated
and optimistic men. Paternal involvement in children’s education at age seven predicts higher educational attainment by age 20 in both boys and girls. For boys, early paternal involvement protects against delinquency in later life as the involvement of fathers exerts an influence on children’s positive attitudes to school.
Oliva (2009) states that family dynamics are influenced by family structure, for example, how many children are in the family, whether one or two parents live in the home, whether or not there is a stepparent in the family, cultural background and the personalities of each member. All of these examples contribute to the influence of family dynamics.
Moreover, Cousineau (2009) formulates an idea that children who see violence at home are more likely to have many emotional and behavioral problems. They may become quiet and withdrawn. They may also have nightmares. Further, they may even blame themselves for what their parents are doing. Other children may act out, become violent themselves, and become so protective of their feelings that they lose the ability to feel for others. Because of the bad feelings from home, children may do poorly in school. About half of the men who hurt their wives hurt their children as well. Growing up in a home where there is violence has a lasting effect on children. Boys are more likely to grow up to be men who hurt their wives and children. On the other hand, girls are more likely to grow up to be women with low self-esteem and may end up in abusive relationships with boyfriends or husbands.
According to Mosby’s Medical Dictionary (2009), family dynamics is defined as the forces at work within a family that produce particular behaviors or symptoms. It is the way in which a family lives and interacts with one another that creates the dynamic. That dynamic, whether good or bad, changes who people are and burrows into their psyche, ultimately influencing how they view and interact with the world outside of their family. There are many families whose dynamic is suffering in this country, families who are having a difficult time dealing with the serious issues in their life. When that happens, even the simpler problems seem more dramatic than they really are and oftentimes go unresolved. When a family becomes overwhelmed, unable to cope with life’s everyday stress and their relationships falling apart, then it is a time that all the rest will be affected strongly. Children and young people who experience violence in their families are more likely than children who have not experienced any form of family violence to develop severe behavioral problems, become violent as adolescents, and continue the cycle of violence.
Related Studies
Many studies have been related to the research of family factors affecting children’s academic performance. A study conducted by Reilly (2010) states that a family is certainly a unit for developing qualities of an individual. Family values represent the core values and guidelines that family members hold in high regard for the well-being of the family.
Haveman and Wolfe (1994) analyzed data from the Panel study of Income Dynamics accumulated over the years 1968-1988 and found that mother’s employment during one’s adolescent years (age 12-15) has a significant positive effect on the likelihood of high school graduation but no effect on completed years of schooling.  These mixed findings make intuitive sense considering high school graduation is not as far removed from age 15 as is the completion of one’s schooling
Wells (2011) stated in his study that educational outcomes may differ between children of working mothers and children of nonworking mothers for two reasons. One is that the overall effect mother’s employment has on educational attainment consists of competing positive and negative effects, which may end up cancelling each other out.  Specifically, the positive effects of maternal employment may be the added income and the role-modeling function (especially for girls), whereas the negative effects may be the time taken away from the children, which results in less interaction and less supervision
“When schools, families, and community groups work together to support learning, children tend to do better in school, stay in school longer, and like school more.” That is the conclusion of a recent report from the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. The report, a synthesis of research on parent involvement over the past decade, goes on to find that regardless of family income or background:
students with involved parents are more likely to earn higher grades and test scores, and enroll in higher-level programs; be promoted, pass their classes, and earn credits; attend school regularly; have better social skills, show improved behavior, and adapt well to school; and graduate and go on to postsecondary education (Henderson & Mapp, 2002).
However, if parents have a central role in influencing their children’s progress in school, research has shown that schools, in turn, have an important part to play in determining levels of parent involvement (Epstein, 2001). Working to include parents is particularly important as students grow older and in schools with high concentrations of poor and minority students (Rutherford et al., 1997).
A report from the U.S. Department of Education cites several reasons for the decline in involvement as children grow older. Parents of middle schoolers often report feeling that children should do homework alone and that the parents should not try to help if they are not experts in the subject. The structure of many middle schools can also deter parents. Middle schools are larger and more impersonal than most elementary schools, and students may receive instruction from several teachers, meaning parents no longer have one contact in the school who knows their child well (Rutherford et al., 1997).
However, research also shows there are ways middle schools can overcome such impediments. Organizing a middle school so that at least one person knows each child well, keeping a “parent room” in the building, and sponsoring parent-to-parent communication and events are key parts of an effective parent-involvement program in the middle grades (Berla, Henderson, & Kerewsky, 1989).
Statement of the Problem
This study is conducted to determine the relationship and roles of parents to the educational development of their children. Also, it seeks to identify the blockades of the issue mentioned in the preceding sentence. More importantly, it is conducted to present possible remedies or recommendations to the raised problem so that it can help the target audience to be aware about how their actions will leave strong impacts.
Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of parents’ involvement in their children’s educational development?
2. What is the level of academic performance and educational development of the students based on their parental involvement?
3. Is there a significant relationship between parental involvement and educational development of the children?
4. What are the roles of parents in the educational development of their children?
5. What are the possible remedies to effectively work on the issue regarding students’ educational development?

Chapter 2
METHODOLOGY
Research Designs
The method used in this research is the descriptive-correlation method. It is concerned with obtaining information regarding the current status of the phenomenon being studied to determine what exists with respect to the variables of the study. Furthermore, it involves determining the extent of relationship between existing variables: parental involvement and level of educational performance and development of the children.
Participants
The respondents of this study are: 1) one section of 4th grade students which is composed of 25 students and 2) 25 parents having children who are studying in school.
Research Instruments
This study used two questionnaires in finding the general description or profile of parents’ involvement and the children’s level of educational development.
The first questionnaire is for the general description of the parents’ involvement wherein a set of questions were prepared. On the other hand, the second questionnaire focused on the level of children’s educational achievement.
The indicated questionnaires were subjected to final validation by two experts in the field of education such as the doctorate degree holder and so on.
Data Gathering Procedure
The following steps were observed in the data-collection process:
1. Seeking permission from the head of the school/academy to conduct the study;
2. Giving of the questionnaire to the target respondents;
3. Retrieval of accomplished instruments; and
4. Statistical treatment of data.
Data Analysis
The accomplished questionnaires were scored and tallied. The researchers used the Average Mean and Pearson Product-Moment Coefficient Correlation as statistical treatments in the study.
The average was used to describe the general profile or description of culture among the students in Saudi Arabia. It was also used to identify the level of reading comprehension of the respondents.
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient Correlation was used to identify the relationship of the variables of the study, which are the culture and religion and English vocabulary of students in Saudi Arabia.

Chapter 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The data gathered in this study are basically quantitative through the appropriate statistical instruments administered to the intended respondents that were further analyzed. Finally, the researcher came up with final results, and the discussions of these were arranged according to the following subheadings: 1) Profile of the parental involvement to their children; 2) Level of the educational development of the children; 3) Relationship of parental involvement and the educational development of the children.
Profile of Parental Involvement
Table 1 shows the summary of parental involvement of the parents to the children’s development. The respondents (parents) were to answer whether they participated or guided their children in reading, accomplishment of homework or assignment, school activities, numerical knowledge, and even in leisure time activities.
Activities
Description
Teaches children to read
Often
Attends school activities (meetings, programs, etc.)
Sometimes
Helps or guides children in doing
homework
Often
Teaches children how to about numerical problems
Sometimes
Spends leisure time together during free time
Often

Table 1. General profile of parental involvement towards their children’s educational development (Based on majority’s response)
Level of Children’s Educational Development
Table 2 shows the summary of the children’s educational development. It includes the description of their reading and numerical or mathematical ability. It further touches on their performance in their homework and their social relationship with their classmates.
Category
Description
Reading ability (Language)
Very High
Numerical or mathematical ability
High
Homework
High
Attendance in school activities (meetings, programs, etc)
Average
Social interaction with classmates and teachers
Very high

Table 2. Summary of the children’s educational attainment
Relationship of Parental Involvement and Educational Development of the Children
Based on the collated data, the researcher had come up with the interpretation.
The relationship between parental involvement and educational development of children was statistically tested using the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient.
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient measured at 0.80 indicates very high correlation. This means that there is, indeed, very high relationship between parental involvement and the educational development of the children. Meaning, parents’ involvement in their children’s life impacts the latter’s development when it comes to their academic performance as well as their social contact.
In reading, as early and as often as the parents teach their children how to read, children would find it easy to grasp the strategy of doing so; therefore, this would affect the other areas or subjects as well. This is focused on English, which is advantageously used as a medium of instruction. Secondly, as seen from the data, parents are only teaching their children mathematics sometimes, and likewise, there are only few and chosen children who are good in this field. Homework as well would affect students’ academic performance. There are tasks given to students that require parental guidance and instruction. More so, frequency of parental contact with their children would affect their way of dealing with their colleagues and on parental attention during school activities.
Henceforth, parents should understand their role of being the primary teacher to their children, which is only followed by the school. Since they are the first agent of their children’s transformation and educational development, they should provide their kids with vast knowledge and wisdom through their time allotment appropriate for the children as an excellent development comes from a perfect upbringing.

Chapter 4
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of the findings of the study from which conclusion and recommendation were drawn from.
Summary
This study on the impacts of parental involvement in the educational development of children was conducted to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of parents’ involvement on their children’s educational development?
2. What is the level of academic performance and educational development of the students based on their parental involvement?
3. Is there a significant relationship between parental involvement and educational development of the children?
4. What are the roles of parents in the educational development of their children?
5. What are the possible remedies to effectively work on the issue regarding students’ educational development?
Data were drawn and went through analysis and interpretation that led to the following finding: There is, indeed, very high relationship between parental involvement and the educational development of the children.
Conclusions
Based on the results and finding, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Generally, parents oftentimes involve themselves to the educational development of their children.
2. It is conclusively true that parental involvement has a very high relationship with the educational development of their children.
3. Parental involvement is the primary factor affecting the educational attainment of the children.
Recommendations
Based on the results and finding, the following recommendations were made:
1) Parents should be responsible in playing their role as the main teachers to their children.
2) Parents should give their best in introducing proper education to their kids through reading and numerical practice as early as possible.
3) Parents, though busy, should allot time in guiding and supervising their children with their homework as well as providing the leisure time due to them.
4) Parents should be reminded about their responsibility in the inside-the-campus activities of their children.
5) Further study must be conducted on the other factors that elevate the level of children’s academic performance.

References

Berla, N., Henderson, A. T., & Kerewsky, W. (1989). The middle school years: A
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Casper, M. et al. (1998). Comprehension: Theories and Strategies. Retrieved March 2, 2011, from http://www.domincan,edu/academics/education/faculty/madaliennepeters/comprehension.html.

Cousineae, M.L.S. (2009). Family Violence: How does family violence affect my children? Retrieved March 12, 2011, from http://www.handsonhealth-sc.org/page.php?id=941

Education Week. (2004). Parent Involvement. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/parent-involvement/

Education and Skills. (2011). The Impact of Parental Involvement on Children’s Education. Retrieved March 31, 2011, from http://education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/DfES0645200MIG2529.pdf parents.website@dfes.gsi.gov.uk

Epstein, J. (2001). School, family, and community partnerships. Boulder: Westview Press.

Epstein, J.L. & Van Voorhis,F.L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing
homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 181-193.

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Haveman R. & Wolfe, B. (1994). The Determinants of Children’s Attainments: A Review of
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Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V., and Sandler, Howard M. 1997. “Why Do Parents Become
Involved in Their Children’s Education?” Review of Educational Research 67:3 – 42.

Mosby’s Medical Dictionary (7th ed.). (2005). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

OFSTED (2000); Office for Standards in Education, Family Learning: a survey of
current practice. London: Crown copyright. Retrieved March 31, 2011 from http://www.ofsted.gov.uk.

Oliva, Rachel. 2009. Answer bag. Available at <http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/1809116&gt; [Accessed 12 March 2011].
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Reilly, Natalie J. 2010. What Is the Meaning of Family Dynamics? Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/about_6623839_meaning-family-dynamics_.html

Rutherford, B., Anderson, B. & Billig, S. (1997). Studies of Education Reform: Parent and
Community Involvement in Education. Final Technical Report. VOLUME I.

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Williams,B,Williams,J & Ullman,A (2002).Parental Involvement in Education: DfES.
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