Negotiation Planning guide

January 17, 2018

aStudent’s Name

Professor’s Name




Defining Issues

The phase begin with an indepth analysis will be discussed in the negotitioans. Here, the student will focus on the final grade of the subject. There is a peromance record that will be used to determine the final grade. The practical exams, coursework, and written exams must be well performed for the instructor to believe that one deserves an A.

Assembling Issues and Defining the Bargain Matrix

Both the student and teacher will develop a bargaining matrix that will form the bass of the negotiation. The list that has chief elements that can be used during the meeting at create a total the maximum points.

Defining Interest

Asking “why” frequently brings precarious needs, values, and principles, which have to get in the negotiation to the surface. Some of the interest can comprise of

  • Process-based that is linked with how the negotiators conduct themselves as they negotiate.
  • Substantive that is directly related to focal issues under negotiation.
  • Association-based, which tied to the desired or present future link between the groups

Understanding Limits and Alternatives

My resistance point is a B since it reflects the grade that can at least amount to something in the society. In the negotiation, I seek to get an A but in the event that all factors are confined, I would prefer to settle for a B. The nature of my negotiation does not present alternatives that can be helpful. One possible option is to get an A in another related subject in order to guarantee a good overall grade.

Setting Targets and Openings

In the negotiation, my opening is realistic as it reflects an achievable grade. Given my previous performance and my level of involvement in the learning process, am certain that I deserve a good grade.

Assessing Constituents and Social Context of Negotiation

The negotiation is overrun by many factors ranging from the institution, instructors, to other environmental factors. The objective of the whole education setting is to ensure that deserving persons are picked and employed by the society to ensure growth and development.

Analyzing the Other Party

Planning for a negotiation also involves the consideration of the parties involved in the negotiations, presenting issues to these parties, and establishing the appropriate protocols for engaging in the negotiations.

Sections 7 analyses some of the factors that should be taken in consideration when analysing the other party in a negotiation


Presenting Issues to Other Parties

Section 8 analyses how the issues should be presented and this is based on the available evidence and compilation of the most relevant evidence.

Protocol to be followed during the Negotiation Process

Finally, section 9 highlights the protocols to be followed during the negotiations to ensure a successful grade improvement negotiation process. .




Negotiation Planning guide

January 17, 2018

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Table of Contents

Introduction. 1

  1. Defining Issues. 2
  2. Assembling Issues and Defining the Bargain Matrix. 3
  3. Defining Interest 6
  4. Understanding Limits and Alternatives. 8
  5. Setting Targets and Openings. 10
  6. Assessing Constituents and Social Context of Negotiation. 12
  7. Analyzing the Other Party. 14
  8. Presenting Issues to Other Parties. 19
  9. Protocol to be followed during the Negotiation Process. 20

Work Cited. 22



Negotiation Planning Guide


The length of the negotiation, a number of issues, the huge network at the table, the immense network of links amid the parties at the table and lastly the decision makers who are away from the table influence how the negotiation will outcome. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders state that it is important to understand that the negotiations can be done one on one, which is you and the other individual negotiator (72). As a result, it is the easiest model to understand and plan for. On the contrary, negotiations can also have two sides and each side can have multiple parties or multiple parties may also be represented at the table, or organizations or multiple group. This negotiation-planning guide will be a foundation for a better final grade in this subject, which is an A.

1.   Defining Issues

This stage starts with an in-depth analysis of what will be discussed during the negotiation. In this view, the negotiation will be about the final grade that will be issued on the subject of Business. Unlike other negotiations, this one will only focus on one issue, which is the grade for Business subject. Even though other negotiations are complex because of the many elements that need to be analyzed. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that the number of issues to be during the negotiation together with the association between the negotiator and another party is primarily the determinant of whether to apply the integrative or distributive strategy (72). However, since this will be a single-issue negotiation, the latter will be applied. It is important to note that single-issue negotiation mostly dictate distributive negotiations because the only true negotiation is the distribution or the price of the issue. This negotiation guide focuses on the final grade in the subject of Business.

In the negotiation for better grades, certain factors will come to play. Since the instructor conducted the subject from the start of the semester, he or she has a list of activities that were done. As a result, the instructor kept a performance record of all the activities that were done during the period. In light of this, as the student I had to perform my best in the stipulated activities to make sure that I would have a better platform to negotiate. To be able to understand the defining issues better for negotiating for my grade, I had to focus on the three main elements, which are coursework, practical exams, and written exams. When one wants to have an upper hand at the negotiating table, the aforementioned elements need to be above average. Therefore, in this negotiation aiming for an A in the overall subject would be the best considering the performance of the coursework, practical exams, and written exams.

The coursework, practical exams, and written exams should be well performed in order for the instructor to believe that one deserves an A. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that the chance to develop can be lost during competitive dynamics, which reduce information and trust sharing and which, treat each item in a distributive manner (73). This makes one realize that during the negotiations one should be careful to ensure that the needs of both parties have been met. Therefore, when one has an average of A’s in coursework, practical exams, and written exams, the instructor will allow the student to negotiate for better grades given that he or she has passed with similar grades.

2. Assembling Issues and Defining the Bargain Matrix

The next step in negotiating for a better grade will be assembling all issues, which have been defined into a comprehensive list. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that the combination of list from the both sides during the negotiation will assist establishing the bargaining mix. Likewise, the student and the instructor both have listed that can be used during the negotiation. Both individuals should develop a list that has chief elements that can be used during the meeting. Since the student will is negotiating for an A in the subject, the list should favor issues that can be used make the instructor understand the student’s perspective. One should understand that when the list is being generated, the negotiators can feel that they have managed to put a lot on the table at a go or raise many issues. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that this mostly happens when the parties do not communicate frequently or they have lost the contacts (73). It is important for the student, instructor to communicate always in order to build, and effective relationship that can be used during the negotiation. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders state that introducing a huge list of items to a negotiation results to success, rather than less, likely provided all the issues may be real (73). Huge bargaining mixes permit many possible arrangements and components for settlement, hence increasing the possibility that a specific package can meet both parties’ requirements and this may lead to a successful settlement. Large bargaining mixes may lengthen negotiations since they represent many possible results of the issue to consider, and assessing and joining all the mixes valuing the deal very intricate.

In the list, the student should ensure that the list contains items that will channel the negotiations towards achieving an A. The student should make sure that the list focuses on activities that would convince the instructor trust the student. The instructor can also have a list that can be based on the activities that were done during that semester. These two lists can be used to develop the bargaining matrix. After they assemble the issues on the agenda, the negotiator (student) should prioritize using two steps.

  1. Determine the issues, which are most and less important. When the negotiations between the instructor and student start, both parties may be easily swept because of the rush of information, offers, arguments, counteroffers, concessions, and trade-off. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that for persons who do not know what they want in advance, one can easily lose perspective and accept suboptimal settlements, or to be distracted by the long debates over the points, which are relatively unimportant. Therefore, it is apparently clear that both the student and instructor should have focus and be detailed in their negotiating. The student should always remember the prime outcome of the result is to attain an A in business. When the negotiators have set the priorities, it may result to an aggressive argument by the other party rather than yield based on their priorities.

It is important to understand that priorities in negotiating for trade can be done in several ways. According to Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders, one of the easiest methods is for the negotiator (student) to rank-order the items through asking, “What is the most significant?” “What is second most significant?” and lastly, “What is least important?” an even easier procedure is to group items for groups of high, low, and medium significance. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders add that if the negotiator represents a constituency, it is paramount to include the group in setting priorities (75). From the above procedure, it is evident that the priorities may set for more specific issues and interest. The last procedure that can be used is said to be more accurate since 100 points are given to the total package of the items and then they are divided amid the issues in proportion to every item’s importance. When the negotiator has confidence in the relative weighting for the points, the issues, then packaging and trading off possible settlements jointly becomes more systematic.

When one wants to develop a scoring system, the following steps should be followed.

  1. List all the items of significant during the negotiation process.
  2. All the issues can be ranked according to the negotiator’s value.
  • The negotiator should then assign points to the issues. Here, the student should make sure that the highest ranked item is assigned the most points while the lowest ranked item attains the fewest points. The total of the maximum points for all the issues should be 100. The aim of this step is to improve on the simple rank-ordering during step ii through reflecting the size of the difference between adjacently ranked items. Therefore, the negotiating student should understand that the difference between each issue.
  1. Arrange the range of possible settlements for every issue. Classify the ranges using local norms or the student’s best assessments of realistic, low, and medium expectations.
  2. Assign the probable results, which as a student one identifies for every issue. To offer the maximum number of points to the preferred settlement for each issue and give the zero points to the settlements, which is less acceptable. Then, assign and rank the points to the probable outcome between the worst and the best. According to Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders, the point values may increase between specific adjacent pairs of settlements within that range or could barely increase (75). The most significant thing to recall concerning the offering of points is that the allocation should reflect what is significant. Therefore, when allocating the points in the list the student should understand the elements that will offer most points need to be given most points.
  3. Lastly, one should double check the scoring system. In finishing the steps (i) to (v), one will undoubtedly make choices based on the gut feeling.

When one applies this scoring system to ass the offer which is on the table, they should work towards acquiring the highest score agreement, which the other part allows. Therefore, the student using this procedure should attain they acquire the highest point for the instructor to allow achieve the highest possible grade, which is an A. According to Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders, it is also significant to set priorities for both intangible and tangible issues (75). It is also important to add that the intangible issues are often intricate to rank-order and discuss, yet when they stay subjective and not quantified, negotiators can underemphasize and overemphasize them. Lastly, the negotiators can also opt to specify the bargaining range for every issue within the mix.

  1. Determine if the issue is separated or linked. Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders argue that when the issues are divided, they might easily be subtracted or added; if connected, the settlement on one can be associated with settlement on others and making the concessions on one issue can inevitably be truly linked to any item (76). The negotiator should opt whether the items are truly linked.

 3. Defining Interest

After describing the issues, the negotiator can proceed to define the underlying needs and interest. As seen from previous chapters, the target point and opening bid are mostly required by the negotiator. As a student, the target point would be attaining an A as the overall grade. This is what the negotiator hopes to attain during the meeting. The interest might be to acquire this with respect to the issues aligned. According to Lewicki, Barry, and Saunders, defining the interest are more helpful in interrogative negotiations than in distributive bargaining (76). However, the negotiation procedure being applied will be distributive since they may also benefit from both or one party through identifying the main interest. It is important to understand that during the negotiation for better grades, only one party will benefit. When the student attains an A in business, he will benefit compared to the other negotiator who is the instructor. Listing the issues will play a key role in focusing on meeting the interest of both parties. Therefore, if issues can aid in defining what one wants, then understanding the chief interest needs one to ask why they need it. As a result, the student should perform better in the elements named in step 1. This will provide him with a better platform that can be used to negotiate with the instructor to attain the best grade during the study. Consequently, asking “why” mostly brings precarious values, principles, values and needs, which have to acquire in the negotiation to the surface. Some of the interest can comprise of

  • Process-based, which is associated with how the negotiators conduct themselves as they negotiate.
  • Substantive, which is directly linked to focal issues under negotiation.
  • Association-based, which tied to the desired or present future link between the groups.

In this stage, the interest can also depend on the intangibles of negotiation, including standard or principles to which the parties adhere. Here, the instructor will be in a position to negotiate with the student based on the standards and principles of the institution. If the student has adhered to the three elements mentioned in section one of the list, then he or she will be in a position to award the best grade. The negotiation will also be based on certain benchmarks that are set by the institution since they will act as a guide towards the settlement. If the student performs well, the instructor will reward him or her with better grades because he has achieved the target required. The deal should also be reasonable and reflect the effort that has been applied in the subject.

4. Understanding Limits and Alternatives

In this section, some of the questions to reflect on will be stated below:

  1. What are my limits? What is walk away? What are my alternatives?
  2. Defining targets and openings. Where will starts? What is my goal?
  • Who are my constituents and what do they want me to do?

As a dedicated student, the only goal that drives me is the need to succeed in my academics and get good grades. I have always dedicated my entire life to working hard at school with hopes that the efforts will be well placed in the future. Business as a subject became the immediate area of interest when I joined school and I have always been thrilled with the intrinsic capacity of business in shaping the world. As earlier mentioned, I seek to get an A in Business to reflect my interests and efforts that I have invested in studying the subject. Through the schooling experienced, I have offered to do allot of practices in the area of business and read a lot of books with intent to understand all the dynamics of business. I can personally echo the fact that I have grown my grasp of the discipline and am now comfortable to tackle any issues regarding the business world.

In the event that my arguments are sloppy and do not reflect the level of excellence required, I would ask to be granted the opportunity to get a B in the subject. I would rest for a B since it has the capacity to shape a positive influence in my life thereafter. Like any other student who has sacrificed time and financed in the institution of education, I would wish to turn the investment into a success and help share in the effort of shaping the world. I happen to belong to a generation that is driven by excellence and success. We are all characterized by a deep-seated desire to change the world and leave a legacy of excellence. I wish to be known as a person who struggled through life to ensure the introduction of ideas and concepts that redefined the whole business world. I believe there is room for growth and development and my constant interaction with Business as a discipline presents a chance for more growth and development.

Another reason I had settled for a B as my resistance point is the fact that anything lesser than that would mean an immediate detachment from my dreams. It is the point that can at least offer a given set of option that would favor my dreams (76). I have come a long way and have done a lot to ensure that I succeed. Any grade less than a B would not only be a disservice to me but to the whole society. I am made to believe that I am gifted and occupy a highlighted position in the society. I would wish to use the gift and help the society to become better through informed investment and controlled business activities that do not disregard other important aspects in the society. I would define my being as a business enthusiast who is not only obsessed with the capacity of reproducing ideas but also the ability to create new ideas and challenge exiting developments in the sector of business.

I have a shallow list of alternatives that I can consider in this negotiation. One possible alternative is getting A in other related subjects that would later amount to a better overall grade. For instance, if I get an A in Human Resource (HM), which is a related subject, I will be able to raise extra point for my final grade. However, the A in HM will not serve its purpose given that my interests is not to only get a better overall grade. I wish to get a good grade in Business that would allow me to consider more education in the sector of business that would be later channeled into an extended understanding of business in its entirety. My alternatives are limited and it gives me a poor position to navigate my negotiation (77). It presents my case as almost desperate in need of great favor. I admit that I do not seek to consider any other options that would not allow me to achieve my long-term goals.


5. Setting Targets and Openings

As described by the institution of negotiation, the opening shapes the course of the whole process. An unrealistic opening can make one of the parties to quit with an attitude that there is no hope for agreement. In my case, my opening is realistic as it reflects my constant effort to get good grades in school. It does not only apply in Business but also in other subjects. I have constantly made efforts achieve score better and my dreams. I was brought up in a responsible setting that taught me the importance of hard work. I have forever embraced the idea of hard working and it has helped me to achieve a lot in both my academic and social life. Therefore, my opening is an A, which happens to be the highest grade achievable under the given setting. Getting an A means that a student was able to comprehensively understand the subject and present correct answers in all the tests given. The facts underlining the grade are not diverted from the reality given my scoring in the tests given. It also reflects the general participation in class, an aspect that I have grown to shape as an interactive tool to better learning. My target is positive and realistic as expected from any student who wished to be part of change in the society. I believe that my constant effort at school, knowledge base and skill set deserves the A as it will guarantee a comprehensive exploitation of my abilities.

I am made to understand that this negotiation involves two parties that are all indebted to their course. A student takes classes and responds to the tests and the instructor who aids in the learning and the testing process. As a student, am obsessed with the need to understand the ideas shared in class and present the correct answers in all the tests given. The instructor on the other hand is moved by the need to echo the objectives of the institution in question and deliver the overall set goals of education in its basic meaning. A good instructor would not consider offering high grades to those students who do not show constant efforts or grant poor grades to those who constant struggle to perform better. I am proud to categorize myself as a student who always seeks to do better and get the highest score possible. My assessment is inspired by the multiple positive comments that I have received from my friends, classmates, instructors and parents. I believe their assessment is well placed and it would be a great disservice for me to fail to live up to their expectations.

At our your disposal is a bargaining mix with all grades from A, B, C, D, E to F. The instructor has the power to give any of the grades, which is determined through a comprehensive assessment of a student’s performance. I believe I have the capacity to belong to any group on the listing served with the option to either work hard or not. However, given my experience at school and my constant involvement in my own academics, my bargaining mix is limited to A and B. A is the highest grade that I can get and the most deserving one. B is the lowest that I can manage and it reflects a sense of failure having set a goal for us go away for excellence. I was taught to always keep a positive mindset and never embrace pessimism as it limits my capacity to get good grades.

In shaping a trade-off, I plan to consider a number of projects in relation to the subject in question. I have been able to learn so many ideas in business that can easily be replicated in the real world. In fact, I plan to establish a business line that would directly draw from the concepts and ideas learned in the classroom. The success of the business will be a direct manifestation of all the ideas that I learned in the classroom. Teaching is a way of sharing ideas and knowledge and the real success is when tutors get to interact with the practical results of their work. My success is a comprehensive trade-off for the good grade that I ask for. Getting an A will allow me a better position to stand against the multiple forces in the business world and establish great ideas that can change the course of business as a discipline. The aggregate results of my success directly reflect the success of the whole institution and positive impact on the society. I believe education is deeply rooted in the need to drive controlled civilization with regard to the well-being of human being and other aspects in the society.

6. Assessing Constituents and Social Context of Negotiation

In defining the constituents of our negotiation, it is important to observe all the forces that run an institution. Grading is the power that every institution is given by the local forces in governance in order to ensure a common method of ranking individuals. The society depends on the ranking to determine the best people who are identified as leaders to take sensitive positions in the society. It creates a sense of order allowing each person to explore his or her talents and abilities that align with making the best society. In my schooling process, my parents were my foundation since the primary stage. My family ensured that I was provided for as far as education is concerned. All the expenses were settled timely and in case of any issues my family members were willing to help find the most suitable solution. Therefore, my family also wishes that I got the highest grade that transforms their collective efforts into a living investment. I wish to make them proud by scoring the best and continuing with my endeavors towards success. Equally, my friends, both close and distant, wish that I succeeded. Rules of social interaction suggest that people are always drawn towards successful persons. I echo their deep-seated interest in my negotiation as a I seek to be the friend who walks the path of success. I believe there are other interest forces that are inactive in the negotiation, but would wish for an inclusive and positive outcome. On the other hand, the institution is made up of many forces and moderators who are set to ensure that everything is running correctly. It would be a violation of the law to give students grades that they do not deserve. The aggregate effect of such subjective tendencies is the development of a system that does not reward effort and excellence. My request in this negotiation is realistic and within the provision of all the set procedures and rules of education. In deciding which grade to give to students, instructors consult an already set scheme that offers the best approach to the issue. It analyses all the performances of the students and suggests which grades or options are the best for each candidate. The results are then decided with an aim to realize the overall goals of the education sector in the society.

I have so far developed a good relationship with the tutors and other parties at school. I have shared an overall positive connection that explains my good performance at school. I have contacts that will offer to link and work with me in the future with the intent to achieve great things. I have friends with bigger dreams that are portrayed as a source of inspiration that has helped me find the right path in education. In this negotiation, there is no room for future negotiations as the issue at hand is time sensitive (81). Grading as a practice is done within a given period and once the results are out there are limited chances of change. It calls for quick decision that is comprehensive and takes into account all the factors that define my course.

We live in a world where everyone is obsessed with excellence though many do not work for it. There are multiple cases of fraud as people invent ways to ease their way through the system. We have professionals and career men who are a lie having fabricated details to reach such heights. In the course of my talk, I wish to never be identified as one of the people who confronted the rules of the game in order to achieve subjective tendencies. My plea to get a good grade is not entirely personal as I seek to be actively engaged in the society for growth and development. A good grade is only but a go-ahead to practice my skills, do more research, and initiate change in the society. Therefore, the denial of my request will be a desire to the society as a whole. It is unethical to practice fraud or use other illegal means to get good academic accolades. The society deeply condemns all forces that push towards fraud embracing the culture of transparency and actuality. Given my performance in class and my constant involvement with learning, I would argue out that my request is ethical as it reflects the concept of honesty and transparency. I invite all the parties involved, both directly and indirectly, to share in the course in order to determine the most objective position with regard to my performance in business.

7. Analyzing the Other Party

In any negotiation, just like the analysis and negotiating for personal interests is important, it is also vital to consider the interests of the other party/parties in a negotiation. The aim here is not convincing the other parties of the negotiations aims but is to make the other parties recognize the need/benefit in the objectives being negotiated upon. This stage begins by pacing oneself in the negotiating partner’s situation and thinking of how their goals and needs can be meet through the achievement of one’s personal goals. In this regard, is the negotiating partner is the lecturer who is expected to provide a better grade after the negotiation. This, therefore, will require that one place themselves in the lecturer’s position and attempting to establish the aims of the lecturer in providing a particular grade and what they would gain if they gave the particular low or high grade. This stage demands the anticipation of all the interests of the grader as part of the preparation of the actual negotiation. This allows the incorporation of the specific interest if the graders and creating a balance in the negotiation. The Harvard concept can be incorporated and this allows the identification of interests that the other parties themselves have not yet recognized.

The Harvard Concept is mostly used in legal and business schools and is founded on the interests of parties involved in the negotiation rather than the positions they may initially take. In line with the Harvard concept, this stage will take the principled negotiation approach that is found on the elements of people, interest, options, and standards. The premise is that the negotiations should be founded on principles that are the negotiators should focus on objective criteria and legitimacy. This implies that the negotiations will be based on objective legitimate criterion of grading. This when brought in at an appropriate point during the negotiation expands the perspectives and increases the chances of being awarded a better grade. This is because the multiple perspectives and point of argument become readily visible and an acceptable one for both the student and graders is highly likely to be established in the negotiation process.

The analysis of parties involves fundamentally attempts to establish the basic background information that comprise of the resources, issues, and elements of the bargaining mix, interests and needs, points of possible resistance and the existing alternatives, objectives and target of different parties, the reputation and styles of negotiation, and constituents, social structure, and authority for agreement including strategies and tactics. These are all for purposes of planning. Before the negotiation process, the following questions are key to consider the people/parties that will be involved in the negotiations and in this regards the following questions should be considered:

  1. What is the school’s position on student grades?
  2. What is the institution’s position of amendment of student’s grades
  • What parties are interested in the students’ grades?
  1. Will the entire faculty be involved in the negotiations?
  2. Will the dean of students be involved in the negotiation?
  3. How will the other students influence the grade negotiation process?

In regards to parties it is vital to focus on the people involved rather than the problem being negotiated upon that is the focus should be placed on the individuals identified above rather than the grading problem. Therefore, the key questions to consider here are:

  1. What perceptions do the person or people involved in the negotiations have towards the grade negotiation?
  2. What are the possible emotional challenges to be expected?
  • What communication challenges should be expected during the negotiation?

The key in this stage for this stage is, therefore:

  • Comprehending the other person’s point of view by placing oneself in the grader’s position.
  • Not assuming that you will get the worst grade through the actions of the other parties involved.
  • Do not blame or attack the other parties during the negotiation process.
  • Create appealing and convincing arguments.
  • Develop emotional intelligence and consider that all feelings are valid.
  • Defuse strong emotions through non-verbal communication.
  • Practice active listening during the negotiation process and always summarizing the speaker’s points to confirm understanding.
  • Avoid emotional reactions and outbursts.
  • Use “I” statements when expression opinions and emotions.
  • Consider the other parties to be partners rather than interviewers.

The focus as indicated above should be on interests. Therefore, to come to an appropriate conclusion that will satisfy both parties, the issues being negotiated upon should be defined on the underlying interests of the parties involved in the negotiation. In any negotiation, it is common that individuals will share specific interests and needs. Therefore, to ensure effective grade negotiation at this stage consider the underlying interests of the graders. Therefore, to identify, understand, and deal with these interests consider the following:

  • The reason why the grader(s) who a specific position and not any other possible position.
  • Provide a clear explanation of your interest.
  • Discuss any interests that you have with the grader(s) looking forward to the desired solution instead of focussing on past grades or mistakes in grading made in the past.
  • Focus on your key areas of argument for the improvement of your grade you are interested in, but remain open to the proposals and suggestions provided by the grader(s).

There are options for mutual gain in negotiating and at this stage, it is vital to consider all these options by generating options that solve problems. The key challenges in this area include:

  • Defining the grading problems in terms of win and lose situations.
  • Thinking that it is up to the grader to come up with a proper grade or to understand the grading issues.
  • Forcing a single answer with no other alternatives.

To develop options that will benefit the student and the grader the following actions should be undertaken:

  • All the possible solutions to the grading problem should be brainstormed on.
  • Conduct an evaluation of the interested parties with the most promising proposals then refine and improve the grading proposals.
  • Focus on shared opinions regarding grading and where there are possible points of difference consider any other possible options where compatibility can be attained in the possible areas of difference.
  • Develop arguments that are appealing to the graders to ease agreement.

In the negotiation, it is also vital to consider the objective criteria in the grading system. This due to the fact that the possibility of having conflicting interests exist. Therefore, considering an objective grading criterion will be key in dealing with such conflicts. Permitting such, differences to spark emotions and engage in a battle of ego will only work against the student, is inefficient, and will most likely destroy the relationship between the grader and the student. The solution, therefore, is basing the negotiation on specific objective criteria that is independent of either party’s will. In regards to negotiating for a better grade the parties should refer to the examinations marking scheme, the grading criteria, and conditions for changing grades. The key elements when employ such criteria include:

  • Frame each point of your negotiation as an element of the grading criteria.
  • Find out the most appropriate criteria that fit your arguments and think of how they can be applied to your argument.
  • Avoiding buckling under pressure and where the grader may be shifting the discussion, move the discussion for the subjective criteria to the objective criterion that is usually procedural.

The key questions in this regards while planning for the negotiation for a better grade one should consider the following questions:

  1. Are your points of negotiation framed within the elements inherent in the grading criteria?
  2. Which grading criteria will your negotiation points and how can they be applied during the negotiation process?
  • In what areas or situations may feel extremely pressured?
  1. How can is shift the negotiation from a subjective point of the grader to an objective negotiation.

During the negotiation process, the other party (grader) has personal interests and goals and these are for varying outcomes. The common stereotypes students have about graders include the fact that they intend to fail students, they are too strict, they intend to frustrate students, or are act to get back on specific students. Therefore, it is vital to get rid of these stereotypical thoughts when planning to engage in negotiations that may interfere with the negotiation process and this can be achieved by gathering information directly from the grader. The questions here include:

  1. What is the intention of the grader(s) while grading exams?
  2. What is the perception of the grader(s) towards you?
  • Do the graders make subjective or objective decisions?
  1. Which other parties are involved in the grading system?

In the grading process in institutions, even the graders are under authority and as indicated above guided by specific criteria of grading and hence the existing authorities and systems challenge their subjective opinions. They may also be representing the entire school’s philosophy. At this stage of planning it is, therefore, vital to take into considerations the powers/authorities of the graders, the authorities they are under, and the institutions that they represent. Hence, the key elements to consider while planning are:

  • What is the position of the grader(s) in the institution of the department?
  • What authority is the grader(s) under?
  • Who does the grader(s) represent in the institution?
  • Is the grader(s) expected to share the information with any other parties?
  • Does the grader(s) make the final grading decision?

This is essential for this stage as it will highlight any possible challenges from the existing authorities or individual and/or group the grader(s) represent. When these are taken into consideration, it will be helpful in planning the negotiation to ensure that the eventual outcome of the negotiations satisfies the needs of these authorities and the institution and hence ensure a better grade that will be holistically agreed upon.

8. Presenting Issues to Other Parties

Any convincing argument and negotiation should always be accompanied with evidence and this hence includes when negotiating for grade improvements. Before the engagement in negotiations for grade improvement, it is pertinent to gather all the possible evidence that will support the arguments during the negotiation process. This will be key in preparing to deal with any possible counterarguments that may be provided by the grader(s) against the grade improvement. This stage involves the compilation of the most appropriate evidence to support the arguments for grade improvement during the negotiation process. The key factors to consider while planning for the negotiation include:

  • The areas in the marking or grading criteria that support your arguments.
  • The possibility of existence of past negotiations on the matters being presented.
  • The integration of the facts to present them in the most convincing manner.

This stage may also require the involvement of specific parties who will provide the most appropriate guidelines and facts regarding the validity and reliability of the compiled evidence. Consultations should hence be made in this stage to ensure the validity and reliability of the evidence compiled and the issues to be taken into consideration include:

  • The consideration of the individuals to be consulted to provide clarifications and elaborations of the facts related to the grade negotiation.
  • The points of view of the consulted individuals including their interests in the outcome of the negotiation.
  • Consultation of individuals who have engaged in similar negotiations in the past that were successful and those who were not successful to identify the points of success and failure in their negotiations.

Factoring in these factors during the planning stage of the negotiation process ensures that the most appropriate individuals are consulted and the most appropriate evidence is gathered before the negotiation process that guarantees a positive outcome that is an improved grade from the negotiation process.

9. Protocol to be followed during the Negotiation Process.

Negotiation protocol is considered as a set of rules and structures of knowledge providing a means of communication standardization between two parties in the negotiation process. It is the means by which the negotiating parties interact with each other that is the way the message is communicated. To engage in any negotiation regarding grade improvements, the student is required to interact with the grader(s) or other parties involved through a common channel. The protocol is required to be open and transparent to both parties. Numerous protocols of negotiating exist and these are structured, semi-structured, and unstructured protocols depending on the items to be negotiated. In this regard, the following should be considered:

  • The communication channel should be used during the negotiation.
  • The type of negotiation protocol to be used.
  • The location of the negotiation.
  • The time for initiating and engaging in the negotiation.















Work Cited

Lewicki, Roy J, Bruce Barry, and David M. Saunders. Essentials of Negotiation. New York:

McGraw-Hill Education, 2015

Cryoneurolysis Is Effective In Temporarily Reducing Pain Of Osteoarthritis

January 14, 2018

The health industry has been working hard to devise means of effectively relieving the patients of their chronic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Apparently, some of the techniques the health practitioners used to propose as effective in terms of handling the knee OA menace included non-drug treatment such as exercise, weight loss, acupuncture, balneotherapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), knee braces, sleeves as well as other devices, and canes & clutches. The above means of treatment have offered relieve of pain to many patients suffering from knee OA over the past century. Further, the health physicians also employ the use of medication as a means for relieving knee OA, which include the application of Acetaminophen (Tylenol), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Corticosteroid injections, Hyaluronic acid injections and risedronate (Actonel). Other techniques include the use of supplements such as avocado soybean unsaponfiables used in surgery, which include the application of joint lavage and arthroscopic debriment, ostenomy and joint-preserving surgery, and unicompartmental knee replacement methods. Other popular techniques included the use of Glucosamine, and Chndroistin sulfate that plays a huge role in relieving the pains of the patients. The techniques above do not form part of the sham treatment that also serve the same purpose of relieving knee OA temporarily. Researchers investigated the best practices that would work more effectively to relieve the pains. Cryoneurolysis works better in terms of temporarily helping the knee OA patient to relieve the pain during the chronic pains. Therefore, in adults with chronic knee pain associated with osteoarthritis, cryoneurolysis is an effective and temporarily means of reducing pain compared to sham treatment.

Cryoneurolysis is the direct use of low temperatures that reversibly kills the peripheral nerves and providing pain relief to an affected body. Contemporary technologies have led to the development of a handheld cryoneurolysis device that has small gauge needles as well as an integrated skin warmers, thus broadening the clinical application of the treatment of superficial nerves. This application further enables the treatment for pre-operative pain, chronic pains, post-surgical pains, and muscle movement disorders. The technique above has been traditionally used for over the past fifty years with little complications reported from the use of this technique. The technique also does not have any bad records as pertains to its application forthwith to the body or wound. Moreover, traditional application of this technique focused majorly on the surgical incision, even though the contemporary technical improvements allow for the percutaneous administration. The United States has approved the contemporary handheld device that administers the technique to an ailing body that is experiencing the postoperative and chronic pain status as well as spasticity. Apparently, the technique has been more effective as compared to the use of opioid and the incorporation of the Diagnostic Related Group Codes and other contemporary technological developments that include other sham treatment techniques. Apparently, acupuncture has been one of the traditional techniques used by mostly the Chinese to reduce the pain. This traditional medicine involved inserting the thin, sharp needles at particular points of the ailing body. The technique has been touted as the treatment of osteoarthritis pain for a long time. However, during a recent analysis of the 16 most randomized controlled trials conducted by Corbett et al., (2013) found the technique uncertain in treating the patients and relieving them of their pains. This means that the technique is not as reliable as it was supposed to work. Moreover, the many other randomized techniques also did not meet the criterion for an effective pain reliever as far as the age factor was concerned.

According to Radnovich et al. (2017), patients suffering from knee OA spend approximately 50% of their post-diagnosis time applying conservative and nonsurgical treatment techniques since total knee arthoplasty (TKA) is normally reserved for patients suffering from end-stage disease resulting from the limited implants as well as the associated risks and the rocketing cost of surgery. Visconsupplementation and Intra-articular (IA) corticosteroid injections can alleviate the knee OA pain despite lacking in the long-term satisfaction and relief of the technique. Moreover, the majority of these mechanisms are associated with the wrong side effects that might cause other health problems in the future.

The percutaneous use of the low temperatures of (-20oC – -10oC) to the peripheral nerves leads to the Wallerian degeneration, which disrupt the nerve structure and conduction thereof while retaining the structure elements of the same nerves. The process above allows the complete regeneration and functional recovery of the nerve. Further, the nerve axon does regenerate well alongside the previously established path before it can eventually reinnervating the sensory receptors of the body. Apparently, many scholars have shown that the use of cryoneurolysis in peripheral nerves does provide pain relief for many chronic conditions in the health management sector, despite the majority of their studies being not randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN), – which is a  sensory nerve that triggers the frontal and lower parts of the knee capsule and the skin at the antero-medial knee, – becomes the primary target areas in the application of percutaneous for nerve blockade to reduce the severity of the knee pain.

Several studies have successfully examined the efficacy of the nerve blockade of the IPBSN in the treatment of post-operative knee pain when the patient is experiencing chronic pains after surgery. Trescot pioneered the proposal to target the IPBSN in conjunction with the cryoneurolysis when treating the knee pain (2003). On the other hand, Dasa contributed towards the progress by conducting the first clinical evaluation of the cryoneurolysis of the IPBSN before the TKA as a section of the multimodal pain improvements to develop the technology involved in reducing pain in post-operative (p.351).  However, Radnovich et al. (2017) upgraded the preceding studies in major ways that would lead to the best practices to relieve pain of chronic knee OA. Apparently, their study was multi-center based, randomized, sham-controlled, and double-blind trial that ran for more than six months to allow for follow-ups that would present an accurate status of the efficacy and safety of the technique to the patients. The technique was tested on the basis of the tolerability of cryoneurolysis by the patients suffering from the chronic knee OA under the trial registry. The researchers conducted the study in 17 different locations in the United States, for three years that ended in June 2016. The scholars identified a central institutional review board (IRB) which approved the study to take place through a local consent of an informed and written document from the participants who were the patients of the study as well. The research also followed all the applicable laws  and regulations that are stipulated in the International Conference on Harmonization Guideline for Good Clinical Practice, the Declaration of Helsinki, and the Code of Federal Regulations.







Corbett, M. S., Rice, S. J. C., Madurasinghe, V., Slack, R., Fayter, D. A., Harden, M., … Woolacott, N. F. (2013). Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: Network meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage21(9), 1290–1298.

Radnovich, R., Scott, D., Patel, A. T., Olson, R., Dasa, V., Segal, N., … Metyas, S. (2017). Cryoneurolysis to treat the pain and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage25(8), 1247–1256.

Trescot, A. M. (2003). Cryoanalgesia in interventional pain management. Pain Physician6(3), 345–360.


The Process of On-boarding

January 11, 2018


On-boarding is a process of acclimatizing to a new work environment by learning about the work environment including the responsibilities, the organization’s process and the colleagues. On-boarding is not only limited to new hires, but also to internally promoted staff because it is well planned, customized support that aims at ensuring the employee comfortably fits in the new position. On-boarding is advantageous because it increases the effectiveness of a new employee, boosts employee productivity and reduces employee turnover (Snell, Morris & Bohlander, 2015).

Importance of On-Boarding in Global Environment

Globalization has created a global village where potential employees and employers are connected regardless of their geographical locations. Furthermore, businesses are expanding to new regions with the aim of gaining competitive advantages. As such, the work force in organizations is more diversified than it was previously.  The diversity in terms of culture, language, beliefs and values need to be harmonized for purposes of reducing work-related conflicts.  On-boarding helps in integrating new employee with existing employees so that seamless association among employees exists (Snell, Morris & Bohlander, 2015).  On-boarding helps organizations to share their policies, values and performance objective early enough with the new recruit. Importantly, on-boarding helps new hires and internally promoted employees to reduce any stress and anxiety associated with the new job.  The on-boarding process helps in early employee engagement, which maximizes the individual’s impact on the organization, a situation that increases the overall productivity of the work force and reduces new employee turnover (Cable, Glno & Staats, 2013).

Outline of On-boarding

The process of on-boarding starts during the recruitment stage; during this stage the hiring personnel explain information about the organization such as company culture, company expectations, and the native business habits. The importance of starting the on-boarding process at the recruitment stage is to ensure that the final recruit is the best fit for the responsibility and to the organization (Cable, Glno & Staats, 2013).

The second phase is after recruitment, it is done during the first month, the new recruit should be explained to the details of the organization, which should include; the departments in the organization, the organizational policies and regulations. Importantly, the hiring personnel should explain the expectations from the new recruit and is introduced to colleagues in the department where he or she is assigned.

Departmental on-boarding is the third step that is carried out during the first 3 months; the hiring personnel continue building engagement with the new recruit and communicate the mission and goals of the organization. At this stage, the departmental head continue giving regular informal feedback to the new recruit and offers support where necessary.

The fourth step is the on-going on-boarding which is carried out after three months. At this stage, on-boarding is now continuous process; it entails clarifying performance objectives and expectations, reviewing any challenges experienced and providing positive coaching aimed at building self-confidence and esteem.

Factors to Consider when On-boarding

In a global environment, it is important to consider the organizational culture. It means that the hiring personnel should emphasize the organizational culture to the new employee and why it is important.  Secondly, the on-boarding process should also consider the expectations of the organization in relation to the business environment.  In this case it should encourage new employees to use their strengths to meet the organizational expectations (Cable, Glno & Staats, 2013)














Cable, D. M., Glno, F & Staats, B. R (2013). Reinventing Employee Onboarding.  MIT Sloan       Management Review, 54(3), pp. 22-30.

Snell,S. A., Morris, S & Bohlander, G. W (2015). Managing Human Resources, 17th edition.            Washington DC: Cengage Learning.


Ethical Rights and Responsibilities

January 11, 2018




Ethical Rights and Responsibilities

Name of Author

Institutional Affiliation

Date of Submission







Ethical Rights and Responsibilities

The proper understanding of the employees’ right and responsibility in marketing is important for the success of the organization. According to Hansen et. al. (2011) the duties and responsibilities provide the employees with a privilege and power to perform their duties without any fear of contradiction. First, an employee has the right and responsibility to act within the confinement of the corporate culture when working for his companies. He must bear in mind that he represents a firm and not himself. Therefore, he must conduct himself morally to reflect the culture of the company while undertaking his duties. Secondly, the employees should uphold honesty while giving truthful information to the employer. The information is important for making formidable decisions. Lastly, the employees right and responsibilities to act impartially and should not offer preferential treatment to any client. In fact they should accord all the clients services equally without any discrimination.

In the same manner, the employers have ethical responsibilities to play in supporting their employees. First, the employer has a moral responsibility to protect the safety of the employees. Similarly, they should make viable decisions that promote the safety of the employees. For instance, the moral responsibilities involve goodwill in providing the health benefit, wages, and excellent working conditions (Hansen et. al., 2011). Secondly, the employer must exhibit openness in their relationship with the employees. Marketing requires innovative methods to hand clients. Therefore, the employers should not make the employees feel intimidated when they act within their ethical framework. The openness enables the employees to report the challenges they experience. At the same time, the transparency is vital for the employees to initiate new innovative ideas in marketing.

In some circumstances, a client may face a business dilemma. For instance, a client may offer an employee a bribe to help them in facilitating the processing of their services. In such a situation what will be the ethical responsibility of an employee?  According to the utilitarian perspective, an employee should understand that engaging in immoral acts have dire consequences. For example, the action of the employee collecting a bribe from a client results in a criminal offense which can make one be charged in a court of law. The employee can be charged with the offense of engaging in a fraud while discharging his job requirement. In this case, the employer has the responsibility to hand him over to the legal authority for mischief.

On the same note, the view of the ethical relativism is guided the established cultures of a firm. For example, the employees should understand the circumstances that may lead to the conflict of interest. It is the responsibility of the employees to act in the interest of the company when offering their services. The corporate culture is vital in the dispensation of services to the clients (Hansen et. al., 2011). Therefore, the employees have the moral obligation to engage in ethically accepted decisions and activities.

Corporate working environment entails making ethical decisions when confronted with challenging situations. Clients have different personalities. Sometime an employee may find himself dealing with clients who are intolerably abusive. In the event of such scenario, they should report such incident to the employers.   Similarly, employees may find themselves in a scenario in which there is a conflict of ideology.  In some instances, there may be a conflict of opinion between the employer and employee. In effect, it would be vital for the employee to engage the employer in a discussion in which he can share his views regarding the subject in question.

The previous decisions may subject an employee to the unethical dilemma. As a result, an employee can advance the dilemma to formulate an excuse. For example, an employee may engage a client in a physical confrontation when they get irritated. The business may suffer some irreparable damage. However, the employee can make an excuse given the clients’ intolerance. Again, conflicting perspectives often lead to doubts when handling duties. Employees may fail to make personal decisional measures for the fear going contrary to the employers’ expectation. Consequently, the employees easily apportion any failure to the contrary decision the employer made. Therefore, the ethical decisions reduced the chances of employees engaging in unethical behaviors.






Hansen, S. D., Dunford, B. B., Boss, A. D., Boss, R. W., & Angermeier, I. (2011). Corporate social responsibility and the benefits of employee trust: A cross-disciplinary perspective. Journal of Business Ethics102(1), 29-45.


Catcher in the Rye

January 11, 2018






















Catcher in the Rye


Institutional Affiliation





















Holden is the main character and the narrator in the novel the catcher in the eye. Holden is 16 years of age, and he has been suspended from Pencey Prep school due to his poor performance. As he narrates, he is at a mental hospital in California. Although Holden is wise and sensitive, he recounts the story in a jaded and cynical voice. The novel is based on an extended flashback and from it; Holden can be depicted to be caring, depressed and immature.

Holden is caring because of the concern that he has towards the society especially the children. According to chapter 25 of the novel, Holden says “But while I was sitting down, I saw something that drove me crazy. Somebody’d written “Fuck you” on the wall. It drove me damn near crazy. I thought how Phoebe and all the other little kids would see it, and how they’d wonder what the hell it meant, and then finally some dirty kid would tell them – all cockeyed, naturally – what it meant, and how they’d all think about it and maybe even worry about it for a couple of days. I kept wanting to kill whoever’d written it. I figured it was some perverty bum that’d sneaked in the school late at night to take a leak or something and then wrote it on the wall. I kept picturing myself catching him at it, and how I’d smash his head on the stone steps till he was good and goddam dead and bloody. But I knew, too, I wouldn’t have the guts to do it. I knew that. That made me even more depressed” (Shaw, n.d., p. 15) Holden values that children’s innocence and he is agitated after someone wrote the word “Fuck you” on the wall. He reflects and imagines that impact that word will have on children like Phoebe and others. He feels that he should discipline the person who did that, but in the real sense, he does not have the power and strength to do so. Thus, it is evident that Holden is a caring individual.

Another characteristic of Holden is that he is lonely. On page 52 of the novel Holden says “almost every time somebody gives me a present, it ends up making me sad.” (Chen, 2009) Holden feels lonely and uses any opportunity that he has to make plans for making friends however he always finds faults whenever he meets new people because he sees everything as corrupt and everyone around him as phony. He even tries asking the cabbie out for a drink just to find a company that would make him forget his problems. Additionally, the judgmental character of Holden makes people disappoint him making him even more lonely and depressed. Thus, Holden finds it difficult to find a company that would last for long.

Additionally, Holden is empathetic when he says “All the two of them were eating for breakfast was toast and coffee. That depressed me. I hate it if I’m eating bacon and eggs or something and somebody else is only eating toast and coffee.” (Chen, 2009) Holden comes from a wealthy family, and that is the reason he is eating bacon and eggs while others are eating coffee and toast.  The richness of their family can also be demonstrated when Holden is taken to various expensive schools. Holden feels guilty about the privilege that he is given and he feels terrible that other people are not advantageous to him. He also does not like the fact that nuns have swanky lunches. Hence, from these actions, we can say that Holden is empathetic because he can understand and share feelings of other people.

In conclusion, Holden actions in the novel demonstrate his caring, lonely and empathetic characteristic trait. These traits have helped the novelist in displaying the type of world we live.















Chen, L. (2009). An Analysis of the Adolescent Problems in The Catcher in the Rye. Asian Social Science5(5), 143.

Shaw, P. (n.d.). Love and Death in The Catcher in the Rye. New Essays on The Catcher in the Rye, 97-114. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511624537.007

Newcastle FC Employees HR Analytics

January 7, 2018


In the recent years, Newcastle Football Club has been experiencing incidences of underperformance, with the club loosing most of its matches leading to its relegation to the Second Division League. The Club’s relegation has however contributed to constant hostility between the football club and its fans and with the subordinate staff. With the analysis regarding the club’s performance, there are however some issues that might have been the causes of the problems that the club is experiencing. For instance, it is in the realisation that the club’s staff members have been working for long hours, most of the staff members do not have educational certifications, there is inadequate training of the players, absenteeism of the employees and there is no effective communication in the club’s departments. These problems have brought so much impact to the club as a whole, with the players inclusive, as there has not been signing in of new players into the club, something which is demoralising the current players and even leading them into physical exhaustion, making them miss their weekly training routine. With these factors into consideration, this discussion looks at the demographic analysis of the club and the recommendations that will facilitate a successful implementation of the club’s operations.

Problem Statement

In the events following the club’s performance, there is a need to consider several factors that contribute to the failures of employees with regard to the poor and underperformance of the team. These factors include issues of underpayment of employees, inappropriate training, incompetence, ineffective communication and the overall performance of the club.

Underpayment of the Employees

For the employees to be productive, it is therefore necessary to pay them accordingly according to the amount of work they perform. There may be possibility of overworking employees and underpaying them. This can however demoralise employees and thus they will start becoming unproductive hence poor performance. Recently, Newcastle United lost a battle not to pay living wage to its staff, out of which they were later forced to pay the living wage to full-time staff as from the season of 2016/2017, after a meeting with the clubs in the Premier League. The situation is an evident explanation that the club had been paying its employees.

Inadequate Training

Lack of adequate training has also contributed to the club’s underperformance because the players do not extensively train. With the fact that the training ground for the club not being in good shape, the player’s training routine has been tempered with since the training grounds were undergoing renovation thereby not creating adequate training time for the players, which may just be another factor for poor performance (Jourdan, 2008).

Inappropriate Qualification and Certification

There are cases of some employees who do not own the appropriate documents and who do not qualify for certain posts as employees, being offered vacancies within the club during the recruitment of workers (Chaudhuri, 2012). Hiring of the individuals with inappropriate qualification and documentation lead to the club having workers or employees who are incompetent and not fit for the job. Incompetence among employees contribute majorly to the overall underperformance of the club since most of them do not have the skills in requirement to perform the tasks required of them, hence they may poorly perform in their service delivery.

Inadequate Communication

Lack of effective open and transparent communication among the staff members may also lead to the underperformance of the team. Effective communication helps in establishing clear expectations required of the employees, as the expectations will reveal how their performance will affect the performance of the team (Minelli, 2012). Effective communication will also build a firm relation among the employees thereby increasing their levels of trust and loyalty within the staff members.

Improper Leadership and Management

In the event that the team’s administration experiences poor leadership and management from the top leadership of club, it is definite that the entire club from the top management all the way down to the subordinate staff and players will experience the effect the effect of the poor leadership and management. The problmen occurs in terms of their performance and productivity. Proper leadership and management and leadership ensure that the club will perform adequately and effectively (Watson, 2007).

The Soft Systems Methodology

The methodology involves several stages and procedures in which the problems in situation are to be solved and change in the management. The stages involve identification of the problem, expression of the problem, generation of the root definitions, generation of the conceptual models, comparison of the models, evaluation of their feasibility to change and applying an action to solve the particular problem.

Balanced Scorecard

The concept is a strategic approach and management of performance of the club which will enable the team to translate the club’s vision and strategies into implementation through application of some perspectives. These perspectives include the funding perspective, the client perspective, business process perspective and learning and growth perspective.

In the funding perspective, timely and accurate financing data is usually important, and the club’s manager should perform whatever necessary for its provision. In the customer perspective, the manager should focus on the importance of customer focus in addition to their satisfaction. The business perspective refers to the internal business processes; the metrics on the basis of the managers knowing how the club operates. The fourth perspective, learning and growth perspective involves training of the employees.


Justification of the Effective Use of Business Intelligence

The application and practice of business intelligence and data analytics have had great influence to the club, subject to the changes experienced. The simple and static analytical applications has transformed into solutions that are applied in planning, the relationships of customer management and monitor the operations of the club. In the business perspective the business intelligence refers to a particular theory and methodology enabling the managers to work with a lot of expertise and information. However, the business intelligence system only results to success only if the managers develop decision making process regularly to experience the maximum benefits.

Benefits of Business Intelligence

In the recent years, many organisations have put the business intelligence which help them predict their future performance. The organisations practicing this type of methodology however experience some benefits. With the practice of business intelligence, the club has been able to obtain crucial business metrics reports. This enables the managers to get access of the club’s information. For instance, the business metrics and dashboards.

Business intelligence has helped the club save on time. The system provides for a quick response to several queries related to the club. Managers are therefore able to make quick decisions in a short duration thereby saving on time. The business intelligence system has enabled the club realise its real costs. The system gives the managers a clear vision of the operation costs of the club and the ability of the managers to make required changes in their operations to attain high profitability levels.

Performance Since 2013

Basing on Newcastle United’s performance in the last four years, the club has shown some improvement in its performance compared to the initial years before 2013. In the 2012-2013 season, the club was said to have regained the European football for the first moment since the year 2007. However in that season, the club faced several drawbacks which included ten losses in thirteen games, leading to its relegation. The team later signed some of the French players, leading to the club’s advancement to the quarters in the Europa League, which they lost their match to Benfica.

In the 2014-2015 season, the club lost seven of their first games, which made the fans angry and wanted the sacking of the then manager. In 2015, the club sacked several of its officials and replaced them with new officials, who could not save it again from relegation. In 2017, the club however returned to the Premier League, winning the Championship title against Barnsley.

Employee Satisfaction

Employee satisfaction examines if or not the employees are satisfied and contented in the fulfillment of their required duties. Some of the measures that explain satisfaction of the employees include motivation of the employees and morale at work (Chen, 2012). Several interviews were carried and reports written about the employee satisfaction and the responses were very positive. For instance, a café steward, who is a current employee at the club, said that he has enjoyed working at St. James Park as he is happy about working with new people and learning new skills. A report in 2016 also recorded a positive response was also in place. An employee, a security steward when interviewed confirmed that working at the stadium was a dream that came true when he got employed as a staff at the club. A 2015 report that was written by a footballer recorded that he enjoyed his stay at the club as it was fun, had great benefits, great people, and great environment in the organisation. In 2014, a catering assistant recorded that working at the fast moving kiosk, handling cash sales, and taking customer orders made him feel a very important part of the team. In 2013, a match day supervisor recorded a statement enjoyed his entire time at the club and the hardest part he was to counter is when he had to leave the team. However, the trend of employee satisfaction has not been consistent in the years.

In the recent years, training at the club has not been that good with the club lacking adequate training facilities and sponsors for the facilities. The club has however made a push and is currently enhancing its new training grounds that will enable the players to train effectively. Some of the improvements made include renovation of the inside structure of the building by creating more space for work and relaxation, bringing better equipment to the gym, resurfacing the artificial pitch into a 4G platform.

Conclusion and Recommendations

For the football club to overcome underperformance, it needs to put the following into considerations. The company should reward improvement, train the managers, ensure good selection during recruitment, pay employees accordingly and promoting effective communication across the football club (Minelli, 2012). The club should invest in training the managers on how to deal with the problem of underperformance. This enables the managers to effectively handle the problem in case it arises, with the required skills. They will therefore know how to assess, identify and solve the problem efficiently since they will be in possession of the knowledge on how to solve it (Jourdan, 2008). The club should embrace an effective scrutinisation during its recruitment of workers. It ensures that the workers hired are competent and that they have the required qualifications and expertise to deliver in the particular field they are to deliver their services.



Chen, H., Chiang, R. H., & Storey, V. C. (2012). Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact. MIS quarterly36(4).

Chaudhuri, S., Dayal, U., & Narasayya, V. (2011). An overview of business intelligence technology. Communications of the ACM54(8), 88-98.

Jourdan, Z., Rainer, R. K., & Marshall, T. E. (2008). Business intelligence: An analysis of the literature 1. Information Systems Management25(2), 121-131.

Minelli, M., Chambers, M., & Dhiraj, A. (2012). Big data, big analytics: emerging business intelligence and analytic trends for today’s businesses. John Wiley & Sons.

Watson, H. J., & Wixom, B. H. (2007). The current state of business intelligence. Computer40(9).



January 2, 2018

My choice is a television and some of the needs it should meet for purposes of completing an Innovation Landscape Matrix (ILM) are; energy efficiency, low emission of radioactive rays and noise efficiency. These needs can be summarized in an ILM table as shown below.



• Infrastructures

• Resources

• Governance

• Ethics

• Culture

Television set should be able to use minimum energy for purposes of reducing cost. It consumption should not waste energy resources. Energy efficiency is a pillar of sustainable energy and it can be achieved by building an efficient power supply system in the Tv set (David, 2012). In terms of ethics, the manufacturers should consider conserving energy usage of this product. In terms of governance, strict rules should be adopted by various governments to regulate the energy consumption of most of the electrical appliances such as television.


• Needs

• Functions

• Outcomes

• Resources

• Infrastructure

The Tv set should be able to emit low noise (Elgin, 1997), for example, while scanning for channels. Besides, it should function in accordance with the permitted dB limit.  High sound coming from the TV set tends to be a nuisance to people as well as the environment at large. While in use, a television should not permit any form of noise. Functions for its parts should be simplified in order to eliminate cases of noise while switched on.


• Materials

• Energy

• Technologies

• Interface

• Functions

• Durability

• Adaptability

Radiations from the radioactive rays are harmful to the people as well as the environment. In terms of its manufacturing materials, the sets should be free from any form of radiation. Modern technologies should be used to eliminate CRT technologies that emitted dangerous radioactive rays (Williams, 1991). Its case should be manufactured from an environmentally friendly plastic material, for example, eco-plastics (Andrady & Neal, 2009).








The used research above for ILM will be used for social and environmental sustainability issues.



• Infrastructures

• Resources

• Governance

• Ethics

• Culture

Television resources have ecosystem impacts. For example, radiations from the hardware resources, such as a CRT tube for older TV sets may penetrate the skin and damage cells. Sustainability issue here is damages to cells. Governance will dictate ways of interaction with the service. The sustainability issue here limitation of viewing hours. Policy and regulations will complement governance. Socially, some parents may decide to regulate the various programs watched by their kids. The sustainability issue here is the elimination of outlawed programs.


• Needs

• Functions

• Outcomes

• Resources

• Infrastructure

The portability needs depends on the material used. Environmental unfriendly plastics used for casing may cause damages to the environment. Resources tends to affect the stakeholders. For example, well off people will purchase modern sets, while people with fewer resources will purchase old sets. The needs will affect the technological systems. Some customers are interested in slim tv sets and this will require manufacturers to compress the system to meet this demand.


• Materials

• Energy

• Technologies

• Interface

• Functions

• Durability

• Adaptability

The technology used dictates the energy consumption (Metcalf & Hassett, 1999). Sustainability issue here is energy efficiency, which will not be achieved in case wrong technology is used. However, if the correct technology is used, then energy efficiency will be attained. Durability depends on key interactions with the product. The sustainability issue here is achievement of long life for the product. The materials used for the television sets will have both environmental, social and economic effects. For example, in case its casing is not environmentally friendly, then the environment will be affected (Andrady, 2003). Likewise, use of environmentally friendly casing will elevate its cost, thereby affecting the product economically.
  Material things


• Ecosystem impacts

• Materials used

• Production

• Technologies

• Materials in ‘use’

• Resource flows



• What needs are met (or not met)?

• Who are the stakeholders?

• Cultures of use (e.g. behaviour, habits)

• Key interactions with product, service or system



• Location

• Policy and regulation

• Physical infrastructures

• Environmental, social, economic issues

• Cultural / technological systems



Andrady, A. 2003. An environmental primer. In Plastics and the environment (ed. Andrady A.,

editor. ), pp. 3–76 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Interscience

Andrady A. L. & Neal M. A. 2009. Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Phil. Trans. R.

Soc. B 364, 1977–1984

David, A. R. 2012. Why Invest in Energy Efficiency? The Example of Lighting. Journal of

            environmental sustainability, Vol. 2, Issue, 2.

Elgin, D. (1997). Sustainable Television: Mass communication via television is crucial to our

 survival. Accessed [6th December, 2017].

Metcalf, G. and Hassett, K. 1999. “Measuring the Energy Savings from Home Improvement

Investments: Evidence from Monthly Billing Data.” Review of Economics and Statistics 81 (3), 516–28.

Williams, J. 1991. Analog circuit design: art, science, and personalities. Newnes. pp. 115


January 2, 2018





1        INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1        Objectives. 1

1.2        Background. 2


2.1        Block Diagram.. 2

2.1.1        Power Module. 4

2.1.2        Microcontroller 5

2.1.3        Sensor Module. 5

2.1.4        Graphical User Interface. 6

2.1.5        Motor Drivers. 6

2.1.6        Alerting Components. 6

2.2        Physical Model 6

2.3        Circuits. 8

3        COSTS. 9

3.1        Labor 9

3.2        Parts. 10




Table 1: Transformer requirements. 4

Table 2: AC-DC converter requirements. 5

Table 3: Voltage requirements. 5

Table 4: Microcontroller requirements. 5

Table 5: Sensors requirements. 6

Table 6: Alerting component requirements. 6

Table 7: Labour costs. 9

Table 8: Costs of parts. 10



Figure 1: Block diagram of the system.. 3

Figure 2: Detailed block diagram (Groeteke et al. 2016) 3

Figure 3: Plan view of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser 7

Figure 4: Front view of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser 7

Figure 5: Elevation of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser 8

Figure 6: Control unit circuit 8

Figure 7: Dispensing mechanism circuit 9



Due to the hectic schedules of most people, it is challenging to monitor how as a patient you take your medication. The challenge is more profound among young, elderly and those with chronic conditions where they are required to take several pills in a day. The ripple effect is that patients interfere with their treatment process through neglecting or failing to remember to take medication. To help address this problem, several approaches have been proposed. Some of these include the use of solar pill dispensers, which are mostly manual. Consequently, the current project proposes the production of a working prototype of an automatic pill dispenser that would automatically dispense medication at specified times as per the prescription from the doctor. Apart from ensuring the patient takes his or her medicines by issuing audio alerts, monitoring the patient progression on a mobile application is also possible. The patient’s details are captured in the mobile application and the records of the patient saved in a database. The records can, therefore, be retrieved via the mobile App at any time and the same application used to issue commands for dispensing the medication.

The medicine dispenser, therefore, utilizes a smartphone to update the patient database, and issue instructions to dispense medication at specified time intervals. The dispenser will be controlled using a microcontroller on a wireless connection, with Wi-Fi access, which can also establish a Bluetooth connection in case of power cuts or load shedding. The smart dispenser will also have a fingerprint scanner installed for biometric identification of the patient and accurate dispensing of medication to patients. The current project aims to help patients with many tablets/medicines to take in a day and therefore usually prone to forgetfulness. The smart automatic dispenser will introduce efficiency by prioritizing, organizing and dispensing medication to patients according to the prescription.

1.1         Objectives

The objectives of the project include:

  1. Design and build a working prototype of an automatic pill-dispensing machine that will dispense the medication in a timely, accurate and efficient manner.
  2. Build a pill storage mechanism with an automatic trigger for dispensing medicine.
  3. Develop a mobile application as a user interface between the dispenser and the patient. Thus, instructions issued to the database will be used to regulate the number and time at which the pills are dispensed to the patient. Doctors will also be able to monitor their patient’s prescriptions.

1.2         Background

The use of pill dispensers has been in existence since the 1980s (Lewis, Roberts Jr 1986, Scidmore, Scidmore & Scidmore 1987). Consequently, improvements to the system to make it more efficient have been made and new innovative techniques arose in the subsequent years (Lai 2013, Frischmon, Daly & Renshaw 2017). The need for dispensers arose due to the need to have a reliable, consistent and accurate method of dispensing medications. It is anticipated that the problem of poor response to treatment due to forgetfulness in taking prescribed medication will be sorted. For example, pensioners with chronic illness lack the mental alertness of a young person and are prone to making errors on the time and number of pills to take. Other examples include birth control pills and pills for people living with the Human Papilloma Virus (HIV) that ought to be taken at specific time intervals for the medication to be effective.

The current design houses four pill storage compartments with automatic trigger mechanisms. Several pills can be loaded into one storage chamber and instructions saved on a mobile device specifying the number of pills and time to dispense. The device is designed for use at home and the graphical user interface is made easy to use for this reason. The device is intended to address the issue of accuracy of taking medication and address accidental overdoses or other errors by patients. The device communicates to the patient when, and how many pills that should be taken. The device is intended to address the problem of other smart dispensers with small storage compartments and thus will hold for different medicines that can last approximately for a month.


2.1         Block Diagram

The block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 1 that details the different components of the system while Figure 2 shows the detailed block diagram. Generally, the system comprises of a graphical user interface, control unit, sensors, power source, motor drivers and a dispensing mechanism. The detailed block diagram by Groeteke et al. (2016) was modified and adapted for design because it conforms to the design concept adopted in the current project.

Graphical user interface
Motor Driver











Figure 1: Block diagram of the system

Figure 2: Detailed block diagram (Groeteke et al. 2016)

The smart medication pill dispenser will comprise a source of power and a control unit housing a microcontroller and sensors for both audio and visual alerts to users. Moreover, a graphical user interface to set and schedule the correct prescription specified in the system; motor drivers to dispense the medication; and alerts to ensure the patient is aware when to receive his/her medication. A summary of the elements in the detailed block diagram are summarised below:

  • Power Supply – A power supply that would act as an AC – DC converter. A transformer was used to convert a 120 VAC signal to 12 VAC then to a 5 VDC supply of power to the microcontroller.
  • Sensing and Control – The sensing and control devices housed in the microcontroller were used to dispense pills by turning motors on and off. The control unit was therefore utilized to automatically program the number of pills to be taken, and when to dispensing the medication. However, in cases where errors arise the user would input commands via the buttons at the front of the LCD display and thereby correct the mistakes.
  • Graphical User Interface – The graphical user interface is intended to be a platform for interaction and communication between the system and the users. The user interface would be used to set the dispensing schedule in terms of the days and time to dispense, number of pills etc. The user would be allowed to make changes when the need arises for example when there is a change in medication.
  • Dispensing Motors – The motor drivers allow the user pills to when the motor is turned on and off as per commands from the microcontroller.
  • Alerting Components – Audio and visual alerts to the user at the time when the customer is scheduled to take medicines.

2.1.1        Power Module

The power unit comprises of a transformer, an AC-DC converter, and a voltage regulator. The system will use a power supply of 12 V with a current of 2A. A transformer will be used a step down the 120VAC to 12 VAC power, which is then converted to 5 V DC power by use of an AC-DC converter, for use by the microcontroller. The 12 V power will be used by the dispensing mechanism.

Table 1: Transformer requirements

Requirements Verifications
Steps down 120 VAC to 12 VAC Oscilloscope measurements are taken to

Similar specifications for the AC-DC converter and the voltage regulator are shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The opening voltage was maintained at 1.8 V to 5.5 V before usage by the microcontroller. In contrast, oscilloscope measurements were undertaken to ensure power is within the 1 V to 12 V range.

Table 2: AC-DC converter requirements

Requirements Verifications
Fully rectifies incoming 12 VAC Oscilloscope measurements are taken to
Capacitor effectively smooths AC signal so voltage stays

within 1 V of 12 V

Oscilloscope measurements are taken to


Table 3: Voltage requirements

Requirements Verifications
Voltage output stays within 4.5-5.5 V Oscilloscope measurements are taken to

2.1.2        Microcontroller

A microcontroller unit (MCU) controls the input and output commands for the operations of the circuit to function. At the set dispensing time, the Raspberry Pi (Graphical User Interface) will issue commands on the number of pills to dispense and turn on the signal. Once the mechanical operations are complete, a signal is sent to the microcontroller to turn off the system. Table 4 shows the requirements and verifications of the microcontroller.

Table 4: Microcontroller requirements

Requirements Verifications
Operating Voltage: 1.8 – 5.5V Verifying Voltage Regulator should ensure incoming

Microcontroller Voltage

2.1.3        Sensor Module

Optical and light (IR – Infrared) sensors were installed on the device for alerts to users and also to send signals to the microcontroller on whether a pill has been dispensed or not. This is achieved through the rotation off the rollers. An LED light would notify the user where the medicine is dispensed from.







Table 5: Sensors requirements

Requirements Verifications
Operating Voltage: 1.8 – 5.5V Voltage applied to sensors measured with multimeter
Sensors send signal out when beam is broken Sensor output signal measured with multimeter
Broken beam signals are distinguishable Successive output signals were shown and measured with



2.1.4        Graphical User Interface

A 3” LCD display acts as a graphical user interface between the system and the user. The GUI is powered using a Raspberry Pi, where information such as the number of pills, scheduled times, etc. are entered and saved. Instructions would then be sent to the microcontroller at appropriate times to dispense the medicine.

2.1.5        Motor Drivers

Stepper motors were selected for use to rotate accurately and dispense the pill at specified time intervals. Consequently, quality control of the motors is very strict to ensure the patient gets the correct dosage of medication is dispensed. The motors will be powered by their own voltage regulator out of the power supply and will accept incoming instructions from the program through the microcontroller

2.1.6        Alerting Components

An LED light and speaker will alert the user through visual and audio prompts to take the medication. The microcontroller will control turning on and off of the signals.

Table 6: Alerting component requirements

Requirements Verifications
LED turns on between 4.5 V and 5.5 V Voltage applied to sensors measured with multimeter
Speaker turns on between 4.5 V and 5.5 V Voltage applied to speaker measured with multimeter
Speaker emits sound when turned on Sound is audible to human ear

2.2         Physical Model

Jinfeng (1999) proposed the use of CATIA, a 3D software model for the design of devices to simulate the final design before manufacturing commences. Other software that are used for 3D CAD design include Solidworks (Shih, 2014), Tinkercad (Tinkercad, 2017) etc. In the current study, Tinkercad was preferred due to its ease of usage to prepare 3D CAD design models and 3D printing (Tinkercad, 2017). Consequently, the software was adopted for the design of the dispenser thus eliminating the need for many prototypes to check if the design is feasible. Therefore, the use of the software led to huge cost savings. The top/plan view, front view and side view/elevation of the physical 3D model the automatic pill dispenser are shown in Figure 3, Figure 5 and Figure 5 respectively. The top plan in Figure 3 shows the pill dispensing housing unit with the outlines of the 4-pill storage devices.

Figure 3: Plan view of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser

The front view of the physical 3D model of the pill dispenser in Figure 4 shows the control unit, the pill storage units, LCD display for visual prompts and a speaker for audio prompts. Moreover, the LCD display also had user input buttons for control of commands by the user.

Control unit

Figure 4: Front view of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser

Figure 5: Elevation of the physical 3D model of the automatic pill dispenser

The complete set up of the dispensing mechanism of the automatic pill dispenser can be observed in Figure 5. Care was taken to ensure proper alignment of the LED and light sensor that was installed underneath the rollers of the dispenser. Other parts such as the microcontroller, control unit, motor drivers, power unit, and shafts are housed within the pill dispensing units.

2.3         Circuits

The control and dispensing mechanism Arduino circuits are shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7 respectively.  A standard Arduino Uno board was prepared to test the functionality of the system.

A potentiometer was connected to the circuit for the LCD display.

Figure 6: Control unit circuit

Figure 7: Dispensing mechanism circuit

3          COSTS

3.1         Labor

Table 7 presents a summary of the labor costs for the project. The total cost is estimated to USD 18,000.

Table 7: Labour costs

  Hourly rate ($) Total hours Total = Hourly rate*2.5*Total hours
Designer 1 40 150 6,000
Designer 2 40 150 6,000
Designer 3 40 150 6,000


3.2         Parts

The cost of parts is shown in Table 8 showing the major parts and fittings to be purchased. The total approximate cost of the parts is USD 115.

Table 8: Costs of parts

  Quantity Unit rate ($) Total cost
Stepper motor 1 60 60
Servo motor 2 20 40
Infrared sensor 1 15 15
Gear 1 0.5 0.5
Raspberry Pi 1 50 50
Microcontroller 1 5 5
LCD 1 10 10
Voltage regulator 1 5 5



Frischmon, T., Daly, A. & Renshaw, E. 2017, Automatic Pill Dispenser, engrXiv, USA.

Groeteke, E., Hewaparakrama, J. & Lee, C. 2016, “Automated Pill Dispenser”, .

Jinfeng, P. 1999. Development of a new tool for building 3D parametrization parts library based on CATIA software. Mechanical Science and Technology. 1.

Lai, K. 2013, Automatic pill dispenser, Google Patents.

Lewis, K.E. & Roberts Jr, A.S. 1986, Automatic pill dispenser and method of administering medical pills, Google Patents.

Scidmore, F.A., Scidmore, M. & Scidmore, D. 1987, U.S. Patent No. 4,674,651, Google Patents.

Shih, R. 2014. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using SolidWorks Simulation 2014. SDC publications.

Tinkercad 2017. I want to learn about 3D design


Fundamentals of Cooperation, Conflict Resolution & Mediation

January 2, 2018

Part1 Qn 1

What are conflict intelligence and systemic wisdom?

Conflict intelligence is the ability to have knowledge, skills, and self-awareness that we can apply in resolving any form of conflict that we are faced with (“Conflict Intelligence”, 2017). It is a new form of innovation in conflict resolution that combines skills from different fields such as emotional intelligence, meditation, and mindfulness. On the other hand, systemic wisdom implies the effective use of intelligence while dealing with various systems and it largely helps in understanding systems as a whole. During the time of finding out the best solutions to a given problem, these are the main contributors to finding a solution.

How do they challenge and advance research and practice on conflict beyond Getting to Yes (integrative, win-win approaches)?

Conflict intelligence and systemic wisdom are mainly used in advancing researchers as they help in understanding any given systems. Systemic wisdom helps in analyzing systems, viewing them from a larger picture and anticipating future crises (Hof & rarr, 2017). This idea of future projection is essential in advancing more research in line with what it is expected in future. Conflict intelligence enhances self-awareness and creative resolution during handling of the crisis. This is one model that normally simple in nature but it has a powerful way of making someone connect and relate to their problem-solving skill. It is through intelligence that one is able to consciously link with and manage conflicts through developing a collaborative understanding of this problem. Any person who possesses this intelligence always has increased insight and more skills.

Having the systematic wisdom and conflict intelligence requires that somebody is very skilled and knows what to at the right time. For instance, in case of conflict, issues to do with gender will have to be put on the table.  The people involved will have to consider gender sensitivity while carrying out their conflict resolution exercise (Kolb & Coolidge, 1988). They will have to learn how to deal with the feminists with the people and those who are antifeminists.

For any work to be done perfectly in an organization, it requires a lot of wisdom. It is from the wisdom that one is able to strike a balance between where to lay more focus when working on the current tasks and what to put in line as part of the long-term priority (Hof & rarr, 2017). Wisdom helps one to look at his work in a bigger picture and figure the step of action that will deliver incredible results.  There is always that wisdom within the system that generates transformative ideas that improve the enterprise.

There are so many activities involved when dealing with the systemic wisdom.   The major thing is that the system has got a wide range of perspectives that are put into play when trying to figure out the main motivating factor in a given research or work being done (Hof & rarr, 2017). It is worth noting that the system recognizes given ineptness relatively for the resultant plans.  This is part of the reason the systemic wisdom is able to advance more work that is done on research.

There are numerous forms of injustice that can be carried out in a social set up. These include the six main injustices that were found out from groups of people who were oppressed and their types of oppression that they had encountered. Distributive injustice is the type of injustice that is usually concerned with that thing that provoked that feeling oppression. On the other hand, procedural justice deals with unfair treatment in making and implementing the decisions that eventually determines the outcome. Another form of oppression is that feeling of a sense of injustice. The factors must be put in place to determine what really happened (Deutsch, 1986). These kinds of oppression that are experienced daily on the roads and they may lead to conflicts from time.

What limitations are inherent to the CIQ & SW approaches?

In trying to carry out various researches about conflicts in various places, there are a number of approaches that are normally used such as the CIQ and the SW approaches. However, each of these approaches usually has their own kinds of limitation that hinder their full utilization. Using the CIQ as one of the measures, which is the Community Integration Questionnaire, is one of the objective measures that is used in the assessment of the elements of participation. However, some of its limitation includes the fact that it does not consider individual preferences and personal choices.  It also only measures satisfaction with how far then individuals participate. In this CIQ, for instance, the final score reflects and indicates the frequency of participation and finishing the activities separately.

There are some approaches that normally widens up the scope formalisms of presenting knowledge which is applied in the SW while others are based on probability. The expressive SW has the difficulty in engineering the knowledge bases as one of its most inherent challenges when dealing with some of the research information. There numerous ways that have been forwarded to tackle this SW approach. This is in trying to working on circumventing the various challenges that are normally attached to using this approach and finding the next best solution to using this approach.



Part 1 Qn 3

Provide a critique of the Constructive Multicultural Conflict model of Coleman, Coon, Kim,

Chung, Bass, Regan, & Anderson (2017).

Constructive multicultural conflict

Every day, in a culturally set up community at one time or another they have conflicts, either individually or as a group. It is not always that conflicts will be destructive but we can have constructive conflicts to the multicultural. Culture is usually very dynamic and then it is always changing its patterns with being, behaving, knowing and even making sense in a given group of people.  Culture relates to multifaceted aspects of things which could include religion, race, ethnicity, generation, language, history and socioeconomic status (LeBaron, 2014). For instance, when there are a harmony and peaceful coexistence, then these people will be regarded as to have a culture of peace Therefore, culture encompasses several things at the same time.

People living together as community

According to the social interdependence theory, different groups of people or individuals can live together interdependently (Johnson & Johnson, 2011). They form a culture where they live together cooperatively and competitively. In such a set, they are likely to have cases of conflicts that are related to their cultural background. The peaceful coexistence of various communities together is normally based on the cultural tightness-looseness that exists among them (Gelfand, Nishii, & Raver, 2006). Their social fabric is conjoined together to enhance peaceful coexistence. Whenever these communities sit together peacefully, it results in economic trend (Diesing, 1962). The only way to measure this economic trend is through the progress in the lives of the people.

Conflict reconciliation

Whenever there two or more parties that are engaging in a fight, there must be a way of finding a solution to the conflicts reclaim peace.  Involved parties come and put their differences aside and decide to move on with their lives. In some places, power is gotten or negotiated in groups (Coleman & Voronov, 2003). Thus the power in groups enhances management of conflicts. After the war has ceased, the most affected people are usually children who comprise the future generation (Wessells & Monteiro.2001). Therefore, more attention needs to be more emphasis laid on assisting these children to recover from war stress.

Methods of dealing a conflict

A conflict can be resolved in three main ways which include compromise, domination, and integration. Compromise involves having the conflicting parties to tone down their interests and give up some of their stands to reach an agreement so that peace can prevail.. The conflicts can also be resolved through the formulation of policies (Christie & Noor, 2012). This was one of the methods that were used in Malaysia quell conflicts between the Malaysian communities and it was very effective.

Multicultural approaches

Multicultural organization changes the approach that takes organizational cultures around diversity and discrimination as attractors. The level of cultural resolution has advanced from the way it was back in the early 1950s (Roy, Burdick & Kriesberg, 2010). Right now it is more expanded than the traditional (CR). The constructive multicultural attractors are more inclusive kinds of definition of in-group that shares a number of common goals and objectives.  In order to realize multicultural relations, significant efforts need to be put into interrupting and dismantling those attractor’s patterns that are already in place for more destructive multicultural relations.

Again, there needs to be establishment and promotion of alternative attractor’s patterns for more constructive multicultural relations.  The organizational cultures of diversity and discrimination can be very well as attractor dynamism in very complicated nonlinear systems (Roy, Burdick & Kriesberg, 2010).  The strength of both the constructive and destructive attractors for multicultural dynamism is normally affected by the feedback dynamism gotten by the organization.

How does it compare to cross-cultural CR models.

Cross-cultural studies

Cross culture has been variedly applied in various fields and in different phenomena such as in the field of science, but there is one major underlying major thing that could introduce a paradigm shift in the cross-cultural organizational researchers. More perspectives need to be introduced in view the nature of culture which is necessary to understand where they are coming from the base of their behavior (Fry & Miklikowska, 2012). Widening of the scope of the perspective of the cross-cultural definition offers liberty not to leave out anyone who wishes to define it differently.

It is possible for people who hail from different cultural background to engage in positive discussion and come up with something constructive despite their cultural backgrounds (Tjosvold, Leung & Johnson, 2000). Corporative conflicts usually form a good platform for people from cultural backgrounds to engage with each other and develop a good relationship.


Research on cross cultural, intergroup and multicultural conflict over decades indicates that there are very many psycho-social cultural dynamics of feedback that sum up to have a contribution towards the strength of a more constructive or more destructive multicultural relations (Anderson, 2017). The multicultural model and the cross cultural are unique differently they all have got various strength. In an organization that is made up of a variety of working together, it normally has numerous attractors within its system for multicultural relations. This multicultural nature of the organization gives it its potential to have qualitatively social relations patterns that exist within the organization’s system. The multicultural conflict model In both the multicultural and cross-culture, they are both found on the basis of great values. The main pillars of cross culture and multicultural is that in both they advocate for core values that enable the well being of an individual or a given group of people.



They all have weaknesses in that they rely on underdeveloped forms of theories which do not offer substantial background of their formation. Most of theories that relied on by this model do not have a solid background information that can substantiate their claims. They are also based on skewed and limited assumptions that inappropriately define terms such as ethnicity, race and minority (Leong & Gupta, 2008). Holding on a lot of assumptions makes the multicultural approach to seem more theoretical than it can be practically achieved. Furthermore, they do not adequately address the issues cultural diversity and individuals hence making them ambiguous.

It is also identified that the situational cues that result from multicultural conflicts can result in minority group members to be more susceptible to social identity threats. Such kind of threats makes their lives unbearable since they are always living in fear. Again, since multicultural interactions normally occur in coveted resources such as promotions and better pay it tends to intensify the level of intergroup conflicts. Having lots of conflicts is normally detrimental to existence of peace thus leading to a society that leaves and the full threat of insecurity.

Part 2 Qn2

Discuss the idea of sustainable peace.

Sustainable peace

Peace is an aspect of life that makes it worth living and thus for life to continue having value, pace must also be upheld unrelentingly.  For there to be a global peace, it all starts with an individual being at peace with himself and the love spreads to the rest of the world (Xu, et al 2006). There is no standard way of defining. However, the common the common thing that can be used to define all these forms of peace as peace is the absence of destructive tension, conflict or violence and with the presence of harmony and well being. Even though most of the time, peace is misconstrued as to be the absence of war, this is not usually the case. There could be nonviolent resistance which negative peace like the women in Liberia and Ivory Coast (Disney & Gbowee, 2012). For there to be peace there needs to be no form of disgruntlement.

To come up with a sustainable peace, there need to be people negotiating. However, finding the solution highly depends on the power of the negotiator and the level of conflict(Fragale,2005)It involves the high probability of engaging dialogue an cooperation to promote justice and the well-being that governs the social organization and relationship in life.  It, therefore, can be referred to as the state when a given environment enjoys a certain form of tranquility with no any form disturbance.

What do we and don’t we know about?

The whole idea of sustainable peace comes in the case the where there are conflicting part and they are seeking to reach a ceasefire. Sustainable peace requires that the conflicting parties do not only lay down their weapons in the sign of surrendering war but also they need to find a long-lasting solution of reconciliation (Deutsch & Coleman, 2015).  This reconciliation needs to be enduring since it sustained by society-wide network mechanisms and relationships that enhance justice addresses the main cause of the existing enmity before they can regenerate again into volatile tensions.

Even thought much is talked about sustainable peace, there are a number of things that are little know that are concerns sustainable (Lie,  Binningsbø & Gates, 2007). Sustainable peace is always dependent on type of regime and cannot be established similarly in different societies. The way of implementing sustainable peace in a dichromatic society is different from that of a nondemocratic society. Again, what is little known is that


Why it is important to approach it across disciplines.

Peace building normally has got a multifaceted character and thus it involves various actors in order to achieve sustainable peace (Krampe, 2016).  Having many actors that shape sustainable makes it necessary that it is taken across all disciplines in order to bring all the stakeholders in peace building on board. The many disciplines assists in understanding the various aspects of peace building hence making it easier coming up with sustainable peace.

Furthermore, various disciplines give different learning materials that are antidote to violence and any form of armed conflict. The learning in these disciplines lays emphasis and promotes having a just and all inclusive society which is a recipe for longevity in peace hence sustainable peace (Krampe, 2016). It  also enhances everyone’s participation in civic or citizen participation in development of sustainable.

Sustainable peace must be approached by from the perspective of dynamic processes which includes the development and maintenance of the attractors for social relations (Fry & Miklikowska, 2012). There are case studies that demonstrate that indeed it is possible to transition from a state of having a constant war to a state of calmness and full of peace. There is in itself is a full demonstration of the efficacy of using the peace strategies.

The most important thing about peace is that it can lead to a harmonious coexistence of a given group or individuals and make them enjoy life.  A group, in this case, is that gathering of more than one person coming together with a common agenda (Deutsch, Marcus & Brazaitis, 2012). They maybe are having common goals, set of values and they interact with each other.  By just being together, it is not enough to determine if they have common characteristics or have a distinguishable entity that is different from others or if they have got common interest. It is only after an interaction that they can tell their common interests. It is easier for people who have a common interest and common goal to live peacefully compared to those who have diverse interests in life. Whenever there is conflict among a given group of people, it is usually because they differ on a number of thing s. Thus the only way to create peaceful coexistence and sustainable peace is by creating and making them converge on a given common agenda, interest or common goal.

Finding a solution to a conflict to enhance peace

As a way of creating peace, there must be some form of conflict resolution. There are various things to consider in creating sustainable peace. One needs to know and understand the type of conflict that they are involved in (Fry & Miklikowska, 2012). Some of the conflicts are usually a win-lose in nature whereby in order for one to win they have to give away something. Again, not all conflicts are negative. It is the nature of conflicts to cause anxiety and be destructive. However, most of the conflicts present people with the opportunity to solve problems and bring out the necessary changes.   Furthermore, during the creation of peace, it is important for someone to corporate with the team trying to find an amicable solution.

Making sustainable peace also requires that the involved people are able to see the invisible. During conflicts, people tend to miss out so many things that make it hard resolve conflicts and hence there is a need for involved parties to see beyond the conflict (Faure, 1995). A bottom-up approach should be used so that a focus is laid from a bigger picture to that picture on the real ground. Working from the lower end of the project while circumventing global issues normally helps in identifying and initiating new greater ideas of finding the final solution. This approach is normally good at saving time and coming up with practical solutions.












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