MS Project and Word Assignment Part 1 and 2

MS Project and Word Assignment Part 1 and 2

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Due Date

Cell Tower Project


Future Technologies Limited has been given the opportunity to build a cell phone tower in the city of Capital Heights, Maryland. The awarding of the contract was due to the ongoing phases of commercial and residential  construction in the city. The goal of the cell tower will be to increase network coverage in the newly developed areas, hence eliminating call disruptions for newly established businesses, homes, and any other users in the vicinity.

The cell phone tower will be built in Capital Heights, Maryland, on a portion of the significantly elevated property. The construction of a cell tower that is capable of operating at a high level of efficiency is the goal of the project that Future Technologies are undertaking. The tower will cooperate with the other existing towers to improve the tenants’ overall network connection.


The scope of the cell tower construction project entails a wide range of tasks, such as site selection, planning, building, and testing. Locating and purchasing an appropriate site for the tower, clearing the area, building a secure storage facility, reinforcing the ground, setting up a power supply center, laying a solid concrete base, erecting a latticed tripod tower, installing antennae, cables, and power, lighting the top of the antennae, and setting up a distribution box are all necessary steps in this undertaking. After construction, the tower will be put through a battery of tests to confirm its readiness.

On the other hand, certain project components to install cell towers are out of the scope of work. These include installing solar panels as extra power sources, adding more dishes to the tower, and modifying the cell tower’s outward look. These pursuits are not a part of the project’s goals, and they go beyond what was originally envisioned for the project’s scope.


Microwave systems, towers mounted to buildings, guyed towers, self-supporting towers, and poles, and towers mounted to power poles are all included in the components. The cell tower building is scheduled to be conducted on land that has been zoned for commercial use. The antennas will employ a frequency range varying from 700 to 800 MHZ, and the tower it is mounted on will be between 100 and 200 feet tall. The cell tower should have the capacity to provide service to a number of up to two hundred thousand people.

Construction Materials

  • Sand
  • Concrete
  • Plastic
  • Steel
  • Gravel
  • Wood
  • Aluminum


  • Landowner
  • Engineers
  • Finance Analyst
  • Workers and Maintenance crew
  • Land surveyor
  • Sub-contactors
  • Capital Heights city
  • Project manager
  • Future Technologies Company

Work Breakdown Structure

Network Diagram

Resource Requirements

Work Packagepeoplematerialsequipmentfacilitiesservices
1.1.2X   X
1.1.3    X
1.1.4    X
1.2.2X X  
1.2.6X X  
1.3.2X XX 
1.3.3X X  
1.3.4X X  
1.3.5X X  
1.4.1X X  
1.4.2X X X
1.4..5X X  
1.5.2X X  



Risk Management

RiskRisk Response StrategyRisk Response Action
Harsh weather conditionAcceptHave gum boots or postpone work
Absent staffAvoid 
Equipment malfunctionMitigateTest equipment or use backup
Equipment lossAvoidTight security
Power lossMitigateEnsure backup power
Backup power lossAvoidWait for the power to be back
Behind scheduleAvoidStick to plan
Money issuesAvoidMake allowances in budget
Lack of permitAvoidEnsure the availability of permits
Uncooperative workersMitigateDisciplinary actions


Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling.


Literature Review for Order 

Acceptance of Deep Learning Models by Cyber security Managers in Detecting Fake Digital Identifies: A Case Study of Detection of Fake News on Social Media Platforms

Student’s First Name, Middle Initial(s), Last Name

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Instructor’s Name and Title

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Acceptance of Deep Learning Models by Cybersecurity Managers in Detecting Fake Digital Identifies: A Case Study of Detection of Fake News on Social Media Platforms


The literature review provided a review of past studies on the use of deep learning models and approaches in the detection of fake digital identities. The key focus will be using the case study of detection of fake news on social media platforms while determining the acceptance of deep learning models by cybersecurity managers.  The chapter will also discuss the interrelationship between the study variables in the conceptual framework.

Deep Learning Approach

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses artificial neural networks with many layers to learn from data. It is inspired by the way the human brain works, where information is processed through layers of interconnected neurons. The deep learning approach involves training a neural network using a large amount of data to make accurate predictions or classifications. The neural network is designed to learn from the data by adjusting the weights and biases of the network’s neurons. The goal is to minimize the error between the predicted output and the actual output, which is achieved through a process called backpropagation. Deep learning is particularly well-suited to handling large and complex datasets, such as images, videos, and natural language, where traditional machine learning algorithms may struggle to extract meaningful patterns. It has been successfully applied in a wide range of domains, including computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and robotics. Overall, the deep learning approach has revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, enabling breakthroughs in many areas and paving the way for new and exciting applications in the future.

Deep Learning Approaches Implemented In Cybersecurity

  • Intrusion detection

Intrusion detection is the process of identifying malicious activity on a computer network or system (Berman et al., 2019). Deep learning has shown promising results in intrusion detection as it can learn to detect complex patterns and anomalies in network traffic data. One approach to intrusion detection using deep learning is to train a neural network to classify network traffic as either normal or malicious. This can be done by feeding the network labeled data, where the labels indicate whether each network flow is normal or malicious. The network can then learn to identify patterns and features in the network traffic that are associated with malicious activity. Another approach is to use autoencoders to detect anomalies in network traffic. An autoencoder is trained to learn a compressed representation of the normal network traffic, and then any new traffic that does not match this representation is flagged as an anomaly (Berman et al., 2019). This approach does not require labeled data, making it useful in situations where labeled data is scarce or expensive. Deep learning techniques such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have also been used for intrusion detection. CNNs can be used to detect patterns in network packet payloads, while RNNs can be used to analyze network traffic over time and detect temporal patterns.

  • Deep autoencoders

Deep autoencoders are neural networks designed for unsupervised learning that can learn to represent high-dimensional data in a compressed, low-dimensional space. An autoencoder consists of two parts: an encoder and a decoder (Zhou & Paffenroth, 2017). The encoder maps the input data to a lower-dimensional latent representation, and the decoder maps the latent representation back to the original input data. A deep autoencoder is a type of autoencoder that has multiple hidden layers in both the encoder and decoder. The additional layers allow the autoencoder to capture more complex and abstract features of the input data. Deep autoencoders are often used for tasks such as dimensionality reduction, feature extraction, and data compression. Training a deep autoencoder typically involves minimizing the reconstruction error between the original input data and the reconstructed output data. This can be done using a variety of optimization techniques, such as stochastic gradient descent, and different loss functions, such as mean squared error (Krizhevsky & Hinton, 2011). Deep autoencoders have been used in a variety of applications, including image and speech recognition, anomaly detection, and natural language processing. They are particularly useful in situations where labeled training data is scarce or expensive, as they can learn to represent the underlying structure of the data without explicit supervision.

  • Restricted Boltzmann machines

 Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are a type of artificial neural network that belong to the family of unsupervised learning algorithms. They are composed of two layers of nodes, visible and hidden, where the nodes in each layer are fully connected to each other but there are no connections between nodes within the same layer (Fischer, A., & Igel, 2012). The main goal of an RBM is to learn a probability distribution over the input data. This is achieved by adjusting the weights of the connections between the visible and hidden layers through a process called training. During training, the RBM learns to reconstruct the input data from the hidden layer activations and vice versa. RBMs are particularly useful in the context of dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and generative modeling. They have been successfully applied in a wide range of domains, such as image recognition, natural language processing, and recommendation systems.

  • Recurrent neural networks

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are a class of neural networks designed to work with sequential data such as time series or text. Unlike feedforward neural networks, RNNs have feedback connections that allow information to persist over time, allowing them to capture temporal dependencies in data (Grossberg, 2013). At each time step, an RNN takes an input vector and its hidden state vector from the previous time step as inputs, and produces an output vector and a new hidden state vector as outputs. The hidden state vector acts as a kind of memory that stores information about previous inputs, and is updated at each time step. One of the key advantages of RNNs is their ability to handle variable-length inputs, as the network can process each input sequentially, one at a time. This makes RNNs well-suited for tasks such as language modeling, speech recognition, and machine translation.

  • Generative adversarial networks

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are a type of machine learning model that are used for generating new data samples that are similar to a given dataset. GANs consist of two neural networks: a generator network and a discriminator network (Creswell et al., 2018). The generator network takes in a random noise vector as input and generates a new sample that is intended to be similar to the training data. The discriminator network takes in both real training samples and generated samples from the generator network as input, and its goal is to distinguish between the real and generated samples. The two networks are trained in an adversarial fashion, with the generator network trying to produce samples that can fool the discriminator network, and the discriminator network trying to correctly identify the real samples (Wang et al., 2017). Through this process of back-and-forth training, the generator network learns to produce samples that are increasingly similar to the training data, while the discriminator network learns to correctly distinguish between the real and generated samples. Once the GAN has been trained, the generator network can be used to generate new samples that are similar to the original training data.

Using Deep Learning Models In Detection of Fake News on Social Media Platforms

The detection of fake news on social media platforms is a challenging problem that has attracted significant attention in recent years. Deep learning models can be used to address this problem by automatically analyzing large amounts of textual data to identify patterns and characteristics that are indicative of fake news (Tashtoush et al., 2022). One approach to using deep learning models for fake news detection is to train a neural network on a large dataset of labeled news articles, where the labels indicate whether the news is real or fake. The neural network can then be used to predict the label of new articles by analyzing their content and identifying patterns that are consistent with fake news. Several techniques can be used to preprocess the textual data before feeding it into the neural network, such as word embedding and natural language processing techniques. Additionally, various architectures of neural networks can be used, including convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs), which have been shown to be effective in processing sequential data (Aldhyani & Alkahtani, 2023). Another approach to using deep learning models for fake news detection is to combine them with other techniques, such as network analysis and fact-checking. For example, the spread of fake news on social media can be tracked and analyzed using network analysis techniques, and fact-checking can be used to verify the accuracy of the news. Overall, using deep learning models in the detection of fake news on social media platforms is a promising area of research that has the potential to help mitigate the negative effects of fake news and promote the spread of accurate information.

Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework that will be applied for this research study is the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology-3 (UTAUT-3) model. The UTAUT-3 model will be applied in the research study because its description agrees with the research objective. The UTAUT-3 model was developed by Farooq et al. (2017) as the UTAUT-2 framework extension and comprises eight technology acceptance determinants that include performance expectancy (PE), social behaviour (SB), effort expectancy (EE), facilitating conditions (FC), habit (HB), price value (PV), personal innovativeness in IT (PI), and hedonic motivation (HM). The UTAUT-3 model authors claim that it has technology adoption prediction potency of 66 per cent in terms of explanation. In addition to the eight constructs, the model has four moderators of the constructs that include age, gender, experience, and voluntariness. The UTAUT-3 model will be preferred in this research study since it will adequately respond to the research questions (Farooq et al., 2017).

The model predicts adequately the incidence of technology acceptance and adoption. Thus, the UTAUT-3 model is useful for researchers to evaluate the possibility of technology adoption depending on how the model variables correlate. Data collection will be done using those constructs in connection with the variables digital driver’s license verification devices, and acceptance and adoption of the technology. The UTAUT-3 variables data will be analyzed using some analysis tools to determine various factors like the influence of a variable on the cybersecurity issues pertaining to use of DDL verification technology. It is important to note that only four of the main UTAUT-3 model constructs will be applied in the research study, and they include performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence, and price value. Through applying the theoretical model in a new social and technological context, the study will contribute in the field of information technology acceptance (Farooq et al., 2017).

The performance expectancy (PE) variable will be instrumental in this study since it is defined as the user conviction of the target technology to improve the operations to obtain gains in terms of business success (Venkatesh et al., 2012). In this study, PE implies that IT managers’ belief that acceptance and adoption of DDL verification devices will enhance security of the organization’s clients and the staff. Thus, it will be used to ascertain the level of effectiveness to ensure that the cyber space is free from any insecurity concerns. Therefore, the PE variable will be used to test the hypotheses H01 and Ha1.

The facilitating Conditions (FC) variable refers to the belief by the user that the availability of infrastructure and institutional support assists targeted technology use (Venkatesh et al., 2012). Typically, infrastructure and technical support that help in usage of a technology system are classified under the facilitating conditions. The Facilitating Conditions affect both the actual usage and the user intention (Venkatesh et al., 2012). Therefore, the variable will be used to test the hypotheses H03 and Ha3: Facilitating Conditions influence the IT managers’ acceptance of DDL verification devices and FCs influence the adoption of the DDL verification devices by the IT managers in their organizations.

The social influence refers to the extent which a person believes that the immediate society expects him to adopt some technology (Venkatesh et al., 2012). In the context of this research study, social influence implies the external pressure that affects the acceptance and adoption of DDL verification devices by IT managers in organizations. Therefore, this study will test the hypothesis stating that social influence affects the behavior intention of IT managers to accept and adopt the DDL verification devices in organizations.

The Price Value (PV) variable refers to the consumers’ context whereby an individual weighs the perceived benefits against the amount spent to obtain an item. The study will test the IT managers’ perception about the cost of investing in the DDL verification technology. Therefore, the study will test the hypotheses H02 and Ha2: PV influences the acceptance of technology, and PV influence on the adoption of DDL verification devices by IT managers of organizations.



Aldhyani, T. H., & Alkahtani, H. (2023). Cyber Security for Detecting Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Agriculture 4.0: Deep Learning Model. Mathematics11(1), 233.

Aldhyani, T. H., & Alkahtani, H. (2023). Cyber security for detecting distributed denial of service attacks in agriculture 4.0: Deep learning model. Mathematics11(1), 233.

Berman, D. S., Buczak, A. L., Chavis, J. S., & Corbett, C. L. (2019). A survey of deep learning methods for cyber security. Information10(4), 122.

Creswell, A., White, T., Dumoulin, V., Arulkumaran, K., Sengupta, B., & Bharath, A. A. (2018). Generative adversarial networks: An overview. IEEE signal processing magazine35(1), 53-65.

Farooq, M. S., Salam, M., Jaafar, N., Fayolle, A., Ayupp, K., Radović-Marković, M., & Sajid, A. (2017). Acceptance and use of lecture capture system (LCS) in executive business studies : extending UTAUT2. Le Centre Pour La Communication Scientifique Directe – HAL – MemSIC.

Fischer, A., & Igel, C. (2012). An introduction to restricted Boltzmann machines. In Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis, Computer Vision, and Applications: 17th Iberoamerican Congress, CIARP 2012, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings 17 (pp. 14-36). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Grossberg, S. (2013). Recurrent neural networks. Scholarpedia8(2), 1888.

Krizhevsky, A., & Hinton, G. E. (2011, April). Using very deep autoencoders for content-based image retrieval. In ESANN (Vol. 1, p. 2).

Tashtoush, Y., Alrababah, B., Darwish, O., Maabreh, M., & Alsaedi, N. (2022). A deep learning framework for detection of COVID-19 fake news on social media platforms. Data7(5), 65.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS quarterly, 157-178.

Wang, K., Gou, C., Duan, Y., Lin, Y., Zheng, X., & Wang, F. Y. (2017). Generative adversarial networks: introduction and outlook. IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica4(4), 588-598.

Zhou, C., & Paffenroth, R. C. (2017, August). Anomaly detection with robust deep autoencoders. In Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining (pp. 665-674).

Acceptance of Deep Learning Models by Cyber security Managers in Detecting Fake Digital Identifies

Student’s First Name, Middle Initial(s), Last Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Number and Name

Instructor’s Name and Title

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Acceptance of Deep Learning Models by Cybersecurity Managers in Detecting Fake Digital Identifies

  • Introduction
  • Deep learning approach
  • Deep learning approaches implemented in cybersecurity
    • Intrusion detection
    • Deep autoencoders
    • Restricted Boltzmann machines
    • Recurrent neural networks
    • Generative adversarial networks
    • Malware detection
    • Phishing/ spam detection
    • Website defacement detection
  • Theoretical framework
  • Conclusion

Examples of References to be used

Aldhyani, T. H., & Alkahtani, H. (2023). Cyber security for detecting distributed denial of service attacks in agriculture 4.0: Deep learning model. Mathematics11(1), 233.

Berman, D., Buczak, A., Chavis, J., & Corbett, C. (2019). A survey of deep learning methods for cyber security. Information10(4), 122.

Li, G., Sharma, P., Pan, L., Rajasegarar, S., Karmakar, C., & Patterson, N. (2021). undefined. Journal of Computer Security29(5), 447-471.

Rodriguez, E., Otero, B., Gutierrez, N., & Canal, R. (2021). A survey of deep learning techniques for cybersecurity in mobile networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials23(3), 1920-1955.

Tariq, M. I., Memon, N. A., Ahmed, S., Tayyaba, S., Mushtaq, M. T., Mian, N. A., Imran, M., & Ashraf, M. W. (2020). A review of deep learning security and privacy defensive techniques. Mobile Information Systems2020, 1-18.

Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine the two medications are safer and effective compared to the vaccine especially for the elderly/Geriatric in home care.

Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine the two medications are safer and effective compared to the vaccine especially for the elderly/Geriatric in home care.

Older people are more susceptible to COVID-19’s acute illness and mortality. People above the age of constituted 80% of COVID-19 fatalities in the US, according to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Various drugs have been investigated on their ability to manage the adverse effects of the virus. The United States encountered difficulties treating this disease, much like other nations worldwide. For the therapy of mild to severe occurrences of COVID-19 illness, antiviral medications and existing drugs like Hydroxychloroquine, Chloroquine, and, most recently, Ivermectin has been used.

II. Background


COVID-19, a novel coronavirus variant, was discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and caused pneumonia in patients. The disease was very contagious and quickly spread across nations. The WHO officially declared it an epidemic in February 2020. Patients with the most severe complaints have mostly been found to be older than 50 and to have comorbid conditions.

Where the problem exists

There is currently no effective treatment option. Antimalarial medications (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine) have shown antiviral action and accelerated viral clearance, according to in vitro experiments and observational data. The situation creates the need for clinical trials to discover successful therapy alternatives considering that there is currently no accepted standard of care.

III. Quantitative Findings

Article 1

Choudhary et al. (2020) came up with a comprehensive report that combined the knowledge of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine amongst other drugs altogether in the context of the covid-19 emergency. They evaluate the effectiveness of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine drugs in the management of COVID-19 and found that the drugs had a potential antiviral response against the coronaviruses.

Article 2

Rajter et al. (2020) sought to determine the link between the use of ivermectin and mortality in hospitalized covid-19 patients. It was determined that Ivermectin treatment resulted in lower mortality during treatment of COVID-19.

Golden nugget

The findings in both researches support the recommendation that nurses may use ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine as a routine treatment of COVID-19.

IV. Qualitative Findings

Article 1

In the observational research by Kerr et al. (2022), it was fond that regular use of ivermectin as a prophylactic agent significantly lowered the rate of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and mortality

Article 2

Membrillo et al. (2020) conducted an observational study of 166 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and determined that hydroxychloroquine treatment improved patient survival upon admission during the stages of the disease.

Golden nugget

There exists a strong link around the effectiveness of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine in the management of Covid-19.

V. Application to Nursing Practice

This study aims to provide information to guide referral hospitals’ treatment of COVID-19 patients. In this regard, nurses may be able to provide precise messages to elderly/Geriatric in home care regarding the use of these medications to facilitate decision making. Although there are not enough patients to draw definitive conclusions, the studies’ outcomes strongly indicate that both medications work. However, further research is needed to ensure ongoing contributions to meta-analyses that could result in more conclusive findings.

VI. Conclusion

The evidence supporting hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in treating COVID-19 is remains small. However, a conclusion can be reached that there is proof regarding the advantages of using hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine in treating COVID-19. In turn, it is worth recommending the use of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine, particularly for the aged and geriatric patients receiving home care. It is also important that the use of Ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 prevention continues to receive further precise evaluations.


Choudhary, R., Sharma, A. K., & Choudhary, R. (2020). Potential use of hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and azithromycin drugs in fighting COVID-19: trends, scope and relevance. New Microbes and New Infections, 35, 100684.

Kerr, L., Cadegiani, F. A., Baldi, F., Lobo, R. B., Assagra, W. L. O., Proença, F. C., Kory, P., Hibberd, J. A., & Chamie-Quintero, J. J. (2022). Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching. Cureus, 14(1).

Membrillo, F. J., Ramírez-Olivencia, G., Estébanez, M., Dios, B. de, Herrero, M. D., Mata, T., Borobia, A. M., Gutiérrez, C., Simón, M., Ochoa, A., Martínez, Y., Aguirre, A., Alcántara, F. de A., Fernández-González, P., López, E., Valle, P., Campos, S., Navarro, M., & Ballester, L. E. (2020). Early Hydroxychloroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study.

Rajter, J. C., Sherman, M. S., Fatteh, N., Vogel, F., Sacks, J., & Rajter, J.-J. (2020). Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 (ICON study). Chest, 159(1).

The System by Robert B. Reich

The System by Robert B. Reich

In the book, “The System,” Robert Reich discloses how power and wealth have led to the development of an elite oligarchy, integrated to undermine democracy, and eviscerate the middle class. In his argument, top individuals use phrases like “corporate social responsibility,” “national competitiveness,” “the free market,” “meritocracy,” and the political “center” to divert society’s attention away from taking over the system (Reich, 2020). Consequently, the top group uses these myths to defend their accumulation of additional power and wealth. Reich further reveals that power is wielded through deceit, invites people to salvage it, and further recreates the system for everyone. He further elaborates on how the American administration has been apprehended by powerful and wealthy forces and suggests what the Americans must do to save things (Reich, 2020). Therefore, in this paper I will critically analyses the impact of power and wealth including disparity in education, healthcare, income, criminal justice system, and political-economic systems as demonstrated by Reich and further explores appropriate mechanisms that can be employed to resolve the prevailing condition within the society.

Inequality in the Justice System

Reich (2020) argues that power and wealth influence inequality in the criminal justice system in the current society. Although the perceived effect is associated with historic ethnic profiling and a legal moral dilemma, I think it is mainly influenced by power. The process typically begins with police recruitment and retention, resource disparities between the public defender, and societal perception, which I think aligns with our society today, where the rich and wealthy people buy criminal justice system. An overwhelming number of studies have indicated that most Americans are unfairly treated at various levels of the justice system, ranging from legislation, policing, and sentencing. According to Reich (2020), the super-rich and powerful frequently rig their way out of prison despite their criminal offenses without serving their sentence. On the contrary, I feel that the socially deprived population, the poor, complete their incarceration term.


Reich, R. B. (2020). The system: Who rigged it, how we fix it. Vintage.

Hypothesis and Conceptual Framework

Hypothesis and Conceptual Framework

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Brief explanation

Theory in TI




It is a set of beliefs and values or a collection of learned behavior that people in a particular society share with others, giving them a sense of identity and belongingness (Harrison & Skrebneva, 2020). Collins and Callaghan (2022) described a culture from a practical online interaction perspective as a complex construct capturing group/societal values, behavioral patterns, and communication styles. Culture considerably impacts online learning environments’ use, design, and intention. For example, it is probable that there is a preference for online learning in societies where gender segregation is strictly imposed on people. Most of Omani colleges and universities do not enforce gender segregation, however, students still have a tendency to separate themselves. Thus, it is important to study how these students feel about Online learning, and whether or not they prefer it over conventual learning settings. The preference for online learning based on cultural reasons can probably affect the performance of students in online assessments, providing an insight about Online Proctoring and to what extent it is achieving academic integrity.

·         Social construction of technology (SCOT)   


·         The theory underpinning the construct of religion is the secularization theory (Stolz & Tanner, 2019). This theory holds that increasing educational status/levels, alongside the proliferation of technology, results in a more cynical attitude and undermining of religious practices and belief systems.



The aim of this study is to determine whether online proctoring can be used to improve the quality of assessments in an Omani educational institute in order to ensure that the examiners are able to capture the actual performance and potential of the students.

To achieve the research purpose, this study formulates the following hypothesis:

H1: Perceived improved performance will lead to effective adoption of OP in the corporate context. H2: User acceptance will contribute positively to the adoption of OP in the corporate context.



Educational background

The proposition of using online proctoring is profoundly entrenched in a challenging and authoritarian/controlling educational background. For decades, the educational technology field has strived to subvert that phenomenon.

With the development of technology enabling escalated online contexts interactions, distance education premises have been reconsidered that enhance learners’ self-direction and independence (Andrade, 2018). The level of education, and country where academic degrees were granted, might determine how seriously students take online assessments. 





Distance Learning Theory and DeLone and McLean Model




Computer literacy

Computer literacy could be described as one’s ability to create, integrate, understand, manage, assess and create information aptly and safely through digital technologies. Computer literacy skills are essential when scholars want to perform in the online examination. According to AlSheikhTheeb et al. (2022), learners should possess such skills for online examinations to evaluate or assess the concrete knowledge of the primary content that learners are to be tested. However, computer literacy is unevenly distributed across various disadvantage indicators, like educational background, income level, residential area (rural versus urban), or disability. Therefore, a learner’s previous exposure to IT enhances his competence and ability to perform better in online exams than others.


Transactional Distance Theory

It holds that the essential ability and learners’ competence interact with technology impedes or facilitates other interactions, influencing their learning profoundly (Abuhassna et al., 2020).




Oman’s populations use classic Arabic as their first language and English as their second language. Nevertheless, most courses in Oman region are taught in English. Several researchers have studied the viability of online teaching in the context of English language learners and the evaluation of instructors’ and learners’ perspectives with online examinations (Alyahya & Almutairi, 2019). The study revealed the pleasantness and acceptability of faculty members and students with online assessments where the participants applied the English language. English is the primary language of instruction in Oman, particularly in higher education, yet most students are not fluent in English. When taking into account the level of their fluency while studying the effect of Online Proctoring, different conclusions could be reached regarding OP.

The constructivist learning theory best applies to online learning. It holds that learners encode and interpret information based on their experiences and individual perceptions. Contrary to the teacher-centred theory, constructivism comprises teacher guidance and learner interaction (Andrade, 2018). 



 The Conceptual FrameworkThe proposed online examination model comprises of two modules: online examination system enablers and the authentication and continuous monitoring.Authentication and continuous monitoring moduleThis element enrolls, authorizes and monitors the students continuously taking their exams for real time inspection and support of fraudulent activities.Student enrolment and standardizationThe study proposes the adoption of multimodal biometrics for authorizing the users Face recognition and fingerprints are used for authorization.Figure 1: Exam registrationStudent authenticationStudents login through password and username. Then audio, video, and bandwidth tests follows. Students then download, install and open an application that gives remote access to their desktop, audio and webcam. Authentication can be done through webcam at this point. Remote proctor then confirms the presented ID details against registered exam details. Student further confirm deals via facial recognition and fingerprint system. Figure 2: Exam authentication stepsFig. 2 Continuous monitoring and terminationThis study recommends the adoption of real-time automated background sound checks, time delays, facial recognition, holding ID against the student face pause, and head pose for continued monitoring. Additionally, the exam platform need to use and an advanced lockdown browser like the Respondus that controls the software that can be accessed by the learners during their exams.Figure 3: Continuous monitoring activities Fig. 3  ReferencesAbuhassna, H., Al-Rahmi, W. M., Yahya, N., Zakaria, M. A. Z. M., Kosnin, A. B., & Darwish, M. (2020). Development of a new model on utilizing online learning platforms to improve students’ academic achievements and satisfaction. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education17(1), 1-23., T., Sahin, A., Abdelrahman, S., Chuang, R., Affolter, F., Al Mekdad, B., … & Shequem, Y. (2022). Online Examinations in Emergency Contexts: Can Proctoring and Other Technologies Be Feasible Alternatives for Facilitating Inclusive School Exams for All in Emergency Contexts? (No. 41). EdTech Hub., D., & Almutairi, N. (2019). The Impact of Electronic Tests on Students’ Performance Assessment. International Education Studies12(5), 109-119.Andrade, M. S. (2018). Online English Language Learning: Theory-Based Course Design and Pedagogy. Journal of Education and Training Studies5(3), 1-10., D. W., Gregg, J. R., & Clinton, M. S. (2011). Preventing online cheating with technology: A pilot study of remote proctor and an update of its use. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice11(2), 41-59.Collins, H., & Callaghan, D. (2022). What a difference a zoom makes: Intercultural interactions between host and international students. Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education14(2)., N., & Skrebneva, I. (2020). A country as pedagogical: enacting an Australian foundation for culturally responsive pedagogy. Journal of Curriculum Studies52(1), 15-26., T., Maoneke, P. B., & Mauwa, H. (2021). A secure online exams conceptual framework for South African universities. Social Sciences & Humanities Open3(1), 100132. Raji, I. D., Gebru, T., Mitchell, M., Buolamwini, J., Lee, J., & Denton, E. (2020, February). Saving face: Investigating the ethical concerns of facial recognition auditing. In Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society (pp. 145-151)., J., & Tanner, P. (2019). Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-Theories and Research. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.   

Prompt 1: EvaluaPrompt 1: Evaluating the Importance of Historical Context in Boumediene V. Bush (2008)Prompt 1: Evalua

Prompt 1: Evaluating the Importance of Historical Context in Boumediene V. Bush (2008)

Boumediene v. Bush was a landmark case in the United States. The Supreme Court determined in Boumediene v. Bush (2008) that Guantánamo prisoners had the right to submit habeas corpus petitions to federal courts in Washington to ascertain whether the U.S. government had sufficient evidence to support their prolonged open-ended incarceration without trial. The court’s ruling overturning D.C. was published. Circuit’s decision.82 The Court sided with D.C. Consequently, assuming the law is constitutionally sound, the D.C. Circuit will not have jurisdiction over habeas corpus petitions filed by Guantanamo inmates that were pending on the day of its implementation. It would be appropriate for the Circuit to dismiss the petitions.

The Supreme Court has cited multiple jurisprudence on the matter of habeas corpus and how this issue might apply to these cases. For instance, the Court concluded that petitioners are covered with the privilege to file for the writ, even though the D.C. Circuit concluded that it was unnecessary to assess whether habeas corpus could be adequately replaced. Normally, this Court remands cases for further examination of unresolved issues, but in “extraordinary” cases, an exemption to this norm may be justified. The Court uses the historical context of Cooper Industries v. Aviall Services, Inc., 543 U.S. Which mentions the serious separation-of-powers concerns that these cases pose as well as the reality that petitioners have long been deprived of rightful access to a courtroom. The court also mentioned Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1 wherein applying the Fifth and Sixth Amendment’s jury clauses to American citizens being tried by U.S.S. Both the concurrences and the plurality recognized the importance of practical concerns, not linked to the citizenship of the petitioners but rather the location of their detention and trial.

Prompt 2: Should the New Deal be Considered a Legal Success?

The New Deal was determined as both successful and failure by different economic scholars, however, while the New Deal was rumored to save capitalism in the US, its failure lies in its technicalities and the Government’s inadequacy to act on several issues. For instance, the Supreme Court in Panama Refining Co. v. Ryan, 293 U.S. 388 (1935), involved the Franklin Roosevelt administration’s “hot oil” orders, which were enacted under the 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), which prohibited interstate and international trade in petroleum products produced more than state quotas. The decision was one of many that struck down important components of the administration’s New Deal legislative agenda. Since the relevant provision 9(c) of the NIRA enabled presidential trade interdiction without establishing standards for the proposed restriction’s implementation, it was determined that it constituted an illegal transfer of legislative power. By an 8-1 vote, the Supreme Court sided with the oil companies, concluding that Congress had improperly transferred its regulatory authority to the President without first formulating a solidified statement of legal policy and establishing a specific set of guidelines by which the President was authorized to act.

Another jurisprudence through Humphrey’s Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935) provided another legal failure on the New Deal where the Court made a distinction between quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial officers and executive officers. The Court ruled that the former serves under the influence of the President and may be ousted in his favor, but the latter may only be dismissed via processes complying with legislative restrictions set by Congress. The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, which stated that the President could only remove an FTC commissioner “for neglect of duty, inefficiency, or malfeasance in office,” served as the foundation for his lawsuit. Humphrey passed away on February 14, 1934, and his wife, acting as executor of his estate, continued the lawsuit for back pay up to the date of his passing (with interest). When Roosevelt ousted Humphrey from the FTC, Associate Justice George Sutherland cited the court’s ruling, concluding that Roosevelt had indeed overstepped his power since Congress had intended for regulatory agencies like the FTC to be free from executive control. Because it decided cases and issued regulations, the Federal Trade Commission was declared by the court to be a quasi-legislative body. Thus, the President was not permitted to dismiss a member for purely political grounds. Therefore, it was wrong to fire Humphrey.

Another legal failure of the New Deal revolves around ALA Schechter Poultry Corp. V. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935) where jurisprudence states that the codes of fair competition, which the NIRA gave the President the authority to issue, were declared invalid by the Court on a unanimous vote by Chief Justice Hughes. The Court determined that the codes were unconstitutional because they represented an improper transfer of legislative authority to the executive branch. The Court further determined that the NIRA provisions exceeded the authority granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause.

Prompt 3: Constitutionality of the use of Military Commissions to Try Detainees in WWII and the Global War on Terror.

Military Commissions during World War II and the Global War on Terror are different from each other. For instance, the question of the constitutionality of both commissions differs in terms of addressing the main issues during their period of establishment. During the Global War on Terror, since the notion of the trial of war crimes was not new, the establishment of new military commissions and human rights conditions on these detainees were common concerns regarding constitutionality. In the case of Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006), after originally rejecting review, the Supreme Court took the case and, in a 5–4 ruling, held that Suspension Clause protected Guantánamo detainees who had been designated as enemy detainees and qualified for petition of habeas, despite having been categorized as such. The president’s use of military courts was constrained by the court. They concluded that the military courts were not authorized by Congress, were not necessary for military purposes, and were in violation of the Geneva Conventions.

During World War II, the establishments of military commissions were common to try war criminals. However, compared to the strict scrutiny of the Supreme Court in establishing commissions to try war criminals in the war on terror, the Supreme Court was more lenient and adhered to the need of urgency to address issues on establishing military commissions to try war criminals in World War II. For instance, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was tried by a military commission for breaking the rules of war as prepared by Army Forces stationed in the Eastern Pacific. In re Yamashita, 327 U.S. 1 (1946), the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the use of the commission, ruling that the President and other military commanders had the authority, following the laws of war, as enshrined in Article of War 15, to try enemy combatants by military commission for breaking the laws of war. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, which holds trials of Japanese officials for war crimes and other charges in Tokyo, Japan, is also established by the US and its allies.


ALA Schechter Poultry Corp. V. United States. (1935). 295 U.S. 495

Cooper Industries Inc v. Aviall Servies Inc. (2004). 543 U.S. 157

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. (2006).

Humphrey’s Executor v. United States. (1935). 295 U.S. 602

Panama Refining Co. v. Ryan (1935). 293 U.S. 388

Reid v. Covert. (1957). 354 U.S. 1

Yamashita. (1946) 327 U.S. 1

Empower Series Featuring Carl Chaisson

Empower Series Featuring Carl Chaisson


I am Carl Chaisson, from New Orleans, Louisiana, and the President & CEO of United One Communications, a company I started in 2015. United One Communications is a solutions provider that specializes in cybersecurity, systems engineering, network operations, and IT management services for government and commercial customers worldwide. I have had 15 years of experience in information technology (IT) and gained 21 certifications. It may sound interesting to an individual who is also interested in computers in today’s world. I attended Miami Dade College and graduated with a certificate in computer information systems. I later attended Florida International University and graduated in Business Administration with a concentration in finance. I have been employed by three fortune 500 Defense campaigns and provided mission support services to the Department of Defense. I was later deployed to 16+ military base locations throughout Afghanistan, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan, and Qatar. This presentation is an empowering series of my personal and professional journey, which portrays my experiences as an entrepreneur in my company.

Interest in Computers

Would you have ever thought I collected Goosebumps books, played Pokémon cards, or wanted to be a scientist? Yes, it is true; I wanted to be a scientist. However, my interest quickly changed when I owned my first personal computer, which my mother gifted me in 1995. Before Best Buy had a Geek Squad, I was the kid charging my mother’s church members, family, and friends to reformat their computers when infected with viruses. My dad still recalls the day when one of my sisters upset me, and I removed the computer’s power supply to avenge what she had done. In those days, even my parents wondered where I got the information from, but at the same time, they were happy because they knew my future was going to be bright someday.

Although my passion for computers continued to grow throughout my childhood and middle school years, I also enjoyed playing basketball, football, video games, watching wrestling, and eating pizza. I would feel a great sense of enjoyment when playing those games. However, basketball released the homework stress that I got from school and helped keep my body fit because I used to eat a lot of junk food. I had a strong admiration for Michael Jordan, a basketball idol. I liked his shooting skills in many matches that he played. The most exciting thing is that he used to score when he took a shot. Moreover, football and video games were my go-to activities every day. I would, at times, switch to watching wrestling because it would cheer up my moods.  

Starting High School

Searching for the best high school to attend was a challenge. Private schools were not affordable, and public schools did not offer the best education. However, after passing the admission test, I was fortunate enough to get accepted and attend Rabouin Career Magnet High School. I selected the career path in Computer Electronics for my 9th to 12th grades. I learned more about developing, troubleshooting, and installing computers and processors in control systems. Also, I was taught how to work with networking hardware and software. From that moment, I knew that I would be whom I had always wanted to be since I was a young boy.

At Rabouin Career Magnet High School, I met my favorite teacher, Mr. Joe Conde, who taught me about the different types of computer hardware, software, networking devices, and operating systems. Mr. Conde was also a part-time business owner, and his company provided residential and commercial security systems. Because I showed more interest than many of my classmates, Mr. Conde asked me if I was interested to learn how security systems work and promised to pay me any time I did an installation for his clients. It did not take long to understand how motion detectors, control panels, windows, and doors sensors worked. After school, Mr. Joe Conde allowed me to work for him, and I was responsible for doing installations for home and business customers. Although I enjoyed getting paid to learn something new, I knew the security system business was not my desire, and I had to do something that I had been passionate about. 

In high school, I excelled academically and often volunteered to assist with projects that involved installing new computers and network cables in different classrooms. These were before the days of wireless networking technology, such as Wi-Fi. High-speed internet was only available to commercial and government entities. From 2004 to 2005, I became a computer electronic student in St Rose, Louisiana. St Rose was among the colleges of the ITT Technical institute that offered technology-oriented programs studies. The administration offered me an admission card scheduled to expire in December 2006. While there, I could feel and perceive that I was in the right place, doing the right thing because the studies were computer-related and mainly in the field that I liked.

If you were into music like many other teenagers, then the computer lab is where you would spend most of your time. If you are old enough to remember, Napster was equivalent to iTunes and what Spotify is today. In the lab, one album would take just minutes, and if you were fortunate enough to have the internet at your home, this same download would take hours with a 56k connection. Most students would access high-end music in the computer labs and the best productivity software they could use in music production. Maybe most of you are not old enough to have witnessed what the computer lab entailed. As I had mentioned earlier, only people of my age can relate to what I have said. I can assure you that the computer labs were among the most aesthetic and lively places for music students to be and pursue their careers.

Senior Year High School & Starting College

My senior year was off to a great start. I had a car, and I was an early release student with only two classes. It may sound awkward that in my teenage years, I had managed to purchase a car that most of you by then were unable to afford because they were busy schooling. How I managed to buy the vehicle will be a story for another day, which I know most of you would love to listen to and be motivated. I did not elect to play high school sports. Instead, I was more focused on finding my next job. I attended ITT Technical Institute and majored in Computer Electronics for only one year because of hurricane Katrina.

Hurricane Katrina and Relocating to Florida

It was in August in 2005, a month recognized as hurricane season. The local news reported that a tropical storm named Katrina was coming our way, and we needed to take care of ourselves at all costs. Towards the end of the month (the last week), the storm increased and was officially a hurricane. But, of course, being from New Orleans, a hurricane was not overly concerning. Over the next few days, the media reported that the storm was getting stronger and stronger. Finally, on Sunday, August 28, the day before landfall, the Mayor of New Orleans declared a mandatory evacuation. With a Category 5 storm heading our way, we decided it was best to pack enough for a week and drive to Texas the same day and stay in a hotel for a week. If we had stayed in Orleans, I might probably be long gone because it was definite that the hurricane would cause much death to the residents.

The weather was terrible, and heavy rains led to mudslides. At some point, I can recall that our car nearly fell when my mother lost the steering momentum while driving. I remember witnessing death with my eyes when a strong wind raised our car from the cliff. Luckily enough, we managed to control the situation, and we all survived. If my mother were the only person to survive, the whole ordeal would now be fresh memories in her mind. After 16 hours on the road filled with total fear, I was tired and could barely see anything. At first, I thought I was blind until I heard a tornado and trees falling from every corner. I struggled to open my eyes and observe what was going on at that moment. This is not what I imagined my first time driving to Texas would be; everything was terrifying.

The following day, we turned on the news and watched as the hurricane destroyed the City of New Orleans. However, it wasn’t until the next day that we heard that the levees had breached, and the water was quickly rising, which would cause death to many city residents. By August 31, the Mayor declared martial law and directed officers to do “whatever it takes” to restore order. At this point, we knew going home was not an option, and with rising hotel costs, we had to make a quick decision. My sisters, who resided in Miramar, Florida, and followed the news closely, persuaded us to go there and wait until things would get back to normalcy. I, therefore, relocated to live with my sisters, bearing in mind that I would never go back to New Orleans.

Starting College in Florida and IT Jobs

With the City of New Orleans in disarray, I decided it was in my best interest to start a new life. After all, it is not always the end of life when one end fails to meet. It is our responsibility to take another move in life that will lead to us achieving our goals. After several months of having access to the beautiful beaches and sunny weather, Florida was the right choice, and I would live there as long as I was alive because there was no way we would go back to the City of New Orleans. In pursuit of more knowledge, I enrolled at Miami Dade College for Computer Information Systems and graduated with a certificate in computer information systems. I updated my resume on CareerBuilder and applied for several jobs during that time. A few weeks later, I received a call from Somerset Academy for a position as a Computer Technician. After two interviews and a background check, I was gainfully employed, and I only worked for one year.


After a year on the job, I received a call for an IT position supporting the United States Southern Command. I did not know it was on a military base until I attended the in-person interview. I was a bit tense about what would happen later, and my worry was getting the interview done and being offered the job, such that before the interview day, I had rehearsed the different ways of easing tension during interviews. However, I ensured that I practiced beforehand in all the critical areas of computer technology to be competent to answer any related questions and ask relevant questions after the interview. Honestly, I prepared enough, and I was confident that I would pass the interview. During the interview, I met supervisor Will Solomon, the hiring manager who, lucky enough, gave me the opportunity at USSOUTHCOM. That was the happiest moment, knowing that my hard work had paid well.

Additionally, I was lucky enough to work for Lockheed Martin Corporation from 2007 to 2009 as a government contractor in computer electronics. I must have been a lucky man to secure jobs smoothly without much struggle. While in Lockheed Martin, I was responsible for providing international systems and global services. This career path shaped my skills, and I desired to do other things in life. While still working in the United States Southern Command in 2010, I took more technical jobs working with the General Dynamics Information Technology department. While in the company, I received Commander’s Coin from Admiral James G. Stavridis to provide him with excellent customer service, which was reflected in how I fixed irresponsive operating software on his computer. All the companies I worked for opened the door to my journey of starting my own company.


In September 2010, I was deployed in Afghanistan to support the warfighters. I was in Kandahar Airfield, the most extensive military base, where I used to handle all computer-related issues. I was offered an office desk, and the management required me to be in charge of all computer operations. I would troubleshoot all the computer applications that did not seem to work, and if they failed to restart, I would install new ones. Moreover, I would update the systems software that the warfighters used to access most of their information while at the military base.

Additionally, I worked in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Jordan, and Qatar, engineering tactical and strategic solutions for the Department of Defense. However, the administration required me to operate in an undisclosed location because it was a safe place working from while in the country. With my computer knowledge, I had to make sure that any operation undertaken by the United States army was safe and would not get to the second party. I had to ensure that I controlled all the systems and tracked any suspicious movement made by the army. My other responsibility was to check the stability of the Wi-Fi network and ensure that all the telecommunications services were working to ease communication between the forces and the administration.

In 2012, I joined Camp Phoenix, and I was in charge of all computer systems in Afghanistan. Camp Phoenix was known for the training of the Afghan National army. The United States troops would gather in Camp Phoenix and be guided on how they would fight their enemies. It was an honor to work as an IT person in charge of designing techniques that would solve problems using information technology. However, I ensured that I trained the warfighters on using design systems that I created using a computer. Having skills in hardware and software was an added advantage because I was able to manage set-ups and configure systems. I would work during the day until 5 PM, and a colleague would take over and work at night because handling computers was supposed to be a 24 hours job, a failure that might mess up the operations of the United States Army.

In 2013, I was at Shindand Air Base, where I was involved in manufacturing the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk; I was good at system engineering and ensured that I did my best to bring out a better product for the United States Army. The administration asked me to be part of the people who conveyed in the Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP). I conducted all system updates and tracking of the United States enemies. I provided GPS information on where the enemies might be hiding. The construction of the helicopter was one of the achievements I made in life.

Being part of the Afghanistan team and as the system analyst, we ensured that we celebrated and wished all the citizens happy holidays. We would gather as a team holding a white cloth from both ends, written “Happy Holidays from 335th Afghanistan Team.” We were at Bagram Air Base in 2014, where citizens were not allowed. However, various news broadcasts would come to the base, record us, and then broadcast it. Therefore, the citizens would view us on television, and our message would be compelling for them since they were assured that the military army was protecting them against attacks.

In 2014, the United States administration gave me a containerized housing unit that would be my room while in Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan. The room was self-contained with internet that would help me conduct system installation and search for new information that might help the warfighters. I have traveled on planes in Afghanistan, such as MQ-9 Reaper, to places like Bagram. During most of my trips, I would process data using software applications, such as Oracle and MS Excel, thus proving to the organization why the business class seats would sometimes go empty. 

In 2014, I got a chance to apply my system engineering knowledge to develop the Boeing C-17 Globemaster 111. I installed web browsers, programming software, and application software that the warfighters could use to acquire information. This type of aircraft transported the military for the United States Air Force. The pilot would stop the plane at the Camp Arena, where the warfighters would gather to get trained. During the same year, Stephen J. Hager, the commander of the 335-signal command and a two-star commissioned officer, gave me the challenge coin as a way of honoring my work on installing computer software in the Boeing C-17 Globemaster 111.

In 2015, I was issued with a 160th signal brigade card in Kuwait, also a place I never imagined I would ever find myself living. In Kuwait, I was transferred to Camp Arifjan. My roles were to process data using effective programs and train the warfighters on how they could use the system. It sounded interesting because I would still be able to make a few friends. Furthermore, Major General Daniel C. Balough of the 335-signal command awarded me the challenge coin in 2015, which entailed the organization’s symbol for providing him with the best website that I had spent weeks creating. I still had another interest in doing business in Kuwait and decided to enroll at Florida International University for my BBA degree in finance.

United One Communications

In January 2015, I decided to challenge myself further. In this regard, I set a new goal; to start United One Communication while in Afghanistan. I attended the Special Operations Forces Industry, a venue that involved an interaction between the SOF community and the industry while partnering on any challenges that might arise. In October 2015, I received the first subcontract supporting the Joint Communications Support Element at MacDill, AFB, which provided cybersecurity support. Since I was interested in computers from when I was a young boy, I wanted my industry to be involved with what I was passionate about and make a change in society.

In 2017, the Director and Chief of Information Officer awarded me the challenge coin that held the joint communication support element symbol. The coin signified that people needed to work in unity to enhance the success of the United One Communication business. The business performed well, and we decided to buy the Gulfstream G 550 in 2018, costing $64M. However, I received the SBA Emerging Leaders class of 2019 award for being the best leader. The award meant that I was good enough to provide entrepreneurship education to other business-oriented personnel. Additionally, I received the 2021 Minority-Owned small business of the year Florida SBDC at the USF award. The awards gave me more reasons to establish the United One Communication business.


My personal and professional journey has been incredible, and it’s worth every individual to listen to whenever it is told. My interest in computers started when I was still a young boy, and as a result, I have accomplished great things in life, such as purchasing my first car while at school, traveling across the world, and participating in manufacturing a plane, among others. I have always liked furthering my computer knowledge and skills, so I have been to several schools/colleges, such as Rabouin Career Magnet and Miami Dade College for Computer Information Systems.  My relocation to Florida due to Katrina Hurricane somehow shaped my future.

I hope I have motivated someone here, and from now henceforth, you will focus on what you are passionate about and achieve great things in life. Thank you for listening to my story.

Marketing: Video Game Industry

Marketing; Video Game Industry

PESTEL Analysis of the Video Game Industry

Macro environment factors that affect the industry’s competitiveness are political, economic, technology, social, legal, and environmental issues. First, video games must adhere to the country’s political regulations, such as government requirements on business licensing and taxation.

Secondly, the economy affects the competitiveness of the industry since any products and services’ sales depend on the consumers’ financial ability to make purchases. For instance, inflation leads to an increase in product prices in the industry, hence reducing the demand and overall profitability (Ozalp & Kretschmer, 2019). The video game industry is also impacted by social factors such as population demographic since men and boys are more into video games than women, and so are the young people.

Technology plays a vital role in the videogame sector since there are always new developments coming up. Thus, to be competitive, a video game company must continuously create games with advanced features. Ozalp and Kretschmer, (2019) posits that legal and environmental policies and regulations also significantly impact the video game industry. For instance, plays in the industry must adhere to the laws and regulations (such as tax policies) to avoid lawsuits and losses. It is also essential to follow the environmental policies increasingly being introduced to safeguard the environment amidst the increasing global warming.

Factors Affecting the Success of Video Game Market

Several factors shape an industry’s operating environment by influencing its ability to achieve aims and functions in the most appropriate ways. These factors include customer satisfaction, competition, laws and regulations, and public opinion and reputation (Valentine & Powers, 2013). These elements are critical to the future of the video game market since they influence consumers’ choices and activities and determine the market risks and opportunities.

How Value is created in the Video Game Industry

The video game industry’s value structure entails creating a coherent relationship between the producers of video games, the system builders, distributors, and end-users (consumers/players) (Marchand & Hennig-Thurau, 2013). Therefore, value creation is achieved by bringing together the distribution circuits (digital and physical) and communication circuits that link game producers and consumers.

How a Firm Competes in the Video Game Industry

With the high number of videos released each year, video game firms should focus on strategies that will make them stand out in the market and attract and retain more customers (Ozalp & Kretschmer, 2019). Hence, in addition to effective marketing, the firms should engage in product and cost differentiation and have a positive reputation to earn customer referrals. The firms should also ensure their games satisfy the needs of their target consumers.


Marchand, A., & Hennig-Thurau, T. (2013). Value creation in the video game industry: Industry economics, consumer benefits, and research opportunities. Journal of Interactive Marketing27(3), 141-157.

Ozalp, H., & Kretschmer, T. (2019). Follow the crowd or follow the trailblazer? The differential role of firm experience in product entry decisions in the US video game industry. Journal of Management Studies, 56(7), 1452-1481.

Valentine, D. B., & Powers, T. L. (2013). Generation Y values and lifestyle segments. Journal of consumer marketing.


Performance Measurement and Management System of Linn Products Manufacturing Company 

Linn Products Manufacturing Company is a leading manufacturer of high quality audio equipment. The company has been in business for about 29 years and has an excellent reputation for manufacturing products that meet the highest standards of performance and reliability (Lusha, 2022). The company’s products are used by audiophiles around the world and are highly regarded by experts in the field. Linn Products is committed to providing customers with the best possible experience when using their products (Linn Products, 2022). To ensure that its products meet the highest standards, Linn Products employs a variety of performance measurement and management approaches. 

These approaches help the company to monitor product quality and to identify areas where improvements can be made. The use of performance measurement and management systems is critical to the success of any manufacturing organization (Miller et al., 2015; Altin et al., 2018). These systems help organizations to identify areas of improvement, track progress, and make necessary changes in order to improve overall performance (Saroha et al., 2022; Maestrini  et al., 2017). Linn Products’ commitment to quality assurance is evident in its use of performance measurement and management approaches. By constantly monitoring product quality and making necessary improvements, the company ensures that its products meet the highest standards of performance and reliability (Lin and Qian, 2018). This report will take a close look at the performance measurement and management system of Linn Products Manufacturing Company, evaluate its strengths and weaknesses, and offer some suggestions on how to improve it.

Company’s Competitive Structure 

Linn Products Manufacturing Company’s competitive basis is its ability to produce quality products at a lower cost than its competitors. The company has a well-established reputation for manufacturing high-quality products, and its relatively low production costs give it a significant advantage over its competitors. There are many advantages of having a good reputation and fair pricing. A good reputation, fair pricing and quality products ensure competitive edge by providing customers with value they can trust (Sołoducho-Pelc and Sulich, 2020). This builds customer loyalty and keeps them coming back for more, which in turn drives repeat business and referrals (Nair, 2019; Hill, 2019). All of this leads to a competitive edge that can be hard to beat.

In addition to its low production costs, Linn Products Manufacturing Company has a number of other strengths that contribute to its competitive advantage. The company has an experienced and skilled workforce that is able to produce quality products efficiently. In today’s business world, the importance of having an experienced and skilled workforce cannot be understated. A company’s workforce is its most valuable asset, and investing in employees’ development is essential to maintaining a competitive edge (Niati et al., 2021; Tabiu et al., 2020). Experienced and skilled workers are more productive, efficient, and effective than their less-experienced counterparts. They are also better able to adapt to change and handle difficult situations. A company that invests in its workforce will reap the rewards in terms of improved performance and profitability (Smyrnova et al., 2021; Marsden & Ryan, 2019). In addition, a well-trained workforce is more attractive to potential customers and clients, which can help to grow the business. Therefore, it is clear that the benefits of investing in employee development far outweigh the costs.

Moreover, Linn Products Company has strong relationships with suppliers, which allows it to obtain raw materials at favorable prices. It is important for companies to have good relationships with suppliers for a number of reasons. First, it can help to ensure that the company receives quality products and services (Ryu and Sueyoshi, 2021; Butt, 2019). Second, it can help to keep costs down by allowing the company to negotiate better prices. Third, it can lead to improved communication and coordination between the two parties, which can help to avoid problems and delays (Hoque, 2021; Latunreng W. and Nasirin, 2019). Lastly, good supplier relationships can build goodwill and create loyalty, which can benefit the company in the long run.

Additionally, Linn Products Manufacturing Company’s extensive distribution network ensures that its products are available in markets around the world. The company has a strong online presence and is able to reach a global market. A company’s extensive distribution network can have a significant impact on its competitive advantage. By having a large number of outlets for its products, the company can reach a larger customer base and gain market share (Kellner, 2020; Sadeghi-Khomami  et al., 2019). Additionally, the company can use its distribution network to cross-sell and upsell other products in its portfolio, which can further increase revenues (Chipuli and Mota, 2021; Das et al., 2019).

Nevertheless, Linn Products Manufacturing Company has a very efficient production process which allows the company to keep costs down. Efficient production processes are a key element of any successful business. By streamlining and automating production, businesses can reduce costs and improve quality control (Dahmani et al., 2021). This in turn leads to increased profits and a competitive edge over other businesses in the same industry. In order to maintain a competitive advantage, it is essential for businesses to continuously review and update their production processes (Othman et al., 2019; Shan et al., 2018). Doing so ensures that they remain efficient and continue to produce high-quality products or services at a lower cost than their competitors.

Another major strength of Linn Products Manufacturing Company is its customer service. The company offers a money back guarantee on all products for a specified period. Furthermore, the company has a team of highly knowledgeable and experienced customer service representatives who are always willing to help customers with any questions or concerns they may have. In today’s business world, good customer service is more important than ever. With the rise of social media and online review sites, one bad customer service experience can quickly turn into a PR nightmare (Følstad et al., 2018). That’s why it’s so important for businesses to make sure their employees are properly trained in how to handle customer service issues (Gu et al., 2020). By providing great customer service, businesses can ensure that their customers will keep coming back – and they may even attract new customers through word-of-mouth marketing.

Another strength of Linn Products Manufacturing Company is its extensive warranty coverage. The company offers a five-year parts and labour warranty on all products. Additionally, the company will repair or replace any defective parts free of charge (Linn Products, 2022). This extensive coverage helps to instil confidence in customers that they are purchasing a quality product that will last for many years to come. There are several areas where Linn Products Manufacturing Company could improve its competitive position. One area is in terms of marketing and advertising. As much as the company has a very strong online presence, it could benefit from investing more in online marketing and advertising. Additionally, the company could benefit from expanding its product line to include more high-end audio equipment. Overall, Linn Products Manufacturing Company has a strong competitive position. The company has a long history of providing quality products and has an efficient production process. Additionally, the company offers excellent customer service and has a comprehensive warranty program (Linn Products, 2022). However, the company could benefit from increased investment in online marketing and advertising, as well as expanding its product line.

Technical and Social Dimensions of Performance Measurement and Management 

In order to ensure that its products meet the highest standards, Linn uses a variety of performance measurement and management approaches. These include regular product testing, feedback from customers, and continual monitoring of manufacturing processes (Lusha, 2022). Regular product testing is essential in order to identify any potential problems with new products before they are released to the market (Kristjansdottir et al., 2018). Linn employs a team of experienced engineers who carry out detailed tests on all new products. This helps to ensure that only products of the highest quality are released for sale. The importance of releasing high quality products to the market cannot be understated. In today’s competitive marketplace, companies are constantly striving to release products that are not only innovative and well-designed, but also meet the highest standards of quality (Foster and Gardner, 2022; Caldarelli, 2022). According to Kalogiannidis (2021), consumers have become increasingly savvy and discerning, and will quickly reject products that do not meet their expectations.

Customer feedback is another important source of information for Linn. The company actively encourages customers to provide feedback on their experience with Linn products (Lusha, 2022). This feedback is then used to improve future products and services. Customer feedback is one of the most important tools a business can use to improve its products and services (Park et al., 2019; Schuckert  et al., 2019). It allows businesses to identify areas where they need to make changes or improvements, and provides valuable insights into what customers want and need. Additionally, customer feedback can help businesses build better relationships with their customers by showing that they are interested in and care about their opinions (Kpiebaareh, 2022; Fuoli et al., 2021). Continual monitoring of manufacturing processes is also crucial in ensuring that Linn products meet the highest standards. The company has a team of quality control experts who check every stage of the manufacturing process, from raw materials through to final assembly. According to Lu et al. (2020), this ensures that only products that meet the company’s high standards are shipped to customers.

Overall, the technical controls in place at Linn Products Manufacturing Company help to ensure that the company’s products meet or exceed customer expectations. These controls can further be described to include quality control measures, such as testing procedures and statistical analysis, which are used to identify potential problems with products before they reach customers (Lusha, 2022). In addition, the company uses state-of-the-art manufacturing technology and processes to produce high-quality products. The social controls help to create an environment in which employees are motivated to do their best work. For example, the company emphasizes teamwork and communication among employees, so that everyone is aware of the company’s goals and how their work contributes to those goals (Manufacturing Today, 2022). 

Controls and Routines 

Linn Products Manufacturing Company has a variety of controls and routines in place to manage business performance. The organization has a clear set of goals and objectives, and it uses a variety of tools and techniques to measure and track progress towards these goals (Manufacturing Today, 2022). Key routines such as financial reporting, budgeting, and forecasting are used to inform decision-making and ensure that resources are used effectively. Linn Products Manufacturing Company also has a number of mechanisms in place to monitor and evaluate employee performance, including regular performance reviews and feedback sessions (Lusha, 2022).

Controls and routines are integral to the operation of any organization, but they must be managed effectively in order to be truly effective (Taylor  et al., 2019; Quinn and Hiebl, 2018). In Linn Products Manufacturing Company, controls and routines are integrated into a cohesive performance management framework that helps the organization to consistently meet its targets (Lusha, 2022). This framework includes clear goals and objectives, regular monitoring and evaluation of progress, and effective communication between employees and managers. By following this framework, Linn Products Manufacturing Company is able to ensure that its controls and routines are working together harmoniously to achieve the best possible results (Linn Products, 2022).


In recent years, Linn has been working to improve its performance measurement and management system. The company has developed a system that integrates the key routines of performance measurement and management. This system is designed to help Linn improve its performance in areas such as product quality, customer satisfaction, and financial results (Crunchbase, 2022). Linn’s performance measurement and management system includes several features that are designed to improve the company’s performance. First, the system includes a set of metrics that are used to track progress in key areas of the business. Second, the system includes a process for setting goals and objectives for each area of the business (Manufacturing Today, 2022). Third, the system includes a process for tracking progress towards these goals and objectives. Fourth, the system includes a process for communicating results to employees and managers.

The organisation’s performance measurement and management system has already had a major impact on Linn’s business. The company has seen improvements in product quality and customer satisfaction (Crunchbase, 2022). In addition, Linn’s financial results have been strong in recent quarters. Overall, the system is helping Linn to better understand its business and to make improvements in key areas of the operation (Lusha, 2022). There are a few recommendations  this report makes to Linn in order to help them improve their performance measurement and management system.

  1. First, this repport recommends that Linn continue to refine the metrics that are used to track progress in key areas of the business. The company should ensure that these metrics are better aligned with its strategic objectives. In addition, Linn should continue to review and update these metrics on a regular basis.
  2. Second, this repport recommends that Linn further refine a process for setting goals and objectives for each area of the business. This process should be based on the results of the performance measurement system and should involve employees and managers in the goal-setting process.
  3. Third, this repport recommends that Linn shuold further refine the process for tracking progress towards goals and objectives. This process should include regular reports on progress. In addition, Linn should involve employees and managers in the tracking process.
  4. Fourth, this repport recommends that Linn should further refine the process for communicating results to employees and managers. This process should include regular updates on progress. In addition, Linn should ensure that employees and managers understand the meaning of the results.
  5. Additionally, it would be helpful if the company had more transparency around its performance data. This would allow employees to see how their individual efforts are contributing to the overall success of the company.
  6. Nevertheless, the company should also consider focusing more on other measurements in the same breadth it focuses on financial measures to evaluate its performance. This would give a better-rounded picture of how the business is doing.


Linn Products Manufacturing Company is a UK-based company that specialises in the production of high-quality audio equipment. The company has been in business for about 49 years and has established itself as a leading player in the global audio market. Linn Products Manufacturing Company operates in a highly competitive industry, with numerous rival firms all vying for market share. In order to maintain its position as a market leader, Linn Products Manufacturing Company must continually innovate and offer products that appeal to consumers. Nevertheless, the performance measurement and management system of Linn Products Manufacturing Company is very effective. The company has a clear understanding of what needs to be done in order to improve its performance. It also has a good system in place to track progress and ensure that goals are being met. There are some areas where the system could be improved, however. Overall, Linn Products Manufacturing Company has an effective performance measurement and management system in place. With some minor tweaks, it could be even more successful in helping the company reach its goals.


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