CRIMINAL PROFILE ANALYSIS

February 22, 2018

 

Crime scene assessment

The crime scene of the murder of Jane was a public place where people often flock for bird viewing and recreation. Therefore the offender was aware that the body would be spotted quickly. The offender also lit the body to make passers-by curious hence lead to its recovery. Another factor which indicates that the offender or offenders wanted the body to be spotted quickly is the fact that the weather at that time was conducive and people would most probably be outside. The location of the body was 30 yards from the road which means that it was perhaps brought by a vehicle and dropped a few steps from the road. The short distance from the road shows that it might have been one offender, but it does not necessarily mean it was one person because they might have been two or more people also. The seat of the fire was around the lower abdomen and the genital parts of the body, and therefore the offender might have sexually assaulted the victim, or it might have been a case of necrophilia. These assertions are backed up by the fact that she was undressed.

It is highly probable that Jane was held by the offender in an area around the town of Bletchingham because the Common is not far from the crime scene. The body seems to have been covered by a tarpaulin because of the metal eyelets found around it which makes the assertion that she was killed in another place and dumped there more profound. There are signs that she struggled to death because a pair of tights tightly tied her neck. The offender had an intention of burning the body because petrol ignited the fire. Therefore, the disposal method of the body might have been premeditated. There were no indications that the body had been at that spot for a long time hence the assumption that it might have been dumped there and set on fire a few minutes ago before being discovered are on track. Tests on the body revealed that the body had been dead for some weeks. Therefore, the offender might have killed her and kept the body before then dumping it in the Common.

The location of Jane’s shoes was near the pub she was going to, and the bus park. The indication of this is that she might have been accosted and taken away by force while walking to the pub after being dropped off at the bus stop. It is most likely that she resisted the capture and in the process, her shoe slipped off her foot. She might have been kept alive by the offender for approximately one and half months before being murdered because she disappeared on 24th May and her body discovered in mid-July.

Offender characteristics

The offender seems to have planned how to commit the crime very well. Jane was last seen at 6:30 PM when heading to the pub where she was going to meet her friends. The capturing must have happened few minutes from this time because she did not reach the pub which was a ten-minutes walking distance from the bus stop. It is most likely that the offender had been trailing the victim for some time and saw that it was easier to capture her at this time of the day, and at that place. Jane was alone and had earlier in the day spend some time with her fiancée. According to the report, this was the only time she was alone, and it was nearly falling dark making this crime look like a well-planned one. Moreover, Jane is described as a woman of regular routines and steady habits. The offender might have been aware of her movements over time and where she hangs out and at what time.

The offender seems like a person who was motivated by rage and maybe revenge because of the way he or she executed the crime. She seems to have been forcefully captured and most probably driven away in a vehicle because she was in a public place. The probability of the offender having planned the capture is high because if it was an ordinary theft or robbery, she would have been robbed and let free. Her detention gives advances the thought of the offender’s motivation to kill her. The offender seems to have planned to detain her and prepared a place or a room to take her after capturing her. Because Jane is friendly and a shy lady according to the report, it is not highly probable that she provoked the offender as she was heading to the pub. This assumption rules out a possibility of Jane provoking the offender before the offender becoming enraged and planning to kill her. The fact that the CCTV camera in the street where Jane was captured had been taken for repair recently before her capture shows that the killing was a premeditated act. The offender might have colluded with another person to make the CCTV system not to work to facilitate the offense.

The probable motivation for the killing might have been sexual because of the nature of the disposal of the body. Jane was naked at the time she was discovered, and her lower abdomen, specifically the genital area was burned. May be it was a case of the offender being rejected by Jane that triggered the rage to do away with her. It is likely that the offender decided to capture her and sleep with her during the one and half months and kill her so that she does not live to tell about it. The offender might have been motivated by showing her that he can control her and has authority over to her.

Further lines of inquiry

Some additional information which might help to identify the offender is closely focusing on people who she has been interacting with over time. It is highly probable that the person who killed Jane knew her and was very angry with her. The nature of the disposal of the body shows a person who was very angry and who was on a revenge mission because if the killing was a mistake, the body would not have been burned. Investigating people close to her will make it possible to know if the offender was a person known to her because he capture and disposal seem to have been done by a person who knew her. Another additional information which may assist to interpret the behaviour of the offender would be that the offender seems not to have asked for anything such as money or favour. This assumption cements the point that the killing was not motivated by an intention to steal. It is most likely that the offender was a disgruntled person who was on a revenge mission. The report does not indicate that one of her body organs was missing. Therefore, cannibalism is not an issue to consider.

Psychopathology in John

John is showing psychopathology in his treatment towards Valerie (Ormel J, Laceulle & Jeronimus 2014). As acquaintances observe, the physical and psychological abuse by John is increasing with time. John seems to have anger management issues because he gets furious due a minor provocation. Valerie is the target of John’s anger because she does not fight back. John wants to control Valerie entirely and projects his frustrations on her. John thinks that it is normal to punish Valerie and treats her like an object. The problem with the violence being meted on Valerie by John is that it is increasing with time. It began by kicking and punching at home and has escalated to using objects such as spanners and car doors to assault her in public. John seems to have an inferiority complex or a feeling of inadequacy because he attacks a person who does not fight back. He is a bully and bullies are people who have low self-esteem and oppress others to feel in control.

According to Mills & Kroner (2003), abusive partners are compulsive and cause severe physical and psychological trauma to the victim. The frequency of their attacks are frequent, and they have a sadistic satisfaction when they see their victims experiencing pain. That is the case with John. He seems to like the way he controls Valerie.

 

John’s attitudes towards, and perception of, his behaviour

John’s attitude towards his behaviour is positive. He feels that he should abuse her because he does not show any remorse. If John felt terrible about his actions, he would have shown signs of trying to change and trying to stop physically and verbally abusing Valerie. The fact that Valerie does not fight back and does not seek help makes John feel his actions are justified. He thinks that he is punishing Valerie and helping her become a better person, which is wrong because he is violating her human rights. John’s attitude and perception towards his behaviour make him continue. That is why he is threatening to punish her severely in future. He is not remorseful for his abusive actions and has an “I don’t care” attitude. His attitude towards his actions is causing him to become bold and even attack her in front of her friends. Therefore, John is likely to continue verbally and physically abusing Valerie because he feels that he is doing the right thing. For an individual to change, he or she must think that there is a need to change, but John has not realized his mistakes.

Factors maintaining John and Valerie’s relationship

According to Stroshine & Robinson (2003), most domestic violence victims just like Valerie do not want to leave because of dependence on the abuser financially, or due to religious beliefs. Another reason that may be causing Valerie not to leave is that maybe she feels that she has invested a lot in the relationship and leaving will mean that she loses what she has made in the two years. Also, she may be thinking that John will change and become a better person in future. Many domestic abuse victims fall into depression, and their self-esteem is lowered because of constant verbal abuse and being told that they are weak, ugly, and much more (Lysaker, Clements, Wright, Evans, & Marks, 2001). John verbally abuses Valerie and criticizes her appearance in front of people. Maybe this has lowered Valerie’s self-esteem to the extent that she feels worthless and unable to get another partner if she leaves John.

Another reason why maybe the relationship has not ended is that Valerie fears after leaving John he may harm her even more. According to Raj and Silverman (2003), some domestic violence victims fear to move on from a relationship because they fear being killed or harmed severely by their abusers. They feel that if they stay, they are safer which may be the case with Valerie who is not leaving despite the frequency and intensity of abuse is on the rise.

Two conflicting psychological offense profiles of this case

Adrian might have been set up by his friends while they were drinking. He remembers being in the third pub but does not remember when he came out of it or how he got into the room he was in with the two foreigners. It is most likely that his drink was spiked with his friends’ knowledge because why did they leave him with strangers. The different accounts given by his friends about what transpired gives a clue that they might have been involved in setting him up because why should they conceal details which would be helpful in getting to the bottom of the case. Adrian being an over-controlled person could not have engaged in sodomy just because of being tipsy. Therefore, it is most likely that his friends tricked him.

Another angle would be that Adrian wandered away from his friends and met with the foreigners who dragged him. The fact that he woke up eight hours after going home shows that he might have been under the influence of drugs. The imaginations he is having and the inability to remember whatever transpired during the night also indicates that he was spiked because he says that he had not drunk much to lose his memory. Therefore, maybe the foreigners saw him alone in the pub and put a drug in his drink and later on carried him to the room. He woke up naked and the foreigners were half naked. One of them told him that they enjoyed the night and they hope that he enjoyed too. The fact that they were conscious as he woke up indicates that they were not drunk as he hence were able to overpower and control him.

Psychological advice to investigators

I would advise the investigating team to adopt the first profile in which Adrian’s friends colluded with the foreigners. There are many indications why this profile is more profound compared to the second one. First, Adrian’s friends did not raise any alarm after he got lost. After he contacted them the following day, they did not bring up the topic of what happened the previous day. Moreover, the foreigners would have preferably left Adrian alone in the room after sexually assaulting him if they had not colluded with his friends. Telling him that they enjoyed the night shows that they did not care whether they were found doing it or not.

Adrian’s friends should have given the same account of events if there was nothing sinister in their actions. It is strange how they let him get lost and did not care what happened to him and did not report to the police, his friends, or family. Also, another strange thing with the friends is that they did not try to give Adrian information about how he got lost. They acted as if everything was okay while they were not. Therefore, it is more likely that Adrian’s friends knew what transpired in the night that he was allegedly sexually abused.

Actions and potential effects of “date rape” drugs

Most commonly used date rape drugs are alcohol-related. The sex offenders mostly use alcohol because the victims are likely to take it willingly without suspecting any foul play (Webber & Craig 2009). The drugs dissolve easily in alcohol and are not easy to discover when used on a victim. The victim’s drinks are mostly spiked after they have drunk to an extent where their conscience is impaired. They make the victims lose inhibitions and consciousness such that they cannot recollect whatever happens to them after they take them. It is not possible for the victim to remember whatever happened after the drug took a toll on them and the time they gained their consciousness. The “rape drugs” affect a victim’s sexual behaviour such that it may arouse the victim because it does away with consciousness hence the person lacks inhibitions of his or her actions. They may also cause aggressive sexual behaviour and dangerous sexual tendencies such as sex without protection (Webber & Craig 2009). They also lead to impaired judgment and loss of muscle power. The drugs make cause victims to black-out and may experience distorted images or hallucinations such as the images Adrian was seeing of being attacked by one of the foreigners. The drugs also cause a lot of sleep to the victim. Adrian slept the whole night and extra eight hours after leaving the room with the foreigners.

Source of Mary’s motivation

Mary’s most likely motivation is revenge. She was not part of the civil rights group, was not invited through a call, but just learned about the demonstration over the internet. Therefore, maybe Mary wanted to have revenge on a person who worked in the center and saw this as the best chance to do it. The report indicates that she traded insults with another female in the research centre. It is highly probable that that woman was the motivation behind her use of abusive behaviour and shouting. She is a sociable person and seems to have self-awareness because she doesn’t show peculiar behaviours when put in a room by the police. Therefore, Mary may have had a grudge with the other woman, and she decided to use the demonstration as the avenue to get back to her in the name of the demonstrations.

The fact that she came the three days show that she wanted very much to take part in the demonstration. The first two days Mary covered herself but uncovered herself to make her target person realize her. Therefore, it is highly probable that she was coming to embarrass the other woman who worked in the centre.Another source of Mary’s motivation might have come from the love of animals. However, her use of abuses during the demonstrations indicates that she might be suffering from aggression problems. Maybe she had frustrations in her life and didn’t have somewhere to pour them. She was aware that she was doing the wrong thing when abusing the workers because she covered her face. Moreover, she seemed to be aware of her actions.

The psychological mechanisms operating in Mary

Mary is most likely to be using the demonstration as a coping mechanism. Maybe Mary experienced a frustrating situation but is using the demonstration to cope with the pain. According to McMahon (2013), projection is a defense mechanism used by individuals to cope with stress whereby the person directs his or her frustrations to a lesser being to feel even. It is likely that Mary targeted the demonstrators because in a demonstration people are many and she will not be detected. The fact that she was not invited to the demonstration shows that she was not part of it, but invited herself to satisfy her needs.

Moreover, Mary covered herself with a scuff to hide her identity because she was aware that she was doing a wrong thing. It seems that abusing the workers of the research centre made her feel good and vindicated because she did not show any remorse after being arrested. When asked the reason for abusing the worker, Mary said that she intended to inform them to stop killing animals. However, her way of doing that was wrong but she does not show any regrets even after using unprintable words to refer to them.

Kramer & Ueli (2010) maintain that psychological mechanisms are aimed at making the individual feel at peace with themselves.  Therefore, it is highly likely that Mary wanted to offload her frustrations in the demonstration anonymously. It is not coincidental that she came for the demonstrations in three days and all those days she was the loudest and most abusive. If she was genuinely demonstrating, she could have behaved like the other demonstrators.

References

 

Buss, D.M. (2004).Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. Boston, MA. Pearson Education, Inc.

Kramer, Ueli (June 2010). “Coping and defence mechanisms: What’s the difference? – Second act”. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice83 (Pt 2): 207–221.

Kroner, D. G., Mills, J. F., & Morgan, R. D. (2006). Social desirable responding and the measurement of violent and criminal risk: Self-report validity. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 6(4), 27-42.

Lysaker, P. H., Clements, C. A., Wright, D. E., Evans, J., & Marks, K. (2001). Neurocognitive correlates of helplessness, hopelessness, and well-being in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 180, 457–462.

McMahon, S. B. (2013). Wall and Melzacks textbook of pain. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders.

Ormel J, Laceulle OM, Jeronimus BF (2014). “Why Personality and Psychopathology Are Correlated: A Developmental Perspective Is a First Step but More Is Needed”European Journal of Personality28 (4): 396–98.

Raj, A., & Silverman, J. G. (2003). Immigrant South Asian women at greater risk from intimate partner violence. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 435–437.

Stroshine, M. S., & Robinson, A. L. (2003). The decision to end abusive relationships: The role of offender characteristics. Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 30, 97–117.

Webber, Craig (2009). Psychology & crime. London: Sage. p. 67.

Advertisements

Female Genitourinary Tract Infection.

February 19, 2018

Introduction

The Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a general term used to describe infections that affect any section of the urinary tract. Research shows that women are the most affected when compared to men. Approximately a third of adult females have been diagnosed with symptomatic cystitis episode at least once and there are chances for recurrent episodes. The incidence of UTI in males below 50 years of age is low while the female adults being 30 times more vulnerable than men in UTI contraction (Tan & Chlebicki, 2016). The infection can result to complex effects like renal failure and kidney damage when not eliminated or identified in the system. Proper UTI classification into complicated and simple forms aids in the management. Diagnosis is founded on a patient’s history with applicable investigations depending on personal risk factors.

Patients Initials: R. L

Subjective Data:

The clients complained about frequent, painful and burning urination, vaginal discharge, and severe lower abdominal pain (Stothers et al., 2016).

Chief Compliant:

“The urge of frequent urination is out of my control. I barely cannot help but find myself in the bathroom from time to time.”

History of Present Illness:

The 28 year old lady, R.L., reports that for the past two days she has been constantly visiting the bathroom for urination. A painful burning sensation is experienced during the urination. The lady claims that she cannot control the urge for urinating and finds herself in bathroom often. The symptoms she claims are related to the previous UTI that she had suffered from. The lady experiences increased lower abdominal pain and also noticed brown fouls of smelling discharge after having unprotected sex with the former boyfriend. The tubal ligation performed on her could also contribute to the frequent cases of UTI as there are chances of infections after the ligation.

PMH/Medical/ Surgical History:

Past Medical History (PMH):

The patient was diagnosed with UTI infection three times in the same year. She was positive for gonorrhea twice and chlamydia once. The client has had a total of four pregnancies and three viable offspring birth (gravida 4, para 3). The client was prescribed sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim for the as the antibiotic drugs.

Surgical History:

The client underwent surgical tubal ligation as a method of birth control to avoid unnecessary pregnancies that may initiate abortion.

Medical History:

The last pap conducted on her was negative and the client declined of any breast discharge. The dark urine is an indication of blood present in the urine (hematuria) which is associated with UTI as it is accompanied with urine odor. Currently the patient is under no medication.

 

 

Allergies:

The client claimed to be allergic to deodorants perfumes and items with scents in that she develops rashes when exposed to them. The client is also affected by mold, grass, and pollen during the fall and spring seasons. The seasonal allergies initiate itchy eyes, headaches, and running nose and as a result, she gets tired. The client is also allergic to Augmentin drug and eggs.

Significant family History:

The client R.L. is the eldest child in a family of four siblings. The patient has three children and still single. She has a history of numerous male sexual partners. At the moment, the client is staying with a new boyfriend. Their dad died while she was at a tender age of 10. The mother did odd jobs to earn a living as she was just a house wife by the time the husband died. After completion of school, R.L. decided to start living on her own while she hunts for a job where she later started to engage in relationships seeking financial support from her partners.  She was able to give birth to 3 children against her wish and decided to take them to her mother’s home. Her mother claims to have UTI at some point in her life but that should not be linked to hereditable infections as the mother also had cases of multiple sex partners. She was once taken for counseling sessions for abstinence but she did not complete the sessions and termed as tiresome.

Her siblings are all male and everyone is independent. The fact that she is the only female child could put pressure on her that may have resulted to the present character. The family does not hold meetings to help one other as everyone claim to be busy. Due to the family attitude of everyone minding their own business could be another contributing factor for R.L‘s behavior. In her own efforts of preventing unnecessary pregnancies, she opted for the use of contraceptives for birth control. Just like her mom, the client has also undergone tubal ligation two years ago.

Social History:

The client is single, living with a new boyfriend and she is presently not employed. She does not smoke neither does she use alcohol nor drug abuse. She is an atheist and believes in no religion, only managed to complete her A –level. No history of childhood violence though family negligence can be observed. She is more comfortable in male company than female friends.

Review of symptoms:

Physical exam:

On assessment, the client’s blood pressure was 100/80, heat rate was 80 rate of respiration was 16, and the temperature was 99.7F. She is 5 inch in height and weighs 120. She appears to be relatively distressed. Her HEENT was of normal limits and showed no abnormalities. The heart rate was normal with normal rhythm S1 and S2. The chest was clear within the normal limits. The abdomen indicated a soft, tender, and high suprapubic inflammation. She admits of adnexal and cervical motion inflammation, and smelling vaginal discharge. Her rectal is within the normal limits with no abnormalities. Normal pulse rates with normal working of the brain.

Laboratory and Diagnostic Testing results.

Leukocytes differential:

Results: Neutraphils 68%, Bands 7%, Lymphs 13%, Monos 8%, EOS 2%.

Interpretation: An increased level of leukocytes in in the blood stream or urine often indicates presence of an infection (Heytens et al., 2017). The leukocytes or white blood cells are immune cells that fight infection and diseases hence presence in the system. The neutrophils level is higher than the rest due to its function of phagocytosis and killing bacteria.

Urine analysis:

Results: Straw colored urine, Specific gravity of 1.015, PH 8.0, Protein-negative, ketone-negative, glucose-negative, bacteria –many, Leukocytes 10-15, RBC 0-1.

Interpretation: The urine analysis indicated that the specific gravity for the clients’ urine is 1.015 with a PH of 8.0. The UTIs is known to increase the pH level of urine. The specific gravity is within the normal range (Pagano et al., 2017). Lower specific gravity than that indicates high water intake or low minerals intake while a higher value than that indicates dehydration, insufficient water, and electrolyte stress.

Urine gram stain:

Results: Presence of gram negative rods

Interpretation: Escherichia coli is a gram-negative bacterium with a rod-like shape present in UTI infections (Pagano et al., 2017).

Culture of vaginal discharge:

Results: Presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and gram negative diplococci

Interpretation: During gram stain, presence of gram negative bacteria helps in identifying appropriate medication for the infection; diplococcic and E. coli are common in UTI (Ismael et al., 2017). The presence of the bacteria in the UT is the main cause of the smelly vaginal discharge.

Chlamydia test:

Results: positive chlamydia monoclonal AB, wet preparation and VDRL negative, KOH preparation.

Interpretation: Lower GT infections with chlamydia are generally asymptomatic in both men and women unless the test is done. Since the chlamydia is labile, the viability can be sustained by keeping the specimen in wet conditions (Price et al., 2018).

A negative test for VDRL means that the sample is free from syphilis. The KOH preparation was for fungal infection test.


 

Conclusion and recommendation

Urinary Tract Infections are one of the most common clinical microbial infections in females. The recurrent UTIs are less frequent and mainly caused by reinfection of the same bacteria (Price et al., 2018). Proper urine assessment, urine cultures, and some radiological procedures are needed to cancel recurrence causes and to examine potential anatomical urinary tract anomalies. The anti-microbial therapy is the initial standard for UTI treatment although other alternatives like probiotics, methenamine salts reduce antibiotics exposure (Ailes et al, 2018). Postcoital prophylaxis, antibiotic prophylaxis, and acute individual-treatment are effective and cheaper treatment strategies aimed at decreasing the recurrent UTIs number.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References.

Ailes, E. C., Summers, A. D., Tran, E. L., Gilboa, S. M., Arnold, K. E., Meaney-Delman, D., & Reefhuis, J. (2018). Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections—United States, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(1), 18.

Heytens, S., De Sutter, A., Coorevits, L., Cools, P., Boelens, J., Van Simaey, L., … & Claeys, G. (2017). Women with symptoms of a urinary tract infection but a negative urine culture: PCR-based quantification of Escherichia coli suggests infection in most cases. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(9), 647-652.

Ismail, M. D., Ali, I., Hatt, S., Salzman, E. A., Cronenwett, A. W., Marrs, C. F., … & Foxman, B. (2017). Association of Escherichia coli ST131 Lineage with risk of Urinary Tract Infection Recurrence among young women. Journal of global antimicrobial resistance.

Pagano, M. J., Barbalat, Y., Theofanides, M. C., Edokpolo, L., James, M. B., & Cooper, K. L. (2017). Diagnostic yield of cystoscopy in the evaluation of recurrent urinary tract infection in women. Neurourology and urodynamics, 36(3), 692-696.

Price, T. K., Hilt, E. E., Dune, T. J., Mueller, E. R., Wolfe, A. J., & Brubaker, L. (2018). Urine trouble: should we think differently about UTI? International urogynecology journal, 29(2), 205-210.

Stothers, L., Brown, P., Fenster, H., Levine, M., & Berkowitz, J. (2016). MP26-05 DOSE RESPONSE OF CRANBERRY IN THE TREATMENT OF LOWER URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN WOMEN. The Journal of Urology, 195(4), e355.

Tan, C. W., & Chlebicki, M. P. (2016). Urinary tract infections in adults. Singapore medical journal, 57(9), 485.

 

Aircraft Propeller Systems

February 15, 2018

 

 

AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS

Author

Professor

Class

Institutional Affiliation

Date Submitted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1: Comparison of the design features of the propeller and propeller systems on single 1930s single piston racing aircraft to a single piston Unlimited Class racer.

Both the 1930s single piston racers and the present day Unlimited Class racer basically incorporate the same aircraft design. The defining requirement of an aircraft to enter the modern Unlimited Class racing is the utilization of a piston engine (Anon., 2013). This has made it more appropriate for the racing mechanics to remodel the old World War birds such as the P15 Mustangs into racers.

The race gives flight mechanics an opportunity to incorporate innovation in the design of the propeller and propeller systems of their aircraft. For instance, some of the single piston aircrafts which participate in the race have specialized combustion engines which burn aluminum instead of the general purpose jet fuel (Anon., 2014). This ensures that the little old birds are able to accommodate forces greater than 6g. This kind of acceleration was not a common thing in the 1930s single piston aircraft since the propulsion systems during the period could not keep up with such accelerations. In fact, even the modern day fighter jets require the pilots to wear special suits before performing accelerations which push their aircraft to such forces. With the kind of air frame technology that has been used in the design of the piston engine aircraft, it only leaves one wondering the kind of ingenuity that goes into the design of propeller system that is capable of such stress while racing these old planes.

Another major design difference between the two birds is the design and direction of rotation of the propellers. This is mostly due to the nature of the pylons used at the Unlimited Class racing which makes provisions for left turns only. From a pilot’s view, a propeller which has an anticlockwise rotation tends to raise the right wing of the aircraft while negotiating these corners. These has resulted in a major design change whereby the propellers of the racing aircraft are refitted to rotate clockwise- which is a major difference from the 1930s single piston engines. The massive effect of the direction of rotation of a propeller is most evident in helicopters. This is the single point in which the effects of rotation are best demonstrated and how catastrophic things can go if and when the normal rotation is affected. Therefore, the modern racing aircraft are a demonstration of pure innovation and the achievements that have been made this far to incorporate propellers in fixed wing light aircraft.

The two birds share a basic engine propulsion system. This is characterized by the single crank shaft system responsible for rotating fixed pitch propellers. However, the Unlimited Class racers feature various adjustable pitch propellers but this is not a standard deployment (Welch, 1989). Instead, the ground crew and designers are always given the liberty and freedom to tweak these features in order to ensure optimum aircraft performance and the assurance of finishing the race in spite of the extra stress that the aircraft is subject to.

The Unlimited Class birds are mostly much faster and develop more horsepower than their 1930s counterparts. This is partly due to the freedom of the ground crew in choosing the propellant material that is used in the engines. However, some design differences have also led to marked difference in these aircrafts’ propellant system. For instance, most of the participating airframes have their wings clipped partly to reduce the overall drag exerted on them (Lawless & Shaheen, 1988). This has contributed to their remarkable speeds which can easily exceed 500mph while utilizing engines that develop nearly the same amount of power as their old counterparts.

Whereas both airframes utilize the blade element theory for their propellers, the Unlimited Class racers seem to utilize this design concept much more than their 1930s racing counterparts. The logic behind using this design concept stems from the fact that these planes have always been required to perform extraordinary maneuvers. These include sudden and steep climbs, descents and turns which characterized the racing environments of both the 1930 –which was partly influence by military use and the present day sharp cornered turns over the pylons a the race field.

Frank Monroe Hawks Miller HM. Obtained from Air racers

Question 2: Analysis of the Design Features and Systems Expected to be found on a propeller system to be fitted on a large four engine turbo-prop aircraft flying up to 420 knots and performing STOL operations from jungles, deserts and over the arctic regions.

Turbine propellers (turbo-props) feature hot compressed gases rotating turbines which in turn rotate the propeller systems. The aircraft in question shall need to fly at relatively fast speeds; which is an important propeller design consideration for such an aircraft. The fact that the plane is fitted with four engines is also an important precursor of the possible propeller systems that can be fitted unto the system. Indigenously, STOL operations require that an aircraft should be able to land and take off over short runways (Haulman, 2011)- another important consideration for the propeller system that should be used.

It is expected that the aircraft has an adjustable pitch as opposed to a fixed-pitch propellers. This is due to the fact that it has to perform STOL operations and yet it will be required to fly over long distances: – a fact that is implied by the number of engines that it has. The adjustable pitch of the propellers will make it possible for pilot to tilt them in such a way that reduces drag most hence have the capability of developing more thrust and lift necessary for taking off from a short runway. Most aircraft whose propeller pitch is fixed are either optimized for cruising or STOL operations (Kinney, 2000). Therefore, the fact that the propeller on this system is adjustable will give the pilot the opportunity to perform STOL but still find pitch optimizations while cruising over long distances which the aircraft is most probably designed to accomplish.

Image of turbo-prop engine. Obtained from Glen center, NASA

The aircraft’s engines which house the propeller systems are expected to be positioned as close to the fuselage as is possible. As the propellers develop thrust at their front surfaces, being close to the airframes will ensure that as much wing surface areas as possible is available in order to develop lift much faster and more efficiently (Byers, 2004). Although the propellers are expected to send a thrust of air over the wings for extra lift, the fact that the craft will be cruising for 420 knots for most of the distance means that there will be enough lift from the airflow hence further warranting the position of the engines.

Each individual engine is expected to have as many propellers as possible per shaft. These could be more than four. Although this design reduces the general efficiency of each propeller, it makes it possible for propellers tips to rotate just below Mach 1. This will make the aircraft less noisy which is a general environmental concern especially in the jungles where it could disturb the existing fauna diversity. This will also make the control surfaces more maneuverable and responsive at lower speeds.

The fact that the aircraft is supposed to fly in dry deserts and cold arctic regions of the world presents a major expectation for the plane’s cooling system. Firstly, it must be able to accommodate overheating problems rampant in desert regions while at the same time avoiding the freezing of propeller systems in the arctic while the craft has stayed on the ground for elongated periods of time. Therefore, it will be expected that each engine incorporates a hybrid cooling system that will make it possible for the propeller system to be cooled by either water in hot conditions or air in the arctic regions. Water is likely to thaw around the engine areas while the aircraft is grounded in the arctic regions (Pavelec, 2004). Therefore, it would be necessary for the engine and propeller compartments to accommodate for this possible eventuality which might destroy the engine system.

Desert and arctic regions have markedly different atmospheric pressures which is a very important consideration for designing propeller systems. The hot air in desert is mostly characterized by low pressure while the arctic regions have relatively higher pressures. This affects the amount of air speed above the wings that is required to generate a lift for take-off. This means that the aircraft’s propeller system should yield enough horsepower to offset the drag experienced on the propellers which might need to have greater pitches in order to perform a STOLL operation in deserts (Stevenson, 1990). In addition, the propellers should be able to accommodate reverse thrusts which will serve as brakes on landing in the arctic. This is especially true given the fact that the already short runway might be snowy hence the need to apply extra breaking via the propellers.

 

 

Image obtained from Scriebel.com

Question 3: Analysis of design features and propeller theory expected on a propeller fitted to a single engine tail wheel fighter aircraft developing less than 100 hp compared to a modern light aircraft with tricycle undercarriage.

The propeller theory gives mathematical references towards designing systems that are either focused on blade element or momentum of the forces acting on the propeller per unit time of flight. It would be expected that the First Word War fighters are fitted with non-adjustable propeller pitches. This could partly be attributed to the fact that the warring countries needed to produce a very large quantity of aircrafts which were often destroyed just as fast as they were being produced from the factory lines (pavalec, 2005). However, the same will not be expected in a modern small aircraft. There is much more competition from commercial aircraft manufacturers such as Cessna who have mastered the art of producing such low cost effective aircraft. Due to this kind of competition, it has become necessary to optimize the functionalities of the individual planes and this will include incorporated including as much control for the pilot as possible in controlling the propeller of the plane.

Most of the small aircrafts tend to be trainers which are usually handled by inexperience pilot trainees, and who ‘love’ their lives very much. During the First World War, it was common for war time pilots to sacrifice their lives by flying right into other aircraft during combat missions. This necessitated the need for a propeller system that could maintain a steady course as much as possible, something that is still admired in today’s aviation industry. However, the extensive use of smaller airplanes in training activities has necessitated the need to incorporate as much control and automatic systems as possible in order to ensure that the students can complete their classes without a major incident. Among others, the modern propeller systems are designed in such a way that they can even recover from a stall which can save a panicked and shocked pilot trainee- something that could not be possible with the First World War aircrafts.

The tail-wheel design of the First World fighters increased the angle of attack of the wings while plane is taking off. This is different from the modern tricycle undercarriage aircrafts which are almost lateral to the ground surface while on the ground. However, the fact that the wheels of the old fighters could never be retracted meant that any propeller advantage gained over the modern design was cancelled as soon as the aircraft got airborne (Harvey, 1992). The modern light aircrafts could tap into this advantage if they got their undercarriage slightly elongated. This would in turn provide a natural increased angle of attack for the mass of air released over the surface of the wings by the rotating propeller. Consequently, this kind of design would be able to server STOL operations much better and efficiently. However, the general aesthetic design of this system would not be as appealing and this could reduce the market share of a company trying out such an innovation. This is makes it necessary to include aesthetic design considerations in the building of propeller systems.

A modern lightweight aircraft is expected to incorporate the principles of blade element more that First World War fighter aircraft. The blade element theory utilizes the principles behind the functioning of a normal wing, by increasing the curvature at the front more than the one at the back side (Thompson, 2004). This, in effect, creates a kind of lift towards the front which is in essence the generated thrust for the aircraft. Consequently, the modern light aircraft is capable of deriving more thrust from the action of the propeller. This means that a smaller engine is capable of developing as much power as did a larger engine fitted on a fighter during World War I.

Conclusion

Aircrafts with a single piston have been around since 1903 and are likely to stay around for quite some time. The single piston racing aircraft from the 1930s are basically the same airframes and engine technologies being used in the modern Unlimited Class racing. The modern racing birds are however much more modified than their old counterparts. Some of these modifications include the freedom of the ground crew to use fuels of their choices, tweaking the propeller rotation systems and reductions gears and redesigning the wing control surfaces among others. These endeavors have ensured that each racing pilot gets as much edge as possible over the other competitors and harnessing higher speeds and more resilience on the g force being exerted on the aircraft.

A turbo-prop four engine aircraft used in STOL operations has a set of unique propeller requirements that could enable it perform its job optimally. Among others, the pitch of the propellers will need to be adjustable so that the pilot can continuously optimize the performance of the propellers while flying under different air speeds and conditions. These are primarily dictated by speed requirements while taking off and those that come into the picture while the plane is cruising. The propeller theory is a comprehensive mathematical design consideration which is used in propellers. This theory makes a designation for designing propeller based on the moment created the blast of air pushed by the propellers per unit time, blade theory and vortex theory. The first two approaches are the most commonly design approaches while the vortex theory is rather mathematically complex hence does not receive as much attention by designers as otherwise could be necessary. General expectations dictate that modern small aircrafts make a combination of the lessons learnt over the period of aviation design and as such make as much flight optimizations as possible for the best flying experiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anon., 2013. YouTube. [Online] Available at:           https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HWD3iJtTpU

Anon., 2014. You Tube. [Online] Available at:          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7EIxneD4f8

Byers, R., 2004. Dreams of Flight: General Aviation in the United States (review). Technology     and Culture, pp. 628-630.

Harvey, J. R., 1992. Regional Ballistic Missiles and Advanced and Strike Aircraft: Comparing     Military Effectiveness. International Security, pp. 41-83.

Haulman, D., 2011. The Tuskegee Airmen and teh “Never Lost a Bomber” Myth. Alabama           REview, pp. 30-60.

Kinney, J. R., 2000. Curtis-Wright: Greatness and Decline (review). Technology and Culture, pp. 147-149.

Lawless, R. & Shaheen, T., 1988. Airplanes and Airports: The Subtle Skill of Japanese      Protectionism. SAIS Review, pp. 101-120.

pavalec, S. M., 2005. Hitler’s Jet Plane: the Me 262 Story (review). The Journal of Military            History, pp. 877-890.

Pavelec, S. M., 2004. 100 Years of Air Power & Aviation (review). The Journal of Military           History, pp. 1318-1321.

Stevenson, G., 1990. Canada and International Civial Aviation, 1932-1948 by David MacKenzie (review). The Canadian Historical review, pp. 412-414.

Thompson, W., 2004. Chasing the Silver Bullet: U.S. Air Force Weapons Development from        Vietnam to Desert Storm. The Journal of Military History, pp. 1014-1017.

Welch, J., 1989. Assessing the Value of Stealthy Aircraft and Cruise Missiles. International          Security, pp. 47-63.

 

 

Aircraft Propeller Systems

February 15, 2018

 

 

AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS

Author

Professor

Class

Institutional Affiliation

Date Submitted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1: Comparison of the design features of the propeller and propeller systems on single 1930s single piston racing aircraft to a single piston Unlimited Class racer.

Both the 1930s single piston aircraft racers and the present day Unlimited Class airplanes are built on the same design. The most important requirement of an aircraft to enter the modern Unlimited Class racing is the utilization of a piston engine (YouTube.com, 2013). This has made it more appropriate for the racing ground crew to remodel the old World War aircrafts such as the P15 Mustangs into racers.

There is a major design difference between 1930s racing aircraft and the airplanes participating in Unlimited Class races. This is particularly true in the design and direction of rotation of the propellers. This is mostly due to the nature of the pylons used at the Unlimited Class racing which makes provisions for left turns only. From a pilot’s view, a propeller which has an anticlockwise rotation tends to raise the right wing of the aircraft while negotiating these corners. This has resulted in a major design change whereby the propellers of the racing aircraft are refitted to rotate clockwise- which is a major difference from the 1930s single piston engines. The effect of the direction of rotation of a propeller is most evident in turbo shaft aircrafts such as helicopters. This is the single point in which the effects of rotation are best demonstrated and the adverse effects when the desired propeller rotation is affected (Aerospace.org, 2015). Therefore, the modern racing aircraft are a demonstration of the achievements that have been made this far in incorporating propellers in fixed wing light aircraft while taking into account the effects and forces associated with their rotation.

The Unlimited Class event gives flight mechanics an opportunity to incorporate new innovative designs into the propeller and propeller systems of their aircraft. For example, some of the single piston aircrafts which participate in the race have specialized combustion engines which burn aluminum instead of the general purpose jet fuel (YouTube.com, 2014). This ensures that the relatively old aircraft are able to accommodate forces greater than 6g. This kind of acceleration was not a common achievement in the 1930s for single piston aircraft since the propulsion systems during the period could not keep up with the resultant stress. In fact, even the modern day fighter jets require the pilots to wear special suits before performing accelerations which push their aircraft to such limits. With the kind of air frame technology that has been used in the design of the piston engine aircraft, it only leaves one wondering the kind of ingenuity that goes into the design of a propeller system that is capable of such stress while racing these old planes.

The aircraft from both eras share a basic engine propulsion system. This is characterized by the single crank shaft system responsible for rotating fixed pitch propellers. However, the Unlimited Class racers feature various adjustable pitch propellers although this is usually not a standardized requirement (Association, 2018). Instead, the ground crew and designers are always given the liberty and freedom to tweak these features in order to ensure optimum aircraft performance and the assurance of finishing the race in spite of the extra stress that the aircraft is subject to.

The Unlimited Class aircraft are much faster and develop more horsepower than their 1930s counterparts. This is partly due to the freedom of the ground crew in choosing the propellant material that is used in the engines. However, some design differences have also led to marked difference in these aircrafts’ propellant system. For instance, most of the participating airframes have their wings partly clipped in order to reduce the overall drag exerted on them (Lawless & Shaheen, 1988). This has contributed to their remarkable speeds which can easily exceed 500mph while utilizing engines that develop nearly the same amount of power as their old counterparts.

Whereas both airframes utilize the blade element theory for their propellers, the Unlimited Class racers seem to utilize this design concept much more than their 1930s racing counterparts. The logic behind using this design concept arises from the fact that these planes have always been required to perform extraordinary maneuvers. These include sudden and steep climbs, descents and turns which characterized the racing environments of the 1930s –which were partly influence by military use and the present day sharp cornered turns over the pylons a the race field.

Frank Monroe Hawks Miller HM. Obtained from Air racers

Question 2: Analysis of the Design Features and Systems Expected to be found on a propeller system to be fitted on a large four engine turbo-prop aircraft flying up to 420 knots and performing STOL operations from jungles, deserts and over the arctic regions.

Turbine propellers (turbo-props) work by means of hot compressed gases rotating turbines which in turn rotate the propeller systems. The aircraft in question shall need to fly at relatively fast speeds; which is an important propeller design consideration for such an airplane. The fact that the plane is fitted with four engines is also an important consideration of the possible propeller systems that can be incorporated into its body. Indigenously, STOL operations require that an aircraft should be able to land and take off over short runways (Watson, 1981)- another important consideration for the propeller system that should be used.

It is expected that the aircraft has an adjustable pitch as opposed to a fixed-pitch propeller system. This is due to the fact that STOL operations require optimized power generation from the propellers. Moreover, this aircraft will be required to fly over long distances: – a fact that is implied by the number of engines that it has. The adjustable pitch of the propellers will make it possible for the pilot to tilt them in such a way that reduces drag to the fullest which will enable them to develop the capability of developing more thrust and lift necessary for taking off from a short runway. The pitch for which an aircraft’s propeller is mounted is either designed to accommodate cruise speeds or other STOL operations (University of Southampton, 2018). Therefore, the fact that the propeller on this system is adjustable will give the pilot the opportunity to perform STOL but still find pitch optimizations while cruising over long distances for which the aircraft is most probably designed to accomplish.

Image of turbo-prop engine. Obtained from Glen center, NASA

Propellers are usually mounted in or on the engine system and are expected to be positioned as close to the fuselage as is possible. As the propellers develop thrust at their front surfaces, being close to the airframes will ensure that as much wing surface area as possible is available in order to develop lift much faster and more efficiently without affecting the wing’s design dynamics(Airlines.net, 2002). Moreover, the propellers are expected to send a thrust of air over the wings for extra lift. Therefore, the fact that the aircraft will be cruising for 420 knots for most of the distance will mean that there will be enough lift from the airflow hence further warranting the position of the engines being near the fuselage.

It is desirable to mount as many propellers as possible per engine shaft. These could be more than four. Although this design reduces the general efficiency of each propeller, it makes it possible for propellers tips to rotate just below the speed of sound (Mach 1). This will make the aircraft less noisy which is a general environmental concern especially in the jungles where it could disturb the existing wildlife diversity. In addition, more propellers per shaft will also make the control surfaces more maneuverable and responsive at lower speeds.

Flying aircraft in extreme climatic conditions such as dry deserts and cold arctic regions of the world presents a major expectation in the design of the plane’s cooling system. Firstly, it must be able to accommodate overheating problems rampant in desert regions while at the same time avoiding the freezing of propeller systems in the arctic regions while the craft has stayed on the ground for elongated periods of time. Therefore, it will be expected that each engine incorporates a hybrid cooling system that will make it possible for the propeller system to be cooled by either water in hot conditions or air in the arctic regions. Ice is likely to form around the engine regions while the aircraft is grounded in the arctic regions (Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 2016). Therefore, it would be necessary for the engine and propeller compartments to be designed in such a way that accommodates this factor.

Atmospheric pressures in desert and arctic regions are markedly different which create a very important consideration for designing propeller systems. The hot air in deserts is mostly characterized by low pressure while the arctic regions have relatively higher pressures. This affects the amount of air speed above the wings that is required to generate a lift for take-off. This means that the aircraft’s propeller system should yield enough lifting power to offset the drag experienced on the propellers which might need to have greater pitches in order to perform a STOLL operation in extreme and rugged conditions (NASA, 1997). In addition, the propellers should be able to accommodate reverse thrusts which will serve as brakes on landing in the arctic. This is especially true given the fact that the already short runway might be snowy hence the need to apply extra breaking via the propellers.

 

 

Image obtained from Scriebel.com

Question 3: Analysis of design features and propeller theory expected on a propeller fitted to a single engine tail wheel fighter aircraft developing less than 100 hp compared to a modern light aircraft with tricycle undercarriage.

It is important that the various propeller theories are applied in designing systems that are either focused on blade element or momentum of the forces acting on the propeller per unit time in order to create lift for flight. It would be expected that the First Word War fighters are fitted with non-adjustable propeller pitches. This could partly be attributed to the fact that the warring countries needed to produce a very large quantity of aircrafts which were often destroyed just as fast as they were being produced from the factory lines (ethw.org, 2015) which scrapped any need to fit them with the relatively expensive pitch adjustable propellers. However, the same will not be expected in a modern small fighter aircraft. There is much more competition from commercial aircraft manufacturers such as Cessna who have mastered the art of producing such low cost effective aircraft. Due to this kind of competition, it has become necessary to optimize the functionalities of the individual planes and this will include fitting them with as much control for the pilot as possible for the pilot’s control systems.

Small fighter aircrafts are usually handled by inexperienced pilot trainees. During the First World War, it was common for war time pilots to sacrifice their lives by flying right into other aircraft during combat missions. This necessitated the need for a propeller system that could maintain a steady course as much as possible, and indeed maintaining a steady course is something that is still admired in today’s aviation industry. However, the extensive use of smaller airplanes in training activities has necessitated the need to incorporate as much control and automatic systems as possible in order to ensure that the students can complete their flying classes without a major incident. Among others, the modern propeller systems are designed in such a way that they can even recover from a stall which can save a panicked and shocked pilot trainee- something that could not be possible with the First World War aircrafts.

First World War fighters had a shorter tail wheel which gave the wings an increased angle of attack against the air while the plane is taking off. This is different from the modern tricycle undercarriage aircrafts which are almost lateral to the ground surface while on the ground. However, the fact that the wheels of the old fighters could never be retracted meant that any propeller advantage gained over the modern design was reversed as soon as the aircraft took into the sky (Century of Flight, 2018). The modern light aircrafts could tap into this advantage if they got their undercarriage slightly elongated. This would in turn provide a natural increased angle of attack for the mass of air released over the surface of the wings by the rotating propeller. Consequently, this kind of design would be able to server STOL operations much better and efficiently. However, the general aesthetic design of this system would not be as appealing and this could reduce the market share of a company trying out such an innovation.

Blade element theory would be an important consideration in a modern lightweight aircraft whereas First World War fighter aircrafts might not incorporate this principle. The blade element theory utilizes the principles behind the functioning of a normal wing, by increasing the curvature at the front more than the one at the back side (Aerodynamics for Students, 2016). This, in effect, creates a kind of lift towards the front which is in essence the generated thrust for the aircraft. Consequently, the modern light aircraft is capable of deriving more thrust from the action of the propeller. This means that a smaller engine is capable of developing as much power as did a larger engine fitted on a fighter during World War I.

 

Conclusion

Aircrafts with a single piston have been around since 1903 and are likely to stay around for quite some time. The single piston racing aircraft from the 1930s basically have the same airframes and engine technologies being used in the modern Unlimited Class race. The modern racing airplanes are however much more modified than their old counterparts. Some of these modifications include the freedom of the ground crew to use fuels of their choices, tweaking the propeller rotation systems and reductions gears and redesigning the wing control surfaces among others. These changes have ensured that each racing pilot gets as much edge as possible over other competitors and harnessing higher speeds and more resilience on the g force being exerted on the aircraft.

A turbo-prop four engine aircraft used in STOL operations has a set of unique propeller requirements that could enable it perform its job optimally. Among others, the pitch of the propellers will need to be adjustable so that the pilot can continuously optimize the performance of the propellers while flying under different air speeds and conditions. These are primarily dictated by speed requirements while taking off and those that come into the picture while the plane is cruising. The propeller theory is a comprehensive mathematical design consideration which is used in propellers. This theory makes a designation for designing propellers based on the moment created by the blast of air pushed by the propellers per unit time. The first two approaches are the most commonly design approaches while the vortex theory is rather mathematically complex hence does not receive as much attention by designers. General expectations dictate that modern small aircrafts make a combination of the lessons learnt over the period of aviation design and as such make flight optimizations as possible in order to harness the best flying experiences from the propeller system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Aerodynamics for Students, 2016. Blade Element Theory for Propellers. [Online] Available at:            http://s6.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/aerodynamics/index.php/sample-page/propulsion/blade      element-propeller-theory/[Accessed January 2018].

Aerospace.org, 2015. Helicopter Rotation Conventions. [Online] Available at:         http://www.aerospace.org [Accessed 28 January 2018].

Airlines.net, 2002. Under Wing Engines Vs Tail Mounted Engines. [Online] Available at:            http://www.airliners.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=138213      [Accessed January 2018].

Association, U. S. R., 2018. Unlimited Class Specifications. [Online] Available at:  http://www.usrainfo.org       [Accessed January 2018].

Century of Flight, 2018. Development of Aviation Technology. [Online] Available at:         http://www.century-of            flight.net/Aviation%20history/evolution%20of%20technology/Variable      Pitch%20Propellers.htm            [Accessed January 2018].

ethw.org, 2015. World War II Aircrat. [Online] Available at:            http://ethw.org/World_War_II_Aircraft            [Accessed January 2018].

Lawless, R. & Shaheen, T., 1988. Airplanes and Airports: The Subtle Skill of Japanese      Protectionism. SAIS Review, pp. 101-120.

NASA, 1997. Boundary Layer Control, STOL, V/STOL Aircraft Research. [Online] Available at:            https://history.nasa.gov/SP-3300/ch8.htm      [Accessed January 2018].

Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 2016. What causes ice formation on aircrafts during flight?.     [Online] Available at: https://phys.org/news/2016-01-ice-formation-aircrafts-flight.html            [Accessed January 2018].

University of Southampton, 2018. Curtis-Wright: Greatness and Decline (review). [Online]           Available at:            https://www.southampton.ac.uk/~jps7/Aircraft%20Design%20Resources/aerodynamics    Bristol%20University%20Breguet%20range%20eqn.pdf        [Accessed January 2018].

Watson, D., 1981. The Tuskegee Airmen and teh “Never Lost a Bomber” Myth. [Online]    Available at: https://ntrs.nasa.gov    [Accessed January 2018].

YouTube.com, 2013. YouTube. [Online]        Available at:    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HWD3iJtTpU            [Accessed January 2018].

YouTube.com, 2014. You Tube. [Online]       Available at:    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7EIxneD4f8            [Accessed January 2018].

 

 

Aircraft Propeller Systems

February 15, 2018

 

 

AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS

Author

Professor

Class

Institutional Affiliation

Date Submitted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 1: Comparison of the design features of the propeller and propeller systems on single 1930s single piston racing aircraft to a single piston Unlimited Class racer.

Both the 1930s single piston aircraft racers and the present day Unlimited Class airplanes are built on the same design. The most important requirement of an aircraft to enter the modern Unlimited Class racing is the utilization of a piston engine among other requirements which ensure that only the very old aircraft enter the race (Ahlstrom, 2000). This has made it more appropriate for the racing ground crew to remodel the old World War aircrafts such as the P15 Mustangs into racers.

There is a major design difference between 1930s racing aircraft and the airplanes participating in Unlimited Class races. This is particularly true in the design and direction of rotation of the propellers. This is mostly due to the nature of the pylons used at the Unlimited Class racing which makes provisions for left turns only. From a pilot’s view, a propeller which has an anticlockwise rotation tends to raise the right wing of the aircraft while negotiating these corners. This has resulted in a major design change whereby the propellers of the racing aircraft are refitted to rotate clockwise- which is a major difference from the 1930s single piston engines. The effects of the direction of rotation of a propeller are most evident in turbo shaft aircrafts such as helicopters. This is the single point in which the effects of rotation are best demonstrated and the adverse effects when the desired propeller rotation is affected (Aerospace.org, 2015). Therefore, the modern racing aircraft are a demonstration of the achievements that have been made this far in incorporating propellers in fixed wing light aircraft while taking into account the effects and forces associated with their rotation.

The Unlimited Class event gives flight mechanics an opportunity to incorporate new innovative designs into the propeller and propeller systems of their aircraft. For example, some of the single piston aircrafts which participate in the race have specialized combustion engines which burn aluminum instead of the general purpose jet fuel. Aluminum, when properly used as a source of fuel can burn with a higher density and yield more power (Massachussets Institute of Technology, 2017). This ensures that the relatively old aircraft are able to accommodate forces greater than 6g. This kind of acceleration was not a common achievement in the 1930s for single piston aircraft since the propulsion systems during the period could not keep up with the resultant stress. In fact, even the modern day fighter jets require the pilots to wear special suits before performing accelerations which push their aircraft to such limits. With the kind of air frame technology that has been used in the design of the piston engine aircraft, it only leaves one wondering the kind of ingenuity that goes into the design of a propeller system that is capable of such stress while racing these old planes.

The aircraft from both eras share a basic engine propulsion system. This is characterized by the single crank shaft system responsible for rotating fixed pitch propellers. However, the Unlimited Class racers feature various adjustable pitch propellers although this is usually not a standardized requirement (Hassel, 2012). Instead, the ground crew and designers are always given the liberty and freedom to tweak these features in order to ensure optimum aircraft performance and the assurance of finishing the race in spite of the extra stress that the aircraft is subject to.

The Unlimited Class aircraft are much faster and develop more horsepower than their 1930s counterparts. This is partly due to the freedom of the ground crew in choosing the propellant material that is used in the engines. However, some design differences have also led to marked difference in these aircrafts’ propellant system. For instance, most of the participating airframes have their wings partly clipped in order to reduce the overall drag exerted on them (Lawless & Shaheen, 1988). This has contributed to their remarkable speeds which can easily exceed 500mph while utilizing engines that develop nearly the same amount of power as their old counterparts.

Whereas both airframes utilize the blade element theory for their propellers, the Unlimited Class racers seem to utilize this design concept much more than their 1930s racing counterparts. The logic behind using this design concept arises from the fact that these planes have always been required to perform extraordinary maneuvers. These include sudden and steep climbs, descents and turns which characterized the racing environments of the 1930s –which were partly influence by military use and the present day sharp cornered turns over the pylons a the race field.

Frank Monroe Hawks Miller HM. Obtained from Air racers

Question 2: Analysis of the Design Features and Systems Expected to be found on a propeller system to be fitted on a large four engine turbo-prop aircraft flying up to 420 knots and performing STOL operations from jungles, deserts and over the arctic regions.

Turbine propellers (turbo-props) work by means of hot compressed gases rotating turbines which in turn rotate the propeller systems. The aircraft in question shall need to fly at relatively fast speeds which are an important propeller design consideration for such an airplane. The fact that the plane is fitted with four engines is also an important consideration of the possible propeller systems that can be incorporated into its body. Indigenously, STOL operations require that an aircraft should be able to land and take off over short runways (Daniel Hallman, 2011)- another important consideration for the propeller system that should be used.

It is expected that the aircraft has an adjustable pitch as opposed to a fixed-pitch propeller system. This is due to the fact that STOL operations require optimized power generation from the propellers. Moreover, this aircraft will be required to fly over long distances: – a fact that is implied by the number of engines that it has. The adjustable pitch of the propellers will make it possible for the pilot to tilt them in such a way that reduces drag to the fullest which will enable them to develop the capability of developing more thrust and lift necessary for taking off from a short runway. The pitch for which an aircraft’s propeller is mounted is either designed to accommodate cruise speeds or other STOL operations (University of Southampton, 2018). Therefore, the fact that the propeller on this system is adjustable will give the pilot the opportunity to perform STOL but still find pitch optimizations while cruising over long distances for which the aircraft is most probably designed to accomplish.

Image of turbo-prop engine. Obtained from Glen center, NASA

Propellers are usually mounted in or on the engine system and are expected to be positioned as close to the fuselage as is possible. As the propellers develop thrust at their front surfaces, being close to the airframes will ensure that as much wing surface area as possible is available in order to develop lift much faster and more efficiently without affecting the wing’s design dynamics(Airlines.net, 2002). Moreover, the propellers are expected to send a thrust of air over the wings for extra lift. Therefore, the fact that the aircraft will be cruising for 420 knots for most of the distance will mean that there will be enough lift from the airflow hence further warranting the position of the engines being near the fuselage.

It is desirable to mount as many propellers as possible per engine shaft. These could be more than four. Although this design reduces the general efficiency of each propeller, it makes it possible for propellers tips to rotate just below the speed of sound (Mach 1). This will make the aircraft less noisy which is a general environmental concern especially in the jungles where it could disturb the existing wildlife diversity. In addition, more propellers per shaft will also make the control surfaces more maneuverable and responsive at lower speeds.

Flying aircraft in extreme climatic conditions such as dry deserts and cold arctic regions of the world presents a major expectation in the design of the plane’s cooling system. Firstly, it must be able to accommodate overheating problems rampant in desert regions while at the same time avoiding the freezing of propeller systems in the arctic regions while the craft has stayed on the ground for elongated periods of time. Therefore, it will be expected that each engine incorporates a hybrid cooling system that will make it possible for the propeller system to be cooled by either water in hot conditions or air in the arctic regions. Ice is likely to form around the engine regions while the aircraft is grounded in the arctic regions (Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 2016). Therefore, it would be necessary for the engine and propeller compartments to be designed in such a way that accommodates this factor.

Atmospheric pressures in desert and arctic regions are markedly different which create a very important consideration for designing propeller systems. The hot air in deserts is mostly characterized by low pressure while the arctic regions have relatively higher pressures. This affects the amount of air speed above the wings that is required to generate a lift for take-off. This means that the aircraft’s propeller system should yield enough lifting power to offset the drag experienced on the propellers which might need to have greater pitches in order to perform a STOLL operation in extreme and rugged conditions (NASA, 1997). In addition, the propellers should be able to accommodate reverse thrusts which will serve as brakes on landing in the arctic. This is especially true given the fact that the already short runway might be snowy hence the need to apply extra breaking via the propellers.

 

 

Image obtained from Scriebel.com

Question 3: Analysis of design features and propeller theory expected on a propeller fitted to a single engine tail wheel fighter aircraft developing less than 100 hp compared to a modern light aircraft with tricycle undercarriage.

It is important that the various propeller theories are applied in designing systems that are either focused on blade element or momentum of the forces acting on the propeller per unit time in order to create lift for flight. It would be expected that the First Word War fighters are fitted with non-adjustable propeller pitches. This could partly be attributed to the fact that the warring countries needed to produce a very large quantity of aircrafts which were often destroyed just as fast as they were being produced from the factory lines hence the need for fast advancements such as developing the B-17 bomber (ethw.org, 2015) which scrapped any need to fit them with the relatively expensive pitch adjustable propellers. However, the same will not be expected in a modern small fighter aircraft. There is much more competition from commercial aircraft manufacturers such as Cessna who have mastered the art of producing such low cost effective aircraft. Due to this kind of competition, it has become necessary to optimize the functionalities of the individual planes and this will include fitting them with as much control for the pilot as possible for the pilot’s control systems.

Small fighter aircrafts are usually handled by inexperienced pilot trainees. During the First World War, it was common for war time pilots to sacrifice their lives by flying right into other aircraft during combat missions. This necessitated the need for a propeller system that could maintain a steady course as much as possible, and indeed maintaining a steady course is something that is still admired in today’s aviation industry. However, the extensive use of smaller airplanes in training activities has necessitated the need to incorporate as much control and automatic systems as possible in order to ensure that the students can complete their flying classes without a major incident. Among others, the modern propeller systems are designed in such a way that they can even recover from a stall which can save a panicked and shocked pilot trainee- something that could not be possible with the First World War aircrafts.

First World War fighters had a shorter tail wheel which gave the wings an increased angle of attack against the air while the plane is taking off. This is different from the modern tricycle undercarriage aircrafts which are almost lateral to the ground surface while on the ground. However, the fact that the wheels of the old fighters could never be retracted meant that any propeller advantage gained over the modern design was reversed as soon as the aircraft took into the sky (Century of Flight, 2018). The modern light aircrafts could tap into this advantage if they got their undercarriage slightly elongated. This would in turn provide a natural increased angle of attack for the mass of air released over the surface of the wings by the rotating propeller. Consequently, this kind of design would be able to server STOL operations much better and efficiently. However, the general aesthetic design of this system would not be as appealing and this could reduce the market share of a company trying out such an innovation.

Blade element theory would be an important consideration in a modern lightweight aircraft whereas First World War fighter aircrafts might not incorporate this principle. The blade element theory utilizes the principles behind the functioning of a normal wing, by increasing the curvature at the front more than the one at the back side (Aerodynamics for Students, 2016). This, in effect, creates a kind of lift towards the front which is in essence the generated thrust for the aircraft. Consequently, the modern light aircraft is capable of deriving more thrust from the action of the propeller. This means that a smaller engine is capable of developing as much power as did a larger engine fitted on a fighter during World War I.

 

Conclusion

Aircrafts with a single piston have been around since 1903 and are likely to stay around for quite some time. The single piston racing aircraft from the 1930s basically have the same airframes and engine technologies being used in the modern Unlimited Class race. The modern racing airplanes are however much more modified than their old counterparts. Some of these modifications include the freedom of the ground crew to use fuels of their choices, tweaking the propeller rotation systems and reductions gears and redesigning the wing control surfaces among others. These changes have ensured that each racing pilot gets as much edge as possible over other competitors and harnessing higher speeds and more resilience on the g force being exerted on the aircraft.

A turbo-prop four engine aircraft used in STOL operations has a set of unique propeller requirements that could enable it perform its job optimally. Among others, the pitch of the propellers will need to be adjustable so that the pilot can continuously optimize the performance of the propellers while flying under different air speeds and conditions. These are primarily dictated by speed requirements while taking off and those that come into the picture while the plane is cruising. The propeller theory is a comprehensive mathematical design consideration which is used in propellers. This theory makes a designation for designing propellers based on the moment created by the blast of air pushed by the propellers per unit time. The first two approaches are the most commonly design approaches while the vortex theory is rather mathematically complex hence does not receive as much attention by designers. General expectations dictate that modern small aircrafts make a combination of the lessons learnt over the period of aviation design and as such make flight optimizations as possible in order to harness the best flying experiences from the propeller system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Aerodynamics for Students, 2016. Blade Element Theory for Propellers. [Online] Available at:            http://s6.aeromech.usyd.edu.au/aerodynamics/index.php/sample-page/propulsion/blade      element-propeller-theory/ [Accessed January 2018].

Aerospace.org, 2015. Helicopter Rotation Conventions. [Online] Available at:            http://www.aerospaceweb.org/question/helicopters/q0212b.shtml     [Accessed 28 January 2018].

Ahlstrom, E., 2000. The Design of an Unlimted Class Reno Air Racer. [Online] Available at:         aero-comlab.stanford.edu/Papers/AIAA-2000-4341-839.pdf [Accessed 30 January 2018].

Airlines.net, 2002. Under Wing Engines Vs Tail Mounted Engines. [Online] Available at:            http://www.airliners.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=138213      [Accessed January 2018].

Century of Flight, 2018. Development of Aviation Technology. [Online]      Available at:    http://www.century-of            flight.net/Aviation%20history/evolution%20of%20technology/Variable      Pitch%20Propellers.htm            [Accessed January 2018].

Daniel Hallman, 2011. The Tuskegee Airmen and the “Never Lost a Bomber” Myth. [Online]         Available at: http://www.redtail.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/The-Tuskegee-Airmen and-the-Never-Lost-a-Bomber-Myth.pdf            [Accessed 30 January 2018].

ethw.org, 2015. World War II Aircrat. [Online]         Available at:    http://ethw.org/World_War_II_Aircraft            [Accessed January 2018].

Hassel, P., 2012. A History of Development of the Variablle Pitch Propeller. [Online] Available     at: hamburg.de/pers/Scholz/dglr/hh/text_2012_04_26_VariablePitchPropellor.pdf       [Accessed 30 January 2018].

Lawless, R. & Shaheen, T., 1988. Airplanes and Airports: The Subtle Skill of Japanese      Protectionism. SAIS Review, pp. 101-120.

Massachussets Institute of Technology, 2017. Aluminium as a Fues. [Online] Available at:            https://www.ll.mit.edu/publications/technotes/TechNote_AIH20_Fuel.pdf [Accessed        January 2018].

NASA, 1997. Boundary Layer Control, STOL, V/STOL Aircraft Research. [Online]           Available at: https://history.nasa.gov/SP-3300/ch8.htm [Accessed January 2018].

Technische Universitat Darmstadt, 2016. What causes ice formation on aircrafts during flight?.     [Online] Available at: https://phys.org/news/2016-01-ice-formation-aircrafts-flight.html            [Accessed January 2018].

University of Southampton, 2018. Curtis-Wright: Greatness and Decline (review). [Online]           Available at:            https://www.southampton.ac.uk/~jps7/Aircraft%20Design%20Resources/aerodynamics    Bristol%20University%20Breguet%20range%20eqn.pdf        [Accessed January 2018].

 

 

Gender Roles In Advertising/ Women as sex objects

February 14, 2018

Advertisement is one of the major weapons that people use to communicate about their brand and gain popularity among other homogenous products. Presently, the advertisement is one of the core activity that many businesses use to attract and maintain their customer base in their market environment. I have selected this topic because in daily routine, we come across many advertisements in a wide range of environment in the areas we go. In most of the scenarios, companies use the opportunity to promote their brands as well as maintaining their business quo. In the same time, some adverts that use women pictures appear differently with others and sometimes sells a notion of inferiority and poor image among the female gender. As a result, some of the adverts portray women as sex objects more than human, therefore, diminishing human dignity and the human status. The advert tends to show a non-human character that end-up with a bad opinion. The ultimate goal of an advertisement is to attract a certain customer base with a purpose of making them use a certain brand of product. In contrary, some adverts attempt to bring a picture that lacks to show the key reason for that advertisement and in turn appear as a way of undermining women in the same process. Therefore, the key reason for this research paper is to explore the gender roles in advertising especially to women because of the stereoscopic nature of men who try to negatively influence their roles of advertising in the society. A female gender is a unique group of people that share many roles even in other areas of the society. However, people who fail to respect their presence commit an offense of violating their rights hence cultivating a bad picture that can influence the social fabric of the society.

First, advertising companies use gender to provide a real picture in attracting customers of that specific brand. It important to notice that a female gender always portray an attractive, pleasant look that makes them more sustainable for adverts that require a lot of attraction. It is evident that when advertisers are in need of building the good picture in the brand of products they aim to dispose to the female customers, pleasant appearance of attractive female pictures are used. During advertising of a certain outfit in magazines and billboards, women are set to appear young, slim and fit to the desired standard and attractive to users of that specific brand. The advert has the ability to send a message to all people on the fitness and the acceptability of the outfit worn. In that regard, the pool of customers creates an interest to test and try the outfit upon the awareness. According to Dah al et., (2009), an advertisement can be greatly responsible for eliciting views to the people in the society. In instances where an erected billboard portrays a half-naked female picture, it influences people to undermine the female gender and view them as sex objects. The opinion by the people come as a result of the conclusions that are made after viewing the image exposed in the erected billboard. In addition, some of the projected half-naked pictures in the media viewed with the purpose of advertisement, create conflicted opinion, some people believing to be immoral whereas other assuming female gender to be sex objects. Therefore, people should not put more significance on what the media want to portray members of the society, but they should rather take on how people interact with others

Second, gender is important in ensuring an advert of a specific item reaches the desired customer base. For instance, when a company is planning to advertise a female outfits or consumables such as skirts, it uses a female picture on the advert in the written and print media. The advert cannot be applied to the male gender because they are not related with the outfit. Every gender plays a critical role by advertising the brand of product that belongs to them. Although female gender is assumed senseless domestics and sex machinery, they take a critical role in the field of advertising (Pang, 2007). The feminine and the tender nature make women suitable in the adverts of many items than men. Though there is no evidence, it is believed that female talk more than their counterpart and more cautious than male. Alternatively, in national and international media, women are used in advertising laundry items such as detergents and therefore a strong tool in the field of advertising. It is obvious female are assumed inferior and persons of lows status but male should respect and adore their effort. As a result, the male should not retain their traditional stereoscopic nature of viewing women as sex objects but should view them as an icon of change and prosperity of the whole society. Despite women have several domestic roles in the family set up, their abilities should never be underestimated. The extensive development in the field of advertisement can be attested to the abilities of women who dominate in the advertising field for many products. The male assumption and the ill-treatment of the female gender are not only barbaric but also inhuman and immoral to treat the other human as non-human. Therefore, it is my conviction that the male opinion will continually change and observe the significant roles that women play in advertising.

Third, female gender is known to be hardworking and devoted to performing many chores that lead to creativity and innovation in the advertising field. According to Plakoyiannak (2008), despite the perennial imbalance of power between the genders, female in businesses are making great strides in marketing and advertising of products. It was earlier noted that the power that a woman can use in performing duties if transformed to the field of advertising can be very progressive. In that fact, by changing altitude and creating interest, the abilities noted on women are great. Parallel to the duties that they perform in other areas, women have proved to be powerful tools that can steer both businesses and the country ahead. In instances when female related products are advertised, for example, cosmetics, women always come up with designs to project the best image and create attraction to the target customer base. Moreover, women possess skills that sometimes make them more desirable than their fellow male counterpart because of their tolerance and their strong speaking strength.  Due to the market dynamics, entrepreneurial women always come up with different methods of reaching to their customers. Therefore basing the previous assumption of how women are taken as sex objects, their dedication and devotion to breaking the old belief have developed their freedom and dignity in the perception of the whole female gender. In that regard, women no longer retain the previous image of sex object that undermines human status in every society.

In conclusion, it is evident that women are presumed negatively by their fellow men despite the role they perform in the advertising industry. Therefore, gender plays a great role in advertising in an attempt to bring this barbaric action to an end.  It is imperative for both genders to participate and collaborate to improve the advertising processes as they develop a close interaction to end the old fallacy of women being sex objects. The interaction between the two genders helps to solve the issues of men and women equality, lower the stereoscopic nature as well as building the dignity for each side. According to Pang (2007), people should support advertising media that foster efforts to end gender stereoscopic issues and practices that discriminate women. It is key to recognize the fruitful role that women play in the advertising field in an attempt to end the unacceptable belief of human segregation. In this regard, it is also important to recognize the potentials power of advertising that may show a realistic image and change how men perceive women. If men change the way they perceive women, the traditional belief can come to an end. On the other side, women can deliver themselves by playing their position gallantly and raise their strength in performing their duties better than men. It is also essential for advertising media to shun the practice of using half-naked female when advertising a certain brand of product. This will equally steer the effort toward ending the male perception of women.

References

Dahl, D., Sengupta, J., Vohs, K., & John Deighton. (2009). Sex in Advertising: Gender Differences and the Role of Relationship Commitment. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(2), 215-231.

Pang, L. (2007). Advertising and the Visual Display of Women. In The Distorting Mirror: Visual Modernity in China (pp. 102-130). University of Hawai’i Press.

Plakoyiannaki, E., Mathioudaki, K., Dimitratos, P., & Zotos, Y. (2008). Images of Women in Online Advertisements of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist? Journal of Business.

Tiger Company Innovation Strategies

February 12, 2018

Q A: Two Business Functions to help Identify and Address Organization’s Innovation Needs

Change is as good as rest. In modern business world, competition has grown in escalating levels making it inevitable (Tohidi & Jabbari, 2012) for firms and businesses such as Tiger to consider making changes in their operations. This need for change may be brought about by either internal or external forces and depends on the nature of the industry in which the business fall as well as the dynamism that exists at a particular moment.  Identification of areas that require innovation is a combined effort from business functions such as marketing, operations, and finance among others (Gupta et al., 2016). Tiger’s marketing function can help in identifying innovation needs by carrying out market intelligence in order to collect customer feedback on satisfaction and gather information on new product development and improvement. This would provide Tiger with exact customer needs and offer confidence in the positioning of new products in the market. The marketing department can help in identifying new ways of conducting business. For example, by conducting market research, it could come up with improved packaging tactics that can make the delivery process effective especially for fragile items.

Innovation process requires vast resources ranging from human, capital, technological and financial resources. Finance function in Tiger can help to identify innovation needs by finding new ways of managing and tracking finances for effective utilization. From the case study, Tiger finds online shopping expensive due to the transactional cost involved thus the need to develop methods of reducing this cost to a manageable level. The finance function can also suggest financial software to be used in facilitating e-payments and refunding overpayments if need be. Tiger is signing a 10year lease plan for its shops, which creates an opportunity for the finance function to develop a tool for a cost-benefit analysis for both physical and online shopping (Wilson, 2013). The fact that Tiger owns many shops in different regions is an innovation chance itself as the finance department can develop electronic means of interlinking financial transactions such that they are traceable.

QB: Applying the Two Business Functional Innovation Perspective for Tiger

Marketing forms the heart of any business organizations extension plans (Gotz, Hansen, Jo & Krafft, 2009). With good marketing practices any organization can manage to reach out to new customers; thus, improving the market share and profitability. Tiger Company has been opposing the idea of online marketing based on the associated increased cost of packaging and fragility of the products. The brick and mortar distribution approach is falling out of favor with the increasing technology adoption and increased internet connectivity (Mohammadzadeh, Aarabi & Salamzadeh, 2013). Resisting the change may work against the company progressive development. The company should engage in adopting and appreciating the new platforms for marketing such as the online platform.

Through marketing research, the company can identify the main online platforms where it customers often visits. Adding the customer coverage and share is a plus that should be considered. Having a website for displaying their products is inadequate. Tiger Company should engage in online marketing as a complementary platform for the brick and mortar marking platform. The data acquired through marketing research can be used to help the company come up with new innovations approaches, which addresses the identified challenges ongoing online such as cost (Gotz, Hansen, Jo & Krafft, 2009). With the company being global, online platform can join the clients from all the outlets. The platform can also offer review forums that can help towards improving the products and operation of the company.

The second functional perspective that Tiger Company can exploit innovatively and creatively is the finance function. With the company wrestling for the customers with other global companies in the kitchenware retail trading, finance is a key factor to consider when laying down a platform for improving the company performance. Inadequate finances may limit the degree of finance committed to research and innovation (Mohammadzadeh, Aarabi & Salamzadeh, 2013). However, this limitation as evidenced to be the major impediment to maximizing on the online platform should be a motivator for finding what works for the company with the limited finance. Necessity is the mother of innovation. With the need to improve productivity and sales in limited financial capability, the company should innovate ways of meeting the desires. In the modern society, the principles of lean production can be borrowed to infer of best practices in retailing activities (Jasti & Kodali, 2012) to help the company reduce of wastage and maximize on allocating the resources to functions that have a direct improvement on performance.

QC: Challenges Managers at Tiger might face in Choosing the Functional Perspective

Marketing and finance functional perspective have both direct and indirect interaction and interdependence. For marketers to come up with feasible, appropriate, relevant, and effective innovation for Tiger business, the finance department must be involved in ensuring that such innovations are included in the budget. Too expensive innovations may not be adopted since the business may be inadequate to meet the cost. The innovation identified by the marketing functional arm of the business must be cost-effective. According to the current Tiger director, Mr. Bire, migrating to e-marketing aggressively may be limited by transactional cost, fragility, and bulkiness of the company products. While the managed in the finance department may be cautious on entertaining a platform that may be costly, the manager in the marketing department may feel the migration from brick and mortar strategy to the extensive online platform is the right step towards the future (Micu, Ifrim, Daraban & Purdescu, 2012).

Mind Map

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Gotz. O, Hansen. A. K, Jo.A.R, Krafft.M (2009). The role of marketing and sales in             organizations and its impact on performance. Marketing Science Institute. Retrieved        from: http://www.msi.org/reports/the-role-of-marketing-and-sales-in-organizations-            and-its-impact-on-performa/

Gupta, S., Malhotra, N.K., Czinkota, M. et al. (2016). Marketing innovation: a consequence of           competitiveness. Journal of Business Research.69(12); 5671 – 5681 

Jasti, N.V.K & Kodali, R. (2012). Lean production: literature review and trends. International   Journal of Production Research, 53(3); 867 -885

Micu, D., Ifrim, L., Daraban, C. & Purdescu, C. (2012). Cross-functional linkages between        marketing and other business functions in an industrial organization. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series D: Mechanical Engineering. 74. 241-252.

Mohammadzadeh, M., Aarabi, S.M. & Salamzadeh, J. (2013). Organizational performance,   marketing strategy, and financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian          pharmaceutical firms. Daru Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21(1); 65 – 68

Tohidi. T, Jabbari, M. M (2012). The importance of innovation and its crucial role in growth,            survival and success of organizations. Procedia Technology 535-538. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221201731200117X

Wilson, A. (2013). Online? It’s not really our top priority; A Danish Homeware chain, Tiger, is            flourishing without the internet. The Daily Telegraph.

QUALITIES OF A GOOD PROJECT LEADER

February 12, 2018

Qualities of a Good Project Leader

Executive Summary

Leadership is the art of organizing a group of people to work towards achieving a common objective. This activity brings out the ability to move others and being set up to do all things under consideration. Excellent leadership relies upon accounts paying little heed to whether one of a kind or procured, in any case, will not happen unless those thoughts can be granted to others in a way that associates with them enough to go about as the leader needs them to act.  An excellent initiative is essential to business, to the government,  to the different social occasions, and affiliations that shape the way on how people work, play and live. Having a great idea, and get-together a gathering to revive that thought is the underlying stage in influencing a productive business to meander (Ullah 2013). The criticalness of a specialist in an organization cannot be exaggerated. In-order for the employees to complete the tasks assigned to them, the administration should enforce control in the organization.

Leadership Style

Jeffrey Bezos is an excellent example of a suitable leader. He is the leader of American innovation and retail business visionary, PC researcher financial specialist and magnanimous which is known as the pioneer, director, and CEO of Amazon.com. Jeffrey Bezos demonstrates autocratic leadership. In this kind of leadership, the manager controls all expert and makes decisions on his own without consulting his juniors. The leader realizes that his choices have an impact on his junior support staffs towards their performance. The autocratic place of work does not have flexibility. Bezos has taught his employees to be submissive and to be productive in a hard way but the end up doing so well. In the beginning, he was a bookseller with around 150 employees where he expanded this organization to what it is today with employees who are about 560 thousand.

 

Leadership Behaviors

Leadership behaviors are critical in any team. The embodiment of authority in associations is impacting and encouraging individual and aggregate endeavors to fulfill the shared objectives. Leaders can enhance the execution of a group or organization by affecting the procedures that l performance. A vital goal in a significant part of the administration look into has been to recognize elements of conduct that clarify leader impact on the execution of a group, work unit, or association (Avolio 2004). To be very valuable for outlining research and refining hypotheses, leaders conduct classifications ought to be noticeable, particular, quantifiable, and essential for some sorts of leaders, and scientific categorizations of leaders practices ought to be far-reaching yet niggardly. Apparently, for acceleration to work, a group’s administrator should be tremendous, and it has to be overruled. Bezos gives a case of his being revoked. However, one detects his illustration is the exception as opposed to the run the show. Bezos requests quick activity and brisk determination when individuals dislike this idea. Fatigue with contradiction is something any individual who works in a extensive association can see great. Bezos does not lose his focus which is the customer where he says the customer is the king. He keeps his employees on toes to make the customer happy which brings the best out of his actions.

 

Impacts of Leadership Behaviors

Leadership behavior will always have a significant effect on any organization. The principle point of initiative conduct is to impact organizational individuals’ activities since it is through the conduct of the individuals that associations’ objectives will be accomplished. Powerful utilization of leader’s conduct will expand the viability of both the leader and the association (Erkutlu 2008). The reason for this investigation is to investigate the effect of initiative conduct on authoritative responsibility. There has been broad enthusiasm for transformational authority practices among leaders of associations (Oreg & Berso 2011). Transformational leaders tend to have certain abilities and capabilities, for example, respectability, inspiration, drive, enthusiastic insight, self-assurance, knowledge, and information of the business. These are the necessary aptitudes to get workers included and focused on the change process. The connection between a transformational administration style and full of feeling responsibility regarding change is the fundamental impact will be examined in this paper. The emphasis is because of a transformational leader on the full of feeling duty of representatives to authoritative change. Transformational leaders help reframe supporters’ impression of progress to see it as an open door rather than a risk. Likewise, they offer help to their devotees and enable them to unlearn past schedules, to create inventive answers for issues, and react appropriately to new conditions. The same happened in the case of Bezos where he started with self-commitment that led to the commitment of his employee. He is a leader who does not give room to laziness hence the growth of his organization.

 

Analysis Review

A leader of an organization cannot work alone. He needs his employees much for a successful business, but it starts with his commitment. They are the tone-setters. Business visionaries normally set the expert tone for their affiliation. Proprietors complete this by working up a mission or set of characteristics by which they work for their association. That influences a base level of affirmation for a laborer to direct. Business visionaries as often as possible make association methodologies or tenets from the organization’s central goal or qualities. Methods and directions similarly give business visionaries the ability to oust neglecting to meet desires agents from the association. Three sorts of the activity are run of the mill in business: dictator, law-based and free venture. Every kind of an action impacts progressive execution in an unforeseen way. Dictator organization is summoning and sets particular wants for specialists in the association. The Democratic activity bolsters feedback and commitment from chairpersons or specialists for definitive execution. A free endeavor is a hands-off approach, where chiefs and agents fill in as demonstrated by their specific slant and logbook. This specialist style can provoke poor motivation and work practices. Productive associations execution relies upon an ideal lead from chiefs and laborers. The organization can be a juvenile system in associations. Business visionaries who give activity can change a delegate from an authority completing assignments to an extraordinary associate. Organization aptitudes can help enhance a representative’s demeanor by instilling an ownership viewpoint. Agents who believe they have a quick proprietor style relationship with the affiliation as often as possible find ways to deal with improve their perspective and effectiveness. An expert can empower a business to keep up just focus on its operations. Essential business affiliations can encounter the evil impacts of exorbitantly various individuals trying to settle on business decisions. Business people can use organization capacities to get culinary experts and specialists in assertion and refocus on the primary goal.

Activity aptitudes can in like manner help redress poor business sharpens or inner conflicts between laborers. The organization can contrarily influence multiple leveled execution. Pioneers who are too much overpowering or ended up being focused on achieving targets can disregard different purposes of enthusiasm for the business affiliation. Executives and specialists may in like manner be less prepared to help prevalent or to a high degree essential pioneers with satisfying destinations and targets. Administering organization makes troublesome business associations. Diverse associations and business people avoid overwhelming pioneers who dependably request related cash points of interest. Bezos initiative is not constructed just in light of monetary benefit. He is sympathetic and comprehends his representatives where he gives them the opportunity to talk their brain in the event of an issue regardless of the possibility that it is close to home he will tune in and help as much as he can. Influential pioneers appreciate the noteworthiness of collaboration and how to combine everyone’s capacities. In case you cannot work with different people to finish a shared target, it will be hard to get the trust and respect from staff. The aptitudes of each person in the association can be upgraded through attractive setting up that engages everyone to manage their commitments proficiently. Staff people ought to be set up to wind up recognizably aware of what is relied upon of them and also to develop their capacities. Bezos work as one with his representatives which makes an extraordinary group.

Conclusion

The correct sort of good leadership is vital for any substantial business, paying little respect to its size or industry. Organizations can just gain ground if the great initiative is set up that empowers them to advance. At the point when the leader of a group does not have the required abilities, he or she will not have the capacity to spur their workers adequately. Thus, he will limit the business from engaging in new ventures. Individuals who are in place of expert should know that the achievement of their organization goes before their individual needs. They should concentrate on what the business can accomplish by working with whatever is left of the group. Leader’s activities ought to reflect what you say since employees will watch how they handle their obligations as a leader and gage their dedication. Fruitful leaders gain from their missteps and take responsibility for their activities. A decent leader never dithers to concede when he or she has neglected to meet commitments. Being a successful leader implies you should be focused on all parts of running an organization efficiently, with the point of achieving a common goal.

 

 

Bibliography

Avolio, B.J., Zhu, W., Koh, W. and Bhatia, P 2004. ‘Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance’. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(8), pp.951-968.

Deanne, N. and Paul, L 2001. ‘Leadership in organizations. handbook of industrial, work & organizational psychology: volume 2’, Organizational Psychology, p.166.

Erkutlu, H., 2008. ‘The impact of transformational leadership on organizational and leadership effectiveness: the Turkish case’, Journal of Management Development, 27(7), pp.708-726.

House, R.J., Hanges, P.J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W. and Gupta, V 2004. ‘Culture, leadership, and organizations: the globe study of 62 societies’, Sage publications.

Judge, T.A. and Piccolo, RF 2004. ‘Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validit’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), p.755.

Robinson, V.M., Lloyd, C.A. and Rowe, KJ 2008. ‘The impact of leadership on student outcomes: An analysis of the differential effects of leadership types’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 44(5), pp.635-674.

Sendjaya, S. and Sarros, JC 2002. ‘Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations’, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(2), pp.57-64.

Ullah, A 2013.’Impact of leadership on organizational performance’, Sage publications.

Vera, D. and Crossan, M 2004. ‘Strategic leadership and organizational learning’, Academy of management review, 29(2), pp.222-240.

 

Open innovation – Is it suitable for entrepreneurial ventures?

February 12, 2018

Table of Contents

Open innovation – Is it suitable for entrepreneurial ventures?. 1

Executive Summary. 3

1.Introduction. 4

2.Open Innovation. 4

2.1. Importance of open innovation. 4

3.Creating a culture of open innovation in an organization. 5

3.1.Collaboration and open innovation. 6

3.2.Digitally enabled collaboration. 6

4.Challenges in establishing open innovation. 6

Conclusion. 7

Bibliography. 8

Appendices 1…………………………………………………………………………..…………10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive Summary

This paper examines open innovation and its suitability in entrepreneurial venture. Innovation is a crucial part of an organization, in that; it helps to boost productivity and performance of the organization in the industry. Unlike the traditional approach of innovation in which the entire process was only focused on internal operations of the organization, open innovation aims at connecting the eternal and internal setting of an organization by taking technologies and ideas from within and outside the organization. In this, paper, the argument will revolve around establishing a link between internal R&D approach and external research. Open innovation provides a good basis for promoting performance of the organization by enhancing various activities such as production, design and distribution of products. Through the entire analysis, the paper will provided a comprehensive understanding of open innovation as the new trend in the entrepreneurial venture.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Introduction

            Open innovation is the focus on using both internal and external information and ideas in establishing strong bases in a given market. Embracing these strategies require a high level of openness to attract new relationships which can be helpful to the success of the business. Chesbrough (2011) explains the open innovation as the incorporation of the inflow and outflow of knowledge to boost the invention and innovation of new ideas in the organization. Traditionally, organizations were focused on engaging in international research and development (R&D), as a way of improving the operations of the organization. However, because of the changes in the market and stiff competition that has clobbered virtually every industry, corporations have come to understand the need for understanding both the internal and the external setting of the business. Entrepreneurial ventures are required to be keen on taking the expanding information in order to increase their level of innovation and growth both internally and externally in the target market. In a highly competitive market, the management should be well informed of the changes taking place in the market. In venture, right information can include the information about the availability of the quality raw materials, new components and the new designs that will help to boost the competitive advantage (Chesbrough 2011). This paper examines the suitability of open innovation in the entrepreneurial venture.

2.     Open Innovation

            Since time in history, innovation has been the key factor to the continued success of any business. Many organizations understand this, but they fail to put in place right measures and strategies to enhance the level of innovation in the organization. Innovation helps to keep corporations float even during harsh economic times for instance during the global financial crisis of 2008 (Cheng & Huizingh, 2014).Although it is important for organizations to understand the internal operations setting, having a good knowledge of the external environment is important for helping the organization to maneuver the changing markets, customers demand and the stiffening competition. Chesbrough and Garman (2009) most organizations fail to succeed in the long-term because they only direct their resources towards transient projects that are likely to bring short-term monetary gains. What they fail to understand is that directing a given portion of resources to R&D can help the organization to reap significantly in the future.

Figure 1: Showing how the growth of technology has ensured the business growth

 

The quality of investment increases with the increase in the growth of technology. Open innovation comes with two main properties. Firstly, the main aspect of open innovation is the use of outside information to boost the internal innovation of the organization. The second property is the use of the internal information to align the operations to synchronize with the market (Van de Vrande et al., 2009). Organizations are required to take technologies and ideas that match with the business model then implement them to improve performance. Achieving the anticipated performance, the organization should ensure that the business model is flexible enough to incorporate the changes that are introduced from outside (Enkel, Gassmann & Chesbrough 2009).

2.1.Importance of open innovation

            According to the research by Enkel, Gassmann and Chesbrough (2009), open innovation helps ventures to acquire a survival mechanism when confronted by tough economic challenges or a plunge of a target market. Because open innovation is more about strategizing on new measures to meet the demands of the overall market, it, therefore, helps to ensure sustainability amid the ever-changing circumstance in the industry.  According to Chesbrough (2011), open innovation bridges the gap between academic analysis and practical analysis of innovation. Open innovation is an important concept that brings in diverse ideas to boost the operations of the organization. The idea of open innovation is based on the fact that organization must rely on one other in order to effectively engage in the innovation process regardless of size and area of operations (Saebi & Foss, 2015).

Another area impacted by open innovation is on efficiency and quality of products. With the consistent change in demands of customers in the market, open innovation is important for ventures seeking to promote loyalty among customers. When the firms engage in the constant innovation process, it enables them to change their operations to align with the demands of their customers. The loyalty of customers is achieved by ensuring that the products manufactured are in line with their desires. The products should be in a constant improvement mode not only to maintain the customer base but also as a strategy of promoting the competitive advantage in the market (Enkel, Gassmann & Chesbrough 2009).

Apart from promoting the long-term success of the organization, open innovation is more cost effective as compared to internal R&D strategies which only focus on the internal operations of the organization. In addition to reduction of cost of research and innovation, open innovation creates new avenues for promoting the success of the organization.  There are different ways in which open innovation promotes an increase in revenue including the improvement in the quality of products, development of new markets and efficient line supply chain routes (Mina, Bascavusoglu-Moreau & Hughes, 2014).

Open innovation is an important concept that enables corporations to access ideas and technologies which they would however not achieve. Further, the ideas yield improvement of product designs, generate simple market operations strategies, in addition to helping organizations to acquires patents that for the innovations. Open innovation is also a good strategy through which organization can use commercialize their innovation especially when they do not have adequate resources or expertise to implement the innovation (Mention et al. 2013).

3.     Creating a culture of open innovation in an organization

            Although open innovation is an important factor in the venture, it is important for an organization to in place a culture that favors the concept. In establishing a culture that promotes open innovation, the management should first examine the main road blocks to the establishment of an effective culture of innovation. According to Felin and Zenger (2014), the culture of an organization influences how different decisions are made and how processes are conducted in the organization. Organizations should establish new values that favor open and honest communication, in addition to given the different parties in the organization an opportunity to take part in the decision making processes.

Cultural realignment of the organization is stemmed from first identifying what innovation means to the organization. Understanding the essence of innovation in the organization is important for setting goals that will guide the operations and other processes in the organization. According to Enkel, Gassmann and Chesbrough (2009), organizations should leverage on technology as a way of promoting the level of engagement among the different parties working in the organization. The internet can be used to create forums that can help employees and other parties to learn and share. It is important for an organization to encourage every member of the organization to be open to sharing and learning from others. Finally, the management is recommended to examine the progress as well as the new areas of improvement (West & Bogers 2014).

In the industry of operation, corporations are required to examine the right peers in the industry with whom they share same challenges and aspirations in the industry. A collaborative approach to the challenges facing the industry can help the firms to come with an effective solution to the problem. Effective collaboration is achieved by having a communication strategy and platforms that allow for effective sharing (Enkel, Gassmann & Chesbrough 2009).

3.1.Collaboration and open innovation

            Although collaboration is an effective means for implementing open innovation, corporations are required to select the right companies to increase their chances of success. There are different factors that should be put into consideration when choosing to collaborate with other organizations (Dahlander and Gann, 2010). Firstly, collaborating partners should have the willingness to come and work together in achieving the common goals in open innovation. Then it is advisable to examine the strengths of every partner to understand what each is bringing to the table. This should then be followed by an examination of what the organizations are coming together aims at achieving from the partnership (Garriga, Von Krogh & Spaeth 2013).

Chesbrough (2011) argues that open innovation is a complex process that entails heads of different departments to work along with other experts in the industry. Incorporating different skilled people in the partnership is imperative for the contribution of a wide range of ideas. The proponents of open innovation argue that partnering organizations should be prepared to counter the potential objection of the strategy by the employees working in the organization. The parties working on the project work as promoters on various issues facing the organization from within and work in sharing its ideas with the other members (Mergel & Desouza 2013).

3.2.Digitally enabled collaboration

The growth of technology has provided new platforms through which organizations can use to collaborate with other organizations and share information that can help boost the level of innovation. According to the research by Chesbrough (2011), organizations are increasingly entertaining the idea of digital collaboration and agree to the fact that it is a good tool for future performance in the future. The internet and social media have helped to eliminate the geographical difference that was one of the major impediments to effective collaboration between different corporations. Additionally, apart from eliminating the geographical barrier, the internet has come with flexibility so that organizations can collaborate and share without having to travel. Effective collaboration comes with the ability of not only sharing information but also creating a fertile ground for innovation (Henkel, 2010).

Open innovation, being a decentralized strategy of making decisions that are aligned with the standing of the market, is highly contingent to the collaboration of corporations. For open innovation to take a strong base, organizations are required to come together and share their ideas. Unlike the internal R&D, open innovation allows an organization to take ideas and technologies that are beneficial to the organization (Chesbrough & Garman, 2009). Additionally, organizations are also free to share their own ideas and information with other organizations in the industry. The sharing of information and idea creates an inflow and outflow of information which is used to boost the level of innovation in the organization and performance of the organization. Through the sharing of information with other partners, corporations are able to reach products in the market using either exclusive or inclusive approach to innovation strategy (Vega-Jurado et al., 2015).

4.     Challenges in establishing open innovation

            Open innovation has become an important tool to boosting growth in the industry. However, it is important to understand that the implementing the new concept comes with a fair share of challenges. The first problem that faces open innovation is intellectual property issues whereby legal risks are involved in case of violation (West & Gallagher, 2016). IP challenges are caused by the fact that some companies may lack an effective policy on intellectual property therefor risk the innovations of other companies. To counter these challenges, it is important to establish laws to guide the operations of the organization to safeguard the innovations gained. Violation of intellectual property laws comes with the legal challenges that can attract huge fines as well as dent the image of an organization. Additionally, apart from operating in the local setting, technology can help to enforce IP laws beyond the geographical barrier, the internet has come with flexibility so that organizations can collaborate and share without having to travel. Effective collaboration comes with the ability of not only sharing information but also creating a fertile ground for innovation (Mention et al., 2013).

Another challenge facing open innovation is sluggishness in the implementation of the ideas. The low pace in open innovation is caused by lack of sufficient communication combined with ineffective technological tools. Organizations coming together to form a partnership should be keen on ensuring that the ideas are processed efficiently. Every collaborative innovation comes with winners and losers; therefore it is important to establish fast screening method to decide between the two (Chesbrough2011).

Conclusion

            Since time in history, innovation has been the key factor to the continued success of any business. Many organizations understand this but they fail to put in place right measures and strategies to enhance the level of innovation in the organization. Open innovation helps to ensure that organizations are able to embrace the full potential regarding production, distribution and marketing of its products. Innovation helps to keep corporations float even during harsh economic times for instance during the global financial crisis of 2008. Although it is important for organizations to understand the internal operations setting, having a good knowledge of the external environment is important for helping the organization to maneuver the changing markets, customers demand and the stiffening competition. Collaboration is a crucial part of innovation in the sense that as organizations combine, they establish a platform through which they can use to share as well as learn from other parties in the collaboration. During the formation of the collaborative partnership, corporations are required to examine what each side is bringing to the table as well as what each party expects to gain. With the growth of technology, the internet has provided a platform through which organizations can collaborate regardless of their difference in their geographical locations. However, it is important to understand that the implementing the new concept comes with a fair share of challenges. The first problem that faces open innovation is intellectual property issues whereby legal risks are involved in case of violation.

 

Bibliography

Chesbrough, H. & Garman, A, R. 2009.How Open Innovation can Help You Cope in Lean Time. Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2009/12/how-open-innovation-can-help-you-cope-in-lean-times. [October 10, 2017]

Chesbrough, H. 2011. Everything you Need to Know About Open Innovation. Forbes.Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/henrychesbrough/2011/03/21/everything-you-need-to-know-about-open-innovation/#3d4d7b4875f4%5BOctober 10, 2017]

Cheng, C. C., & Huizingh, E. K. (2014). When is open innovation beneficial? The role of strategic orientation. Journal of Product Innovation Management31(6), 1235-1253.

Dahlander, L. and Gann, D.M., 2010. How open is innovation?.Research policy39(6), pp.699-709.

Enkel, E., Gassmann, O. & Chesbrough, H., 2009. Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R&d Management39(4), pp.311-316.

Felin, T. and Zenger, T.R., 2014. Closed or open innovation? Problem solving and the governance choice. Research Policy,43(5), pp.914-925.

Garriga, H, Von Krogh, G., & Spaeth, S 2013. How constraints and knowledge impact open innovation. Strategic Management Journal, 34(9), 1134-1144.

Henkel, J., 2010. Selective revealing in open innovation processes: The case of embedded Linux. Research policy35(7), pp.953-969.

Mina, A, Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E, & Hughes, A 2014. Open service innovation and the firm’s search for external knowledge.Research Policy43(5), 853-866.

Mention, SASAL., Al-Sharieh, S. & Mention, AL, 2013. Open Innovation and Intellectual Property. The Dark Side of Technological Innovation, p.111.

Saebi, T, & Foss, N J 2015. Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions. European Management Journal,33(3), 201-213.

Vega-Jurado, J., Juliao-Esparragoza, D., Paternina-Arboleda, C. D., & Velez, M C 2015. Integrating Technology, Management and Marketing Innovation through Open Innovation Models. Journal of technology management & innovation10(4), 85-90.

Van de Vrande, V, De Jong, J P, Vanhaverbeke, W., & De Rochemont, M 2009. Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation29(6), 423-437.

West, J & Gallagher, S 2016. Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open‐source software. R&d Management, 36(3), 319-331.

West, J & Bogers, M 2014. Leveraging external sources of innovation: a review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 814-831.

  

 

Appendices 1

Figure 2:This graph clearly shows that growth of innovation leads to the increase in the performance of the organization.

Human Resource Management

February 12, 2018

Introduction

            Case studies provide opportunities to understand how diverse functions of an organization articulate to fulfil organizational goals and objectives (Grant, 2011). This submission applies varies organizational and human resource management concepts and theories to identify and provide solutions to organizational challenges facing “no name” Aircraft. The scope of the critical analysis will be limited to culture and diversity management as well as international performance management coupled with training and development.

“No Name” Aircraft is an Australian-based aircraft manufacturer and retailer with subsidiaries in China, Singapore and Vietnam, which collectively serve over 50 markets across the globe. In recent years, communication breakdown between integrated teams and across teams and management has adversely affected organizational performance. As a result, providing customers with products of consistent quality has become a major challenge. Moreover, cultural diversity within the organization has become a barrier to staff cohesion. The senior staff is unwilling to work with their subordinates and the firm’s human resource manager deliberately refuses to hire people with disabilities in China. Moreover, performance appraisals are only conducted at the firm’s headquarters in Australia, but none at any of the subsidiaries. Finally, little or no training is provided to expatriates sent to work in foreign countries.

Culture

            The Hofstede cultural dimensions model suggests that the behavior of the members of a particular society is influenced by their society’s culture and values (Piepenburg, 2011). There are societies that value individualism whilst there are others that encourage collectivism. Organizations are themselves societies that influence the behavior of the employees (Afaneh, et al., 2014). In societies that emphasize social collectivism, all the efforts of the members are geared towards achieving collective goals. In contrast, societies that encourage individualism emphasize the need for personal gratification and enrichment (Khairullah & Khairullah, 2013). With regard to No Name Aircraft, communication between teams and across teams as well as the management had broken down as a result of each team member pursuing individual goals. As a result, a culture of near enough is good enough has developed because none of the teams are willing to make changes to products that they have already completed. Therefore, collaboration within teams is at all-time low leading to a decline in quality causing concerns among the stakeholders. Teams often work specifications for their area only without considering how the outcome will affect the other groups. This is partly because horizontal and lateral communication within the groups is non-existent. This indicates that although the employees are organized in groups to perform collective tasks, pervasive individualism has led to a breakdown in communication. Each employee is busy trying to complete their individual tasks without concern for the collective task of their team.

Meanwhile, power distance also appears to be a major factor in influencing collaboration between integrated teams, across teams and management (Schimmel, 2013). Organizations with a high power distance strictly adhere to the organizational hierarchy that defines engagement at different levels of organization (Vasile & Nicolescu, 2016). No Name Aircraft is such an organization because the less powerful in the organization rarely question the decisions of the senior management. The lower teams seem to have accepted power as being inherently distributed unequally. The production, design and assembly teams all work under the assumption that the decisions made by the senior management are final and are in the best interest of the stakeholders. Moreover, the high number of sub-teams are an indication of the disjointed power distribution that adversely affects the overall organizational performance.

Training and Development

Training and development are essential for expatriates working in foreign countries.  Alice (2011) argues that expatriates should undergo two types of training, namely hard and soft training. Hard training refers to training the expatriates to improve their skills in areas that are specific to their job requirement such engineering skills. These skills help the expatriates to perform their duties as required with little or no assistance. On the other hand, soft skills are more critical than hard skills because they pertain to the culture of the host country. Often referred to as cultural training, it entails training the expatriates the changes they are likely to encounter as a result of working in a culturally different work environment (Harzing & Pinnington, 2011). For instance, prior to relocating to China, expatriates sent by the company to work in China should have basic training in the Chinese culture, more so business and social mannerisms. According to Briscoe, et al. (2012), the expatriates should also be educated about the culture of the host country to enhance their assimilation process. Professionally, expatriates must learn how to relate and socialize with the native residents of the host country. In most countries, it is customary for expatriates to establish social relations with potential business associates and clients (Kats, et al., 2010). In others, it is considered rude to approach a person of a higher rank or status. These minute differences can break or build an expatriate’s experience in a foreign country. With regard to the case study, expatriates leaving to work in Singapore, China, or Vietnam received limited training, usually lasting half a day. The HR expects them to rely on online sources because it is assumed that their needs are universal. As a result, the majority of the expatriates are poorly prepared to start a new life in a foreign country. The slow pace of adapting to their new surroundings often adversely affects their performance. Moreover, there are no avenues for the expatriates to provide feedback regarding the quality and effectiveness of the training. For instance, one of the employees sent to No Name Aircraft’s subsidiary in Singapore confirmed that expatriates are not provided with any training to help them integrate with their surroundings once they arrive. Despite the growing need within the company to conduct systematic workforce planning and management, the senior management is unwilling to pursue this goal. As a result, the majority of the employees are not aware of their career prospects with the company. Moreover, the senior management is not making plans to develop junior employees to become future leaders. Consequently, most of the employees due for promotion continue to be poached by other companies. This means that the company is losing talents that could have secured its future to its competitors.

International Performance Management

            The performance of an organization at the international level is closely linked to international performance appraisals. According to Dowling, et al. (2008), an international performance appraisal is a deliberate HRM process that enables organizations operating in the international market to assess and constantly improve subsidiary and corporate performance against clearly defined objectives. An effective international performance appraise generates strong initiative for the employees working in different subsidiaries in different market segments across the globe to act in accordance with the home company’s interests (Harzing & Pinnington, 2011). In most cases, such as the No name Aircraft, goal incongruence and information asymmetry often affect collaboration between the parent company and its subsidiaries. For instance, performance appraisals are only conducted by the HR in Australia leaving all the subsidiaries unattended. As a result, employees working in No Name Aircraft subsidiaries have no benchmarks to assess their performance. This is besides the fact that the senior management at the firm’s headquarters in Australia rarely considers the economic factors that influence business operations of subsidiaries in Vietnam, Singapore, and China. This approach has had adverse impacts on the operations of the subsidiaries because decisions made in Australia affect each of the subsidiaries. What’s more annoying is the fact that senior officials in Australia have developed a tendency of issuing directives to subsidiaries that are in complete contrast with the performance outcomes of the latter. This has led to surplus requirements of the same aircraft parts available in Australia. It is also worth noting that No Name Aircraft lacks a comprehensive policy that underpins performance management. There are no measures to evaluate whether each subsidiary is fulfilling its mandate such as meeting product targets or benchmarks. Operating in isolation and expecting each subsidiary to match the requirements of the organizational strategy is a recipe for failure (Eroglu, 2014). This is because it is impossible to coordinate and evaluate the performance of each subsidiary without establishing the scope of their operations. Each subsidiary should have a clearly defined function in addition to an accompanying performance appraisal policy that articulates the outcomes of each subsidiary with the outcomes of the parent company (Harzing & Pinnington, 2011). This makes it easier for the senior management of the parent company to monitor and coordinate the operations of each subsidiary to improve the overall organizational performances. For instance, the design team in Singapore should liaise with the production team in China to ensure that the right aircraft parts are produced to match the expectations of the assembly team.

Diversity Management

            Human resource management (HRM) is an essential aspect of organizational management as it facilitates the management of an organization’s human resources to maximize the utility of the talents within the workforce, asserts Alice (2011). It plays a strategic role in managing people and the workplace culture and environment. One of the principles of HRM emphasizes the need to create workplace environments that allow the staff to work harmoniously without experiencing any form of discrimination (Bedi, et al., 2014). On their part, Baker and Doran (2007) argue that maintaining a conducive work atmosphere is a critical aspect of HRM because the overall performance of an employee within an organization is largely influenced by the prevailing culture of the workplace. A working environment that fosters collaboration and cooperation between employees of different age groups, gender, and race brings out the best in all the employees. Collectively, individual talents can be harnessed to effectively complete a particular task that would otherwise be difficult to complete in isolation (Uddin & Chowdhury, 2015). However, conflicts are inevitable in the workplace because people are bound to differ. Human resource management contributes to conflict resolution by mediating issues in an effective manner. Each individual is given an opportunity to be heard before a solution to the conflict is conceptualized and implemented.

With regard to the case study, the diversity management policy was limited to respectful relations between individuals of different race, gender, age groups, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, physical abilities, and other philosophies. However, this approach was not sufficient in fostering a culture of embracing and working with diverse people. At work, there is a challenge working with employees from different generations. The senior staff members do not feel comfortable working with the apprentices. This is detrimental to staff cohesion because the older employees look down on novice employees. Moreover, the managers operating in China deliberately ignores job applications by people with disabilities. Such an approach to the recruitment and selection process contravenes the principles of good human resource management because it condones discrimination based on a person’s physical abilities. This is besides the fact that the human resource manager has not yet developed a policy document to help the employees understand how to relate with each other. One of the core tenets of HRM emphasizes the need to develop a policy document that explains how each employee should conduct themselves in the workplace (Uddin & Chowdhury, 2015). It contains guidelines regarding behaviors and practices that are considered appropriate in the workplace. Unfortunately, the manager of No Name Aircraft ignores the fact that interactions between the employees are influenced by how they perceive each other. This highlights the need for the HR to emphasize the need to understand and appreciate the culture of other people in order to know more about the people within headquarters, each subsidiary and across the subsidiaries.

Conclusion

            In concise, the failure of the human resource manager to respond to how the employees perceive each other has led to communication breakdown. The firm’s culture appears to foster individualism that is hindering team work. Intragroup and intergroup cooperation and communication are none existent. On the other hand, expatriates leaving to work in foreign countries receive half a day training, which is not sufficient to prepare them for the integration process. This is partly because No Name Aircraft lacks a training and development strategy. Junior employees are sidelined by the senior management instead of being trained to become future leaders. Meanwhile, there are conflicts between the parent company and its subsidiaries because the former does not involve the latter in key decisions. Apparently, decisions made in Australia are expected to be implemented by subsidiaries in Singapore, China, and Vietnam without prior consultation. This has led to surplus production and operational conflicts between the parent company and its subsidiaries. Finally, the firm’s sole diversity management policy fails in addressing cultural diversity within the firm. As a result, age discrimination is prevalent within the organization. The senior employees do not want to work with apprentices. This is besides the fact that managers in China deliberately discriminate against individuals with disabilities during the recruitment and selection process.

Recommendations

To address the cultural challenges hindering organizational performance of No Name Aircraft, workshops and seminars should be organized to help foster interpersonal relationships between the subordinates as well as the senior management. Strong interpersonal bonds will be key in unlocking communication channels blocked by individualism prevalent within the organization. Socializing will help to break down power-distance barriers inherent to a hierarchical organizational structure.

No Name Aircraft should introduce a training and development program for the expatriates to fully prepare them to work in foreign countries. The training program should focus on both hard and soft skills to prepare them for the integration process. Also, junior employees that exhibit exemplary leadership qualities should be groomed to become future company leaders. The rest of the staff should be regularly trained to improve the skills as well as update their knowledge.

International performance appraisals should be conducted both at the corporate and subsidiary level. The managers of subsidiaries in Singapore, China, and Vietnam should be actively engaged in the decision-making process. This will help to foster goal congruence and information symmetry to improve collaboration between the parent company and its subsidiaries

With regard to diversity management, a code of ethics is urgently required to explain how each employee should conduct themselves in the workplace. It should contain guidelines regarding behaviors and practices that are considered appropriate in the workplace. This will help to address age discrimination, which is prevalent within the company. This is besides ending the ongoing recruitment and selection practice of discriminating against individuals with disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Afaneh, J. A., Sanjuq, a. M., Khaireddin, M. A. & Qaddoumi, J. B., 2014. Impact of Cultural Dimensions According to Hofstede Model on Organizational Commitment of the Middle Management at Jordanian Private Universities. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(9), pp. 129 – 146.

Alice, 2011. Human resource management. Andover: Cengage Learning EMEA,.

Baker, J. R. & Doran, M. S., 2007. Human resource management: a problem-solving approach linked to ISLLC standards. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

bedi, P., lakra, P. & Gupta, E., 2014. Workforce Diversity Management: Biggest Challenge Or Opportunity For 21st Century Organizations. Journal of Business and Management, 16(4), pp. 102-107.

Briscoe, D., Schuler, R. & Tarique, I., 2012. International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises. London: Taylor & Francis.

Dowling, P., Festing, M. & Engle, A. D., 2008. International human resource management: managing people in a multinational context.. London: Thomson Learning.

Eroglu, O., 2014. International Human Resource Management and national Cultural Challenges. Journal of Social Sciences Institute, Issue 19, pp. 91-102.

Grant, K., 2011. Case studies in knowledge management.. Reading: Academic Boookshops.

Harzing, A.-W. & Pinnington, A., 2011. International human resource management. 4 ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kats, M., Van Emmerik, I. J., Blenkinsopp, J. & Khapova, S., 2010. Exploring the Associations of Culture with Careers and the Mediating Role of HR Practices: A Conceptual Model. Career Development International, 15(4), pp. 401-418.

Khairullah, D. H. Z. & Khairullah, Z. Y., 2013. Cultural Values and Decision-Making in China. International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 3(2), pp. 1-12.

Piepenburg, K., 2011. Critical analysis of Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions to what extent are his findings reliable, valid and applicable to organisations in the 21st century?. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Schimmel, M., 2013. Hofstede and McSweeney. Viewpoints on Culture. Munchen: GRIN Verlag.

Uddin, M. & Chowdhury, M. M., 2015. Evaluation of Workforce Diversity Management Practices: A Case of Bangladesh. Journal of Business and Management, 17(8), pp. 63-71.

Vasile, A. C. & Nicolescu, L., 2016. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Management in Corporations. Cross-Cultural Management Journal, 1(9), pp. 35-46.