1. Introduction

The issue of street children has become a major topic of study in the world. Children go to the streets because of unstable families among other elements that make their life hard to live. Such families are characterized by alcoholism, low incomes, substance abuse, divorce and separation, weak relationships, and death of parents (Mathur, 2009). These children face challenges such as inadequate access to early childhood education, cleaning drinking water, food, clothing, and proper medical care. The children engage in small chores such as working in hotels, vending newspapers, washing cars where they are underpaid and mistreated (Britto and Super, 2013). Therefore, such children are vulnerable to ailments such as waterborne disease, HIV, and psychological distress. India is one of the countries faced with the challenge of street children who account for 18 million mostly in Kolkata and Bombay cities. Therefore, this project proposal seeks to establish the plan for rehabilitating 1,000,000 street children in India through sustainable programs such as early childhood education, early, and proper nutrition for a period of two years (Mathur, 2009). The project is thereby described. It covers the objectives and justification supported by literature review. The members of the project are also explained. Also included is the timeframe, the place, the actual plan for the project, the pricing, and the project sustainability.

2.0 Rationale and Objectives

The establishment of the two rehabilitation centres will decongest the two cities of India of the street children. Therefore, the projects will assist in the provision of basic services like early childhood education, clean food and water, and proper clothing to the children. Such projects create employment opportunities to the communities involved. They will have long-term positive economic and social effects on the lives of children through social inclusion (Arnett, 2014).

2.1 Description of the project

India has faced the problem of street children for a long time and the government’s efforts to address the issue have not yielded much result (Mathur and Mathur, 2009). Most children are still wallowing in abject poverty; hence this has led to the need for this project to rehabilitate a substantial number of these children. Therefore, two rehabilitation centres are to be constructed in Kolkata and Bombay cities of India that currently host many street children. The two centres are to have classrooms, libraries, stationery, casual clothing and uniforms, furniture and fittings, kitchens, dining halls, playing fields, dormitories, and special rooms for healthcare workers (Mathur, 2009). The two centres are to be constructed at an estimated cost of $1,000,000 for a period of 2 years. They are expected to provide employment opportunities to the teachers, cateresses, and healthcare workers of the surrounding communities.

2.2 Aims and Objectives of the Project

Sen (2009) argues that to achieve sustainable programs for the street children in India projects are needed by well-wishers to address the following issues that are affecting the street children in the two cities of India.

  1. To reduce the number of vulnerable children from the streets of India.
  2. To ensure such children have access to early childhood education.
  3. To enhance proper clothing, nutrition, and healthcare for the children.
  4. To reduce the rate of drug and substance abuse among the children.
  5. To easy the government the burden of the street children.
  6. To reduce child labour in the streets of India.
  7. To create employment opportunities to the locals of the two cities.

2.3 Rationale for the Project

The demand for Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in India is ever raising, due to low maternal and child mortality rates (Britto and Super, 2013). As a result of the ECCE programs offered by different bodies have been under private management as there are no laws to control their activities. Percy-Smith and Thomas (2009) claim that children’s’ rights have been advanced by The National Indian Child Care Association, Amrit Foundation of India, and international organizations like the UNICEF. This has forced the Indian government to establish laws for ECCE and the associated appropriate standards to address the ECCE needs of the children. But still the number of street children remains a challenge. Therefore, this project is intended to fill the gap left by the government in rehabilitating a large number of children who are still suffering in the streets. Khwairakpam and Sukhminder (2013) argue that the street children are not properly protected. Such children do not have access to early childhood education and their needs are not well taken care of by any responsible individuals (Mathur and Mathur, 2009). Therefore, there is need to transform the lives of the young children through the rehabilitation centres so that they can have access to basic education, better healthcare, and food.

            In India over 18million children work on the streets particularly in Kolkata and Bombay cities. Mathur (2009) claims that the children are vulnerable to diseases, lack of clean drinking water, shortage of proper clothing, inadequate food, and lack of other social protection services from the government. Thus, the project is intended to host children from hostile families and those who lack proper social protection so that they can benefit from the basic needs to be provided in the centres.

Narayan (2013) argues that family problems such as alcoholism, poor parent relationships, divorce or separation of parents, parents’ violence, or death of a parent are the most prevalent reasons why children resort to the streets. These street children mostly come from poor housing conditions characterized by high levels of illiteracy, drug abuse, and lack of employment (Praharaj and Arora, 2008).Thus, the projects will transform the lives of the children so that they can change behaviour through psychological counselling and funded learning.

Most of the children are employed by hotels, tea shops, canteens, restaurants, and eating points (Sharma and Lal, 2011). These businessmen exploit them like prisoners with low pay, sometimes with no pay, and abuses (Mathur, 2009).Because of these, some of the children have resorted to self-employment or doing multiple jobs such as collection of recyclable products such as metals, plastics, and papers. Other chores include newspaper vending, selling sweets, car cleaning, shoe shining, working in building places, small hotels, and repair shops. The older ones are involved in drug-trafficking, stealing and pick-pocketing, and sexual activities (Sharma and Lal, 2011). Therefore, this project will host the children in controlled and monitored rehabilitation centres to reduce child labour and risks of sexual activities among the young children.

Cleghorn and Prochner (2010) assert that in India the street children are highly vulnerable to low incomes since they do not enjoy the monetary and psychological support that other children have. Thus, they develop ways to deal with the harsh conditions that they thrive in (de Benítez, 2007). Such children adopt strategies such as taking alcohol, drug usage, and prostitution (Gaidhane et al., 2008). Therefore, this project will assist the children to stop drug abuse and address the life frustrations that the street children undergo because of lack of social protection services.

According to Woan and Auerswald (2013), the street children suffer food shortage since they do not have access to proper medical care, sanitation, and nutritious foods. They depend on food leftovers from hotels, garbage bins, or food stalls. Bathing in the open air is the order of the day among the children in India. They remain naked for long times after bathing, therefore, losing modesty senses. Irvine and Schroth (2011) assert that the children lack clean washrooms and therefore they resort to using the roadside as part of toilets. Hence, this project will ensure the provision of clean food, water, washrooms and toilets so that to prevent the emergence of waterborne diseases.

Embleton et al. (2013) argue that the street children are in most times faced with extortion and abuse since they do not have social belonging and individuals who can provide protection to them. Many children complain of police beating and forcing them to share the little pay they earn from the hard construction sites. Sen (2009) asserts that various forms of abuse include physical abuse, sexual abuse, healthy abuse, psychological abuse, and verbal abuse. Psychological and verbal abuses are the most prevalent among the children and those who receive substantial incomes are abused more (Towe and Sherman, 2009). Hence, the project intends to address the psychological trauma experienced by the children in the streets.

There have been issues with the education of the street child (Hart, 2013). On the other hand Jambunathan and Caulfield (2008) argue that a study that was carried out in Bombay in 2004 on the education of street children revealed worrying trends. The survey found out that 60 percent of the children had never stepped into a school compound and two-thirds of them were totally illiterate.30% had attended elementary school and 10% intermediate or high school. Most of the children in the study said they ran from their homes because they were forced to attend school or work to assist their parents (Towe and Sherman, 2009). Therefore, the study seeks to absorb all the 1,000,000 street children into educational programs so that they can grow to be responsible members of society.

2.4.0 Ethical and Political Early Childhood Education Development Practice

2.4.1 Ethical

The teachers to be employed in the two learning centers need the support of education stakeholders so that they can recognize the children who are disabled and understand complex impediments to their learning and participation. The professional help in this pedagogy of inclusion ought to involve an on-going reflection on the thinking and practices of teachers. Moss et al. (2009) advocates for transformative pedagogies focused on ethical commitment to resist discrimination and inequalities. Hence, the teachers should develop an open, listening, positive orientation, and embrace the cultural backgrounds of such children to achieve the objectives of the projects.

For the two plans to accomplish the stated goals there is need to practice social justice in the early childhood education. According to Mevawalla (2013), the recognition justice involves appreciating the values, languages, social, and cultural backgrounds of the communities around the schools. The redistributive sentence consists of the distribution and redistribution of resources equitably. In education, it involves the shifting of resources and funds to realize equal access and participation in gaining high quality and available early knowledge for all the children. Therefore, the projects seek to access the funds to accomplish this objective as well as take care of these diversities and also ensure a clean environment within the two cities.

 The teachers of the projects will be required to create environments and conditions for learning that enable participation of all the children. They will make observations by gathering information around the skills, talents, and interests of the children to nurture them well. Such information will be used to form a basis for creating shared experiences with the children. Then the teachers will develop participatory activities for the children according to the skills identified. Therefore, this ensures the full attainment of the well-being of the children such as self-esteem, control of their lives, satisfaction, and happiness (Thoits and Hewit, 2001).

2.4.2 Political

According to Naughton and Davis (2009), street children in India are both whites and non-whites. The white children can stand above racism. There is also the belief that whites are the center of knowledge and humanity. Most governments tend to empower the indigenous people to achieve self-determination and representation through decolonization. The project aims to rehabilitate all the vulnerable street children regardless of their racial backgrounds.

Darder (2018) argues that the learning experiences that are transformative are those that try to; abolish deficit thinking, assist teachers to appreciate the political and social nature of schooling, lead to teaching that recognizes social justice, equity, and diversity. The management of the two projects will not allow the oppression of children in the course of their transformative programs. Hence, this will ensure the achievement of the targeted objectives.

Intercultural and social justice education should be the ultimate objectives of such projects (Campbell, 2014). The two projects will respond in transformative ways to deal with the marginalization of some groups as ‘others’ and privileging the already ‘privileged’ as deserving of their status. There will be equality and social justice in the teaching of the children to realize intercultural education. Therefore, this will help in addressing issues of classism, racism, linguicism, and sexism among the children under rehabilitation.

2.4.3 Ethical and Political Practice

The project is intended to embrace all the white and non-white street children from diverse backgrounds and achieve social justice in education (De Benítez, 2007). There will be the appointment of student leaders from the different cultural diversities and minority ethnicities of the children who will guide in the recognition and celebration of the diverse cultural practices annually. Thus, this will be through the participation in the co-curricular activities such as drama, games and equal social interactions. There will be free interactions of children with management and their teachers who will identify their skills and   De Benítez (2007) assert that such projects need to offer personal and specialized interventions like counseling, and they try to ensure that the children have essential access services. The social workers together with teachers will also work to reduce the depriving adverse effects by engaging dedicated services such as support for substance abuse, sports empowerment, and trauma therapies.

The management of such projects ought to work closely with the local administration and the political leaders to provide significant interventions like offering treatment and psychosocial counseling to sexual abuse victims (de Benítez, 2007).Therefore, the leaders will assist with plans including those of home placements to realize reunions with families so that they will be visiting their children in the centers. Other government interventions that the project will require include the preparation of outreach workers for the street children and launch of child help hotlines so that the projects attain the one million children target. Other support services include complaint and mechanisms for reporting and psychosocial counselling.

2.5 Members of the Project

Projects must have steering committees to ensure successful implementation. Therefore, the project team should headed by the executive who consists of Chairperson, Secretary, Treasurer, Coordinator and other members (Mathur, 2009). It should also incorporate building and construction engineers, community social and health workers, community parents, community administration, community religious leaders, early childhood teachers, and government representatives.

2.6 Timeframe and Place of the Project

The 2 rehabilitation centres will be put up at the same time in a period of 2 years in the two cities of India i.e. Kolkata and Bombay. The first year will involve engaging the different stakeholders in consultations and signing agreements and the actual construction will commence in the second year. Sen (2009) claims that the Indian government should adopt Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) based approaches in addressing the issue of street children. Therefore, the implementation of such projects needs the facilitation of the government in terms of land agreements and provision of security services to the facilities.

2.7 Focus Area

The most worrying survey that was conducted in Kolkata revealed that 6 children in every 554 of age 5 to 14 were HIV positive (Bal et al., 2010). 18 million children surviving along the streets of India is a worrying number that needs to be treated with the seriousness it deserves (Sen, 2009). Hence, the project is intended to rehabilitate the lives of these children in the two common streets of India i.e. Kolkata and Bombay by providing them with early childhood education, proper clothing, nutrition and HealthCare. The street children have for a long time been subjected to torture, mistreatment, and forced labour (Bal et al.2010). Therefore, the project will assist to deal with the issue of child labour along the streets by engaging them in productive life transforming activities.

3.0 Project Planning

Phases Proposed work Responsibility Timeframe
Phase 1 Interviewing the street children, their families, and the community on the need for the project Teachers of early childhood and the community social workers June 2018-August 2018
  Consultation with community parents Community social workers September-October 2018
  Consultation with community administration and  religious leaders Parents selected November to December 2018
  Consultation with government representatives Community administration January to February 2019
  Compile & review stakeholders feedback All members of the project March to April 2019
Phase 2 Reviewing financing report


All members of the project May to June 2019
Phase 3 Actual construction Building and construction engineers and the project executive July to June 2020

4.0 Pricing

Cost centres Cost per unit Number of units Total cost
Project resource cost- Project resource cost-Cement $4 100,000 bags $400,000
S Project resource cost-and $20 per truck 1000 trucks $20,000
Project resource cost-Bricks $1 200,000 bricks $200,000
Project resource cost-Painting $10 1000 buckets $10,000
Human resource cost-Labour $1 100 construction workers  for 8 hrs/day for 5 months $120,000
Human resource cost- $150 1000 $150,000
Human resource cost-Managers and support staff $880 50 $44,000
Project resource cost-Stationaries $.002


2,000,000 books

2,000,000 Pens



Travel cost-Travel allowance for project team $1000 50 members $50,000
    Total cost $1,000,000


5.0 Sustainability  

The projects should achieve the listed objectives in two cities of India. It is expected to run to the future and there is the desire to make it a world example of a mega project which is going to transform the lives of one million street children in the Indian history (Sen, 2009). The two institutions will embrace cross-sectional exchange programs with other government schools so as to realize universal services to the street children as well (Ba et al., 2010). Therefore, the project is intended to achieve educational standards, better healthcare, nutrition clothing, and reduced child labour that has been most prevalent in India.

5.1 Participation and Ownership of the Project

The non-governmental organizations (NGOs) forced the government to form the Scheme for Assistance to Street Children to address the needs of such children but the results have not been much (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). Therefore, this project requires the full support of the government, the community administration, members of the surrounding communities, early childhood teachers, community health workers, and the vulnerable children in general. The two facilities will be fully owned by the communities and the children of the places they are going to be constructed. Hence, some 10 parents of the cities have offered free land where the construction will take place (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). The local administration together with the department of lands will assist in the drawing of land agreements so as to ensure a smooth transition.

5.2 Capacity Building Mobilising and Educating

            The project is expected to generate incomes through creation of numerous jobs to the population of the local communities such as, trained early childhood teachers, trained community healthcare workers, cateresses, and other support staff. Jambunathan and Caulfield (2008) support the implementation of exchange programs with the government-owned rehabilitation centres in the areas of child education and teachers’ continuous training. This is aimed at realizing uniformity in the educational curriculum of all the children in India. This project will also offer additional services such as seasonal trainings to untrained individuals who may want to become trainers in the future. The parents will also be trained on general skills of cooking and maintaining health standards in their households. All these will be achieved through collaboration with the local Early Childhood Development (ECD) colleges to offer free training services to aspiring teachers (Cleghorn and Prochner, 2010). The local health centres will offer free training to the parents on health-related issues within the premises of the rehabilitation centres.

5.3 Environmental and Contextual Sustainability

            The street children form groups with leaders who sometimes use the younger children to commit crimes such as stealing and drugs business (Sharma and Lal, 2011). The 2 projects will ensure a crime and drug free society where children’s lives are transformed through education, healthcare, proper nutrition and, clothing and through international education exchange programs. The projects will also provide long-term employment opportunities to the communities and it is expected to attract foreign attention on the need to advocate for the rights of children.

5.4 Generative

Street children ought to be exposed to transformative economic activities. The two rehabilitation centres will put in place some long-term sustainable projects so as to generate incomes for self-reliance (Mathur, 2009). Projects such as rearing of milk and meat cows and bees for honey will be highly considered. The milk will be consumed by the children and the excess processed into products such as yoghurt and cheese which will be sold to the local community to earn income. There will be an idea to establish a slaughterhouse for the meat cows and the meat products will be sold to the surrounding institutions and the community. Honey from bee rearing will be packed and sold to the local and national supermarkets to earn income (Mathur, 2009). Additionally, the centres will have bakeries for baking loaves and snacks for children consumption and the excess will be sold in the immediate shops and supermarkets to raise additional income.

6.0 Conclusion

In conclusion, from Khwairakpam and Sukhminder (2013) argument, the issue of street children in India’ cities is alarming. The children find their way into streets due to poor parental relationships and topics such as alcoholism, separation, inadequate incomes, and death of one or both parents. As a result, these children have no access to clean food, drinking water, proper clothing and medication. Due to hard economic conditions facing the children they are involved in child labour doing small chores such as cleaning vehicles, working in small hotels, and constructions sites where they are underpaid and mistreated. They also engage in petty crimes like pickpocketing and drug abuse which leads them to participate in immoral sexual activities thereby increasing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. The street life does not allow these children to access early childhood education that is necessary for their future prosperity. The efforts of international NGOs like the UNICEF and the Indian government associations to rehabilitate the children into Early Childhood Care and Education have not yielded much due to the ever rising population of the children. Based on Sen (2009) findings, the two intended projects of rehabilitation centres with the support of the community administration and labour seek to provide interventions measures through ethical and political practices so as to achieve access to basic needs and the education for the children.


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Britto, P.R., Engle, P.L. and Super, C.M. eds., 2013. Handbook of early childhood development research and its impact on global policy.Oxford University Press.

Campbell, C., 2014. Community mobilisation in the 21st century: Updating our theory of social change?. Journal of Health Psychology19(1), pp.46-59.

Cleghorn, A. and Prochner, L.W., 2010. Shades of globalization in three early childhood settings: Views from India, South Africa, and Canada. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Darder, A., 2018. The Student Guide to Freire’s’ Pedagogy of the Oppressed’. Bloomsbury Publishing.

deBenítez, S.T., 2007. State of the world’s street children: violence. London: Consortium for street children.

Embleton, L., Mwangi, A., Vreeman, R., Ayuku, D. and Braitstein, P., 2013. The epidemiology of substance use among street children in resource‐constrained settings: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction108(10), pp.1722-1733.

Gaidhane, A.M., Syed Zahiruddin, Q., Waghmare, L., Shanbhag, S., Zodpey, S. and Joharapurkar, S.R., 2008. Substance abuse among street children in Mumbai. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies3(1), pp.42-51.

Hart, R.A., 2013. Children’s participation: The theory and practice of involving young citizens in community development and environmental care. Routledge.

Hedges, H. and Cullen, J., 2005. Subject knowledge in early childhood curriculum and pedagogy: Beliefs and practices. Contemporary issues in early childhood6(1), pp.66-79.

Irvine, J.D., Holve, S., Krol, D. and Schroth, R., 2011. Early childhood caries in Indigenous communities: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics. Paediatrics & child health16(6), pp.351-357.

Jambunathan, S. and Caulfield, M., 2008.Developmentally appropriate practices in Asian Indian early childhood classrooms. Early Child Development and Care178(3), pp.251-258.

Khwairakpam, S. and Sukhminder, K., 2013.Street children in India. Asian Journal of Home Science8(1), pp.300-304.

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Mathur, M., Rathore, P. and Mathur, M., 2009.Incidence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in India. Child abuse & neglect33(12), pp.907-913.

Mevawalla, Z., 2013. The Crucible: adding complexity to the question of social justice in early childhood development. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood14(4), pp.290-299.

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Praharaj, S.K., Verma, P. and Arora, M., 2008.Inhalant abuse (typewriter correction fluid) in street children. Journal of addiction medicine2(4), pp.175-177.

Sen, A., 2009. Street children in India: a non-government organization (NGO)-based intervention model. Journal of Developmental &BehavioralPediatrics30(6), pp.552-559.

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Critical Analysis: Clean Energy

Critical Analysis: Clean Energy

Brief Description

Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K., & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260.

In this article, Apergis, Payne, Menyah, & Wolde-Rufael (2010) try to explain the causal relationship between Carbon (IV) Oxide, the consumption of nuclear and renewable energies, emissions, and economic growth using 19-country-group from different corners of the world from 1984–2007. The authors also use the panel error correction model to examine these relationships. The long-run estimates from this study show that statistically, there is a significant negative relationship between consumption of nuclear power and emissions and a significant positive association between consumption of renewable fuels and emissions. Results on a causality tests show that the consumption of nuclear power plays helps reducing the emission of CO2 in the short-run but consumption of renewable fuels does not. The authors explain the reason for this as the lack of enough storage technology to deal with sporadic supply issues.


The methodology of this analysis in the article involves the use of panel error correction model. The choice of the model is justified by the nature of the study. For instance, panel error correction model provides the researchers with nice interpretation with both short-term and long-term equations that are applied in the study (Apergis et al., 2010). In theory, the panel error correction model is important as a representation of co-integrated Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR). Thus, with the panel error correction model, it is possible to apply VAR to integrated multivariate time series. This helped the researchers to provide representation courtesy of representation theorem by Granger. Therefore, with co-integrated error correction model, researchers obtain VAR representation. The panel error correction model representation offers more efficient coefficient estimates compared to others like the VAR.

According to Apergis et al., (2010), the short-term causality tests as shown in Table 3 indicates that the tests elaborate that consumption of nuclear energy is crucial in reducing carbon (IV) Oxide emissions, which is a crucial result for this study. The key focus here is that nuclear energy does not emit CO2; it is a very efficient and reliable source of power compared to others like coal and fossil fuel. The biggest selling point for this article to environmentalists is that there are no carbon emissions by nuclear power plants that have been examined. These researchers or authors embrace nuclear energy because of the imminent global warming threat that outweighs the possible threat of the localized nuclear power meltdowns.

Nuclear energy plants are reliable because they need little fuel and are less vulnerable to shortages caused by natural disasters or strikes. International relations also have little impact on the fuel supply to the plant reactors as uranium is evenly deposited across the world. As stated by, however, uranium mining leaves residues from ore chemical processing, exposing members of the public to radon. Although safety results of the compromised reactor may be disastrous, the precautions taken to avert this menace can prevent it as well. Nuclear power remains one of the safest energy producing methods.

On the other hand, nuclear energy consumption also has negative characterizes which should be considered. First, nuclear energy affects human health as the uranium used is a rare non-renewable source of power (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012). Cooling system failures can also cause possible explosions that are hazardous. Excessive radiation exposures may be fatal or can cause cancer. It is also expensive to establish a nuclear power plant. Nuclear energy also affects the environment negatively because nuclear is a catalyst for the destruction of nature coming from waste disposal and meltdowns, which affect economic growth negatively. If the fission reactor loses coolant water, a meltdown occurs as the rods overheat. The rods containing uranium pellets of fuel dissolve and leave the fuel widely exposed. Without a coolant, the temperature increases and at 2800°C, the fuel rods then melt (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2012). A mass of white-hot molten then melts through its containment vessels all the way to the ground. The result is grammar-rays which are exposed in the traveling air which and affect any living thing within the radius of 300-1000 Meters.

However, the indication that consumption of renewable energy has a statistically significant and positive influence on the economic growth of a country could be misleading and should be restricted to the short-run. The nuclear power plants and fossil fuel industries show a comprehensible interest in withering the renewable energy; however, their days are actually numbered (Heinberg, 2015). The globe is heading towards a renewable world, whether or not it is intelligently planned for. However, the better path for this is through intelligent planning. This transition can be hastened by building more solar panels as well as wind turbines and.

However, an equally important part of the transition is deliberately transforming how we use the energy we trap. Such implies that we nearly or completely rethink the economy; it means as well as its ends. This means that growth ought to be the goal of the economy. Instead, nations must focus on satisfying the basic needs of their citizens in the current, shrinking budget of both materials and energy (Heinberg, 2015). In the meantime, to make sure that the continuing public buy-in of in this enormous collaborative project, the economic means of a country ought to include the endorsement or promotion of various activities that enhance human well-being as well as happiness.


The effects of nuclear energy in the long-run are negative because it will affect living things (human beings) and the environment. Nuclear energy may be reliable but it still remains the most destructive and dangerous energies ever. Regardless of involving economic growth as a goal in its use, we cannot guarantee that its use will be only for nonviolent goals. In turn, we can put our faith in renewable energy such as solar and wind fuels, because they are more effective as well as less dangerous fuels, without having to focus majorly on economic growth. All the same, we can still fancy the bidirectional causality that exists between the consumption of renewable fuels and the economic growth. This is because the expansive use of renewable power reduces the developing countries’ dependence of energy sources owned by foreign developed countries and also minimizes the risk of using volatile natural gas and oil prices as well as supplies.


Apergis, N., Payne, J. E., Menyah, K., & Wolde-Rufael, Y. (2010). On the causal dynamics between emissions, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth. Ecological Economics, 69(11), 2255-2260.

Heinberg, R. (2015). Renewable Energy Will Not Support Economic Growth. Post Carbon Institute. Available at:

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2012). What if the Fukushima nuclear fallout crisis had happened here?


Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

  1. Key characteristics that divide organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes

All living organisms are classified as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are categorized based on the characteristics of their cells. Some of the main characteristics that divide the organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes include;

Cell structure

Even though the cells of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have some similar basic features like the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane, the prokaryote’s cells are simpler in comparison to the cells of eukaryotes. This is mainly because eukaryotic cells contain many internal cellular organelles that prokaryotic cells lack. Eukaryotic cells have the nucleus which mainly consists of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins. Some of the examples of eukaryotes include animals, plants, fungi, and protists. On the other hand, prokaryotic cells lack the nucleus. Examples of organisms with prokaryotic cells include archaeans and bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are more often multi-cellular and have cytoskeleton while prokaryotic cells are always unicellular with no cytoskeleton (De Duve, 2007).

Cell division

This is the process where a parent cell divides into two new cells known as daughter cells. In prokaryotic cells, the division process is simpler than in eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells mostly divide through the process of binary fission. Binary fission consists of a series of continuous steps which include DNA replication, chromosome segregation, and separation. In eukaryotic cells, cell division takes place through the process of mitosis or meiosis. Before the division, the DNA multiple chromosomes replicate and the organelles are also duplicated. The division then takes place in two major steps i.e. mitosis and cytokinesis.


In prokaryotes, reproduction is always asexual i.e. there is no union of gametes. These organisms are able to reproduce without a mate. Eukaryotes, on the other hand, can reproduce both asexually and sexually. Sexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction where male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote which eventually develops into an offspring.

  1. Key characteristics that divide prokaryotes into eubacteria and archaeans

While both eubacteria and archaeans are classified as prokaryotes, they are different evolutionarily. There exist two types of eubacteria i.e. Gram-positive and gram-negative while there are three types of archaeans which include halophiles, thermophiles, and methanogens. Examples of eubacteria are Bacillus, Mycobacteria, Clostridium, and Anaerobacter among others. Archaeans include Lokiarchaeum, Ferroplasma, Halobacterium, Thermoplasma etc. Some of the key characteristics which divide eubacteria and archaeans include;

Cellular structure

The cell wall of eubacteria is made of peptidoglycan which consists of lipopolysaccharide or muramic acid. They also have ester-linked lipids arranged in shape of a straight chain. On the other hand, archaeans have a cell wall which is said to be pseudo-peptidoglycan and also have ester-linked lipids which are in the shape of branched chains.



Eubacteria reproduce asexually but some are able to produce spores which enable them to be dormant during harsh or unfavorable conditions. Archaeans, on the other hand, reproduce asexually through binary fission, budding or by fragmentation process. Binary fission is where the organisms divide itself into two parts and its genetic material is also copied to both the two bodies during the process (DeLong, 2010).

Metabolic pathways

In breaking down the glucose, eubacteria follow the glycolysis pathway and the Kreb’s cycle. Kreb’s cycle is a series of reactions through which living cells produce energy. Archaeans, on the other hand, do not follow Kreb’s cycle or glycolysis. They are however able to extract nutrition and energy from different sources which include sunlight, sugars, metal ions and hydrogen.

Composition of RNA polymerase

The core architecture of eubacteria consists of four sub-units while that of archaeans consist of ten sub-units. Considering also their pathogenicity, some species of eubacteria are pathogenic while archaeans are non-pathogenic (Esko and Jeffrey, 2017).

  1. The evidence that archaeans and eukaryotes are more closely related than eubacteria

Multiple biochemical and genetic lines

Biologists argue that since the discovery of archaeans, it has been demonstrated that they have some evolutionary links with eukaryotes. Particularly, the informational systems of the archaeans demonstrate a higher similarity sequence with their eukaryotic homologues as compared to their bacterial homologues, on several occasions these are not found in bacteria. For instance, thirty ribosomal proteins are particularly found in both the eukaryotes and the archaeans but are absent in bacteria, and most of the translation factors of archaeans demonstrate some similarities to their counterparts (eukaryotes) (McDonald, 2012).

In terms of their structure and subunit composition, the RNA polymerases of both archaeans and eukaryotes are closely related and they also use the same promoters as well as basal transcription factors during initiation.

The four major activities which take place during DNA replication i.e. initiation, fragments priming, new strands synthesis and unwinding of the DNA are facilitated by enzymes which are shared by both the eukaryotes and the archaeans but are not homologous to bacteria.

Various operational systems that are membrane-based such as secretion pathways, vacuolar ATPases of archaeans and eukaryotes also seem to be related (Wang 2007). An evolutionary link in metabolic systems may also be harbored between the archaeans and eukaryotes, for example between arginine biosynthesis pathway and carbamoylphosphate synthetase in the pyrimidine.



























De Duve, C. (2007). The origin of eukaryotes: a reappraisal. Nature Reviews Genetics8(5), 395.

DeLong, J. P., Okie, J. G., Moses, M. E., Sibly, R. M., & Brown, J. H. (2010). Shifts in metabolic scaling, production, and efficiency across major evolutionary transitions of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107(29), 12941-12945.

Esko, Jeffrey D. “Eubacteria and Archaea.” Essentials of Glycobiology. 2nd edition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 18 Apr. 2017.

McDonald, D., Price, M. N., Goodrich, J., Nawrocki, E. P., DeSantis, T. Z., Probst, A., … & Hugenholtz, P. (2012). An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea. The ISME Journal, 6(3), 610.

Wang, Q., Garrity, G. M., Tiedje, J. M., & Cole, J. R. (2007). Naive Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Applied and environmental microbiology, 73(16), 5261-5267.

Woese, C. R., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. L. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87(12), 4576-4579


Nick Cave


Human beings express their feelings, thoughts, and emotions to each other via many forms of art specifically through language, music, and culture among different types. The field and discipline of art have evolved for some time now regarding its expressions and nature. Art since immemorial has been part of human life. Art does not change, what transforms is how and where is expressed. Various cultures have significantly transformed leading to new forms of artistic expression.

Nicholas Edward Cave

Nicholas Edward Cave is an Australian born music and a songwriter. He also doubles up as an author-composer and actor. Cave’s work is marked by emotional intensity and lyrical obsessions with death, violence, faith, and love. He has a unique baritone voice. Nicholas Cave also was trained in art before formally embarking on his musical journey. Since 1970, he has occasioned a central role in Melbourne’s scene of post prank. His brand after migrating to England assumed a reputation of being the full violent band in the globe.

Nick Cave has over the years acquired the reputation of an artist, messenger, and instructor who values art. In this regard, he appreciates both visual and performing arts with the help of a wide range of instruments particularly sound and performance, sculpture, video footage and other forms of installations. Cave is a relatively prosperous artist, who is now fighting to live a good legacy.

Nicholas Edward Cave loves Sound suits and other sculptural works depending on his body size and scale. His sound suits make the audience or the viewer to look at him without reasoning. This is possible due to the camouflaged nature of his body as result of the mask that he uses to cover his body. This, in essence, hides race, social status, gender, and age from the eyes of the viewer[ CITATION Ada14 \l 1033 ].

Cave’s project HEARD•NY, which was a mega performance in Grand Central Terminal, is a classic example of how he was attempting to get us back to this aspirational environment, where we question ourselves and others around us, about the actual status of life. Unfortunately, most people do not examine the origin and the nature of life as Cave does and challenges us to do. Nick Cave is extensively celebrated for his compelling and unique Soundsuits. His cultural forms are determined by the human body. His costumes are made using assorted second-hand clothes. Effectively, sculptures, Soundsuits, costumes and musical devices are set in motion only. Cave and his team members essentially dancers wear the costumes, thereby changing them into sound and other applicable forms of video including YouTube.

Cave has invested heavily in an expensive and extensive immersive installation until in a place called MASS MoCA, which he commissioned in 2016. He has also organized several solo exhibitions at the Cranbrook Art Museum.

Style of Performance

Caves performance is very objective. His style of presentation erases and replaces individual personality. It is substituted by peculiar and formal features of the relevant scavenged matter. They are revealed through scale. There is no specific symbol or label that uncovers the size and height of the costume. Moreover, the pictures captions do not reveal much regarding the size of the costumes. In this case what is important is the monumental nature of the garments and that of the people wearing them. Cave argues that anyone who is ready to go through a social ceremony is tribal. His work appreciates the hyped role garnered by fashion in the modern world[ CITATION Ada14 \l 1033 ].

Caves moral core holds as one of the basic appealing categories of Cave’s art. His work of art reveals the capacity of human beings to drive change in their respective communities despite the current challenges[ CITATION Art18 \l 1033 ]. Nick Cave sound suits are inherently majestic in the sense that they can mix fashion and sculpture. ”Sound suits” initially emerged as metaphorical clads of armor in a desperate response to the beatings of Rodney King. However, they have transformed into instruments of empowerment. Sound suits completely conceal the body of the artist and effectively acting as an alien secondary skin. This enables viewers to look without bias and prejudice at the performance. Nick Cave usually presents in the sculptures by his own. He does this by either dancing before the camera or the audience.






Adam, M. G. (2014). Big bucks: The explosion of the art market in the 21st century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Art in the 21st century. (n.d.). Retrieved 2 28, 2018, from




Recorded Music Production


Planning and budgeting are quite significant tools when it comes to studio session management and control (Nunes et al., 2013). For a proper and professional recording session there has to be distinctive stages during the sessions. There are four important stages of recording a song in a professional studio. Namely the composition stage, roles in the studio, recording in layers and finally mixing and mastering.

The composition stage is where most of the activities involving the song creation take place. This is the stage where either the song composition starts from scratch, or modification a lyric, or adding a bridge. It doesn’t mean that when the band is in the studio, the songwriting process is done. The best lyrics are formed in the studio.

The second stage involves the roles of each person in during the studio session. On the recording gig, there is four chief personnel besides the musicians: the main producer and sound engineer, the mixer and finally the master-er (Power And, & Hallencreutz, 2007). During this stage, the band is held to the level of the visualization for the recording by the producer. When it comes to if the track is good enough and the artists are done with one part the producer has the final say on the quality. In order to achieve the objectives and goals of the session, the engineer utilizes the technological resources in the studio. That means if the producer requires a little shingle from the artist, to make it happen the engineer must correct the compression settings or even the microphone. For the recording to sound like one piece of work, the finishing touches is done by mastering guy sets levels and enhance the product with finishing touches.

The third stage includes the recording in layers. Just like painting most of the recording is supposed to take place in layers.  Starting with a base color, an artist then roughs it up into various basic shapes using different tones to add further details on top. The same is to be said about the process taking place in a recording studio. The tempo of the song is set with the most basic layer which is the click track. A simple drum sequence, usually the guide rhythm tracks which is laid down once the tempo is laid down. Then to set the proper feel for the song and to lock the structure of the song the bass/ guide guitars/ keys are laid over the top. For the final tracks to be in proper melody, then the guide vocals are laid. The band can now start to record the parts to be heard in the final mix now that the guide tracks are down. This is usually done part-time or even live when the band is playing in unison. The drummer is basically the one who sets the tempo by playing his part all through the song with as many takes as possible.

Mixing and Mastering

The parts get recorded in multiple tracks per instrument often multiple tracks per instrument (Burgess, 2010). The sounding of a track is determined individually and collectively by the mixer. For the listener to get the sounds clear and distinctively the use of spatial analogy for sound separation is required.  The combination of reverb, EQ and compression are the most common mastering tools. The difference between mastered tracks though easy to recognize but hard when it comes to description.

One Week Album Recording Session Schedule

The session schedule will depend on the number of musicians and vocalists that are involved in our band. Due to the arrangements and complexity of the boarding and recording project, it may take about 30 to 50 hours. Therefore a one-week album schedule is recommended.

Session Day 1

We normally commence with a rhythm section of bass and drums together with the keyboards. Therefore on the first day arrival time should be strictly 10 AM so that the band can be able to get enough time to working and interact with this essential group of musicians.  Tracking of the entire songs in the album of 10 songs in 6 hours. The keyboard player usually remains for 2 to 3 hours after the completion of the 3 major musicians in laying the bed tracks. This is to ensure addition of the extra orchestrations or keyboard parts that is the string.

Session Day 2

The vocals for the solo is recorded while voices are still fresh. After this recording of any of the group, vocals could take place. Then perhaps for a 3-4 hour session by the first dub musician later in the evening.

Session Day 3

This day will most likely be dominated by recording sessions with the vocal group since the project will involve studio background vocalists.

Session Day 4

This session includes a chance for additional or extra musician over-dubs as included in the session budget. This could be most likely a horn section or the string ensemble coming in to do 3 songs. This might as well be different musicians each participating in a 3 to 4-hour studio session. Any additional time during this session day will mostly be used for counterchecking or finishing incomplete vocals done by the artists.

Session day 5

This is the day session when final mix and mastering will be done after everything is recorded. This will most likely be the busiest day working with the producer and sound engineer. Since the mixing is done manually songs are likely to take an hour or more depending on the effort required. For a recorded project it is likely to take 2-6 hours for necessary mastering normally done at the end of the process.

The session

Before the setting up and starting of the sessions, to save the session from confusion through microphone leads are run first. This is because when various leads gather at the pane, they might create a mess making it difficult to trace any complications. To minimize disorganizations and save time, the keeping a tracking sheet with song location of individual songs is quite significant. Communication between musicians and the recording crew is key before the recording starts.


Sample Budget


Pre-production                                                                                    Rate (per artist)           Total
Rehearsal Space Rental $50 $300
Equipment Rentals $50 $300
Session musicians $50 $300
Sub Total   $900


Recording/ Production Rate (per hour) Total
Recording Studio Rental $50 $2500
Equipment Rental $10 $500
Producer $10 $500
Engineer $10 $500
Arranger $5 $250
Tapes & Supplies $5 $250
Session Musicians $10 $100
Travel $100 $500
Accommodation $100 $500
Sub Total   $5600


Post production Rate (per song) Total
Mixing $100 $1000
Mastering $100 $1000
Packaging 250 copies $1000
Subtotal   $3000


Weekly Subsistence Expenses Total
Housing $300
Local Transportation $800
Food/Personal $100
Weekly subsistence total $200
Subtotal $1400



Project Total
A $900
B $5600
C $2000
D $1400
Total 10,900


All in the producer (production/mixing/sound/engineering) – $600 per song multiplied by ten songs making it $6000.

The session amount charged for Musicians is six musicians at $50/ hours totaling to $3000. The mastering session is also a critical area of the budgeting process. The charges are $100 per song and therefore $1000 for the ten songs. Other charges include the packaging which involves limited run CD pressing of 250 copies with two pocket eco packaging costing $1000. Album art design rates are usually $500 and the digital distribution costing about $20.00. All this leads to a total cost of $ 10,900.00

Therefore for a ten album tracks, the band should be prepared on spending around $12,000.00. There are also other expenses that may arise during the recording and production process such as the need to rent instruments. This will lead to extra costs on the production than anticipated. If the cost becomes unaffordable other means to reduce the overall expenses can be devised. This includes going to the studio with digital-only release or LANDR to master the tracks. But since the band desires to utilize the professional resources in the studio, we opt for the producer to take us through the songs recording and production process.

Studio time

We are all aware of the time set for the studio session being the most obvious cost for recording in a studio. During the time calculation, I find it important to add a little extra to avoid the stress caused by crumpled sessions which doesn’t add any value to the project. Proper estimation is required for the time taken during the setting up sound systems and also the time taken for the period of artists’ changeover. Therefore the addition of extra time to the budget is essential for quality recording and production.


It is usually evident that involving other great musicians in our record will cost a lot of money (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). For an album production session, something to consider is even though I may be expensive to involve musicians of a higher caliber, they save you some money.  This is so because a less experienced musician will probably need many takes and editing compared to a seasoned session player with only a few takes will get the job done. Therefore the top cats can save us some money even though they are expensive to hire.


Another way of cutting down the expenses is knowing how to schedule and sway musicians’ arrival. For example getting drum sounds while you have the whole rhythm section there is a waste of time and money. The musician is supposed to show up based on the complexity of the project setup. This usually means that the bassist can be the last one to be recorded.


The editing process is crucial and has to be put into proper consideration (Burgess, 2013).  This means the amount of prep and editing that is going to be required during the mixing process. A band project is usually a complex project when recording since a lot of editing may be required. Therefore during tracking, it is recommended to make as many crucial decisions as possible. Therefore what takes ten mins now may take ten more minutes later making it an extra $10 of the studio time.




When it comes to proper budgeting, it will be important to realize how the sound engineer is going to work (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). Their flexibility in the setting up, an organization of the professional tools and their approach to problem-solving during the studio sessions. For the continual progress of the session, the take organization and labeling is going to be significant. Sloppy edits, confusion and poorly labeled tracks over the playlist all will cost a lot of money. Therefore proper budgeting and the battle plan are required to decide on how things will be organized.

Duplication is not our department, but when it comes to the cost, it will present for the band it is good to have an idea about it.


Having an idea or a rough budget for the mastering process is also significant when budgeting for the studio sessions. Based on the number of songs one is supposed to include an estimate.

Mixing though it seems quite obvious it is important to consider the way in which the songs are going to be mixed. This is so because we have to know if the rate will be per song or hourly and if the mixing of the particular project is going to be done in the studio to tape.

Vocal takes

It is also important during the budgeting to recognize the type of singers you are working with, and the time they will need to capture and take (Baskerville, & Baskerville, 2010). One of the things that eat up the studio time is a recording of the vocals which may make the whole studio session expensive. The experience of the vocalists also matters a lot since a vocalist who is inexperienced may need a vocal coach. To avoid bad takes the vocal coach will work out the repeated problems to avoid vocal problems.  The artists are supposed to be provided with full breakdown costs and estimates in some physical forms.



Proper budgeting makes the whole studio sessions and song production more enjoyable for the band and musicians involved. This will definitely lead to saving of unnecessary costs while at the same time utilization of the available studio resources to the maximum. Accounting for each and everything in a studio is not an easy task since and so there may be a need for future changes along the way.  But since the budgeting process provides a solid footing, it will be easy to adapt to the choices made or altered.














Baskerville, D., & Baskerville, T. (Eds.). (2010). Music business handbook and career guide. Sage.

Burgess, R. J. (2013). The art of music production: the theory and practice. Oxford University Press.

Burgess, R. J. (2010). The Art Of Music Production: With an Introduction to Twentieth-century Music. Omnibus Press.

Nunes, T., Gillett, S., Norrish, P., Lima, M., Jordán, C., Vargas, I., … & Lawrence, A. (2013). Planning and budgeting. In Plant Identification (pp. 39-76). Routledge.

Power And, D., & Hallencreutz, D. (2007). Competitiveness, local production systems and global commodity chains in the music industry: entering the US market. Regional Studies, 41(3), 377-389.









Initial pre- production meeting

Sonic signature/ artist identity/ vision/ intention of the recording/ audience/ time/ budgeting/ musicians/ tech spec)


Exploring the Visual Language of Display

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction.. 3
  2. Theory, History and Method. 4

2.1.      Theories. 5

2.1.1.      The Cultural Capital Theory. 5

2.1.2.      The Habitus Theory. 6

2.1.3.      The Cultural Reproduction Theory. 6

2.2.      History. 6

2.3.      Methodology. 7

  1. Discussion and Illustrations (1,500 words) 7
  2. Bibliography. 8










1.    Introduction

Today, having an understanding of how people interact with space especially in complex social ones for instance hotels is very critical. This is mainly because, this understanding is the one to be employed when designing the interior of these spaces. As such if one has a superficial understanding, the end results are spaces with very minimal human interaction resulting in little or no satisfaction. However, when the understanding is in-depth, the end results are spaces that are distinct and also elicit a good and desirable mood as well as taste among its users. The more people enjoy such spaces the more they end up frequenting them and also giving referrals. This in return is good for business for instance in hotels since there will be a high number of visitations. One of the ways through which this can be achieved in hotels, is the display of artistic collections.

This report looks at a 30-room boutique hotel located off the Trafalgar Square in London which was bought by a high-end collector who is a James Bond fanatic. The hotel was then redesign with the 007 theme with features such as an intimate 50-seater cinema and casino, an on-site tailor, a gadget shop as well as an Aston Martin. By the fact that the owner of the hotel is a high-end collector, it means that the hotel should contain a lot of artistic display with the main ones being those related to the James Bond Character or simply 007-themed. Therefore, this report is going to communicate the display of collection within the hotel. Additionally, it is also going to assess and communicate how the rooms of the hotel have been designed. In addition, the report will assess and communicate the design of the hotel’s public spaces.

James Bond is a film series that has been produced for around the last fifty years by EON Productions. The series mainly revolves around a fictional agent in the British Secret Service who is the main character, therefore, this makes it a spy series in general. Important to note is that the design features of spaces in the series have over the years been adopted by many designers in designing homes as well as other spaces such as hotels. This is the same concept that is going to be put into practice in this assessment which involves the design of a hotel building that is 007-themed. 007 is a franchise of the James Bond series and as such is directly related to it. Hence a 007 theme is the same as a James Bond theme.

The James Bond theme has been chosen by such establishments because there are millions of fanatics of the film worldwide. Therefore, by having a facility for instance a hotel with such a theme, it will target these individuals. This is because such people will go to such hotels to have a taste of what they have been seeing in the James Bond films. This brings about a certain level of self-actualisation and relaxation that cannot be achieved elsewhere.

2.    Theory, History and Method

Design as a concept mainly revolves around distinction and taste because in the case of a hotel, for an individual to be interested in it and even come back again, they will have to like the taste. Distinction mainly looks at the aspect of uniqueness for instance in terms of design concepts applied or even service among others. For instance, in the hotel industry, these have to be achieved by the proprietor through employing unique display collections. However, taste, on the other hand, is more of an individual function has different individuals have different tastes. According to McDermott (1994), taste involves critical human judgement with regards to objects as well as culture. Therefore, the scholar mentions that taste evokes a well though-of appreciation towards something that is pleasing to the eye. All these simply mean that taste with regards to human objects is based on an individual’s existing knowledge for them to be well informed about whether or not a certain object has good taste. Also, it is based on connoisseurship which mainly explains the knowledge that one should have with regards to fine arts, cuisines or even be an expert in making judgements regarding to matters involving taste. Besides, it is also based on critical appreciation. Critical appreciation simply means the intelligent understanding of certain objects so that they have an intelligent basis on whether they are of goof taste or not.  This brings forth the idea of theories surrounding the aspect of taste.

2.1.        Theories

2.1.1.   The Cultural Capital Theory

Some of the proponents of this theory include famous sociologists for instance Lèvi-Strauss who later influenced sociologists such as Barthes and Bourdieu. According to this theory, people start early in life when they are neither savage or tasteful. However, this change when an individual grows up and has several cultural interactions because the initial perceptions become written over by the cultural systems especially those of communication that an individual interacts with. This is mainly the communication as well as culture embedded within the family structure.

Therefore, this is the reason why one will find that people from affluent backgrounds have a very distinct taste mainly opting for high-end and classy things as oppose from their counterparts from less-affluent backgrounds. This is mainly because this aspect of culture is passed from one generation to another and as such it is a factor that is always constant among similar people. On the other hand, culture can also mean the people that one interacts with, this means that an individual will tend to pick their tastes as well as mannerisms. Therefore, in terms of the case study hotel, it can be argued that fact that tastes as well as mannerisms are hereditary and can be predicted, charted and even traced getting traffic to the hotel will be made possible.

2.1.2.   The Habitus Theory

According to Bourdieu, this theory revolves around the insensible take-up of certain environmental behaviors by an individual then employing them in several matters for life. Therefore, the main point of inference in this theory is the environmental aspect whereby something which feels natural is good and also honest. Regarding the 007-themed hotel, this theory can be related to the fact that James Bond fanatics will be more than willing to pay to have a more natural feel of the James Bond movie by watching it from such a hotel and even be among spaces with man-made materials of the movie. Therefore, to them, the hotel is of good taste because of the simulation of the movie as well as stimulation. Furthermore, the 007-theme has a lot of inherent value features which individuals find them as a source for good taste. Therefore, having the hotel in such a theme makes the proprietor to be sure of the fact that James Bond fanatics will term it as one with good taste hence translate to good business for him.

2.1.3.   The Cultural Reproduction Theory



2.2.        History


2.3.        Methodology

For this assessment it is important to note that the methodology that will be followed in proposing or communicating how the hotel owner’s collection will be placed will mainly be adopted from reviewing several films from the film as well as looking at other hotels that have already applied the theme worldwide. This is the secondary research method whereby one looks at what has already done by others then based on that comes up with results to be applied elsewhere. Examples films from the James Bond series which will be reviewed to propose design solutions for this assessment include include the From Russia With Love (1963), Goldfinger (1964), Thunderball (1965), Die Another Day (2002) and most recently Skyfall (2012) among others. In the case of the 007-themed hotels that already exist, some of those reviewed include the Seven Hotel in Paris, the Isle of Erika Hotel in Scotland as well as the Sofitel London St. James in London among others.

3.    Discussion and Illustrations (1,500 words)








4.    Bibliography

McDermott, C. (1994), Essential Design, London: Bloomsbury, p. 195.

Importance of Discipline among Military Members and Civilians


Military discipline is the training that enhances self-control, behavior, and competence and as the outcome of such nature of training means adherence to the regulations formulated for the advantage of the team. The military discipline is the code of conduct that governs the operations of the military soldiers in the times of operations and at work. The military discipline is unique for every nation and are established for the benefits of the military members and the civilians. The discipline is also important among the civilians as it promotes the efficiency of their activities. The civilians discipline is also efficient for the operation of the military members as this defines the boundaries between them and the military members. In as much as the discipline is significant for the military members, it also generates a lot of significance to the Civilians as explicitly discussed in the successive paragraphs.

Importance of discipline among military members and civilians

The importance of the discipline among the military members and the civilians include;

  1. Discipline Enhances Competency

Discipline among the military members, promotes their competency and efficiency of any planned or unplanned military operations. For instance, the military members are required to wear the uniform all the time when in military operations, to distinguish the members of a given group of the enemies or the opponents. In addition, the uniformity of the troop during the period of war promotes the efficiency of the troop as it avoids the cases of mistaken identity. It is a general regulation among the military members to stay in the uniform in the process of the war to foster teamwork among the members with the aim of defeating the enemies. Therefore, being in uniform is self-discipline among the military members to help them identify each other easily. Moreover, the discipline among the military soldiers enables them to adhere to the rules that govern the operations of the military processes hence promoting their efficiency during the times of war. The discipline among the troops compels them to participate in war without resisting the commands or orders from the seniors.

In addition, the discipline among the military members and the civilian promote competency in the management of the county’s security and also in the protection of the civilians. For instance, by the virtue of the mandate of the military members, the civilians are required to provide maximum discipline to the soldiers in the process of any form of military actions to improve the efficiency of the process. For example, the civilians are not allowed to put on the military uniform to avoid any form of confusions among the civilians and the soldiers. On the other hand, soldiers are also not allowed to be without uniform in the process of military operations as the civilians and the fellow soldiers can confuse him or her with the imposters.

Similarly, discipline among the military members and the civilians also allow for the efficient protection of the Civilians’ businesses. It is the soul mandate of the disciplined soldier to defend the country and the property within it, therefore, the civilians benefit from the nature of protection provided by the military members. Moreover, the discipline that exists between the military members and the civilians makes the civilians to provide information on any form of insecurity that hinders the smooth running of the daily business, especially, in the country’s borders, or any form of terrorist attacks.



  1. Discipline among military members and civilians promotes National integration and peace

The discipline that exists among the military members and the civilians promotes the national integration and peace within the borders of the country. The discipline enables both the military members and the civilians to work in harmony within any form of settings. For instance, in the United States, the Army Regulations provide for the appointment of the secretary of the Army, who by the statute must be a civilian, selected by the President and approved by the United States Senate, to head the department of the Army within the United States of Defense. The discipline that is required for the military members enhances the peaceful coexistence between them and the head of the department of the Army, who is always selected among the civilians.

Additionally, the military members are always instructed by their commanders to embrace discipline in their dealings with the civilians. For instance, according to the United States War Department (2016), in the United States, when there is an accusation among the senior officials of the Army, the investigation involving such senior official is processed in accordance to the Army Regulation (AR) 20-1. Therefore, this kind of provision promotes peaceful coexistence among the military members and the civilians to avoid such allegations of misconduct of the Army members.

Moreover, the military members are provided with the limits of operation, of which they must ensure they adhere to, in order to ensure that they do not interfere with the innocent civilians. However, the civilians also are expected to reciprocate the discipline provided to them by the military members to ensure that there exists harmony among them and the military members. The discipline instills into the civilians and the members of the military the mandate to act responsibly towards one another. The military members are not allowed to act in a way that is provocative to the civilians, and on the other hand, the civilians’ are not to act in way that can provoke members of the military. This will avoid the existence of animosity among the two groups, that is, the civilians and the military members.

  1. Military Discipline Enhances protection of the civilians within or outside the borders

The discipline within the military members also enables them to respond to the matters of insecurity that is affecting the civilians within or outside the borders. However, the civilians within or outside the borders are also expected to cooperate to the operations of the military to ensure efficiency of the security operations. For instance, the United States, Army Regulation (AR) 12-7, allows for the policies and assigns duties for the United States Army Security Assistance Teams (SAT) to the overseas nations and the worldwide bodies in the requirements of the Foreign Aid Act as repealed, and the Arms Export Control Act as repealed (United States War Department, 2016).

The efficient operation of this nature of the security mission requires maximum discipline of the military members to respond to the deployment instructions. On the other hand, it also calls for the discipline of the civilians in the foreign country to cooperate with the foreign soldiers in the peace making mission. Therefore, the civilians should not accord discipline of the home military members, only, but to the foreign military members also to facilitate smooth execution of the peace mission. For example, when the United States deployed their military members for the peace making deal in Syria, the discipline among the military members compelled them to respond without complain as it was part of their occupation. On the other hand, the civilians of the Syria were expected to accord discipline of the United States Soldiers in the peace mission (Vandevoorde, 2010).

Moreover, the Civilians are required to remain indoors at times of state of emergency to ensure that the military members do not interfere with them during the moments of war. Furthermore, the military members should ensure that the civilians are protected as part of their mandate, during any form of disaster. It is the responsibility of the military members to respond to the disaster, and helps in rescuing the civilians affected by the disaster. The discipline among the military members enables them to rescue the properties and the civilians without any form of mischief or misconduct. In this case, the discipline is beneficial to both the military members and the civilians as it helps them to preserve their jobs and at the same time rescue the property safely. Therefore, the military members act with discipline for the benefits of the civilians. For instance, in the case of fire outbreak, the military officers are required to act with discipline in the process of rescuing the situation to avoid the loss of property of the civilians. Thus, the civilians are also expected to remain disciplined in the remittance of the tax, to ensure that the operations of the military officers are not paralyzed due to lack of funds.

  1. Discipline enhances recognition among the civilians and the military members

The discipline within the military settings enables the recognition of the titles among the military members. The junior members of the military members are prompted with the self-discipline to show respect to the senior officers, in the form of addressing them with their titles or positions. As well as, the civilians are also prompted by the discipline they have for the military members to address them with their titles as a sense of honor and recognition for the occupation of the military members. In addition, the discipline is the act which also enables the civilians to acknowledge the military members even at the moments they are retired from the military jobs. Furthermore, the military members are not allowed to leak any information regarding the operations of the military when interacting with the civilians, to ensure the persistence of the discipline among them.

Moreover, the civilians recognize the position of the military members and accept the discipline that is associated with the military job. For instance, the military officials’ family member acknowledges the discipline that is associated with the job and therefore, their spouses and the children accept the situation of missing their member who is serving in the military. It is the discipline that makes the military members to stay away from their parents due to the nature of the job. In addition, the family members of the military members, who are part of the civilian, are also restricted with the sense of the discipline for the military policies to persevere the situation of the member serving in the military (Vandevoorde, 2010). Therefore, the sense of discipline promotes recognition and acceptance of the different situations of the military officers and the civilians.

Furthermore, the discipline among the military members to stay in the Uniforms enables the Civilians to recognize them as the government officials; therefore, this avoids the confusion among the civilians and the military members. And, the avoidance of the civilians to put on the military uniforms is a show of discipline and recognition of their positions in the society. In addition, this is also a form of according the discipline to the military members by the civilians as they recognize that the uniform is only meant for those in the military occupations.


  1. Discipline promotes integrity among the civilians and the military members

It is the discipline which enables the soldiers to uphold integrity in the process of any kind of military operations. Moreover, the integrity of the civilians is enhanced through the discipline they accord to the military members. In addition, the military members are in the possession of the dangerous weapons, and they are not allowed to use them to injure the innocent civilians. This enables the civilians to benefit from the discipline that demands that the military members are not to use the weapons to interfere with the innocent civilians.

As well as, discipline also promotes the integrity of the civilians, as ensure that they provide the accurate information to the military officers in the process of any nature of the investigation. Therefore, the integrity among the military members and the civilians is enhanced through the sense of discipline.


In conclusion, the discipline among the military members and the civilians is important in the following dimensions. The importance of the discipline among the military members and the civilians include; improvement of the competency, promotion of the integrity, improvement of protections of the civilians, promotion of the national integration and improvement of recognition among the civilians and military members. Therefore, the sense of discipline is of significant among the civilians and the military members within the nation for efficiency of the security and other operations.



United States War Department (2016). United States Army transport service regulations, 1914 (classic reprint). s.l.: Forgotten books.

Vandevoorde, S. (2010). Separated by duty, united in love: A guide to long-distance relationships for military couples. New York: Citadel Press.