Occupational Safety and Disaster Management in Construction Sector

November 24, 2017

Introduction

In most developing countries and emerging markets like Malaysia, there has been increased cases of construction industry accidents and related occupational hazards (Ismail et al., 2009; Siew, 2015). Often, inadequate implementation of Occupational Safety and Disaster Management (OSDM) measures has been cited as the primary cause of high accident rates in Malaysia (Sambasivan & Soon, 2007). The current proposal seeks to explore and reveal the primary aspects of OSDM commonly overlooked by managers and discern how key construction stakeholders perceive the issue of OSDM. The data collected from the construction sector will be analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. The objective of the proposal is to examine whether OSDM training is adequately promoted by the management, in addition to how safety procedures are embedded into daily work schedules through active worker participation. Also, the study will assess stakeholder perception about three key issues of interest, including OSDM training, safety procedures, and policies, and management commitment to implement OSDM in the construction industry. Though the current study pertains to Malaysian construction industry, the findings and recommendations are intended to be generalized for other nations with similar work environments.

The research problem

According to Alkilani in collaboration with other researchers (2013), the construction industry despite being one of the most significant sectors of the global economy, it has often performed dismally in terms of granting safety and health to its employees (Abdul & Muhd, 2008; Ibrahim et al., 2010). The current research is important in addressing the increasing problem of construction sector accidents and injuries (Ali & Rahmat, 2010). The study seeks to understand if the documented incidents result from poor OSDM implementation or due to management laxity (Hamid et al., 2008). By exploring the key areas of concern, it will be possible to point out areas where construction managers should place more emphasis to ensure appropriate OSDM for construction industry employees (Chong & Low, 2014)

Purpose of the study

This study seeks to examine OSDM aspects that are often overlooked in Malaysian construction sector and distinguish the variations in the discernments of major construction shareholders.

The objectives of the study

The current study has three key objectives;

  • To investigate the current OSDM practices in the Malaysian construction.
  • To analyze the key stakeholders’ perceptions concerning OSDM (Stakeholders in this context include contractors, consultants, and clients.)
  • To make recommendations for improving OSDM performance by managers in the construction industry.

Research question(s)

  • What is the approach taken by construction industry in the modern work place concerning OSDM?
  • Is there adequate promotion of OSDM protocol in employees’ contract documents by management?
  • Is there enough awareness of OSDM safety by workers
  • How do stakeholders perceive the OSDM factors of safety procedures and policies, OSDM training, and management’s commitment to OSDM implementation?

Literature Review

The construction industry couples as a significant sector for both economic growth and OSDM concerns on the workers (Pereira Gomes et al., 2016; Nussbaum, 2011). Of all the global labor force, the construction industry contributes to 11% of all workplace injuries and about 20% of mortality cases (Zhao, 2014). Damages and their interconnected accidents caused to workers, property, and equipment largely impact the overall productivity (Ulubeyli et al., 2015). Most of the accidents occur as a result of varied human behavior, ever-shifting site conditions (Abdul et al., 2004), and unsafe work procedures (Sousa et al., 2014). Moreover, technological developments have also contributed to the perilous working environment (Pereira Gomes et al., 2016).

In Malaysia, most business and management strategies do not fully integrate the OSDM regulations while some sectors of the construction industries rely mostly on labor than technology (Hassan et al., 2009; Bakri et al., 2007). Despite being popular, unsafe OSDM conditions are still evident in different construction areas resulting in low productivity, time delays, and cost overruns (Rahmam, 2015). The majority of the hurdles to OSDM utilization include non-cooperation from employees (Sousa et al., 2014), management disinterest, inadequate knowledge about OSDM management procedures, and lack of a monitoring personnel to inspect on-site operations (Abdullah & Chai, 2011).

Even though regulatory bodies exist, the safety clauses are not commonly incorporated into contract documents or rigorously enforced. Besides, accident statistics are not often maintained in the construction sector (Lingard et al., 2015). As such, there is a need to develop and enforce OSDM standards more rigorously to reduce the increasing number of occupation accidents and health hazards in the construction sector (Goh et al., 2015). The first approach to meet this objective is through determining the common shortcomings of the existing OSDM guidelines using key pointers of site investigations and safety procedures. The objective of the current proposal is to undertake an in-depth examination of the existing OSDM practices by collecting views from stakeholders, and then using the findings to recommend suitable measures that can be used to improve OSDM implementation in the Malaysian construction industry.

Proposed Methodology

This study will use a quantitative research approach to answer the formulated research questions. Survey questionnaire will be used to collect stakeholder’s opinion concerning OSDM practice in Malaysian construction industry.

Research design

             Being an effective tool to solicit people’s opinions (Li, 2013), a questionnaire survey will be a reliable tool to collect the required information. A comprehensive literature study will be undertaking to design the questionnaire aimed at assessing the existing OSDM practices in the construction sector. Primarily, the questionnaire will be extracted from three past literature studies, namely Health and Safety Executive (1997), Choudhry, Fang, and Lingard (2009), and Choudhry and Masood (2011). The same questionnaires have previously been applied to the Hong Kong construction industry by Hon et al. (2013) and Choudhry et al. (2009). Most of the questions have been largely adopted from the 1997 UK health and Safety Executives, which is a 70 safety item survey tool (Norizam & Malek, 2013). Data sources

An estimated 10 companies and 40 construction sites will be the main data sources mainly from five towns in Malaysia, namely Puchong, Klang, Banting, Kajang, and Rawang. More emphasis will be assigned to obtaining responses from the construction of tunnels, flyovers, bridges, and high-rise buildings where higher safety standards are often required.

Data collection techniques

The designed questionnaire will be distributed to key construction sectors, both private and public. The primary data sources from these sectors include clients, consultants, subcontractors, and contractors. Also, experts and other professionals like safety officers, frontline workers, safety inspectors, foremen/supervisors, field engineers, and managers will be used to provide additional insights. Respondents will be asked to rate the level of performance across every OSDM systems at their workplace.

Issues of reliability and validity

Reliability denotes consistency in the measurement of data and the possibility of getting similar results if the same measure is duplicated in other studies (Lingard et al., 2012). Validity indicates if the question or score can measure specific aspects it is designed/intended to measure (Lingard et al., 2015). To enhance and ascertain reliability and validity of the designed questionnaire, it will be pilot tested before being used to collect data. Pilot testing will ensure that the questionnaire is modified through either deletion or addition of some important OSDM practices. Data reliability and validation will also be undertaken using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, which is the most reliable measure of internal consistency. The value will be measured at 0.915 value that will be high compared to the allowed 0.7 value (Mahmoudi et al., 2014), meaning that the data obtained will be of excellent internal reliability and consistent for further analysis.

Definitions of key terms, concepts and variables

Kruskal-Wallis test (One-Way ANOVA)-A non-parametric method used to test if samples originate from the same distribution.

Stakeholders-Employees, employers, managers, consultants, clients, constructors, subcontractors, and suppliers.

Performance indices: safety audits, medical examination of workers, priority to implement OSDM, Insurance cover, provision of OSDM training, organizational charts displayed at work areas, refresher OSDM training, the presence of work pressure on workers and safety priority, and regular examination of safety rules and procedures.

OSDM factors: Worker involvement; safety in contract documents; safety rules, policies, and procedures; safety meetings; housekeeping; crane and hoist operations; accident investigation and reporting; use of personnel protective equipment.

OSDM Practices: Management commitment to training; regular OSDM inspections; Good communication; Management Acts; Company has an OSDM policy; Site Emergency Plan; First Aid Facility; Field engineer; supervisors encourage hazard reporting; No work pressure.

Data analysis and interpretation

For all OSDM factors, performance indices and the related OSDM practices will be calculated using Minitab Statistics Tool version 17 or IBM’s SPSS statistics tool version 23, to identify appropriate and neglected safety standards. The value of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha will be used in evaluating the internal reliability or consistency of the questionnaire data, while the Shapiro‒Wilk normality tests will be undertaken to examine whether there is normality in data distribution. The differences and consistencies of key stakeholders will be explored using Kruskal-Wallis test. In the current study, the level of significance of statistical analysis will be set at 0.05.

Ethical considerations

The data that will be collected will be kept confidential through the use of coding to ensure the integrity of the participants is maintained. Besides, informed consent will be sought from the participants through the signing of consent forms before data collection can commence. All data will be collected voluntarily, and participants have the right not to respond to any questions. Debriefing will be conducted to cross-check the collected information, and afterwards, subjects will be informed about the study intention. No counseling will be needed as the study will not subject participants to any physical, emotional, or psychological trauma/pain.

Pre-test or pilot study

The practicality and validity of the questionnaire will be pilot tested through 10 specialists from industry, learning institutions, and government sectors like the Civil Engineering Body and National Highway Authority. The document will be distributed to academics, contractors, consultants, and clients. The modified questionnaire will take into account important demographic factors to collect, OSDM factors, OSDM practices and critical questions related to the effective OSDM management. Critical questions will also be taken into account, including post-accident response and OSDM compliance. A five-point scale will be used to assess the level of compliance and performance, where 1 will be the lowest and 5 the highest in terms of performance levels. The modified questionnaire from pilot study will then be used in the final research proposal

 

References

Abdul, H. A., Wan, Y. W., & Singh, B. (2004). Hazards at construction sites. Proceedings of the 5th Asia Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference. Johor Bahru, Malaysia: APSEC 2003.

Abdul, R. A., & Muhd, Z. A. (2008). Causes of Accidents at Construction Sites. Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(2), 242 – 25.

Abdullah, D., & Chai, G. (2011). An analysis of accident statistics in Malaysian construction sector. 2010 International Conference on E-Business, Management and Economics. IPEDR, 3(14), 1-13.

Ali, A., & Rahmat, I. (2010). The performance measurement of construction projects managed by ISO-certified contractors in Malaysia. J Retail Leisure Property, 9, 25-35.

Antonio, R., Isabel, O., Gabriel, P., & Angel, U. (2013). A proposal for improving safety in construction projects by strengthening coordinators’ competencies in health and safety issues. Safety Science, 54, 92-103.

Bakri, A., Mohd, Z., Misnan, M., & Mohammed, A. (2007). Occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems: towards development of safety and health culture. Paper presented at: 6th Asia Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chong, H., & Low, T. (2014). Accidents in Malaysian construction industry: statistical data and court cases. Int J Occup Safety Ergonom, 20, 503-513.

Goh, P. T., Abdullah, M. A., Misnan, M., Jaafar, M., & Lee, Y. M. (2015). A Review on the Effectiveness of Safety Training Methods for Malaysia Construction Industry. Jurnal Teknologi, 74(2), 56-71.

Hamid, A., Majid, M., & Singh, B. (2008). Causes of accidents at construction sites. Malaysian J Civ Eng, 20, 242-259 .

Hassan, A., Nor, A., Chew, A., & Chandrakantan, S. (2009). Management practice in safety culture and its influence on workplace injury: An industrial study in Malaysia. Disaster Prevention and Management, 18(5), 470 – 477.

Ibrahim, A., Roy, M., Ahmed, Z., & Imtiaz, G. (2010). An investigation of the status of the Malaysian construction industry. Benchmarking Int J, 17, 294-308.

Ismail, F., Hashim, A., Ismail, R., & Abdul, M. M. (2009). The operationalisation of safety culture for the Malaysian construction organisations. Int J Bus Manag, 4, 226-237.

Li, Z. (2013). Construction Safety in China: Issues associated with working on wooden boards.        J Community Med Health Educ, 5(2), 13-45.

Lingard, H., Cooke, T., & Blismas, N. (2012). Designing for construction workers’        occupational health and safety: a case study of socio-material complexity. Construction            Management and Economics, 30(5), 367-382.

Lingard, H., Peihua, Z. R., Blismas, N., Wakefield, R., & Kleiner, B. (2015). Are we on the    same page? Exploring construction professionals’ mental models of occupational health          and safety. Construction Management and Economics, 33(1), 73-84.

Mahmoudi, S., Ghasemi, F., Mohammadfam, I., & Soleimani, E. (2014). Framework for         Continuous Assessment and Improvement of Occupational Health and Safety Issues        in Construction Companies. Safety and Health at Work, 5(3), 125-130.

Norizam, A., & Malek, M. (2013). Developing Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for   Effective Construction Management in Malaysia Industry. Asian Social Science,            9(9).

Nussbaum, M. (2011). Health & Safety in Construction. The Open Occupational Health & Safety Journal, 3(1), 8-9.

Pereira Gomes, H., Arezes, P., & De Vasconcellos, L. (2016). A qualitative analysis on occupational health and safety conditions at small construction projects in the Brazilian construction sector. DYNA, 83(196), 39-47.

Rahmam, A. R. (2015). Managing Safety at Work Issues in Construction Works in Malaysia: A Proposal for Legislative Reform. Modern Applied Science, 9(13), 108.

Sambasivan, M., & Soon, Y. (2007). Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry. Int J Proj Manag, 25, 517-526.

Siew, R. (2015). Health and safety communication strategy in a Malaysian construction company: a case study. International Journal of Construction Management, 310-320.

Sousa, V., Almeida, N., & Dias, L. (2014). Risk-based management of occupational safety and health in the construction industry – Part 1. Background knowledge, 66, 75-86.

Ulubeyli, S., Arslan, V., & Kivrak, S. (2015). A semiotic analysis of cartoons about occupational health and safety issues in the construction workplace. Construction Management and Economics, 33(5-6), 467-483.

 

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Sewage Pollution

November 23, 2017

 

 

 

 

Sewage Pollution

Student’s Name:

Institution Affiliation:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

Ecology is an interdisciplinary field of science that deals with the study and analysis of the various levels of integrations between different organisms and their environment. Some of the disciplines covered include the study of geography as the home of man, biology and earth sciences (Mikkelson, 2010). Ecology studies the interactions of biotic and the abiotic factors as the components of the environment and their influence on the environment.

An ecological system includes the plants, animals, fungi and bacteria. These organisms interact in different ways.  Whenever, the ecosystem gets polluted, then the natural balance is affected and the organisms are affected in different ways. It is crucial to find out how sewage pollution affects the existence of several organisms in the ecosystem. This paper will look at different ways in which the sewage pollution affects the environment.

Introduction

Ecology is affected by the naturally occurring environmental modifications as well as variations, disturbances and shifts over the geographical space and time difference (Gunderson, 2004). Disturbance in the environment is a process that leads to the removal of biomass from a community of a population, and can include forest fires, predation, floods and even drought, which covers wide ranges in time and periods.

Ecological changes are also a direct result of fluctuations in the natural deaths of the living organisms, assemblages of species and change in biomass within the ecological community (Folke, 2004). Ecosystem management is a product of ecological resilience, which is fueled by biodiversity, created by a sustaining environment. Waste pollution is one of the changes that affect the ecosystem.

Waste water is mainly composed of grey water and black water. This is the water that comes from the homesteads. The water can either be from the kitchen or from the urinary and the washrooms. Sewage water contains faeces, detergents, food remains and some metals. This water if disposed directly to the environment it could be harmful to the ecosystem. In the developed countries, the wasted pollution is directed out of the cities through the use of pipes. The waste water is then taken to the treatment plants where it is recycled after treatment or treated and released into water bodies such as the lakes.  Treatment of the waste water pollution is very essential since it reduces the effect of the water on the environment

Body

 

Waste pollution has four major constituents. The constituents include, organic matter, inorganic matter, nitrogen and other suspended solids. There are three major sources of waste water which include the industrial sector, homes and institutions.  Treatment of the wastewater before its discharge highly depends on the source and the end use of the water. Waste pollution from industries contain metals unlike the waste water from domestic use which could have soaps and detergents as well as food remains. Also the treatment of the waste water will depend on whether the waste water will be used for irrigation, discharged into the water bodies or used for another purpose.

Causes of the waste water pollution

One of the reasons behind waste water pollution is poor handling of the sewage water. Improper handling happens when the sewage is drained into the rivers in large quantities.   When the amount of sewage water released into the rivers is higher than the recommended amount, dilution of the water constituents is slowed down. In addition, this causes the river to stagnate. This can also lead to the spread of waterborne diseases such as typhoid.

Secondly, draining of the sewage water into the water bodies without treatment is one of the causes of sewage pollution. The sewage water always contains chemicals and pathogens that are very harmful. Also, the waste water contains phosphates from the detergents which promotes the growth of the algae and other plants in the aquatic environment.

Additionally, there are instances where the sewage system start leaking. This can be due to poor maintenance or a natural calamity. Also, during floods, the sewage system receive more water from the storm than they can hold.  This can lead into overflows of the sewage system thus the sewage pollution.

One of the areas that are highly affected by sewage pollution in the ecosystem is public health and other living organisms. Waste water contains both enteric bacteria and enteric viruses. One of such organisms are the coliforms and the fecal coliforms. These group of bacteria include the enterobacter, and the fecal coliforms. These organisms are not harmful. However, there presence indicates that there are other pathogenic bacteria and other harmful pathogens in the surrounding area. In the hot climates, some of the coliforms grow outside the intestines. This shows that as a measurement parameter, these bacteria indicate presence of other dangerous bacteria’s.  Also, the release of the sewage pollution into the rivers possessa health problem to those who use the rivers. Bathing in such a river could increase the risk of acquiring an illness as a result of a virus or a bacteria.  Some of the stomach disorders and diseases can be linked to the sewage pollution that is discharged into the rivers. Also, some of the metals could accumulate in the food chains.

The pathogens that are found in the sewage pollution highly promote the spread of diseases among human beings. The stagnant sewage water can also encourage the breeding of mosquitoes which cause malaria. Typhoid is also related to sewage water. The pathogens present in the sewage water are a great threat to the human health. The sewage water is a home of most of the pathogenic microbes.

Effects on aquatic life

Eutrophication is one of the major problems in lakes and water bodies that is associated with eutrophication. Sewage water has high amounts of nutrients which can be phosphorus of nitrogen. When these nutrients are low in an aquatic ecosystem, the productivity of the ecosystem is reduced. The sewage pollution encourages the excessive growth of the primary producers in an aquatic life. These includes the algae, the plants and the cyanobacteria. This process is known eutrophication. Increase in the primary producers will automatically lead to the increase in the primary consumers. The extra productivity is always transferred from the food chain, the effect of this can be felt at the top of the food chain.

The excessive growth of plants in the water bodies can greatly change the dynamics of a community.  For example when the growth of the plants in the water bodies is in excess, a habitat is reduced for those animals that need an open water to survive. The dynamics of the species can also change due to the excessive growth of the plants near the lake. This can be achieved by providing a home for the prey animals affecting how the predators work. Also the extra food due to the growth of the crops may lead to competition of resources which is unequal at the different level of the food chain. Some of the animals could become dominant in the ecosystem. Eutrophication can lead to an ecosystem that has a higher biomass but a species diversity which is low.

Also, sewage pollution encourages hypoxia. This is the process by which oxygen is depleted from the water bodies. The hypoxia can happen in two ways. First, the sewage pollution contains organic matter in large quantities which the bacteria can access. Also, the sewage water promotes the growth of plants which are themselves a source of the organic matter in the lake. The bacteria present in the water bodies use oxygen in breaking down the organic matter that is present in the waste pollution. The use of oxygen by the bacteria lowers the oxygen concentration in the water bodies. This conditions can kill the other animals in the aquatic ecosystem because of depletion of oxygen in the waters. It can be concluded from studies that sewage pollution can cause the spread of some invasive species through the creation of the suitable habitats. Most of the invasive species can survive in an environment where the oxygen level is low.

Urine and faeces from the humans and the animals have hormones and antibiotics. These hormones are contained in the sewage pollution from hospitals, slaughterhouses and the other farms that are intensively managed. The antibiotic while they are in water, they can promote the growth of bacteria that remove nitrogen from the water sources. This upsets the balance present in the aquatic bacterial communities. It has also been discovered that the endocrine system is disturbed by the synthetic hormones. The endocrine system is the one that controls the release and production of hormones in most mammals, invertebrates and fish.

Groundwater resources are highly affected by sewage pollution.  Application of the sewage water especially in the irrigation schemes can affect the ground water quality. This is because of the excess salts that are present in the sewage water. The nutrients and the salts in the water can reach below the root zone of the plant. Ground water is one of the major sources of portable water in most of the developing countries. It is not advisable to contaminate the only available portable water. Under some given conditions, irrigation using the waste water can translate the pathogen bacteria into the ground.

As far as the environment is concerned, there are many practical examples of applications of ecology in natural resource management, wetlands conservancy, forestry, agriculture, aquaculture, applied science, urban ecology and even fisheries (Avise, 2000). The ecosystem self-sustains the environmental life supporting functions of the ecology, on elements like food production, fuel, fiber and even fuel.

Through environmental modification and influence, climate is regulated, soil formation processes affected, flood control, water infiltration and purification, niche creation and erosion control among many other ecological factors. To solve the sewage pollution problem, then waste water treatment should be key in ensuring that waste water is handled well

 

The problem

In the Circles of Sustainability approach to the understanding of ecology, the environment is not treated as a component detached from man, but rather it is the organisms in the ecosystem which maintain the life supporting biophysical feedback channels, which in turn modify both the non-living and the living components of the environment.

Ecology is composed of an ecosystem with a complex system of adaptation where different life processes interact and form self-sustaining patterns within the environment. The survival patterns cut across the scales of space and time. These ecosystems can be marine, freshwater, terrestrial or even atmospheric for insects and flying birds.

Unique physical environmental forms influence the kind of biodiversity and leads to the formation of varying patterns in ecological settings. Technoecosystems is another emergent form of ecosystem ecology which is as a direct result of human actions.

Wastewater pollution is a big problem to the ecosystem. Sewage causes imbalance in the ecological systems. It is therefore important that measures are taken to reduce the effect of waste water pollution.  One of the solution is through water treatment. Treatment of the waste water is always done to reduce the effect of the water to the environment. After treatment, sewage pollution is always released into the water bodies assafe or used for other purposes such as irrigation. Treated water can be released into the water bodies since the water is no longer harmful. For any waste water to be considered good for reuse then it must meet some set standards first.

Conclusion

The physical environment is composed of the climate, temperature, heat, radiation, geology and even light. The factors are external to all biological organization but play a significant role in ecological shape-up. They directly and indirectly affect the biotic environmental aspects like the genes, cells structure and conspecifics organization in the ecosystem.

Through the ecosystem, the thermodynamic and metabolic principles can be adequately traced as well as the energy flow. In such a relation, the environmental factors in their relation to ecological composition can be managed and contextualized into important environmental components, which together form the holocoenotic system.

An imbalance in one of the factors in the ecosystem affects the whole system. Sewage pollution has been a threat not only to the developing countries but even to the developed countries. Wastewater when not properly handled causes imbalance in the ecology systems leading to health effects, ecological and environmental effects. Waste water treatment is one of the measures that should be taken to ensure that the water that is released to the water bodies is treated and the one used for irrigation is well treated water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Avise, J. (2000). Phylogeography. President and Fellows of Harvard College.

 

Cronk, J. K.(2001) Wetland Plants and thir Adaptations, Biology and Ecology, Washington D.C, Lewis, ISBN,566-373.

 

Erwin, D. H. (2009).Climate Driver of the Evolutionary and Ecological Changes, the Current

Biology

 

Folke, C.,(2004). Regime Shifts, Resilience and Biological Biodiversity, Annual Ecological

Reports.

 

Graham, C. H. (2005). Niche Conservation: Intergration of Evolution, Ecology and Conversation

Biology, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

 

Gunderson, L.; (2004) Regime Shifs, Resilience andBiodiversity, Annual Review Of Ecology

Systems.

 

Jones, C.G. (2006). “The concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers ten years on: Progress,

limitations, and challenges”. BioScience. 56(3): 203–209.

 

Jeffrey I. (2007)The Human Microbiome Project, Nature 449, 7164, 804 on Biodiversity and

Ecology.

 

Holling, C.S. (2004) Regime Shifts, Resilience, Biodiversity in Ecosystem Management, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics.

 

Harder, L. D.(2009) Darwin’s Beautiful Contrivances, Evolutionary and Functional Evidence for

Floral Adapotation.

 

Wiens, J. J.;(2005). Niche Conservation: Intergration of Evolution, Ecology and Conversation

Biology, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics.

 

Mikkelson, G. M. (2010). “Part-whole relationships and the unity of ecology”. In Skipper, R. A.;

Allen, C.; Ankeny, R.; Craver, C. F.; Darden, L.; Richardson, R.C.

 

Wright, J. P.,(2006). “The concept of organisms as ecosystem engineers ten years on: Progress,

limitations, and challenges”. BioScience. 56(3): 203–209

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Social Media in Recruiting

November 23, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Role of Social Media in Recruiting

Name:

Institution:

 

 

Role of Social Media in Recruiting

Introduction

Initially, most if not all companies placed their job ads on various pages of the print media (newspapers and magazines) and job seekers would in turn forward their resumes to potential bosses and prayed for positive outcomes. This technique was rampant among firms with a high and immediate demand for workers and the unemployed who actively searched for jobs and were thus ready to peruse through numerous ads for job openings or vacancies. Nonetheless, with the advent of the internet, a number of websites sprung up and blossomed such as social media that have revolutionized HR practices. This paper seeks to determine the role of social media in recruiting by reviewing existing literature and HR practices of two companies and provide concrete recommendations.

Literature Review

For the last decade, the world has seen an exponential increase in the usage of social media according to Nayak (2014). Its continued prevalence has led to its integration in the business world especially in human resource management. Most employers or companies receive numerous applications after advertising various positions after which they are to be engaged in a tiresome screening process to determine qualified individuals and those to advance to the next stage. At various recruitment levels, human resource managers simply eliminate applicants particularly without the required skills set and therefore look to the social networking sites as an integral part of the process. Almost everyone in the society particularly the millennial have created their profiles on social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, Vine and Tumblr (Reinsch, Ross &Hietapelto, 2016). Such profiles provide a clear-cut picture of both their personal and professional life. Consequently, provides employees with a perfect opportunity to review their social media profiles to learn a thing or two about their potential employees past the conventional resume (Gerald, Calvasina&Calvasina, 2014). Facebook, for instance, the biggest social media site in terms of number of users both in the United States (Adams, 2014) and the rest of the world, is mainly the ultimate destination for employers. Through this site, people keep a record of their life activities, relay opinions and perceptions and also avail demographic data. Employers might use it to carry out systematic background assessments of the applicants or unofficially conduct an ad hoc search. The findings or outcomes of the searches may have an influence in the selection of particular candidates for advertised positions.

A Review of HR Practices of Two Companies

Google’s Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices

Quality human resources form the basis of Google’s sustainability and profitability. Among the company’s workers, emphasis is placed on proficiency and quality (Lombardo, 2017). Google’s HRM also factors well-articulated recruitment and selection techniques and retention of skilled employees as well. Through a vigorous recruitment and selection process and the help of recruitment agencies, the company is able to retain and even attract the best talent. The success of the company’s human resource management especially in recruitment, selection and retention programs have made it the perfect and desired destination for job seekers.

In regards to recruitment practices, the firm’s HRM employs a blend of external and internal sources. Transfers, interns and promotions are regarded as the primary sources/methods of internal recruitment for Google’s human resource needs (Lombardo, 2017). Conversely, the company’s external recruitment methods encompass job ads and learning institutions (recruiting from schools, colleges and universities directly). With a mixture of such sources of recruitment, Google is able to attract qualified workers constantly and also match their skills with that of HR needs. Through a blend of the internal and external sources of recruitment, the firm uses direct and indirect recruitment techniques. Nonetheless, the company mainly relies on the indirect methods (job ads on its website) but at times uses direct methods such as contacting promising interns/trainees and direct recruitment from colleges and universities (Lombardo, 2017). Google’s selection process relies on innovativeness, smartness and the desire to excel. Unlike other companies, Google does not base its selection process on experience but background reviews, screening tests, job tests and interviews.

Nestlé’s HR Practices

A nutritional and consumer goods multinational has embraced the social media as part of its recruitment process in the UK and US. The company’s UK job site is linked to various social media feeds such as Facebook and Twitter which allows job seekers to search and apply for various vacancies in the company. In the United States, Nestlé has career subsection in their website that enables people to search and make applications for professional positions and campus opportunities for students. The company’s website is connected to their various social media pages. All Nestlé’s websites in other countries have job pages as well, however, it is only the career departments in the United Kingdom and United States that have adopted social media as part of the selection and recruitment process (Link Humans, 2016). Through its UK Facebook page, the company posts vacant positions and users are redirected to the company’s website once they start applying for a particular position. Nestle has two Twitter accounts (one for the US and other for the UK) that helps them source for the required talent to join their workforce. Vacant posts are posted on their Twitter feeds and at the same time engage it’s countless number of followers in consumer surveys as shown in the below figure.

The company has a LinkedIn account with millions of followers and a career tab detailing the various employment opportunities and how to apply. The page has a section where one can filter the results or narrow down to a specific job title.

Advantages of Nestlé’s Strategy

Use of social media in recruiting decreases costs and at the same the company achieves higher returns. Using the social networking sites to recruit candidates is considered cheap than the conventional techniques such as the print media. Opening a social media account is basically free and with its premium LinkedIn account, Nestle can access the required talent at a cheaper price than job adverts on print media (Gerald, Calvasina&Calvasina, 2014).A survey conducted by Jobvite in 2013 revealed that most companies rake in returns of around $20,000 annually for a single hire through the social media.

Social media platforms help prevent the need for Nestle to partner with recruiting agencies for skilled candidates. From its followers, Nestle recruitment team can easily connect with thousands of highly qualified job seekers. Hence, finds it unnecessary and costly to work with recruiting agencies to attract the required talent. Therefore, gives Nestle a competitive edge over such recruiting agencies.

Disadvantages of Google’s Strategy

The idea of Google using recruitment agencies/firms to attract a skilled workforce is both unreliable and costly. They account for a significant portion of a firm’s expenses. Besides, Google is not guaranteed that the recruitment firms will give them the set of skills required. Thus, it may lead to a situation where an employ is fired in the short term due to a skills mismatch. In addition, to the recruitment firms, emphasis is on speed. Due to rivalry from other companies, a recruitment company will aim at filling many positions as possible without focusing on quality. In other words, their objective is on quantity and not quality.

Google’s recruitment process emphasizes on technical abilities and not on soft skills. That is, they are mainly practical and associated with IT and engineering (for instance, programming skills and ability to use mechanical tools and equipment). Therefore, it means that most of the existing and potential employees fall short of fundamental soft skills essential in the long term sustainability of the company.

Recommendations for Google

Even though technical skills are a crucial part of Google’s workforce and competitive advantage, the company should increasingly invest in employees with the essential soft skills. In other words, Google should try to seek a balance between technical and soft skills rather than concentrating on the former. Moreover, increased profitability of the company relies on sales and business development. It means that Google should not only invest in technical skills, but also on effective soft skills. For example, hire employees with a combination of strong technical and communication skills.

Google is a profit-oriented company, that is, seeks to minimize expenses and maximize profits. Therefore, it should not outsource some of its HR functions to recruitment agencies which are considered expensive and at times unreliable. Instead, it should consider investing or using the social media as a recruitment platform like other firms such as Nestle that have experienced success in the area. Furthermore, social media is cheap because setting up or opening an account such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter is free and after whichthey will have the opportunity to interact with potential employees and conduct online surveys on the company’s products and services.

Conclusion

In the current dynamic business environment, organizations are integrating technology into their operations. Among the area that has witnessed immense changes as a result of technology (for example, the social media) is human resource management. Social media is the main technology that is driving the social, political and business environment. Various companies like Nestle as highlighted above, have benefitted from incorporating social networking sites as part of their human resource management practices. However, others like Google should drop their rather ineffective and expensive HR practices and embrace social media sites in their recruitment andselection process.

 

 

References

Adams, S. (2014). Four ways to use Facebook to find a job [electronic version], Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/02/06/4- ways-to-use-facebook-to-find-a-job/

Gerald, E., Calvasina, R.V., &Calvasina, E.J. (2014). Social media and human resource staffing: legal, policy and practice issues for employers. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues.Vol. 17 Issue 2, p51, 10 p.; Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc.

Jobvite (2013). Recruiters Increasingly Adopt Marketing Tactics in Fierce Competition to Hire, 2013 Jobvite Social Recruiting Survey Show. Retrieved from https://www.jobvite.com/news_item/recruiters-increasingly-adopt-marketing-tactics-fierce-competition-hire-2013-jobvite-social-recruiting-survey-show/

Joos, J.G. (2008). Social media: New frontiers in hiring and recruiting. Employment Relations Today (Wiley), Vol. 35 Issue 1, p51-59. 9p. DOI: 10.1002/ert.20188

Link Humans (2016).How Nestlé Uses Social Media for Recruitment. Retrieved from https://linkhumans.com/blog/how-nestle-use-social-media-for-recruitment

Lombardo, J (2017). Google’s HRM: Recruitment, Selection, Retention. Retrieved from http://panmore.com/google-hrm-recruitment-selection-retention

Nayak, V. (2014). Google+ reaches 1 billion users mark: +1 button is viewed 5 million times a day. Dazelnfo.Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://dazeinfo.com/2014/01 /30/google-plus-users-2014-statistics-social-media/

Reinsch, R.W., Ross, W.H., &Hietapelto, A.B. (2016). Employer’s Use of Social Media in Employment Decisions: Risk of Discrimination Lawsuits. Current Topics in Management, Vol. 18, p153-182. 30p.

Report on the business Conference Held in Wolverhampton University

November 22, 2017

Contents

Summary. 3

Introduction. 3

The Planning Process. 6

The Decision Making Process. 7

Summary on Consultancy. 10

Analysis of the Conference. 11

Conclusions and Recommendation. 12

References. 14

 

 

Report on the business Conference Held in Wolverhampton University

Summary

 

The following is a report compiled to analyze the strategy undertaken by Wolverhampton University in facilitating business conferences and the way forward. I will explore the whole planning process to the conclusion of the conference.  This report further seeks to expound on the findings as recorded by a team of consultants who attended the business conference with an aim of improving the outcomes. Finally, we will summarize with the conclusions and recommend ways to improve the next conference. Therefore, this document explores the strategic direction the organization should employ to achieve maximum benefits from the conferences.

 

Introduction

 

Our school gave us real-life projects to handle in the form of planning conferences. The main objective of the school was to give us an opportunity to demonstrate that we can work effectively to complete a project for an industry client, as part of a group. We were subjected to these projects to see if we can be in a position to translate theoretical knowledge gained in class into practice.

My group was tasked with organising a conference in the school. Our conference was based on the business field and we passed through several procedures to arrive to it. There was the planning process which involved research, decision making among other necessary procedures.

The business school conference we planned had 16 participants from various disciplines in the university. In addition to this, there were 5 guest speakers who addressed the conference from the UK. The speakers included: Dr. Zubin the deputy head of Department at Regent’s Business School; Dr. Jones, a lecturer in marketing at Birmingham Business School; Junior, of Libran Management Consultancy; Thomas of Libra Commercial solutions and Martin. Each speaker touched on an area of expertise as best known to them. Among the Topics covered by the five speakers are: Entrepreneurial Marketing, how to market small and medium sized enterprises and consultancy as a career. The topics were covered widely and extensively by the speakers.

We primarily attended the conference to evaluate the Business School Conference with an intention to suggest improvements for future conferences of the same nature in the school. Concurrently, the positive criticism is expected to realize effective project completion by consultants as well as transforming classroom theories into practical examples. Likewise, the exercise would objectively identify key successes in the conference and work to implement changes in the weak points in the next year’s conference. Finally, the exercise will analyze the future plans that could greatly contribute to improved project execution.  Collectively, the above formed the objectives of the consultancy exercise conducted in the school.

The conference was planned by a panel six individuals. According to Beblin’s theory of Team Roles, “A Team Role is a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way (Hackermeier, 2004)”. For a group of people to effectively achieve a goal, there are several behavioural traits that need to be present in the team members. While it is true that one person cannot possess all the traits needed for an effective team, it is equally true that one person can possess more than one trait that is necessary for completion of a task. In the team of six; Ujwola, Lucinda, Rose, Idre, Shariefia and Leva, we observed the practicality of this theory

One unique trait experienced in this team is that all the organizers were team players. This was very vital as it reduced the strain on the team leader since all members worked towards keeping the team cohesive and effective. Shariefia, according to our analysis was the team leader who exuded an extra trait of being a finisher. In relation to Beblin’s study, this trait is quite advisable for the team’s head. However, there is a danger that may arise if there is no delegation of duties. This may cause other people within the team to feel left out. Critical information may be handled in the wrong way owing to insufficient peer review.

Concerning the strengths of the team, we had the presence of an implementer. Once all is said and done in the meetings, this trait will uniquely ensure there is a definite strategy towards the achievement of goals. This trait was expressed through Ujwola. In the same breadth, we witnessed the team having a resource investigator. In the planning of such a conference, it is important to have all the facts right. A slight misinterpretation or ignorance can cost the whole process a lot of misfortunes. Finally, crises are inevitable in any set up. It is, therefore, vital to know how to effectively handle them. Through Lucinda, we appreciated the importance of having a plan. She is a designer and effectively comes up with different ways of solving challenges arising in within planning team.

Beblin also notes that in a team there needs to be a specialist. By extension, this sets the panel of guest speakers in the league of planners. While the immediate team may be involved in handling the logistics of the event, it may be true to some extent to say that the speakers were in preparation too with regards to the intellectual content. This sets them to be part of the team.

Collectively, the team had several strengths and weaknesses. By virtue of being team players, we executed several tasks together. There was good interpersonal relationship amongst us thus contributing to the existence of effective communication in the entire planning process. In line with this, we exercised excellent teamwork amongst us which steered the whole process smoothly. Moreover, the team enjoyed proper time management in accomplishing the various milestones ahead of them. Analytically speaking, all these are traits expected from good team workers.

However, there were several weaknesses were observed within the team. Firstly, it was always difficult to get a convenient time for all of us to meet. Most of our schedules clashed thus prompting meetings at odd hours when everyone was seemingly free. Additionally, cases of absenteeism were rampant during the planning process as orchestrated by the frequent sickness in members. Finally, as observed by Beblin, people with strong team leader traits are often prone to do things in conventional ways without alterations. This is also true for the organizing team since we saw there was lack of involvement by members which can best be explained by their personalities.

The Planning Process

 

According to Walch, planning is essential for achieving pleasant results, as reflected in the 7Ps of planning (Walchet. Al., 2015). The conference planning team strategically achieved this requirement. Therefore, we see the organization using the conventional strategic planning as their main mode of planning.  The organization having no issue with resources is seen to allow us develops a theme for which we pursued seamlessly. Before the project was initiated, for example, we ensured that goals and objectives were set and agreed upon. This formed the foundation for the team to select the topics to be discussed while paying keen attention to the guest speakers to be invited to speak.

Likewise, we see the aspect of forward planning brought out so well in the planning of the conference. The venue selected in the school, the number of students to attend the conference and the topics to be discussed all fall under the scope of forecasting in the project’s lifetime(Ritson, 2008). In addition, we also understand that the milestones were set to identify outputs and outcomes. This is very typical of the conventional strategic planning method. Lastly, there are pre-existing mechanisms to implement any desired changes.

Similarly, the team also employed the real-time strategic planning method in the execution of the tasks. The education sector is one of the most dynamic areas of the society. Research is done on a daily basis and new findings recorded. The selection of topics to be taught at the seminar is very strategic. Entrepreneurial marketing for example is a very new discipline in the field. In the same way, SMEs have been collated in the recent past and are growing at a very fast rate compared to the larger industries. Finally, consultancy has been done for a long time as a part time career by many, but is quickly gaining acceptance as a fully fledged career. In conclusion we observed a scenario whereby the conference is designed to cater for both the current and upcoming needs. The organizers have already projected the possible required pieces of information.

It is also important to appreciate the vast inclusion of the alignment model of strategic planning in the whole design. Wolverhampton University offers business as one of the major disciplines. It is, therefore, important for students to be trained in a field relevant to what they study in class and interact with on a daily basis. Once training is offered in the business related field, it is easier to groom students to be prepared to face the outside world through presenting realities to them. This form of planning prepares the students for the future thus helping to achieve the overall goal of the institution.

The Decision Making Process

Decision making is vital for any life process. In organizing for a conference, it is important to factor in various technicalities before arriving at a solution. In this conference, one of the widely used decision making procedures was the seven step decision making process. In the formation of the conference activities, we observed a substantial investment that was meant for research. The team decided to post questionnaires online while also interviewing several people during the conference. This ascertained the validity of the ambiguity effect (Hsu et. Al., 2005). Like any normal human being, we preferred to stick to what is known to us to avoid unnecessary pressures.  As a result, we observed people requesting for a change of the venue through email. Likewise, there is online activity that gears towards creating awareness for the conference. Moreover, we witnessed another group disputing the title of the conference as a ‘business conference’ as it didn’t meet the objectives of the conference.  In conclusion we also found the interviews and questionnaires as the main basis for making decisions. The cleaning of data involved informs the decision to brand it the 7 step decision making process (Hu, 2016).

Moreover, we employed the use of recognition primed decision making (Hu, 2016). Most responses received in the questionnaires had similar responses. Based on most trends in the past, we, the team, could easily tell the general feel of the respondents. The team was capacitated to select themes and speakers since they had held several conferences in the past. The selection of the venue and duration of the conference was arrived at by this model.

Rational decision making is also a model that we used to arrive at several aspects of the conference (Hu, 2016). In the process of making choices, several data collection methods were used. Primary research was the most used method. The collection of data was done through issuing online forms and emails for feedback. In addition, there were questionnaires issued to the sample population. Primary research is the most used method and it achieved the most out of the research since information received is first hand. In line with this, the feedback received is often real-time and can be used to make decisions for the present and near future situations. Likewise, as the augmenting principle suggests, we were obliged to make decisions based on the evidences we received from the respondents on the preferred mode of operation (Kelley, 1973).

Our module gave us the privilege of getting feedback from the participants in the conference. The feedback process was made possible through issuing questionnaires during the conference that were filled by participants. Despite the inclination towards a confirmation bias as most may put it, the feedback received was very helpful in assisting us plan for future events (Fischoff and Beyth, 1983).  Likewise, we received insights on the success of the conference in terms of content delivery and meeting the expectations of the participants. During the response analysis, we asked questions such as how people liked the content delivery. To our surprise, everybody loved the content delivery. All the students who attended the conference also applauded the committee for the wonderful conference. It was also recorded that a very high percent of participants were satisfied with the conference and could not add or subtract anything from it. Feedback was very helpful to us in knowing the success achieved in the planning process. We realized there was a warm reception in all factors that students were involved. In regards to the choice of the meeting venue, all attendants were pleased with the venue as none wanted a change in the same. This was just but a replica of how stakeholder involvement is necessary in the planning process.

When it came to advertising, we used various techniques. First, we used the hierarchy of effects model (Romaniuk and Hartnett, 2017). The hierarchy of effect model simply capitalises on transforming people’s ignorance about a topic into interest. When we selected our topics, most people did not have an idea of what the topics meant. This fact raised curiosity amongst the readers thus stirring the need to be available for the conference. Once people became aware of the conference and the topics of discussion, they opted to attend. Therefore, this helped us build a large following based on the ambiguity surrounding the topics to be discussed.

Our model for creating awareness was also closely linked to the Ehrenburg Model (Romaniuk and Hartnett, 2017). We created awareness of the conference through the questionnaires. This raised people’s curiosity about the conference.  Once curiosity had kicked in, we went ahead to assure them of a fruitful conference which materialised as one. Finally, we reminded them of the conference and the moments they experienced to help them memorize the occurrences.

Summary on Consultancy

 

During the conference, one of the topics we learnt that really caught my attention was on consultancy. In consultancy, there are some concepts involved; for example, the consultant and the client relationship. A consultant is likened to an adviser for a firm or organization. However, the only difference is that they have to be experts in the field they are providing advice to the firm. Expertise in this case is alluded to academic background coupled with experience. The client on the other side is any organization or firm that has its functions around the discipline studied by the consultant. For example, if one has studied business administration, any organization with business administrators will form their client base. Just like in any other client relationship, a consultant is expected to cultivate healthy atmospheres of interaction with their clients. According to Kubr, the clients and the consultant should relate in a way that allows the client to understand and act on a series of events in their internal and external environment to stir positive development in the work environment (Kubr, 2002).

Challenges are part of life; they can either mould you or break you. During the planning of this conference, we faced several setbacks and difficulties that helped shape our character in different ways. The outstanding theme brought out in the conference is how to package oneself to a client. Czerniawska, challenged us to think of who we are as individuals and how we can capitalize on our personalities to add value to our clients through our interaction with them (Czerniawska 2002).

Analysis of the Conference

In line with Chandler’s words, strategising is the ability to do things in a different way in as much as we want to beat our competitors at it (Chandler, 1963). When the conference ended, we did a SWOT analysis to determine how we performed thus device ways to improve (Hill, Jones and Schilling, 2014). Our strengths in organising the conference were numerous. First, we managed to facilitate a one on one meeting among the participants which created a healthy environment for people to learn more. In addition, the event was well organized thus, ensuring there was a smooth flow of activities from the start to the end. We captured all logistical issues beforehand. Moreover, we managed to culture a very friendly atmosphere that enabled to people interact very well. Concentration goes hand in hand with the physical state that one is in. As the organising committee, we managed to provide food for all the participants during the conference which served as a motivation to the participants.

Despite the efforts in ensuring the conference ran smoothly, there were flaws in various places. One of the weaknesses we had is that the event wasn’t so widely advertised to the students. As a result, there was a slightly lower turnover as compared to what we anticipated. In addition, the venue was not arranged professionally hence creating more of a classroom ambience rather than a conference set up. This was a fail on our part. Finally, we did not effectively capture the benefits to be gained through attending the conference. This may have contributed to the slightly lower turnout of participants.

In as much as we failed on several aspects, we chose to convert them to opportunities. In the next conference, we intend to conduct widespread advertisement to come up with a longer list of participants. Alongside the advertisement, we hope to provide a more detailed explanation of the conference to allow people attend the conference from a point of knowledge thus come with expectations and questions they need addressed. Finally, we managed to collect information on topics students would wish to have covered. This presents us with the opportunity to plan a conference with more topics that will be cross-cutting and beneficial to all students.

Despite hosting a generally successful conference, there are several things that threatened our success. First, the duration of the conference was fairly long. While we had few topics, one week was too long for the conference. This could easily erode the relevance of the conference through repetition. That aside, we had a lot of activities occurring at the same time. A repeat of this can hinder the effectiveness of the next conferences. Finally, the timing of the event was a little off. In the future events we hope to hold a conference when there are fewer activities taking place.

Conclusions and Recommendation

In conclusion, from the statistics taken, we expect to have the same numbers and more in the future conference due to the effectiveness of the first one. Similarly, we expect to maintain and strengthen standards in the sectors we performed well as we improve the areas we experienced some difficulty. Through the interactions we had, we were able to know what the participant felt and thought as they were progressing through the conference a thought borrowed from Johansson. This will help us improve future conferences (Johansson, 2017).

For the next conference, we recommend the inclusion of diverse topics. This will help cater for students who attended the conference and may want to attend again. Likewise, the conference hall was plain; we therefore recommend the inclusion of useful and relevant posters in the conference room to help explain topics to be tackled in a better way. Additionally, there should be informative adverts. This will help the audience appreciate the conference hence improve attendance. Finally, with the addition of more topics, the conference days should be increased to exhaustively tackle topics.

 

 

 

References

A.D chandler, Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of American Enterprise, MIT Press, 1963 p.13

Chandler, A.D., 1963. Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise (Vol. 120). MIT press.

Czerniawska, F., 2002.Value-based consulting. New York, NY: Palgrave.

Fischoff, B., and Beyth, R. 1983. Hypothesis evaluation from a Bayesian perspective. Psychological Review, 90, 239-260.

Hackermeier, I., 2004. Characteristic of Team Members.Functional and Dysfunctional Roles.

Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014. Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.

Hsu, M., Bhatt, M., adolphs, R., Tranel D., and Camerer, C.F., 2005. Neural Systems responding to degrees of uncertainity in human decision making science, 310(5754), pp. 1680-1683.

Hu, W., 2016.Journal of International Business Research and Marketing, 1(3), pp.27-43.

Johansson, A (2017) How does customer feedback needs to evolve in 2017?[Online] [Accessed        07.03.17] Available at: http://www.inc.com/anna-johansson/how-does-customer feedback-need-to-evolve-in-2017.html

Kelley, H.H., 1973. The Process of Casual Attribution. American psychologist, 28(2), p. 107.

Kubr M. (2002) Management Consulting. International Labour Office (Geneva) 4th edition (pg       72)

Ritson, N (2008) Strategic Management [online] [Accessed 06.03.17] Available at:             www.BookBoon.com

Romaniuk, J. and Hartnett, N., 2017. The relative influence of advertising and word-of-mouth on    viewing new season television programs.European Journal of Marketing, 51(1).

Walch, G., Vezeridis, P.S., Boileau, P., Deransart, P. and Chaoui, J., 2015. Three-dimensional    planning and use of patient-specific guides improve glenoid component position: an in vitro study. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 24(2), pp.302-309.

Wilkinson D, Birmingham P (2003) Using research instruments; a guide for researchers,     psychology press, p39

English Homework

November 21, 2017

The MLA Format

Part IV: Summarize Exercise

Example 1

Step one

-Bedight

-Eldorado

-Shadow

-Pilgrim

-Moon

Step two

Stanza 1: With a casual Christmas pudding in the presence of a polite gentleman honored by the monarch. I travelled in day and night in search of Eldorado while singing a song.

Stanza 2: The honored man was so courageous despite the fact that he had grown old. He felt down but he never got a spot lie that of Eldorado.

Stanza 3: However, as he got tired as the journey continued, he came across a tourist who he tries to find out from where the land of Eldorado is located.

Stanza 4: The shade states, “If you are looking for Eldorado, then you will have to look over the mountains and the moon.”

Step 3

Its Christmas time and the best are being honored. It is a privilege that all is well and people are singing songs of joy as they are heading to the land of Eldorado. However, there are challenges that need to be endured over the mountain and day and night in order to reach the promised land.

Example 2

Step 1

  • War
  • Massachusetts
  • Field of battle
  • Beguile
  • Consolation

Step 2

Paragraph 1: The files indicate that you are the mother of the five sons that were killed while on a military activity.

Paragraph 2: I understand how painful it can be experience such a loss but I cannot forget to thank and console you for the loss of your sons whom we consider patriots who died on behalf of the interest of the state.

Paragraph 3: It is my prayer that God will was away the agony and bring love and happiness in your life again.

Step 3 : This poem is about the five sons who died while in a battle field. The letter addresses their mother who is in bereavement and it tries to assure her that all shall be well despite what has already happened.

Part IV: Paraphrasing Exercise

  1. “The climate is very important because it affects our living. This implies that there are a number of factors or aspects that influence climate. The sun helps in providing light that is used during the day. There are oceans that are rich in water that we use in our daily lives. Basically, the world comprises of beautiful nature. Therefore, it is our role to ensure that climate is well taken care off to avoid the negative effects.” Audubon (May 1990):17.
  2. “During the twenties, it was not lawful to participate in the drinking of alcohol. The law acted with accordance and the police were expected to ensure that all individuals operated in accordance of the law. During this period, the jazz music was very common as there were a number of legends in this field of music. ” Yancey, (1989); 25.
  3. “There are a number of deaths that usually cyclers that participate in competitions. Those among the dead were young school children. Some of the preventive measures that can prevent the high number of deaths is by wearing preventive gear.” From “Bicycle Helmets: Unused Lifesavers,” Consumer Reports (May 1990); 348.
  4. “Matisse is considered to be among the best painters because of his exemplary skills in this practice. Painting is a diverse field where there are a number of skills that are being applied by artists. On the other hand, it is important to note that art may differ from one individual to another. There is usually the use of ivory, water, and even flowers among other interesting aspects. Therefore, it is evident that Matisse is well known because of his skills that have attracted many individuals to accept art in the society. Therefore, this is one way where individual can express their feelings and perceptions on some particular aspects that are affecting the society.” From Peter Plagens, ” Newsweek [26 March 1990): 50.
  5. “The tower has been seen to be among the greatest achievement considering its height. Tall buildings are often used as skyscrapers and can also be used as viewpoints of other areas that cannot be well seen from a lower height. Being the tallest building in the world, it is often considered as a source of tourism. However, questions have arisen in terms of how far the building can go. The greatest height that can be attained is 500 story building. This is a greater height that can be achieved through application of relevant engineering skills” Df’a/(May 1990}: 15.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part VII: Ellps1s Exercise

  1. Many times, your ‘ audience will be dictated ………. other times you will get to choose an audience…………
  2. Of key importance to the theoretical structure …………….( Ehrenhaft & Barron’s Educational Series, 2010)
  3. would have committed, ………….
  4. in the near………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ehrenhaft, G., & Barron’s Educational Series, Inc. (2010). AP English literature and          composition. Hauppauge, N.Y: Barron’s Educational Series.

MLA Format Packet- In-Text Citations, Works Cited & Quoting Exercise

November 21, 2017

Course work

Part I: In-Text Citation Exercise

Question 1

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.” (Impact of Global Warming” 6)

Question 2

“Help your step children find their own identity in their own space. You can do this by allowing them to decorate their space the way they want. Even better, you can make it a project for both of you,” (Stein et al. 25).

Question 3

The rules of a successful marriage are clearly outlined for newlyweds and seasoned couples in Mamage Rules:

First, you must marry the right person, one you love and one who loves you. Second, give and take is a necessity. Let love cover the disagreements which will come in any marriage. Three, never carry into tomorrow the petty troubles of today. Forgive at the end of the day, and then forget. Four, don’t discuss your disagreements and personal problems with others. You will soon forget these quarrels, but others will remember them forever. Five, try to live within your financial means. Don’t try to keep up with some other couple; keep within your income. And be sure to set aside something for a rainy day. (Nazarene & Sarah 189)

Question 4

Some personal revelations about self-awareness come from the same woman who originally wrote: The outsider reigns terror on the common man’s ignorance until they reach enlightenment and can reach out to the outside with courage and faith,” (Kurtz, “Insiders and Outsiders” 47) but in later years, she also reveals her growth and development: “It was not very long before I was taught proper etiquette and all the social graces to be ready for my first high society Ball.” (Kurtz, “American Debutante” 92).

Question 5

  1. Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals.” (3).
  2. Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals.” (Burke 3).

 

Part II: Works Cited Exercise

  1. Jung, Wolfgang and Nelson, Nathan. “Nature’s Rotary Electro motors.” Science Online, 29 April 2005. Pp 642-44 Science. Web. Accessed 5 March 2009.
  2. Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.
  3. Burns, Robert. “Red, Red Rose.” 100 Best-Loved Poems,edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.
  4. “Aging; Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare.” Women’s Health Weekly,10 May 2007, p. 18.
  5. Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Part III: Quoting Exercise

  1. In Araby by James Joyce, the boy reveals his epiphany at the end: “I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity; and my eyes burned with anguish and anger” (5).
  2. According to Sammy in A & P by John Updike, “’That’s all right,’ Lengel said. ‘But this isn’t the beach’.” when Queenie tells him that she only came to pick-up a jar of herring snack for her mother (37).

3. Edwin Arlington Robinson demonstrates irony when he writes, “And Richard Cory, one calm summer night, / Went home and put a bulletin his he

Mildred and Clarisse in Fahrenheit 451

November 21, 2017

 

Mildred and Clarisse in Fahrenheit 451

Clarisse and Mildred have some similarities as well as differences. The two women are raised in different societies that do not uphold their characters. Mildred is married to Montag while Clarisse is a single woman. At one point in their lives, they tend to influence the life of Montag in different ways. The women in the novel deal with life realities in different ways where Clarisse goes out and explores the world accepts the reality of life and minds people feelings (Bradbury, p.12). Mildred is an indoor person who is always on the TV. She does not mind other people’s feelings and thus does not bother talking to other people. The paper will compare and contrast the characters Clarisse and Mildred and their influence on Montag.

Mildred and Clarisse are polar opposites. Clarisse walks around and talks with other people and goes to an extent of asking them how they feel. She has accepted the realities of life and thus she gets to interact with people around her. She is compassionate and beautiful. She is also curious and wants to know everything thus reads books. On the other hand, Mildred stays indoors and never shows concern for other people’s feelings or emotions (Bradbury, p.11). She is vengeful, and not very good-looking. She is also married while Clarisse is single. She stays in her house glued to the TV. She is running from the realities of life that she has not yet accepted. She is happy is happy with her ignorant life as she does not read books or engage in activities that challenge her thinking. Therefore, Clarisse’s and Mildred’s nature are polar opposite in that the characteristics of Clarisse are directly opposite that of Mildred.

Both Clarisse and Mildred are both unfortunate casualties of the society in which they lived in. The fate of the two women was on the opposite side of the spectrum. Clarisse was an outgoing person. Mildred is cold and miserable. Mildred’s society was of such characters as her. Thus she had to walk out of the city. On the other hand, Clarisse’s society does not like people with Clarrise’s nature hence she is forced to walk away from it. Thy fight for a comfortable life where Mildred spends her time glue on the TV where she does not engage in any form of thinking. While Clarisse takes her time to gather more knowledge as well as interacting with people. Both women suffered in the society in which they lived in. At one point in their life, they were interested in one man who chose to marry Mildred (Bradbury, p.34). Also, both characters do not survive till the end of the novel as they die on the way.

The different characters between the two character make Mildred an ideal citizen. Clarisse is a compassionate woman while Mildred is vengeful. The world between the two women was full of war where Mildred’s surge for violence makes her an ideal citizen. Mildred also follows the government’s rules and regulations without breaking them thus becomes an ideal character (Bradbury, p.43). Clarisse is a threat to the stability of ideas. With her admirable characters as well as the love for books, Clarisse acquires enough knowledge. She is able to think of other people’s feelings, unlike Mildred. Clarisse seems to enjoy thinking as well as intellectual stimulation as a spontaneous and curious person.

Both Clarisse and Mildred influenced the life of Montag. He is attracted to the two women at some point in his life. Each of the two women is beautiful in her own ways that get Montg attracted to them. He married Mildred but becomes close friends with Clarisse. Also, due to Clarisse’s influence, Montag start reading books even though his wife is against the idea of reading books. Montag himself did not want to read books as he was a fireman who now changed into a person who can read books and as well protect them. Clarisse’s beauty and character influence Montag that he develops the need to learn more literature and books of human existence and experience (Bradbury, p.88).

In conclusion, the author brings out the characters of Mildred and Clarisse as a polar opposite of each other. Clarisse is a good woman who is compassionate, mindful of other people’s feelings. Mildred is a vengeful woman who does not like associating with the world thus stays indoors all the time watching TV. She is represented as the ideal character in the setting. The two women are casualties in the society thy life in. Also, they have a similar fate as they do not reach the end of the novel. Montag feels that the two women are beautiful in different ways thus he is attracted to them. Although married to Mildred, she becomes close with Clarisse.

 

 

Work cited

Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451: A Novel. Simon and Schuster, 2012.

 

 

Difference between Fahrenheit 451 and the Current Society

November 21, 2017

Introduction

Fahrenheit 451 is a science fiction book by Ray Bradbury that describes a probable future of the American society. The predictions in the future are similar in various ways to our current world in the sense that there will be a significant technological advancement. However, the social order it portrays is different from the modern in various aspects. The foretold society in the book differs in such issues as the attitude towards books and education, religion and cultures, career and the governance system.

The society described by Bradbury has no value for education. People gradually neglect to learn with a focus shift to only knowing the necessary skills to use in their day to day activities. On the other hand, the modern society challenges everyone to acquire knowledge through the school system. In addition, the society in Fahrenheit practices the burning book ritual as opposed to the current one where people conserve books and refer to them for information. An equally significant difference is in the religious and cultural status of the two societies. Today in my society, religion is an integral part of the community, and individuals connect through their faith and spiritual ritual. In contrast, there is no religion in the predicted social order.

Subsequently, there is no culture in Fahrenheit 451. Instead, everyone is equal which differs from my society where people get defined by the cultures in which one is born. Additionally, there is the discrepancy in views about professions and career. While our society emphasizes on people working, Bradbury believes that in future people will only be working to acquire new things. Finally is the difference in the government system whereas ours is a constitutional based federal one that does things for the overall good of the country, theirs is a democracy that seeks to make every citizen happy.

References

Bradbury, R. (2017). Fahrenheit 451. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7Pi9Kr9xYI

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison and contrast essay over Pocahontas and Sacagawe

November 21, 2017

Comparison and Contrast between Pocahontas and Sacagawea

One face of colonialism was imminent cultural assimilation, migration and human contact. Personal relationships have been the bridge across cultures and Pocahontas and Sacagawea stepped across that bridge (Bersk, 4). Historical accounts show that Native Americans have aided European travelers through their explorations. Better yet historical accounts have honored two Native American women for their role in improving relations between Native Americans and Europeans especially in a time when native gender roles were largely dictated. Pocahontas of the Powhatan tribe and Sacagawea of the Shoshone, both princesses became heroines as a result of their actions which ultimately benefitted advancement of the American society (Kidwell, 151). Explicitly, it appears that their actions contributed to loss of Indian lands and even changes in the Indian culture, implicitly their motives were largely driven by their cultural values and the desire to act amidst an influx situation. Pocahontas and Sacagawea were all cultural intermediaries, evidenced by the historical record; certainly there are parallels and interesting comparisons to be made. This essay compares and contrasts between the life of Pocahontas and Sacagawea.

Pocahontas was the daughter of a Powhatan chief born around 1595. Pocahontas is known for her courageous act of saving the life of John Smith though historians have widely contested the motive many citing romantic feelings and others arguing in contrast. Historical accounts show that Pocahontas acted as an emissary between her own people and the Jamestown settlers and even brought them food from time to time (Jager, 48). At one point Pocahontas was kidnapped and held for ransom. Although the timing is unclear, as relations between the settlers and Algonquin’s tribe improved it is believed that Pocahontas was married to John Rolfe a tobacco farmer who introduced plantation economy to Virginia. At the time of marriage, Pocahontas had converted to Christianity under the name “Rebecca.” Importantly, the marriage helped to calm tensions between settlers and the Algonquin tribe (Jaqer, 138-139). Pocahontas along with her husband and son made journey to England where she was presented to King James I and to the royal family. Irrespective of her short life, it is believed that Pocahontas made a legacy with her descendants becoming part of the slave-owning elite that gave rise to many of the Founding Fathers (Berck, 248).  To date Pocahontas’s romantic story continues to appeal imagination to many people especially romantic hopefuls. Her story has become the subject of many myths as portrayed in countless books, films and even paintings.

Sacagawea is yet another mythic heroine in Americans history, enshrined as a leader of westward expansion. Sacagawea’s prowess has been acknowledged as she trudged along the Lewis and Clark expedition (Kidwell, 130). Unlike, Pocahontas’ story, the reality of Sacagawea’s story is much less romantic. It is believed that she was among two or maybe three) Indian wives to the French voyageur, Toussaint Charbonneau who were part of the Lewis and Clark expedition in Montana in 1805(Gulliford, 230). Shoshone by birth, Sacagawea had been captured by Minatarees’ traders in her youth and later acquired by Charbonneau through barter trade. When she joined the expedition, she carried along their infant son. Sacagawea helped lead the expeditions. She had knowledge of the area plus certain landmarks and could even advise Lewis and Clark on what to expect ahead. Sacagawea acted as an interpreter and an emissary just like Pocahontas (Berck, 15). In his journal, William Clark notes that “the presence of Sacagawea with the expedition convinces all Indian people of the peaceful intentions of their party” (Jager, 115). In truth, the presence of a woman cradling a baby could be understood almost universally as signal of non-hostility. Thus Sacagawea’s presence marked the expedition as being peaceful. Similar to Pocahontas, William Clark journal recounts that Sacagawea worked daily to steadily procure and process food for the group. Her most important service was based on the kinship she had with a band of the Shoshone that they encountered in the expedition. Her brother was the leader of the band. In recognizing his sister, his brother gave horses and food to the expedition and led them through part of the way over the mountains to the west (Gulliford, 245).

Both Pocahontas and Sacagawea were enlightened women, though Pocahontas deliberately befriended people from a different world, Sacagawea’s relationship was brought about by sale. Both women were princess, naïve but yet sensible, though faced with an imminent influx, they still made the best out of it. Apparently both women were famous in their own ways, while Pocahontas was presented to King James I and to the royal family, many lakes and mountains are named after Sacagawea. The First Lady Hillary Clinton officially unveiled a coin bearing a rendition of Sacagawea in 1999 carrying a baby on her back as was put forth by the US Mint (Jager, 288). This made her stand at an equal position with American presidents who are also engraved on American coins. In terms of the marriage life, both women were indeed married to strange men from strange land, one an English man and the other a Frenchman. Ultimately, both woman overcome circumstances in their life’s to make them heroines both are legendary and have been recognized in multiple ways, one from the perspective of  romance and the other as a heroine to lead an expedition.

 

Work cited

 

Andrew Gulliford, “On the Tourist Trail,” in Lewis & Clark: Legacies, Memories and New Perspectives, eds. Kris Fresonke and Mark David Spence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004), 245.

Clara Sue Kidwell, “What Would Pocahontas Think Now?: Women and Cultural Persistence Author(s): Callaloo, Vol. 17, No. 1, Native America Literatures (Winter, 1994), pp. 149-159: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cyndi Spindell Berck, “Pocahontas and Sacagawea: Interwoven Legacies in American History,” Commonwealth Books of Virginia (July 15, 2015).

Rebecca Kay, Jager, “Malinche, Pocahontas, and Sacagawea: Indian Women as Cultural Intermediaries and National Symbol

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROMOTING HEALTHY COMMUNITY

November 17, 2017

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, PROMOTING HEALTHY COM

The American Nursing Association (ANA) gives guidance in defining the professional codes of practice in the field of Nursing. ANA illustrates three pillars that links health and environment. It requires nursing to be a restorative, supportive, and a promotive oriented undertaking that binds environment with health (World Health Organization. 2002). For example, in restorative approach, nursing should aim at modifying disease and illnesses impacts. The supportive practices requires nursing approach to aim at to modifying the environmental relationships to support health. While the promotive approach, requires mobilization of health patterns of life (Maantay, 2002).

            Various environmental contaminants may affect our environment. Different places have different environmental contaminants (Samanta et al., 2002). For instance in Novato, California, the three major environmental contaminants includes the wildfire smokes, Diesel contaminants, and petrochemical contaminants. Diesel and petrochemical pollutants pose threats of respiratory diseases such as asthma to the community members in Novato. The community health problem can be improved through minimizing the number of diesel trucks in the area, instituting scientific air clean up mechanisms, and continuous research and monitoring programs aimed at community sensitization (Helvarg, 2010).

Petrochemical and diesel pollutants puts many residents of Novato at risk of developing respiratory problems. The major cause of this pollution is the motors that use petroleum and diesel products. Emissions by these motors cause extensive air pollution. However, the air quality index of Novato stands at 29 today and is perceived good for the residents.

            As pointed out earlier, environmental health conditions are different in different places. Environmental injustice can put a community into a big heath threat (Morello-Frosch et al., 2011). There is need to promote health justice in order to cater for health safety of community members. For instance, the neglected urban neighborhoods comprising of Latino and other immigrants such as Richmond in California have been found to develop health problems attributable to their social status due to their environmental settings. I have also noted that some of my clients are victims of social injustice. social injustices that increases health risks can be minimized through offering educative interventions to the community and instituting community rebuilding through governmental and nongovernmental funding. Environmental justice will in future help in deciding environmental restorative measures in the practice of nursing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

World Health Organization. (2002). The world health report 2002: reducing risks, promoting        healthy life. World Health Organization.

Samanta, S. K., Singh, O. V., & Jain, R. K. (2002). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons:      environmental pollution and bioremediation. TRENDS in Biotechnology20(6), 243-248.

Helvarg, D. (2010). 50 Ways to Save the Ocean. New World Library.

Morello-Frosch, R., Zuk, M., Jerrett, M., Shamasunder, B., & Kyle, A. D. (2011). Understanding             the cumulative impacts of inequalities in environmental health: implications for            policy. Health affairs30(5), 879-887.

Maantay, J. (2002). Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic            information systems in assessing environmental health and equity. Environmental health           perspectives110(Suppl 2), 161.