Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus

October 26, 2016





Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus













Epic is perhaps one of the most studied literary genres of the modern times. One of the most notable things about the ancient epics is thatthey represent skillfully interwoven embellishments and raw materials of the societies upon which they are created. Gilgamesh and Odysseus, for example, are two epic heroes who rose in different times in history. While the Gilgamesh epic was developed from early Mesopotamia, Odyssey is associated with the early Greece. On one hand, Gilgamesh was instrumental in developing the Mesopotamian culture,attitudes and behaviors towards gods (Simpson & Baskin, 1996). On the other hand, Odyssey was set at a time when mythology was at the center of every aspect of the Greece culture. Nevertheless, this essay will compare Gilgamesh and Odysseus alongside their heroic qualities, with specific attention on differences and similarities. After summarizing their implications on the ancient cultures of Greek and Mesopotamian lives, the essay would suggest the cultural ideals and expectations that would shape the modern thoughts about heroes and role models.

Odysseys and Gilgamesh are two notable heroes,whose interactions with life helped to explain theirattributes, including the relationships with gods. While Odyssey was written by Homer, Gilgamesh was translated by David Ferry. In both literary works, the heroes exemplify certain traits that are common: they are strong fighters with physical beauty and intimidation tendencies. Again, the epic figures are supernatural and in their day-to-day activities, they endeavor to protect the ordinary people in the light of death and cosmos (Randi, 2010).Through their life journeys, both Gilgamesh and Odysseus depicted as dangerous characters. For example, Odysseus pulls his men from the land of Lotus Eaters while Gilgamesh is referred by his Uruk people as wise shepherd and people’s protector.He seeks the help of sun god, Shamash, in the process of killing Humbaba, a monster who stayed in the forest(Ankumah,2014). Near death encounters and tendencies to challenge the godsare events that feature predominantly in these heroic characters. The two epic heroes’successis determined by the supernatural powers endowed in them.In spite of various difficulties and obstacles, all the epic heroes returned to their normal lives.

From the analysis of the two heroic figures, it appears that the ancient Greek and Mesopotamian peoplewere heavily depended on the cosmos and the supernatural. Their societies had supernatural heroes who would guard the people’s lives and offer them protection from the monsters and other evil powers. In order to achieve their mandate of protecting the people, the two heroic figures used intellect and strategic moves. They would trick the monsters, eat lotus flowers, and get them drunk before killing them. For example, during the encounter with beast Humbaba, Gilgamesh ensures that he attacks when his cloak of fear is at its lowest. In the process of challenging the monsters that threatened the people, Gilgamesh and Odysseus were guided by strong moral goals and virtues(Ankumah,2014). They desired to be godlike and exhibited courage, humility, faithfulness and brave leadership.

In the ancient Greece and Mesopotamia, Gilgamesh and Odysseus assumed role model roles in their respective communities.The modern notions of role models and heroes are greatly shaped by people’s cultural ideals and expectations. This is because in the modern world, people who are in positions of influence are looked upon by the societies when it comes to solving the problems that confront their societies. Political leaders, for example, play leading roles in helping the societies confront the threats of hunger, floods, terrorism and poverty (Ankumah,2014).





Ankumah, A. T. (2014). Nomenclatural poetization and globalization. London, Machmillan Pub.

Randi J. (2010). A Comparison Of The Epic Of .Gilgamesh And The Homeric Epics Their  Place In History And Literature, W E S 1 E Y A N U N I V E R S I T Y Press.

Simpson, M., & Baskin, L. (1996). Gods and heroes of the Greeks: The library of Apollodorus. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.






Macro and Microeconomics

October 26, 2016

Macro and Microeconomics























Macro and Macro Economics

Decision making is an imperative element of any successful business. Managers are aware of the need to do a careful calculation before embarking on any project that may have long term consequences. Evidently, it is the desire of every proprietor to do well in business and even be a preferred choice among the consumers. There are micro economic and macroeconomic factors that affect a business and the kind of decisions that managers make (Lewis, 2013,p.38. Microeconomic factors include the individual units of an economy like households, individual customers and businesses. Macroeconomic factors entail the aggregate factors of production like demand and supply, inflation, taxation and even government policies. Every manager must therefore have the right tools to deal with any impending issues and thus come up successful.

Macroeconomic Factors


Inflation describes a situation where the prices of commodities consistently shoot up ( Reis & Farole,2012,p.65). In that scenario, there never seems to be sufficient money to make any purchases either for the business or for individual customers. Usually, inflation results from having very strict monetary policy and in some cases when the value of the currency depreciates. Depreciation of a currency in this case means that the business owners would need more of their local currency to exchange with the dollar which is usually an accepted universal currency and hence used in many if not all transactions. The managers should be prepared to deal with inflation by adjusting their prices accordingly so that they may not end up losing on the customers and at the same time manage to make their profits (Reis & Farole,2012,p.87) .

Graph showing how inflation impacts an economy

Interest Rates

The rate of lending in a country affects how business is conducted. The interest rate is the rate at which the central bank of an individual country sets as the base lending rate to the commercial banks. Whenever the central bank raises their interest rates, it becomes expensive for the commercial banks to pay up the loan and in effect pass on the burden to any debtors ( Coles& Mortensen, 2016,p.349). Most investors rely on loans to make major investments and therefore when the interest rate has skyrocketed; it becomes almost impossible to make the investments which many pull a country behind. A business man may therefore find themselves in a fix trying to pay up their loans that they had earlier on requested from the banks. It is important to note that higher interest rates also translates to low money supply because people would be less willing to use their savings in the midst of such a financial crisis. It is important for a business to build up capital so that they do not rely so much on banks for their funding. In this case, the managers could decide to sell their shares to the public or buy government bonds to finance their projects.


The level of employment in a country directly affects the business in that if there are more jobless people in the economy, less people would be in a financial position to purchase the company’s products. In the face of massive unemployment, the business owners should be price sensitive and hence ensure that their products are fairly priced so that they do not remain with dead stock. Unemployment also affects the kind of products people buy and in this case, businesses may discover that at this stage, most people prefer to buy necessity goods and would not prefer luxurious goods (Coles& Mortensen, 2016,p.348).In this regard, a new business venture should invest in a kind of business that will easily sell their products and not have high end products which most people will not buy.

Graph showing how the national income affects demand and the overall price of the products.



Demand and Supply

It is important for a business to have equilibrium in the course of operation. Equilibrium describes a situation where there is a balance between the supply a business makes in the market and even the demand that most people make for the same goods. Usually, the demand of goods is affected by many factors which may include the gross domestic product of a country, the competitor goods, consumer tastes and preferences, seasons and even the age. The managers have the task of studying their market keenly and ensuring that they do not supply the products that would be easily rejected by the customers.


Demand and supply graph


Market Structure

The market structure describes the business under which the business is in operation. A perfect competitive market would in this case mean that there are many similar products in the market which are almost similarly priced. The level of competition in a perfect market is high and the business men are price takers and not price makers. On the other hand, in a monopolistic market, the business owners would seem to control the entire market seeing that there are many restrictions on entering the same market. In a monopolistic market, the firm is the price maker and the customers do not have a choice but to take the products at the stipulated price. In that regard, understanding the market structure is key to decision making because it translated to the price, the quality of the goods and even the quantity.

In conclusion, business men should do a proper market analysis before they embark on any investments. It is important to get to understand what the competition is doing and in that case figure out what gaps are there in the market and how one would therefore come in to fill the gaps. As earlier noted, the market structure also impacts on the decision making seeing that if one was in an oligopolistic market for example, he would have to be careful about the price changes because the rivals would follow suit and there would therefore not be any benefits in that.




















Reference List

REIS, J. G., & FAROLE, T. (2012). Trade competitiveness diagnostic toolkit. Washington, D.C., World Bank.

Coles, M.G. and Mortensen, D.T., 2016. Equilibrium Labor Turnover, Firm Growth, and Unemployment. Econometrica84(1), pp.347-363.

Lewis, D. (2013). DECISION MAKING IN COMPLEX SITUATIONS. Business Strategy Review, 24(4), pp.37-40.


Project Management

October 26, 2016





Project Management




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Projects are unique and temporary processes and entail well though and controlled processes with definite due dates.  As such, they are undertaken to achieve individual goals and adhering to the specified requirements within a certain timeframe, budget, and quality so as to provide the specific benefit to the project stakeholders (Dinsmore & Cabanis-Brewin, 2006, p. 2). A project is deemed complete and ends when the set objectives are met, or it becomes apparent that such goals cannot be met, and hence such a project culminates in termination. Ideally, projects should be planned carefully while taking care of every aspect to ensure its success. However, in reality, the project requirements are impossible to define accurately. There are always associated risks that face the projects that can result in compromising the quality of the works, violation of schedules or cost overruns; all that can be deemed as a failure by project managers. Critically, many projects do not have a clean start. Many project managers commence of projects without a clear path to completion and hence cannot set timelines correctly or estimate costs properly. This emanates from uncertainties with product costing and inflation while changes in problems with the site result in many hidden costs. Also, many projects lack clarity on their end and thereby end up in conflicts and dissatisfaction from the stakeholders. This may be due to lack of contractual clarity on the deliverables and quality that should be achieved so that the works can be regarded as complete (Frese & Vicki, 2003). Critically, a myriad of factors influences the planning of the implementation phase that may affect the perception of the stakeholders on whether a project can be viewed as a success or failure.  Moreover, project management needs to have a clear way that future benefits can be defined. As such, lack of clarity in an estimation of the future benefits may lead to confusion over what parameters can be used to judge a project.

Background of Ford Edsel and the Project Case

Ford Motors Company had been a market leader for a long time offering a healthy competition to General Motors. However, General Motors offered a variety of cars in the 1950s such as the Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick while another competitor, Chrysler Corporation offered varieties such as De Soto, Dodge, and Chrysler. Conversely, Ford only offered Mercury as its only brand. On this basis, Henry Ford II, then Ford’s president instituted a committee for investigating the variability of bringing to the fore a new brand of car that would offer competition in the medium-priced segment of the car market. In 1955, the board of directors at Ford oversaw the approval of a plan for the touted new medium priced product line, which resulted in the creation of a Special Products Division. The promoted product was to be built on two platforms, Mercury and Ford that were meant to improve manufacturing efficiency and economical production where parts interchangeability between two variants would be maximized.  Moreover, the car design was touted to offer recognizable design from all aspects and angles and as such would offer robust and unique styling of elements. Importantly, initially named E-Car, it would be integrated with unique functional aspects that would set it apart from the rest of the competition (Carlson, 2007).

In this period, the American population was experiencing a period of economic expansion in the decade post-World War II to some extent the Korean War. The American economic landscape was characterized by new ideas and innovations and a large market for the new products supported by the then burgeoning middle class and the full employment that in turn guaranteed high disposable income to the American middle class. As such, there was a general optimism that things were going to be better and hence Ford had to take advantage of these conditions to recoup the market share lost to General Motors in the 1920s (Pinto, 2013, p. 138).

To support its new initiative, Ford engaged in for distinct efforts to ensure that their project became a success. As such, marketing research, styling, creation of separate division and undertaking rigorous promotional activities were earmarked as the path to setting Ford to its new course of action. In the research conducted in the 1950s, it found that 20 percent of all car owners traded their low-cost cars to medium priced car models. Conversely, brand loyalty showed significant differences amongst the competing brands. For instance, it was found out that those individuals who owned cheap GM vehicles such as Chevrolet had a tendency to upgrade to medium priced GM vehicles such as the Buick or Pontiac with a probability of 0.87. Also, low priced Chrysler owners tended to improve to middle priced Chrysler models 47 percent of the time. However, low-priced Ford car owners managed to upgrade to the middle priced Ford models on 26% of the time. Hence, this portrayed a problem with the way customers perceived Ford as a brand (Pinto, 2013, p. 138).

Therefore, the new Model targeted correcting those views by targeting young couples and those people who were moving up the corporate ladder, ready to upgrade to a new car that reflected their status. The company embarked on a mission to research the appropriate name since no name had been given, with researchers coming up with more than 20,000 names. As such, these were test marketed with the focus groups and street interviews to determine which name would be most appropriate to capture the imagination and appeal to the young professionals in the market. The committee tasked with the role came up with final ten names. However, Edsel, the final name given to the car was not amongst the ten final candidates, but emerged after the committee could not come up with a consensus (Feloni, 2015).

Styling another strategy that Ford applied was an aspect that it wanted to act as a way of differentiation and therefore gain a competitive advantage over the rivals. From 1954, Ford embarked on a styling project, bringing together more than 800 stylists to work on the project in different periods. As such, these stylists came up with multiple hundred designs of which most were altered, modified and some rejected before Ford committee made the final approval. The car was built with distinctive features that were meant to remind the buyers of the previous luxury cars and utilizing push button technology which enhanced usability. Besides, the car was equipped with a large V-8 engine, with a 345 horsepower, giving the car a stylish and powerful feature that were meant to send shock waves in the market, making it a car of choice to the upcoming young customer (Pinto, 2013, p. 139).

Also, Ford created an Edsel automobile division, creating a different line of production from the other Ford Motors product line. The need to create an aura around the manufacturing of the new car seemed a necessity, an aspect that led to a complicated search for a car dealer that would offer the new brand exclusively. This lead to a long process where Ford identified 5000 dealers before trimming that number to 2000 dealers would be selling the Edsel brand on their showrooms. Further, other major decisions were made on dealership locations and many other facets such as logistics and dealer reputations. All these were meant to bring a swift introduction of Edsel in the market (Roberts, 2016).

Furthermore, vigorous promotional activities were carried out to ensure that its introduction was an event. As such, this led to the company allocating a budget of $50 million in advertising and promotional activities, an enormous amount of money by any standards for a new release. Importantly, the company was determined to keep the car a secret, to heighten the curiosity of the public, and when the advertising began on July 22, 1957, the advertisements did not show the vehicle itself. The Ford executives ensured that no shots of the cars were leaked, and the first photos of the car appeared in late August. Besides, Ford made a decision that had serious ramifications for the new car: they decided to release the car earlier than anticipated to ensure that no competition was present from its other two competitors, GM and Chrysler. Hence, in the fall of 1957, the stage was all set for Edsel to conquer the market (Pinto, 2013, p. 139; Roberts, 2016).

Introduction of Edsel

When Ford introduced Edsel on September 4, 1957, the event turned to be one of the most underwhelming incidents in the United States corporate history.  The eagerly anticipated Edsel had arrived but with underwhelming results. The public in the U.S. had waited for an extraordinary development in auto technology, but on releasing the prototype for the first time, the public was greatly disappointed. According to Ford estimates, 200,000 orders were supposed to be executed in the first year. Despite a relatively successful first day where 6,500 orders were received, the sales began to nose dive with only 2,750 cars sold in the first ten days after the launch, a mere two-thirds of the anticipated volume of sales. The sales levels continued to drag as the information filtered out to the general public of the weak sales, who made out that there must have been something wrong with the car. By the end of 1958, Ford Motors had anticipated selling over 250,000 vehicles. However, the year was a disaster for the company as, by the end of the year, the company had managed to sell 34,481 cars. The company hit a new low as an introduction of a new Edsel model with lower price did not influence the sales volume. Less than two years after the introduction of the much-hyped Ford Edsel, the Edsel division was formally closed in 1959 culminating in the merger of Mercury and Lincoln production lines. This move was viewed as a cost-cutting before Ford made a decision on what to do with the Edsel models. When the final models were introduced in the fall of 1959, the sales were weak which led to the discontinuation of production in November 1959.  By the end of its two-year life, Edsel sold 109,466 cars, less than six times the projected sales when the product was earmarked. The closure of Edsel saw Ford record more than $200 million in losses, the costs of initial investment, advertising, and operational losses (Pinto, 2013).

Discussion of Standard Criteria

Many arguments have been made of what is the most plausible criterion to judge the success of failure or projects. According to Cadle & Yeates (2001), most projects fail, and hence it is only justifiable to agree on the extent of failure that could be defined as success. In many cases, project managers do not know when they can describe their projects as successful since many people view success from their point of view. As such, projects have many stakeholders who are difficult to please, while taking into consideration the important aspects such as the costs, schedules, scopes, and safety. Critically, some people will view project success as when client signs of the project or when the scope of the work is completed.  According to Pozin (2012), every individual possess their criterion of judging success in projects. Among the factors that Pozin (2012) indicate is the project schedule. The due dates are an important indicator of whether the project was a success. This can be seen in projects such as the drainage upgrade project before the commencement of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games as well as improvement of infrastructure before the 2010 world cup in South Africa.  In these types of projects, failure to observe schedules will be deemed as failure.

Importantly, the budget is an important criterion that can be used to measure whether the project has been a success.  For project managers, sticking to the budget ensures that they know exactly where the project stands concerning money spent versus the budget set for the project. According to Atkinson (1999), the parts of the iron triangle of project management can be used to measure project success (Atkinson, 1999, p. 339; Pozin, 2012).

The scope of the project can determine project success. The scope defines what needs to be done within a certain timeframe and therefore should act as the driving force of the project. International Project Leadership Academy (2016) argues that to have to have criteria to define the success of the projects must be set so as to define failure. As such, they categorize success in five tiers. The first tier represents the scope of the project and would be defined as a success if it delivered whatever was earmarked as its scope irrespective of the schedule or the budgetary performance.

Moreover, Tier two would term a project a success if it delivered the deliverables on schedule or within the set budget while tier three reinforces on meeting the budgetary expectations, time schedules and following the agreed quality standard of work. On the other hand, tier four defines project success as delivery of all agreed objectives that range from the project scope, schedule, budget, and the expected quality standards.  Finally, tier five would only consider a project as a success if the outcome of the project provides a considerable net value for the owner after completion.

In most cases, people refer to the tier four when seeking to define project success or failure. Critically, people will focus on the most visible aspects of the project such as cost overruns and schedule delays in their judgment. However, upon the completion of the project, it project whose rank highly in the power-interest matrix (high power, high interest) such as the project sponsors, the public and media look for tier five definition in making their judgments.

Hence, this implies that people will have differing perspectives on the success or failure, and such views may change over time. For example, despite the Sydney Opera House exceeding its earmarked costs by $103M and taking additional six years to complete, the projected has been lauded as a success. This means that conflict occurs in separating the two criterion of judgment: the project management success versus the end product success. As such, this brings into contention tier four definitions against tier five. Hence, it is possible to have genuinely troubled projects that end up being successful products.

On the other hand, it is imperative to understand project termination does not serve as criteria to judge the success of failure. According to Boehm (2001), it is common for projects to be terminated especially in the period of rapid research due to inherent change in underlying assumptions. As such, a continuation of such projects become a risk as they end up consuming company resources and hence would serve the company well if terminated. Therefore, the project managers should be well advised to identify and stop projects without their careers being put under threat (Boehm, 2000, p. 96).

Identification and Justification of the Appropriate Criteria

Although many criteria have been advanced to judge project success or failure, it is imperative to judge projects on the value that they give rather than following the most visible parameters such as cost and schedules. It is imperative to note that criterion such as plans and budgets should not be dismissed in the pursuit of value. However, relying on those parameters exclusively can be misleading especially to the project owners who seek for the real value created by the project. Importantly, all decisions made should be within the context of value addition, and therefore projects should be ultimately judged on this parameter. As such, this will imply critical assessment and evaluation of the corporate culture so as to integrate meaningful trade-off, which might sometimes prioritize value over costs and schedules. Therefore, product success should act as the primary yardstick to measure product success rather than focusing on the project management success.

Analysis of Ford Edsel Based on the Product Success

According to Feloni (2015), Ford Edsel failed so spectacularly to the extent that it became a classic example of how to never launch a product. As such, it is argued that few names in corporate history are synonymous with failure than Ford Edsel. Despite the legendary project failure, it is imperative to note that the project was not an abject project failure; rather it was a disastrous case of product failure. According to Pinto (2013), Ford made several right moves in the process of the introduction of the car. Although the project followed the technical definitions of project management such as the timelines and costs, projects cannot be lauded for such technical achievements alone. Therefore, such projects would require solid commercial backup to ensure product success.

On the outwards scrutiny, Ford Edsel was supposed to be a success after long and thorough planning of its design, hiring hundreds of individuals to ensure that the designs were cutting edge while the promotional basis was approached with care and looking for a creative touch. As such, from the tier four criteria, Ford Edsel was a success for the project managers. However, various factors resulted in the miserable failure of the product.

Among the key factors that led to product failure was the associated bad timing of the product introduction in the market. Its introduction coincided with the first economic downswing in the U.S. and subsequent stock market collapse in late 1957 followed by the recession in 1958 that critically affected automobile sales. By the time that sales volumes returned to their pre-recession levels in 1960, Ford Edsel was already out of the market.

Also, Ford had specialized in the low-cost vehicles since the 1920s. Its decision to move to middle-cost cars coincided with the change in consumer tastes to the average American, whom Edsel was supposed to target. This meant that the American middle class sought low-cost cars when Edsel was shifting to higher cost cars. Besides, the consumer attitudes were mainly affected by the National Safety Council initiative to downplay aspects such as speed and horsepower in advertisements, the exact elements that were Edsel strengths.

Critically, the key to the product failure was the overhyped image that Ford marketed as revolutionary. Hence, this meant that the customers’ expectations were raised so high that it was impossible to satiate them with any product. A few changes notwithstanding, when the Edsel model was released to customers, it was quite underwhelming when the customers realized it was nothing new from the options they had from competitors. Also, to ensure that the company fended off competition, Ford rushed to the market. As such, this meant that the car featured in the market before it was expected, resulting in many complaints with oil leakages, brake failures, and rattles. Besides, the timing affected the Edsel sales as it found itself competing with previous year models that dealers were clearing from showrooms at low costs.

Critically, Ford made a serious mistake in setting up an Edsel division. Setting up this line created unnecessary costs that required a higher level of revenue to break even the project. This made it imperative that the model is successful, but also required it to be a major hit to pay back its initial costs and operational costs. Finally, mistakes in marketing research compounded Ford Edsel to its product failure. Despite an extensive undertaking of research, the Ford Edsel market research commenced ten years before the product was developed and implemented. As such, the underlying assumptions that held in 1947 were no longer viable by the time the product arrived in the marketplace. Importantly, aspects such as large engines had being replaced by smaller more efficient engines from European cars more than four years before its Edsel debut.


Many criteria can be used to judge whether projects have been a success or failure. Although such authors argue that all projects fail, it is important to determine the perspective from the most important stakeholders. As such, focusing on the iron triangle of project management is an excellent guide to start for a project manager to determine project success. Ensuring that there are not cost overruns, time overruns and ensuring that quality work has been done should be the ultimate goal of the project manager. Importantly, ensuring that the project is completed within its scope guides the project manager to hold to his end of a bargain. However, the ultimate measure of project success should be the product success. Although most project managers are reluctant to use this method, and rightly so, product success culminates in a successful product. As depicted by the production of Ford Edsel, a project can be successful from the project management perspective but end up being a spectacular failure as a product. Hence, project managers should not be judged on terminating projects as a method of measuring success or failure, rather, by ensuring elements are right to ensure product success.


Following the spectacular failure of the Ford Edsel, it would be recommended that in case such a project should be repeated in the future;

  • It should be ensured that technical and commercial performance of the product is evaluated before the product launch
  • Market research conducted should be up-to-date with current trends and tastes and preferences
  • Ensure that the company focuses on the strong points and practice lean manufacturing rather than mass production
  • Consult research before approval of designs and brand names
  • Terminate the project if it proves unsustainable




Anastasios, B. K., 2007. THE CRITERIA OF PROJECT SUCCESS, s.l.: City University .

Atkinson, R., 1999. Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, its time to accept other success criteria. International Journal of Project Management, 17(6), pp. 337-342.


Boehm, B., 2000. Project Termination Doesn’t Equal to Project Failure. Software Management, 1(1), pp. 94-96.

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Buehring, S., 2014. Project Management Success with the Top 7 Best Practices. [Online]
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Cadle, J. & Yeates, D., 2001. Project Management for Information Systems. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Carlson, P., 2007. The Flop Heard Round the World. [Online]
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Dinsmore, P. C. & Cabanis-Brewin, J., 2006. The AMA Handbook of Project Management. 2nd ed. New York: American Management Association.

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Cause and Effects of Owning a Dog

October 26, 2016





Cause and Effects of Owning a Dog

When I was around the age of twelve, my mother and father were always busy, and my older sister was at the University and very busy studying as well as spending time with her friends. It happened that I was alone at home most of the times and especially during the weekends. I always felt lonely up to a point where I felt that the solitude feeling had to disappear. I visited my friend one weekend and found that she was lively and enjoying her weekends because of her dog that kept her company. The dog was so friendly and spending time with it made me feel that dogs were great pets to own and above all, they were more friendly than human beings. I could not wait to have my dog as a pet which I could spend my free time with and so I told my parents about it, and they had no problem buying me one. Within no time, I was used to my pet, and he became my best friend. I realized that there are far more benefits and effects that a dog comes along with by been a pet. From the world of loneliness, owning a dog was a cause that brought effects such as companionship, sense of responsibility as well as security.

By owning a dog as a pet, I came to view a dog as a very good companion for me as a human being and a special animal to live in my life. My lonely days finally disappeared all because of this lovely pet.  My dog is always next to me and so cooperative and loyal. The dog brought a great effect of relieving loneliness and enabling me to meet  more friends. He became my point of conversation with other pet owners and thus changing my life completely. I now have friends from various places such as training classes where I was instructed on how to maintain my dog, dog parks where I happened to play with my dog and meet other dog owners as well as in cafes and online pet sites. My life is completely changed all because of this pet that resulted to be my great friend.

Another effect that came along with owning a dog  was the feeling of  safety where I feel safer at home and even when walking around. Before owning my lovely dog as a pet, I sometimes felt worried when left alone at home due to many thoughts of fear. However, owning my dog made me feel safer. In the case of intruders or stubborn people, he can chase them away and scare the naught people who just come around to make me feel worried and insecure. Not only during the day but sleeping with my dog at night has also brought me safety. I have been sharing the same dog with my pet at night, and his has made me feel secure and guarded all throughout the night in such a way that no one disrupts my sleep. I realized that sleeping together with a dog pet helps me acquire better quality sleep.

Owning a dog is associated with the benefit of relieving stress as well as lowering one’s rate of depression.  I have realized that over the past six years, I have been very occupied with my academic work inclusive of assignments and class work.  This has largely increased my level of stress, but the good thing about it is that my pet helps me relieve this and other types of stress in my life. During last semester’s exams, I was extra stressed due to both academic and family issues to an extent that I started showing depression symptoms. My dog was so compassionate to me during this period and with its physical contact and support, I managed to finish my exams successfully and combated these arising symptoms of depression. Walking around with my dog in times of stress helps me forget my sad situation and spend more time playing with the dog. By walking around and playing with my pet, I felt more relieved and energized to work harder and smarter and in the end, increased productivity results.

My dog  also come along with the benefit of creating a great sense of responsibility in me.  It has taught me aspects of been responsible. Before owning my pet, I only handled tasks that I thought were important to me, and I was not neat and responsible. Life has changed completely after owning this pet for it has also been my teacher. To ensure that my companion is neat and smart, I always have to wash him, feed him and also take him for walks so as to be healthy. I was involved in activities such as training the dog by taking him to training sessions, washing and maintaining the dog’s toys accordingly as well as walking them around and giving them commands. These were tasks that I did each day and in the process, I grew up been responsible and caring for other beings. Above all, my dog has paved the way to making me the role model that I am today.

With owning a dog, I have improved my personality. In the process of caring for my dog, my personality has changed positively. My dog has taught me to be kind, tender and caring and above all, be responsible for what I do. Thus, owning a dog as a pet comes along with its benefits and it is seen that dogs are there to love us unconditionally without discriminating or judging us.



Advanced Nursing Practice Field Experience

October 26, 2016







Advanced Nursing Practice Field Experience



Institutional Affiliation









Purpose of the paper

The main aim and purpose of this paperare to make improvement in the quality improvement form. The improvement will enhance the mode of data collection in improving the rate of mistreatment to patients suffering from Mellitus diabetes. The paper will as well improve the rate of data collection to reduce the problems and challenges associated with laboratory testing of patients suffering from Mellitus diabetes.


The ideal idea behind this paper is to improve or change the activities and practices in the advanced nursing practice field. In everydocument, there is always a better way or an alternative manner or presenting the information given. The change may be as a result of removing some information or adding additional information to the presented information. The NCQA quality improvement activity fromshows or presents what was done to improve the medical problem that was being experienced while dealing with the patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The paper will focus on improving the methodology used, data collection method and the overall results as well as the intervention measures to be implemented to affect the desired change.

Section I

Activity selection and methodology are addressed in this section of the Quality Improvement Activity form. The form is much more like a project, which was important to my organization as it gave us a hint of the activities and methodologies used, so has to effect some changes in it (Kang et al. 2011). The quantifiable measures selected in a professional way regarding some of the factors that affect the presence of diabetes to human beings. The benchmark that was used in the project was elevated from HIPPA and CMS accreditation and liking the set goals with the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals (Smith et al. 2007). The baseline methodology was done in a manner to ensure that all factors related to factors affecting diabetes are taken care. Several data sources were used among the sources that were usedare administrative data, whichwas extracted from the hospital data, pharmacy data, this indicated the number of people who went to the pharmacy to be tested for diabetes and the resultant results (Knag et al. 2011). The data, in general,was collected from hospitals and pharmacies that were within the vicinity. The data was collecting once per week. The data collection cycle was to ensure that all the cases in all the data collection areas were taken into account. Different sampling techniques were used to the three quantified measures that were selected (Det Port. 2005).Random sampling and selection was used to verify both Hba 1c glucose levels and impaired glucose tolerance, however, in working out with body mass index selection sampling was used.

Section II

The actual data collection of the paper and the results are presented in this section. The baseline to the data about the quantifiable measures was studied in accordance to the accreditation by CMS (Knag et al. 2011). The baseline for the three measures were all presented. The baselines were setregarding both benchmark and goal comparison.

Quantifiable measures Benchmark baseline Goal benchmark
HBA1C glucose levels 9% 5.7%
BMI index <35 kg/m2 <25 kg/m
Impaired glucose tolerance 5.7 mmoN < 7.8 mmoN


The baseline data or also referred to as the initial data was established for the first time in the July 2006. The second data was done one month after that was in August 2006. However, changes in the records presented were noted, this lead to re-measurement of the data to end up with an effective record (Smith et al. 2007). The re-measurement was done five times to have a stable data in the Vaseline records. The purpose of the baseline was to enable them to have a comparison state with other further records of Mellitus diabetes patients.

Section III

About the analysis cycle, it was presented in this section. In general,the section helps in addressing the analysis cycle of the project. The analysis cycle covered all the quantifiable measures (Det port, 2005). The analysis cycle took place for one year, of which the data was continually reviewedto determine the number of people who were developing Mellitus disease. Some pre-diabetes peoplewere found from the resulting data. The review, therefore, enabled them gave and determined the risk of them developing to full diabetes (Smith et al. 2007). It was evident that those people who had a BMI that was greater than 35 kg/m2 had a higher chance and possibilities of them developing and suffering from diabetes (Kang et al., 2011). Age was deemeda critical determinant of an individual risk of developing diabetes. Also, individuals over 50 years had a higher chance of developing the disease as well. Several technique and modes of data analysis were used among them was SPSS software which helped in analyzing the quantitative data that had been previously collected (GRANDO and PD, 2007). All the characteristics and parameters of the data were considered.

In comparison to the baseline data, the actual rates were higher. However, the data kept on changing over years showing drops in the values and sometimes the values remained constant without change )Smith et al. 2007). Nevertheless, no instances were recorded in which the values rose higher than expected. Therefore changes to the implemented goals were adopted due to the effectiveness and efficiency of the data presented (Kang et al. 2011). Being that the data were always benchmarked with the national accreditation board’s requirement, the project was working towards meeting the set goal. The process, therefore,leads to change towards the state of diabetes patients.

Section IV

Interventions refer to the attempts and methods of reducing suffering either to a person, country or towards a disease. The issues of problems in diagnosis of diabetes start with the people attracting the disease (GRANDO and PD, 2007). In this case, therefore apart from complaining of Mellitus diabetes to patients now and then, there can be set divine interventions that can be implemented to slow down the rates at which people are getting the disease (Kang et al. 2011). For this reasons, therefore, the paper, illustrated some of the interventions, which can be used by patients with diabetes,and the people who have not contracted the disease to prevent them from suffering from the disease (Det port, 2005). The interventions in this projectaddressed the problems associated with eliminating and reducing problems associated with Mellitus diabetes diagnosis to the patients. The interventions that had the most impact towards the change of the project are:

  1. Frequent Check-Ups

The urge of frequently attending check-ups can improve the level of problems associated with thedisease. Frequent check-ups will as well determine the level of improvement or failure of the medication the patient is taking to continue changing the type of medication in case of failures (Det Port et al., 2005). The checks and frequent visit to the doctor will as well help the patient to have more advice to the patients on the better ways of maintaining himself or herself. In case there was an error that occurred in times of diagnosis can as well be rectified at this point (Kang et al. 2011). Therefore, it is essential to make sure that even after the first diagnosis people should be visiting the hospital for check-ups until they are certain about their status.

  1. Exercise

Various medical researchers have indicated that exercising regularly; can help at a greater deal to reduce the case of diabetes to human beings and in most cases to the patients who have excess sugar in their blood. Exercising helps in excreting the excess sugar out of the body of human beings. Exercising as well enables the cells, tissues and muscles of the body to be active and hence work towards excreting the sugar (GRANDO and PD, 2007). Exercising, however, goes hand in hand with health diet. A healthy diet is composed of a healthy meal and plenty of water in the body, plenty of water in the blood helps the body to dilute the excess sugar and excrete it from the body through sweating or frequent urination (Det port, 2005). However, to prevent the disease, sugar restriction is advised. Tentatively, is it advisable to any person to adopt healthy diet at all times?

  1. Improved Medical System

However, to bring to a stop to all these problems of diabetes diagnosis, it is essential to improve the state of medical and health system in all hospitals and medical areas. Improved health and medical system, will, therefore, improve and reduce the errors associated with the diabetes diagnosis (Kang et al. 2011). Most investments should be channeled towards increasing the equipment and facilities in the hospitals so as the patients should be served and treated appropriately. Medicine stock should be increased as well (Smith et al.2007). However, increasing the number of hospitals is as well important. The purpose is to ensure that everyone has access to the medical system without traveling a long distance in such of the health services.

C1a) Data Collection Methods Used

Quantified measures Source Method Sampling Cycle of data collection Cycle of data analysis
HBAC1 levels Health records  and pharmacy data Registration and testing Random and selection sampling Once a month Continuous
BMI index Survey data Interviews Selection sampling Once a month Continuous
Impaired glucose tolerance Administrative and Pharmacy data Registration and testing Random and selection sampling Once a month Continuous


The hospital management was responsible for all the activities including data collection and analysis (Det Port et al. 2005). This hospital managementwas including the clinical officers, nurses, and senior doctors. The activities were performed concurrently, and mostly during the data collection session. They divided themselves into thegroupto make the activities timely and cover a larger group. Yes, the individuals’ criteria were considered when working with the quantified measures. The process of ensuring that all the individual criteria were met made the process easier to tackle. The individual’s criteria were inclusive of age, their slate of health, population available, and some years the individual has been suffering from the disease.

C1b)  Appropriateness

The data collection methods that were used in the quality improvement activity were appropriate in consideration to the intended results and objectives of the project, which was to improve the state of diagnosing Mellitus diabetes patients (GRANDO and PD, 2007). The baseline data that was used supported the need for change. The baseline data was slightly lower to the actual or target value. Lower baseline data enhances the need for the individuals to work harder and surpass the set baseline data. However, the national benchmark, which was being used as the guideline, was well much higher than baseline data (Smith et al., 2007). The organization’s selection of data collection method was much appropriate. They ensured that they dealt with quantified measures, whichsignificantly affected diabetes. Regarding the source, also they incorporated all the area where information about the measure could be obtained.

The data collection highly advocated for random and selection sampling methods. The sampling methods clearly show that the population was large, but only a portion of it was used to bring out the ideas. No, verification of data was not performed before analyzing the data. However, the data collected were analyzed at an appropriate time and frequency. The process of data collection as well dealt with information more regularly that subjective information. The change was evaluated through or using comparison in which they compared the baseline data with the actual data. The project had a prediction that the qualified measures could give a baseline and help in creating a relationship between the presence and absence of diabetes and the quantified measures. However, the prediction did not pan out as expected. Nevertheless, the quantified measures were directly proportional to the quality care outcome. The comparison helps in setting the best and admirable standards.

C2) Improvement of Data Collection Measures

The data collection methods and presentations were accurately done. However, with much more improvement, it could be comparatively better. Therefore, data collection methods could have been improved by increasing the sample size of the quantified measures. The sample size selected and used was much low in comparison to the results that were needed. The resulting results that were analyzed therefore did not represent the entire large population. The project as well facilitated the use of registration of diabetes patients in pharmacies and hospitals and survey by measuring the BMI of diabetes patient as well as the BMI of people who were not suffering from diabetes.

The techniques were accurately and well presented, however, with little improvement of introducing questionnaires as a method of collecting data could have been much better. In Dataanalysis, as well the use of Software to analyze the data could have been much better in improving the results of the project. At the same time, in the process of data collection, some barriers hinder proper and better results from the project. The quantified measures were more of medical and health related terms. Therefore, it consumed the health practitioners amongst them the nurses, time to explain so the patients the meaning and importance of the measures, this, therefore, leads to limited discussions about the required data. Language barrier was the other barrier that affected data collection. Most of the people affected were the elder, and they had no or limited formal education.

D 1a) Evaluation

The evaluation methods used included the analysis of registration methods and laboratory testing by reviewing the information collected in the pharmacy database and the hospital patient medical records. To bolster the legitimacy of the information, the same method was applied to a randomly selected sample of patients. Another method of collecting information was conducting interviews on selected correspondents from the population that is involved in any medical service environment. The research program involved medical personnel from all levels of administration in the case studies. Due to the colossal size of the information to be collected, these individuals were broken down into smaller groups. It enabled the speedy analysis, interpretation and dissemination of the results between the groups through their leaders. It reduced the overall time taken for the research program to be completed.

On the PDSA cycle, the research group and medical service provider put in place an very effective plan to execute the directives of the research. The research groupaccommodated medical correspondents from various departments of the medical service providers. A timetable was put in place to ensure hat the activities involved in the researched were carried out concurrently.  A dependable means of formulatingcriteria for the correspondents was drafted. The execution of the plan was effective as well. medical personnel was broken down into smaller groups so as to perform multiple tasks at the same time, thecatalysing efficiency of the research program. Data collection methodologies were put in place to study comprehensively the information collected. The analysis of HBAC1 levels, BMI index, and impaired glucose tolerance, were ideal in identifying the effects of the medical care accessed in the case study. It, however, failed short in identifying the effectiveness of the managerial policies and resource dissemination in the medical service providers. Conclusively, no third party information was used in the analysis.

The research program focused on ananalysing patient who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The collection of BMI measurements of patients suffering from diabetes was doneto compare with that of healthy people. The only significant challenge it posed was the elaboration of medical terms in this specialty that participating patients needed further clarification from the medical staff. As such, it made the presence of a medical staff member during the interviewsnecessary. The inclusion of medical staff from different delevels of management ensured that the methodologies learned during the research program were disseminated to different sectors, departments, and segments of the medical service providers.

To evaluate the change, the organization set records of the benchmark goal value and the corresponding baseline data for three consequent years (GRANDO and PD, 2007). The process was meant to ensure that what was set in the project as thechange was surely improving the state of diabetes to patients. The organization as well focused on the study portion of the PDSA cycle (Smith et al. 2007). At the send of the evaluation period, it was evident that there were improvements in the state in which the diagnosis of Mellitus diabetes was taking place in the organization.

D1b) Implementation Effects

Some of the rippling effects of the program were the improvement of communication and execution of rolespertaining to medical service provision. The use of groups catalyzed an appreciation for teamwork and immediate attendance to the patients. The use of communication assistance groups such as translators and terminology interpreters enabled the patients to improve the manner in which they communicate with the medical personnel in attendance. Moreover, the research focused on the medical attributes of the case studies, with the results failing to show their influence on non-medical entities such as finance, safety, and general public health. Nevertheless, it enabled the improvement of the information databases of the respective pharmacies and hospitals inclusive of the assimilation of improved data collection methodologies.

D2) Stakeholder Roles

The key stakeholders were the medical personnel and the patients. The medical personnelwas to facilitate the execution of medical tests, interpretation of medical terminologies as well as avidly provide information relevant to the research program. Their success is largely due to the bearing down of tasks and assigning groups to attend to them. It improved the efficiency of the data collection segment of the research. Their expertise and ethical approach to medicine enabled ease difficulty in communication when it came to patients who needed further clarification or assistance during tests. The second key stakeholder, the patient had the role of providing information about the progress of their illness. Some of the challenges that inhibited this role was the interpretation of some of the terminologies used during g medical tests. Some of the patients were elderly and as such needed assistance in communicating some of their information.

D3) Improvement

It should be noted that the size of the sample group was small for an exercise that sought to elaborate the state of a disease that is prominent nationwide. In addition to that, the selection criteria did not fully delve into demographic information. Entities such as occupation have aninfluence on a patient’s capacity to afford healthcare. The criteria also did not provide a means of identifying areas of improvement regardingresource dissemination. It ought to encompass entities that are essential to the internal medical service environment such as equipment and type of drugs. The methodologies used to elaborate the information needs further statistical input. It enables the research to collect quantifiable data that is much easier to elaborate and re-apply in comparison to thesecondary type of information in most of the research. In addition to that, a managerial analysis is essential to analyzing the quality of healthcare.

Understanding the directives that are communicated from the leadership of the organization would enable the research to identify areas that could be improved through simple revision of policy. Conclusively, future research teams should take into consideration the communication difficulties that may arise in a medical setting. In some cases, the correspondence may be too old or ill to provide dependable information. The use of nurses and doctors with whom the prospective correspondent is most comfortable with should be present to facilitate the same.

  1. E) Involvement

In the organization, I am involved as the data collection manager. For this reason, therefore I was involved in the project as the main changes and the leader of the project. My best experience was learning more about Mellitus diabetes and interacting with many people to understand their story about diabetes.


Briefly, it is evident that the diabetes is a key challenge to the society. However, with much research, there can be much more improvement and discovery of more details and issues that affect diabetes patients. The tenets point to the need for continuous research in the field.














Delport, C. S. L. (2005). Quantitative data collection methods. De Vos.

GRANDO, V., & PD, R. (2007). Setting Thresholds for MDS Quality Indicators for Nursing Home Quality Improvement Reports.

Kang, Y., Meng, H., & Miller, N. A. (2011). Rurality and nursing home quality: Evidence from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey.The Gerontologist, gnr065.

Smith, E. L., Cronenwett, L., & Sherwood, G. (2007). Current assessments of quality and safety education in nursing. Nursing Outlook, 55(3), 132-137.

















October 26, 2016



The total value of export (in US dollars) from the Philippines to Malaysia and to Lao in selected periods from 1960 to present is show in Table 1.  The data was obtained from the International Monetary Fund’s database. There were entries in 1964, 1968, 1976 to 1978, 1981 to 1989 and 1992 to be able to permit for comparison of export since the data in 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990 for Laos are all zero.

Table 1. Total value of Export from Philippines to Malaysia and to Lao

Year Export to Malaysia

(in US$)

Export to Lao

(in US$ )

1960 0 0
1964 0 800,000
1966 5,000,000 0
1970 300,000 0
1976 4,750,000 10,000
1977 29,990,000 80,000
1978 36,490,000 40,000
1980 94,390,000 0
1981 104,070,000 120,000
1987 119,010,000 20,000
1988 116,490,000 30,000
1989 99,700,656 100
1990 126,803,000 0
1992 127,849,497 1,000
2000 1,377,360,746 46,688
2010 1,396,496,130 301,273
2015 1,198,694,382 15,573,640

Source: International Monetary Fund (2016). Direction of Trade (Philippines). Retrieved


Table 2, on the other hand, focused on selected periods only. To visualize the relationship between the data, a graph was constructed and it is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Figure 1 shows an increasing export form Philippines to Malaysia. Likewise, Figure 2 shows that there is a substantial increase in export value from Philippines to Lao in 2015 compared to the preceding years. The latest export value for Malaysia, however, decreased in 2015 from 1,396.50 in 2014 to 1,198.69.

Table 2. Total value of Export from Philippines to Malaysia and to Lao

Year Export to Malaysia

(in US$)

Export to Lao PDR

(in US$ )

1960 0 0
1970 0.30 0
1980 94.39 0
1990 136.6 0
2000 1,377.36 69,000
2010 1,396.50 32,400
2015 1,198.69 584,303.41

Source: International Monetary Fund (2016). Direction of Trade Statistics (Philippines). Retrieved from


Figure 1. Export Value from Philippines to Malaysia

Figure 2. Export Value from Philippines to Lao


Table 3.  Top 5 Export products of Philippines to Malaysia

1 2 3 4 5
2001 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Animal, vegetable fats and oils Vehicles other than railway, tramway Cereal, flour, starch,

milk preparations

2002 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Animal, vegetable fats and oils Vehicles other than railway, tramway Dairy products, eggs, honey
2003 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Animal, vegetable fats and oils Vehicles other than railway, tramway Dairy products, eggs, honey
2004 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Animal, vegetable fats and oils Vehicles other than railway, tramway Dairy products, eggs, honey
2005 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Vehicles other than railway, tramway Animal, vegetable fats and oils Dairy products, eggs, honey
2006 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Copper and articles thereof Dairy products, eggs, honey Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products
2007 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Articles of leather, animal gut, harness Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Copper and articles thereof
2008 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Articles of leather, animal gut, harness Vehicles other than railway, tramway
2009 Machinery,

nuclear reactors


electronic equipment

Articles of leather, animal gut, harness Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Vehicles other than railway, tramway
2010 Commodities not elsewhere specified Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Copper and articles thereof
2011 Commodities not elsewhere specified Electronic,

electronic equipment

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Machinery,

nuclear reactors

Dairy products, eggs, honey
2012 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Sugars and sugar confectionery Animal, vegetable fats and oils
2013 Electronic,

electronic equipment

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Essential oil, perfumes, cosmetics, toiletries Machinery,

nuclear reactors

Copper and articles thereof
2014 Electronic,

electronic equipment


nuclear reactors

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Cereal, flour, starch, milk preparations and products Animal, vegetable fats and oils
2015 Electronic,

electronic equipment

Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products Machinery,

nuclear reactors

Essential oil, perfumes, cosmetics, toiletries Dairy products, eggs, honey

Source: International Trade Centre (2016). Bilateral Trade between Philippines and Malaysia. Retrieved from



Table 4.  Top 5 Export products of Philippines to Lao

1 2 3 4 5
2001 Vehicles Pharmaceutical products Beverages, spirits and vinegar Other made textile articles Electrical, electronic equipment
2002 Pharmaceutical products Vehicles Beverages, spirits and vinegar Other made textile articles Electrical, electronic equipment
2003 Pharmaceutical products Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes Cotton Essential oil, perfumes, cosmetics, toiletries Machinery
2004 Printed books, newspapers Vehicles Essential oil, perfumes, cosmetics, toiletries Paper and paperboard Plastics and articles thereof
2005 Printed books, newspapers Plastics and articles thereof Machinery Paper and paperboard Pharmaceutical products
2006 Printed books, newspapers Machinery Paper and paperboard Plastics and articles thereof Special woven or tufted fabric
2007 Paper and paperboard Machinery Special woven or tufted fabric Pharmaceutical products Knitted or crocheted fabric
2008 Paper and paperboard Machinery Electrical, electronic equipment Knitted or crocheted fabric Pharmaceutical products
2009 Wood and articles of wood, wood charcoal Paper and paperboard Pharmaceutical products Machinery Printed books, newspapers
2010 Paper and paperboard Soaps, lubricants, waxes Pharmaceutical products Machinery Electrical, electronic equipment
2011 Paper and paperboard Pharmaceutical products Commodities not elsewhere specified Miscellaneous chemical products Electrical, electronic equipment
2012 Electrical, electronic equipment Paper and paperboard Machinery Pharmaceutical products Optical, photo, technical apparatus
2013 Machinery Paper and paperboard Plastics and articles thereof Electrical, electronic equipment Articles of iron or steel
2014 Machinery Vehicles Paper and paperboard Electrical, electronic equipment Articles of apparel, accessories
2015 Vehicles Electrical, electronic equipment Explosives, pyrotechnics, matches Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos Pharmaceutical products

Source: International Trade Centre (2016). Bilateral Trade between Philippines and Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Retrieved from


Table 5.  Nominal and Real GDP in the Philippines

Year GDP

(US $)

Real GDP
1960 6,684,685,517 3,935,574,540
1970 6,687,223,656 2,176,251,075
1980 32,450,398,740 3,041,367,099
1990 44,311,595,230 1,110,661,298
2000 81,026,297,144 810,262,976
2010 199,590,774,785 1,263,927,490
2015 291,965,336,391 1,665,818,453

Source: The World Bank Group (2016). World Development Indicators. Retrieved form



Figure 3. GDP and Export Value from Philippines to Malaysia

Generally speaking, an increase in export value to Malaysia is associated with an increase in nominal GDP. Hence, there is a positive relationship between the two variables.

Figure 4. GDP and Export Value from Philippines to Lao

The graph shows that there is no consistent positive relationship between export to Lao and national GDP in general. There was even a period that the export increased but the GDP decreased.

Health History Assessment Summary

October 25, 2016

Health History Assessment Summary

Patient Name :           Johnson Bernard

CC                  :           Diagnosed with Bilateral Knee Pain


The patient is a 26 year old gentleman with an African-American descent. The man has previously been diagnosed with h/o sickle cell. As at reporting time, the patient suffered from a bilateral knee pain that began at lunch break on the 20/10 while the patient worked at a distribution store. As reported by the patient, the pain started mildly and escalated gradually to the extent the patient could not sleep on the night of 20/10 through to 21/10. Ultimately, the pain was so exacerbated to the extent the patient had challenges standing and walking. However, the patient denied experiencing any trauma on the knee, cough, pains on the chest, any abdominal pain, and coughs. In sum, the pain was intense and localized on the knee without spreading to other parts of the body. The patient received prescriptions and started taking morphine (6mg).



Medical and Surgical History

  1. H/o stuttering priapism: abnormal cavernous blood gases and perineal trauma
  2. H/o the patient has also been previously diagnosed with ulcers of the lower extremities.
  3. The patient was previously diagnosed and on treatment of the Sickle Cell Disease with the last event of pains being experienced over two years ago at XXXXX clinic in XXXXX city.
  4. The patient was hospitalized a year ago in October after being hit by a hockey ball while playing hockey. The patient had been hit on the chest and developed difficulties in breathing. Latter, the patient developed fevers and ended up being admitted for at least three days. Nonetheless, it is not clearly indicated whether or not these conditions were related to pneumonia or not.


Family History

There are no histories of individuals suffering from arthritis, heart diseases, liver, or kidney diseases. Currently, the patient has one sibling with sickle cell disease. An uncle of the patient out of three also had sickle cell disease. Similarly, a step grandfather had been diagnosed with the sickle cell disease.


Social History

Patient lives with the family of mother and father, and three siblings. They have lived in the same locality at XXXXXX for approximately five years. The patient admitted engaging in social drinking occasionally but denied using tobacco or smoking other drugs and stimulants.





Current Medications

  • 5mg qd of folic acid
  • 6mg of morphine
  • 5/325mg of percocet



Review of Systems

Constitutional: Experiencing intermittent chills without fever. No recorded weight loss and decrease in appetite.

ENT: The patient had no mouth ulcers in the mouth. There was also no dysphagia and URI elements.

SKIN: Normal skin with no symptoms.

PSYCHOLOGY: Absence of insomna, anxiety or depression

NEUROLOGIC: Absence of weakness or forms of numbness


Physical Examination


General: Patient inable to stand or walk, lies in bed with general symptoms of weakness and thin appearance.

Lymph Nodes: Absence of cervical LAD

Cardiovascular: Normal and prominen heartbeat sounds with equality on both sides, S1 and S2 normal

Lungs: General good air movement with decreased bulateral breath sounds.

Neurologic: Grossly intact cranial nerves, with ordinary cerebellar function

Psychiatry: Alert and oriented to person, place, and time


Defined as an autosomal recessive disorder, the sickle cell disease causes the β-globin gene to undergo a point mutation that leads to the alteration of the structural system of the hemoglobin molecule. This subsequently leads to deoxygenation. Additionally, Aggregation and polymerization of resulting from the same process reduce the lifespans of hemoglobin molecules by causing chronic hemolytic anemia. It is highly likely that the pain on the knee was caused by a vasoocclusive event leading to periarticular infarction.




Hoffman, R. Hematology: basic principles and practice. 4th edition, pp. xxix, 2821 p. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone, 2005.

Stuart, M. J. and Nagel, R. L. Sickle-cell disease. Lancet, 364: 1343-1360, 2004.

Benjamin, L. J., Swinson, G. I., and Nagel, R. L. Sickle cell anemia day hospital: an approach for the management of uncomplicated painful crises. Blood, 95: 1130-1136, 2000.

Charache, S., Terrin, M. L., Moore, R. D., Dover, G. J., Barton, F. B., Eckert, S. V., McMahon, R. P., and Bonds, D. R. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. N Engl J Med, 332: 1317-1322, 1995.


How to fight breast cancer

October 20, 2016






How to fight breast cancer,


The modern society is plagued by a high proliferation of lifestyle diseases and an increased awareness of terminal illnesses affecting them. Among the most researched terminal illness due to its increased severity and an exponential level of awareness in the population is the most prevalent form of Cancer – the breast cancer. Despite the numerous efforts to fight cancer, there has been no clear-cut solution in form of prevention or treatment for breast cancer;


Breast cancer in women especially can be remotely linked to poor lifestyle choices like lack of exercise, poor diet and lifestyle activities like alcoholism (Greer 17). Thus the first step against the fight should start with taking charge of one’s health (Vallance & Courneya 42). Early detection of breast cancer makes elimination of cancer cells from the discovered area highly possible. Participation and support for sensitization efforts and campaigns on how breast cancer can be detected early enough through self-examination and availing the much needed mammograms is the second step to fighting breast cancer. The fight against breast cancer has become a humanitarian effort, thus walks and other organized fundraising efforts in support of these programs are necessary to ensure the fight is won. Participating in fundraising efforts like making strides against cancer provides enough financial support to further this war. Volunteering in supporting initiatives that focus on the physical, social and needs of the people affected by breast cancer like a cancer survivor providing educational and emotional support to those facing breast cancer diagnosis. Participation in cancer research, even for those that are not affected by it, ensures that there is better information on breast cancer to support the fight (Feinberg).


            Although there has not emerged any clear-cut solution for prevention or treatment of breast cancer, several efforts have resulted to increased awareness and more information on the fight. Severity of cancer in the population is currently being addressed to ensure early detection, sensitization efforts, support and treatment efforts are made more affordable and available to cancer patients and survivors.














Feinberg, B. A. Breast cancer answers: understanding and fighting breast cancer. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 2005. Print.

Vallance, J., & Courneya, K. S. Fight breast cancer with exercise. Edmonton, Alberta: Company’s coming. 2014. Print.

Greer, J. B. (2013).anti-breast cancer cookbook: how to cut your risk with the most powerful, cancer fighting foods. North branch, MN: Sunrise River Press. 2013. Print.


October 17, 2016








Personal Statement





I graduated with a Bachelor Degree in Business Administration. I am always fascinated by huge public events. I am that person who enjoys living a life with excitement and diversity. I want to advance and become part and parcel this line of business by studying Event Management.

I am very ambitious in understanding the complete process and any relevant information relating to event management. Specifically, I have much interest in financial aspects, ways of planning different events and layers to be managed in these events. While doing my personal study on this course during my Bachelor’s degree, I realized that I want to do my Masters in this area. As I was doing my bachelor’s degree in business administration, I was involved in organizing events like fund raising and we managed to get money for the cause we aimed at helping. Since then, I made the decision that pursuing a degree in event management would be my personal goal to fulfill next. I have had an opportunity of working as a promo person with a telecommunication company on a part-time basis. During this period, I was able to gain the best experience in events organizing. I was able to see and appreciate event managers in their responsibilities and direct action.

I have made the personal choice of joining your university to do this course because I believe and have confidence that I will be able to develop my personality, knowledge and skills greatly. I have confidence in your teaching methods and that they can satisfy my educational expectations. Once I get the opportunity to study in your university, I will devote myself to both upholding institutional standards and make myself better. I would like to thank you for giving me a chance to express myself through this application.

October 12, 2016


An ideal classroom in an ideal school

















Education is an important part of human progress and the future of knowledge and technology is dependent on education. Many organisations have contributed to understanding the role of education in the globalised world. This focuses on the ability of education to meet and adapt to the new trends and emerging issues in the society, especially science and technology. The 21st-century approach to education focuses on the individual contribution to knowledge acquisition and the society in terms of social values and family contributions to education. The role of women in education and promoting women education is the key focus for educators (Rao, 2003, p.2). In addressing education issues in the 21st century, UNESCO has formed an international body to address these issues. This body sought to address the various differences in the cultures among member states. The differences in the political and social aspects of each country contribute on the approaches to education, training, and even employment trends in a country and this can be a positive or negative effects on development. Education plays an important role in research and social cohesion (Rao, 2003, p.2). The focus of this paper is to evaluate the aims and values related to education in the 21st century and analyzing on the principles of education and how they contribute to creating an ideal environment for education.


Creation of Global mind

Globalisation has led to the creation of global village whereby interaction of cultures and people has increased and education approaches have changed to globalization. The global mind helps understand different issues and problems faced in different regions and continent. The availability of information through electronic devices and the internet have increased the understanding of education and changed goals in education both in regional and global circles (Pandey, 1998, p. 220).

Development Mindedness

Education contributes to human development in the sense that it contributes to the growth of physical, intellectual and spiritual aspects of human beings. Educational knowledge helps appreciate the human abilities and how these abilities can be utilized to achieve human development and to a further how these abilities can be of economic value to a country (Pandey, 1998, p. 220).

Global cooperation

Education in the 21st century is characterized by democracy, and thus the aim of education is creating individuals who are able to embrace teamwork since the world is interrelated and interdependent. Education is meant to contribute to the larger goals of society and not for self-improvement. The approach to democracy in education today has contributed to the voicing of educational aims and issues affecting education presently (Noddings, 2015).

Creation of Active Learning

Learning is education through the provision of information. Learning is what is important in the 21st century since it focuses on the awakening of human intelligence through self –educating mechanisms. Active learning leads to innovations and inventions which are important in the 21st century whereby society is faced with many issues and thus problem-solving skills from active learning are important (Pandey, 1998, p. 220).

Active learning helps in instilling important human aspects which education cannot provide. Learning is important in the discovery of conscious aspects of human life. Qualities and self-discovery cannot be learnt in education. Self-knowledge is important in understanding the world and issues such as nature, religion among others (Pandey, 1998, p. 223).

Holistic Human Development

Education in the 21st century is focused on the specialisation of human skills and developing these skills to produce specialists in different fields. Specialization in individual skills and abilities contributes to social transformation and productivity in society. Specialization in education increases efficiency in the particular fields which have developed specialists (Pandey, 1998, p. 223).


Education in the 21t century is dynamic and the underlying principles should be observed in creating an education system which is future-minded and beneficial to the individual and the larger society which is the global scene. The education today should consist of well-laid course designs which are aimed at meeting the learning needs of an individual while enhancing the interaction with technology among other educational requirements. Information used in education should be of value to the student and contribute to the learning goals.

Educational Transformation and Information Technology

Education is about the availability of information and how this information contributes to the learning process of an individual and the society at large. Education in the world has experienced great evolution and one of the contributing factors to the evolution of education and knowledge availability is the advent of information technology (Chandra, 2003, p. 261). The availability of technology has contributed to the initial efforts to increase the availability of knowledge through the introduction of the printing press which revolutionized the course education in the industrial age. Since then the changes and advancement in technology and information the course of education has changed and improved to accommodate educational needs of the changing world (Chandra, 2003, p. 261).

The world is characterized by technology and technology discoveries which have then increased the access to information. Technology such as computers and the use of internet has increased global connectedness and communication. It has increased the accessibility to educational information. The world has reduced classroom to the virtual environment through the use of internet and thus the access to education and information has improved. The educational goal of cooperation has been promoted by the use of technology by reaching to students and dispensation of information through the computers (Chandra, 2003, p. 261).

Technology has created the idea of the virtual classroom and the emerging trends in the global world of distance learning. This concept enables student’s access information pertaining to their particular disciplines through the online access to their lectures and learning materials. This has reduced the cost of education and access to information worldwide. Also, virtual classrooms are convenient in creating specialist in certain while utilizing least resources (Chandra, 2003, p. 261).

Education has experienced the wave of transformational changes from information technology whereby the education system is based on time based instructional time and the assessment based on time and performance from both the student and lecturer. The access to information in the transformed education system is equitable through virtual information and use of digital tools such as computers (Chandra, 2003, p. 261).

The transformed education system is flexible to the learner and the teacher. Flexibility is both in time and place. The use of information technology in education has contributed to educational flexibility and convenience in the globalised world. Also, information technology has lead to more personalized education and proper interaction between the educator and the learner. The incorporation of information technology in education systems of the world has been the goal in most governments (Chandra, 2003, p. 261).

Curriculum-Core and Hidden

Curriculum in the education system defines the teaching and learning expectations through defining what should be undertaken in a particular course. A curriculum in a school setting describes the course contents and the particulars of grading among other details in the education system. Education institutions in the world adopt different curriculum depending on the educational goals and the resources available and the history of the system (Kridel, 2010, p. 440).

Curriculum defined at the classroom level indicates activities developed for the student which are in line with the larger school curriculum goals and expectations.  The education system contributes to the educational needs of individual through the formal and the informal systems. The values attained from both are significant in the current education system which embraces the individual needs and community needs of educations (Kridel, 2010, p. 440).

Core curriculum is defined by meeting the educational requirements through a set of particular courses. The core curriculum is detailed with the particular content, the learning materials, evaluation procedures, and these details are set to meet set objectives. The core curriculum is the formal form of curriculum and it contributes to the achieving of educational goals of acquiring skills from a particular course (Ornstein, Levine, & Gutek, 2011, p. 438).  The core curriculum focuses on the core subjects which form the core of education. This concept promotes the subject matter idea whereby the focus is on the key subject requirements for each student depending on their core subjects. The core curriculum focuses on content and the courses and it ignores the importance of education equation such as hidden curriculum (Ornstein, Levine, & Gutek, 2011, p. 438).

The Hidden curriculum is a by-product of formal education curriculum. Students learn unintended lessons, values and acquire perspectives in the school setting due to the process of active learning. The hidden curriculum enables students to adopt behaviors and learn lessons which are not part of the formal curriculum but important in the learning process. Lessons such as interaction with other people, appreciation of people’s cultures are examples of abilities acquired in the hidden curriculum (Kridel, 2010, p. 440). Hidden curriculum is unintended lessons derived from the formal curriculum and in the globalised world of education, hidden curriculum has raised debates on how the concept of hidden curriculum and the values learnt can contribute in transforming education system and changing educational policies across the world. Values obtained in the hidden curriculum are vital in eradicating issues of biases in education and embracing multicultural educational systems and institutions across the world (Kridel, 2010, p. 440).


Active Learning

Active learning is the process of learning which is engaging to the students. Student involvement is key in describing an active learning process in any education system. The student is engaged in activities which involve discussions, problem-solving, analysis, and evaluation. Active learners develop better skills in the content mastery and knowledge development. Active learning is achieved through the use of correct strategy in learning and the favourable environment (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p.29).

Active learning calls for an environment (school environment) that promotes the use of research-based education and this contributes to the development of good analysis and investigative abilities of the learner. The learning environment could be dynamic in the sense that there is the interaction of disciplines which promotes the learning experience and exposure. Also, collaborative learning is important in achieving active learning in an institution, and it encourages learners to develop skills individually and communally (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p.29). Technology in the today’s globalised world has provided an environment for active learning; the use of technology devices provides an ideal classroom and actively engages the learners. The technology captures the visual and interest of the learners and thus active participation in the analysis and deductive capabilities of the student. Visual learning experiences are more effective in the absorption, analyzing and synthesis of subject content.  (Harmin & Toth, 2006, p.29).

Ethos and Social and Emotional Aspect of Learning

Learning experience contributes to the social and emotional aspects of the overall individual as per the education systems. Education has effects on individual development and this is dependent on the different aspects of the learning environment and the interaction of ethos, curriculum and other aspects of the environment (Järvelä, 2011, p. 88).

Learning process comprises the creation of a positive environment and proper ethos for the overall operation of an educational system and institution. Learning promotes cohesion through embracing individuals with different social and economic backgrounds. Learning promotes individual learning in aspects of participation and this contributes to the deepening of social networks and development of individual values and norms and this is important in the ethos of interaction and reciprocation (Järvelä, 2011, p. 88). Learning process includes the teaching of social and emotional skills to the learners and this helps in the regulation and formulating the professional expectations of the staff. It also promotes the self-awareness skills and self-efficacy to the learner. The school environment is important in creating individuals who are academically, socially and psychologically competent in the community (Järvelä, 2011, p. 88).

Learning environment

The learning environment as described in the education system refers to the physical location where learning takes place. In the current education system of education the learning environment is the classroom and creating the ideal classroom for learning is significant in educational goals. Learning environments are diverse according to the approach and styles in which education takes place. For instance, there is the virtual classroom which is the product of technology and the virtual classroom setting is different from the actual classroom (Brucato, 2005, p. 8).  The nature of learning environment is determined by different factors which require the interaction of the factors such the structure of the school or education system and culture. These determine the approaches to curriculum and other factors pertaining the allocation of education resources and thus the environments for learning can be diverse. An ideal learning environment is a product of teacher and parent contribution and the contribution of the culture is important in creating a positive learning environment (Brucato, 2005, p. 8).

Modern education systems have embraced the use of technology in providing positive learning environments. Learning environments in the 21st century are positive if certain aspects are met. These aspects include flexibility and increased access to learning resources.  Education systems in the world are globalised and in order to meet the global need and standards of the learning environment, the learning institution should meet the requirement in order to enable the learner to have a positive learning experience (Brucato, 2005, p. 8).

Learning environments should support learning to both the learner and the teacher. This environment is inclusive and practical in the modern need for active learning. Besides the access to teaching space and resources, learning environment which is positive calls for the general cultural and community contribution to education outcomes. The globalised world calls for environments which can absorb the global diversities in the race and economic differences. The environment supports teaching and enhances the learning and thus complementing each other (Brucato, 2005, p. 8).

Online learning environment requires the proper communication methods and the proper use of technology in order to achieve the benefits of learning. The learning environment requires access to information and this online environment is a trend that is common in the globalised world and measures to improve the online learning environment is vital in meeting education needs of the 21st century (Brucato, 2005, p. 8).


The education system is important in creating individuals who are professionals in different fields. Also the creation of skilled individuals and how education promotes world cohesion is important in the creation of an all-inclusive system of education. The proper practices in education should be employed so as to achieve success in creating an education system which creates cohesion. The social and emotional aspects of learning and the contribution to the development of the world should be considered when coming up learning policies. Besides the structural aspects of the education system, the contribution of information technology in today’s world has contributed to the global access to education. The access to education has improved with the use of printed books and use of media and internet in achieving the universal need for education.











Bhaskara, R. D. (2003). Education for the 21st century. New Delhi: Discovery Pub. House.

Brucato, J. M. (2005). Creating a learning environment: An educational leader’s guide to managing school culture. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education.

Chandra, R. (2003). Information technology: A revolutionary change. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications.

Harmin, M., & Toth, M. (2006). Inspiring active learning: A complete handbook for today’s teachers. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Järvelä, S. (2011). Social and emotional aspects of learning. Amsterdam: Academic Press.

Kridel, C. A. (2010). Encyclopedia of curriculum studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Noddings, N. (2015). Education and democracy in the 21st century. New York: Teachers College Press.

Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., & Gutek, G. L. (2011). Foundations of education. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Pandey, J. (1998). Gandhi and 21st century. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co.