Web Database Applications: Report

December 2, 2016

Web Database Applications: Report
Institution of Affiliation
Table of Contents
Assumptions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Validation Constraints …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Test plan …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Customer registration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Customer authentication …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Customer booking ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Entity relationship diagrams ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Conceptual Model ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Logical Model ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
Evaluation of the Application ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Individual evaluation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Web Database Applications: Report
The list of assumptions that governed the development of this application include:-
There were no immediate plans to increase the cinema venues so no form is provided for feeding additional venues into the system.
Customers would remember their mail addresses more than they would do with usernames hence the use of mail addresses for usernames.
Cinema booking records will be entered on the very date the user loads the cinema booking form hence the reason the booking_date field in the cinema_bookings table is set to default to the current date.
Finally, each of the cinema venues will be demarcated into lounges, and lounges will have seats belonging to given categories.
Validation Constraints
The validation constraints related to the cinema booking application include the following: –
Mail addresses that customers will register with will need to be unique in order to ensure that each customer receives information about the arrival of a new film. The system will use a back and a front end scheme to accomplish this constraint. On the back end, the email field will be declared as a unique column in the customers table as illustrated in the script below. On the front end, an AJAX call will be made to the server (after the customer has lost focus on the email form field) to instantly validate if the email that a customer supplies is available for use.
Customers won’t have their record saved until they provide a first name, last name, email and password. On the database, this will be validated by defining the aforementioned attributes with the NOT NULL keyword as illustrated in the script above. Equally, the front end will have javascript codes to validate the said fields against emptiness.
Customers will need to confirm their passwords whilst registering on the site as hinted in the customer registration form shown below.
The first password will be entered in the password field while the second password will fed in the field labeled confirm password. The system will save the first password, but only after verifying that it matches the second password. Verification of the password match is done using a javascript code on the front end.
To successfully login to the system, customers will need to supply an email and a password. The mail and password supplied will need to match the details they provided during registration. Provision of incorrect login credentials will lead to the output shown here below.
Entries for the names of cinema venues will need to fall under South Greenwich, East Greenwich or West Greenwich. The project defines this at the database level by defining the venue column as venue_name nvarchar(30) not null (check venue_name IN (‘South Greenwich’,’ East Greenwich’,’ West Greenwich’);
A person charged to manage a cinema will need to be in the list of employees.. In the back end, the application tracks staff in charge of cinemas via the employment number obtained from the list of employees. The cinema table definition to actualize this validation constraint is as shown below:-
Seats in cinemas will need to be either available or unavailable. Thus, the database will validate entries for the status of seats using the constraint defined below:-
Prior to assigning a seat to a customer, the system will need to validate whether the seat in question (in relation to the assigned longue) bears an available status in the seats table. In the SQL server database used, this constraint is implemented using a before insert trigger to verify that the seat in picture is available for assignment.
Test plan
Customer registration
Test for emptiness
The form fields under the new customer registration form will be tested for emptiness. The test will involve two input types-correct and incorrect input. The incorrect input will be leaving all the form fields blank and hitting the register button. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the customer of the need to have all the form fields filled. On the other hand, the correct input will be hitting the register button after populating all the form fields. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system proceeding to evaluate the content of the individual form fields.
Testing for alphabetic character set
This test relates to the first name and last name fields. The incorrect input will be an attempt to register with names bearing non-alphabetic characters. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the user that the two aforementioned form fields only need alphabetic character sets as inputs. On the other hand, the correct input will be an attempt to register with
names bearing characters in the alphabets. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system proceeding to assess the mail field.
Test for mail correctness
This test will verify if the customer-supplied mail address is in the valid format. The incorrect input will be a mail address in an invalid format e.g. yahoo.com123 and fluez@yahoo. The pass criteria for this input type would be the system alerting the customer that the email supplied is not in a valid format. On the other hand, the correct input will be feeding a mail of a valid format like alejandro212@yahoo.com. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system proceeding to test the mail field for uniqueness with regards to the customer records already in the database.
Test for mail uniqueness
The form will be tested for the uniqueness of the supplied mail. The incorrect input will be an attempt to register with an already existing mail. The pass criteria for this input type would be the system, alerting the customer that the supplied mail is not available for use, with the suggestion that the customer chooses another mail address. On the other hand, the correct input will be the system proceeding to assess the password field.
Test for password length
The password field will be tested for password length, in this case set to have between 8 and 12 characters. The correct input will be an attempt to supply passwords falling out of the aforementioned range like rey, flu and melizedekuskuskuskus. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the user that passwords would need to have 8-12 characters. On the other hand, the correct input will be an attempt to issue passwords falling with the range mentioned above like testte12, IT@looper2016. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system proceeding to test for password match with the confirm password field.
Test for password match
The confirm password field will be matched with the password field. The incorrect input will be an attempt to feed non-matching passwords in the two fields. The pass criteria will be the system alerting the user that the two passwords would need to match. On the contrary, the correct input would be an attempt to feed matching passwords in the two fields. The pass criteria for this input type would be the system saving the customer records in the database alongside a notification of a successful registration.
Customer authentication
Test for emptiness
The email and the password field will be tested for emptiness. The incorrect input set will be leaving either or both of the form fields empty. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the user of the need to fill both the email and the password field. On the contrary, the correct input will be an attempt to fill both the mail and the password field prior to hitting the login button. The pass criteria for this input type will be system proceeding to test for a matching combination of mail and password.
Test for matching login credentials
The customer login form will be tested for a correct combination of email and password. The incorrect input will be an attempt to feed non-matching combination of email and password. For instance if a password wafteWAFTE@@ is associated with the user email trevor12@yahoo.com, then trying to login with the mail trevor12@yahoo.com and a different password or the password wafteWAFTE@@ and a different mail will lead to an error. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the customer that the supplied email and password do not match. On the contrary, the correct input will be a matching email and password
combination. For instance, if a customer registers with the mail trevor12@yahoo.com and the password wafteWAFTE@@, then only that combination is issued during login. The pass criteria for this input type will be the system alerting the customer of a successful login followed by a redirection to the master page.
Customer booking
Test for availability of assigned seat
The system should verify that the seat assigned to a customer during booking is actually available as per the seats table. The incorrect input type will be an attempt to assign an unavailable seat to a customer. The pass criteria for this input would be a system alert that the seat in question is already assigned to another customer. On the contrary, the correct input would be an attempt to assign a customer a seat that is actually available. The pass criteria for this input would be the system’s action to save the book details into the database alongside a notification of records having been successfully saved.
Test for seat count limit in cinemas
Test that a seat assigned to a cinema does not result to a final count surpassing 200. The incorrect input type will be an attempt to add a seat to a cinema already with a seat count of 200. The pass criteria for this input will be a system notification that the cinema in question has already hit the maximum number of seats allowed. On the contrary, the correct input would be an attempt to assign a seat affiliated with a cinema that has not attained the maximum number of 200. The pass criteria will be the system alerting the user of the seat assignment having been successfully saved into the database.
Entity relationship diagrams
Conceptual Model
Logical Model
Evaluation of the Application
The back end database used was MSSQL 2014 enterprise edition. The reason for using a relational database in the back end was based on the need to support the ever changing content of the application e.g. tracking new cinema bookings, adding new employees and registering new customers.
The application uses a common connection string defined in the web.config file. This was a better alternative to defining database connection functionalities in the back end codes associated with the individual web pages. The approach would help ensure that anyone deploying the application only changes the database connection parameters defined in the web.config file. What’s more, this method of defining database connection parameters helps in saving the computational resources that would be needed in establishing database connections.
The system’s front end was created using ASP.NET web forms feature in Visual studio 2015. Use of web forms was informed by the idea that the organization would need its customers to access the application from whichever location, and using web forms allows the application to be deployed on web servers like internet information service then be available to access from any location.
Form fields in the system were validated using javascript. The reason for validation was to ensure that the database ends up with correct data. It is notable that some validation aspects have been handled at the database level too. Examples under this category include names for cinema venues, the status entry for seats and the total count of seats currently associated with a longue.
One way that could help in making the application better is the use of entity framework in the development process. Apart from reducing the time needed to construct the application, use of a
database first, code first or model first approach to framework would make the underlying code maintainable alongside tackling issues of restricting the implantation of the cinema booking application to SQL server.
Individual evaluation
The application is not configured to use caching hence could be prone to slow performance especially with regards to operations involving database querying. Use of HTML 5 caching technologies like memcached would be an awesome idea especially if Greenwich cinema booking company is considering scalability.
Use of the edit plus software in the design of the web pages was never a very awesome idea especially in the face of alternatives like Visual studio 2015 web form utility. Going the Visual studio way for the UI design would simplify the process of writing the corresponding C# codes.
The present application can only save records to a central database. Nothing is mentioned regarding data backups or fail-over clusters, yet this is crucial for enterprises running critical applications like Greenwich cinema booking company. A better design would involve proactive approaches to handle possible database server failures.81745139

Intro to Pesticide Toxicology and Policy

December 2, 2016








Intro to Pesticide Toxicology and Policy

Oral and Written Project Topics

Golden Rice















The Golden rice project is one of rice production which consists of rice that has been genetically modified. The modifications allow for the accumulated storage of (beta-carotene) β-carotene in the rice’s endosperm, that is, the edible part of the grain. The modifications make the rice acquire a golden color which is different from the normal white rice that lacks carotenoids. Consumption of golden rice results in either its conversion into vitamin A by the body or it is stored in the fatty tissues of the body.

Like all carotenoids, β-carotene is also a naturally occurring plant pigment; it is mainly found in colored fruits such as green vegetables and carrots. All animals, man included synthesis vitamin A which is acquired from carotene they consume in their diet. Plants do not contain vitamin A. However, vitamin A is a precursor of plants; β-carotene is also referred to as provitamin A. As a result meat products from animals contains vitamin A. People who practice poor diets are at a high risk having deficient of vitamin A, this may result in life-threatening illnesses.

Rice grains are an ideal carrier of β-carotene, the carotenoid is readily broken down by the digestive system and the natural membranes that are fatty in nature. Natural lipids are contained in the grain are sufficient to facilitate the absorption process of β-carotene even in diets that contain a small amount of oil or no oils. Oil is the main facilitator for the absorption of carotenoids. For a vast majority of people in the world, rice is not only a source of energy but also the main sources of lipids, despite the low quantity of fat which is present in the grains.




The Issue

Like all other genetically modified foods, Golden rice has its fair share of advantages and disadvantages. However, the major issues relating to the Golden rice are due to the medical conditions it may cause to people who consume it. Some people can be allergic to the rice. The additional nutrients, be it proteins, minerals or vitamins, modify the nature of the food and where the minerals, proteins and vitamins are obtained from has an impact of determining how safe the rice is (Wesseler & Zilberman, 2014). Some people are allergic to some animals or plants, this could be the source of the vitamins, minerals and proteins. As a result, Golden rice may result in these risk causing allergic reactions.

Golden rice may in some cases result in complications with medications which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics (Tran & Sanan-Mishra, 2015). As it is the case with almost all genetically engineered foods, the foods have an antibiotic feature that makes them insect resistance, virus resistance and also resistance to other pathogens. The antibiotic feature can also interfere with the human resistance system to antibiotics.

Golden rice can contaminate other non-genetically engineered rice through the unplanned mixing of seeds during the harvest, distribution and transport processes. Despite the fact that rice is self-pollinated, chances of cross-pollination still have a possibility of taking place which provides a pathway for contamination of other rice (Gartland, Bruschi, Dundar, Gahan, Magni & Akbarova, 2013). There is also the risk of the Golden rice genes spreading out to interfere with other vegetation including the weeds; this may cause the evolution of normal weeds to super weeds which would be almost impossible to get rid of normal herbicides are used.

In areas such as the Philippines where the crop is being tested, there are concerns about the use of Golden rice as a solution in combating vitamin A deficiency. If continued studies on the rice indicate unexpected effects to the community where the rice is a staple food, the communities may have their nutrition and food security at risk as a result of contamination and the harsh truth is that is almost impossible to clean up and recall the crops (De Moura, Moursi, Angel, Angeles-Agdeppa, Atmarita, Gironella,… & Carriquiry, 2016). Some people strongly believe that Golden rice is not something that was intended to occur in nature. Therefore, it may cause adverse effects to both nature and those who consume it.

Other possible and plausible explanations for or sides to the issue than what’s on the surface

A lot of funds and times have been invested in the Golden rice project. The project has been in place for over twenty years (Moghissi, Pei & Liu, 2016). The team of competent scientist behind the project believe that the benefits of rice outweigh the negatives as a result of the rice safe for the environment and consumption. For the scientists, Golden rice is the ultimate solution to malnutrition to countries all over the world.

Genetically engineered foods have in most instances been praised for their positive health benefits on people. Some studies indicate that the altered foods including Golden rice can help improve the health of the senior citizens hence increase their life span (Tang, Hu, Yin, Wang, Dallal, Grusak & Russell, 2012). Also, the modified foods can help prevent untimely deaths which are as a result of common medical conditions and poor health. There are claims that Golden rice can help prevent blindness. In general, the rice is expected to have a positive impact on the lives of the people and also help the economy of the involved countries to reduce considerable amount funds on the annual budget.

The rice yields higher when compared to other non-modified rice. Also, along with vitamin A, further developments on the rice will allow the rice to offer additional proteins and minerals. In future, Golden rice might offer vitamin C, iron, zinc and good quality quantities of proteins (Brar, Jain & Jain, 2015). The addition nutrients are predicted to be made available in the near future in any rice. Other than dealing with malnutrition, Golden rice helps children grow strong; this will help in improving the children’s cognitive development and also their physical bodies.

The evidence supporting and refuting each side of the controversy

The scientific proof provided to indicate that Golden rice may lead to resistant in antibiotics is the facts that there are over  70 patent claims on the genes, this includes gene constructs and DNA sequences that are used in the making of the rice (Jacchia, Nardini, Bassani, Savini, Shim, Trijatmiko… & Mazzara, 2015). For this reason, a lot of people have raised concerns on whether the absurdity of offering Golden rice as a cure of for vitamin A deficiency, their claims discourage the rice by insisting that there are many other and cheaper alternatives sources of vitamin A such as the unpolished rice and green vegetables. The alternatives are also rich in other minerals and vitamins besides the expected vitamin A.

The proof to illustrate the health benefits of the Golden rice is because enough intake of vitamin A improves the health of the consumer since vitamin A help in strengthen the body’s defence system. The genetic engineering carried out on Golden rice allows it to stores high quantities of vitamin A. In addition, there are improved yields from the rice as it is modified to adapt to harsh climatic conditions (Bongoni, Bongoni, Basu & Basu, 2016). Also, it has better resistance to pests and other rice diseases. The modifications make the rice more yield more per plant which further increases its yields.



Are scientific studies on both sides accurate, well-designed, and interpreted reasonably?

In general, the opposition to genetically modified crops lacks scientific support. The largest field trial of transgenic crop projects consists of a hundred and eighty million productive farming lands: this corresponds to 13% of all the agriculturally productive land in the world (Schenkelaars & Wesseler, 2016). There are no recorded adverse effects on both humans and animals and even the environment where these crops are grown and consumed. However, studies from various parts of the world indicate that pesticide use has been on the decline. Genetically modified crops have helped reduced pesticide use by almost 90% since the introduction of the Bt cotton which is also genetically modified.

Experiments conducted by scientists at Tuft University in Boston and Peter Beyer from the University of Freiburg in Germany indicate that the rice protects the consumer from vitamin A deficiency. All over the world, lack of beta-carotene results in hundreds of deaths in the developing world each year. Deficiency of provitamin A especially in children makes them suffer from weaknesses of the immune system or may result in blindness. Statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that approximately 250 million children of pre-school going age lack enough vitamin A supply in their diets (Wesseler & Zilberman, 2014). Among these children, between 250,000 to 500,000 lose their sight per year. From this information, it is clear that the Golden rice can offer a solution to these problems.

Do both sides have equal weight of evidence?

The two sides of the Golden rice topic to do not have equal evidence weights, the benefits of the rice are underrated while the resulting disadvantage of the rice risk appears to have been exaggerated (Lou, 2015).  Though there is no clear proof that Golden rice cause problems such as resistance to antibiotics, the majority of the people are very cautious with the rice. However, this is expected since if the projected negativities of Golden rice and other GMO crops were true, then the results would be fatal.

On the other hand, they is need to come up with plants that are rich in vitamin A to help deal with illnesses and other complications which are related to the lack of vitamin A; this is especially in the third world countries (Whitty, Jones, Tollervey & Wheeler, 2013). However, much weight regarding the Golden rice is placed on its disadvantages which blind the society from seeing the benefits that can be achieved as a result of growing the rice. Excessive concentration on the negatives rather than the positive part of the project may lead to the total abandonment of the project even though it can still be improved to make it widely acceptable by the majority of the people.

What sources do each side draw from to support their claims?

The main claims on Golden rice by those who oppose are in support of allergen part of the rice; this is a type of antigen that triggers vigorous and abnormal response of the immune system to fight off substances that are perceived as harmful by the body. However, some of these substances may actually pose no risk to the body. Some of the researchers have carried intensive research on the topic of GM crops especially the Golden rice (Alberts, Beachy, Baulcombe, Blobel, Datta, Fedoroff,… & Sharp, 2015). The researchers outline multiples ways through which people develop allergies as a result of consuming genetically engineered foods. The main method is through transgene materials which contain inherent allergic properties. Some of the transgene materials that may be present in Golden rice are transferred to the human body through a change in the gene expression. Changes in gene expression, in turn, alter the storage tissue in parts of a plant. The amount of the transgenic material contained in a plant is the determinant of the allergic reaction in a population.

The main sources of information in support of Golden rice are as a result of the health benefits attained through having a vitamin A rich diet. Golden rice is a rich source of vitamin A.

A viable or ‘safer’ alternative(s) to the current situation

It is true that blindness is caused by micronutrient deficiency; this type of blindness can be prevented through the distribution of vitamin A capsules or through improving one’s diet. An alternative to cater for the vitamin A deficiency (VAD) has been through the proposed supply of oral doses that are high in vitamin A in a solution to pre-school going children (Gayen, Sarkar, Datta, & Datta, 2015). However, such solutions can only reach a fraction of the children in need, and in most cases, the program will not always be ongoing. There are also other additional costs incurred for training the medical staff to administer the doses, poor infrastructure in the affected areas may cause this cost to go higher. For example, the annual costs incurred range at approximately two million dollars for countries whose size is almost as that of Nepal or Ghana.

Another suitable alternative is the consumption of unmilled brown rice. There exists considerable amounts of natural oils on the outer layer of the rice grain; this is the aleurone and the bran, these are rich in important vitamins required by the body such as vitamin B (Puri, Dhillon & Sodhi, 2015). However, rice is generally consumed with the outer layers removed, that is in its milled form. Oils present in the outer layers goes through a process of oxidation making the grain rancid, the process takes place at a much faster rate in areas that experience sub-tropical and tropical climatic conditions. The main reason behind milling is because milling improves the long-term storage duration of the rice without affecting the taste of the rice.

The most efficient long-term solution to these problems is through solving problems such as poor, infrastructure, poverty, malnutrition and lack of technology in the affected countries. All these play a key role in eliminating VAD. However, the solutions to these problems seem to be out of reach. Golden rice together with other efficient approaches may provide a much simpler, cheaper and highly effective solution to some of these major health problems.

The public’s opinion and its major source

Public opinion refers to the representation of the will and consciousness of the public. Public opinions obtained from the Political Ecology of GMOs indicate that peoples’ opinion regarding Golden rice is based on to two extreme ends; those that support it and those that are against it (Carroll, 2016). People that are in support of the rice strongly believe that it is a new method that will help increase food production.

People who are against the rice believe that there exists too many unknown consequences which will result due to wide use of the new method; the people base their reasoning on the “look before you leap” philosophy. The two stereotypes can be linked to two influential groups that are in control of determining the kind of information that will be made available to the public.

Scientific community’s opinion

Being a Science project, the Golden rice has received enormous support from the scientific community. To the scientists, the rice is viewed as one of the greatest breakthroughs in the science world to help address the issue of food security and also as a major source of vitamin A (Wang, 2015). The project was motivated by humanistic values and to the human welfare. Scientists strongly insist that continued and ongoing developments in the plant genetics enable it to present itself to the world as a strong candidate for the solution to some of the preventable ailments affecting the world.

The dispersion of Golden rice seed to some the Indian farmers are perceived as one of the potential solutions to help deal with vitamin A deficiency. Through the project, scientist hope that the rice produced in India will no longer have the same challenges as vitamin A supplements which scientists believe do not provide a complete solution regarding vitamin A related complications. In addition, through Golden rice, the scientific community hopes to get rid of certain types of cancers that can be linked to vitamin A supplementations.

What evidence is most portrayed by the media?

Like public opinion, the information that is transmitted through media is highly dictated by influential stereotypical groups that are either highly in support or highly against the Golden rice project. A good example of media in support of the Golden rice is the program of “Showing the dark side of anti GM campaigners” which is a show led by Dr Patrick Moore, the co-founder and leader of the Greenpeace movement (Lee & Krimsky, 2016). The aim of the movement is to end active blocking of the Golden rice by environmental organizations.

An example of media against Golden rice can be indicated through platforms such as “Golden Rice is Not So Golden”. This mainly focuses on the negative sides of the rice with claims that the rice is nowhere close to solving public health and societal problems as a result of micronutrient deficiencies (Reynolds & Martirosyan, 2016). Golden rice is portrayed as a broken promise from prickly scientists who play out in mainstream media with some regularity.

Is/was media coverage biased?

The information provided by mass media is in most cases biased. Biased reports shown by the media are clear indicators of the insufficient and inadequate studies regarding Golden rice, this results in a disservice to the people whose right to know the truth is taken away from them.

On 17 January 2016, CBS this Morning did a story on GMOs, “Food fight over GMOs” which was published on the same day (Sperber, Art & Chelsea, 2015). From the report it was clear that the report lacked sufficient research; the reporting was in favor of GMOs. However, not enough work was done to prove this. The report started with the reporter asking a Hawaii farmer about genetically modified papayas. The farmer was asked by the reporter if the papaya was safe and the farmer assured him that they were indeed safe because the farmer and his family had been consuming them for 20 years. The reporter the used that as proof and immediately came to the conclusion were safe. The reporter did not offer anything from the researcher to counter the assertion made by the farmer.

Has media coverage of the issue changed over time?

It is clear that genetically modified organisms, Golden rice included, have a bad reputation all over the world. For this reason, the media has been on the frontline to push away the introduction of genetically engineered crops into the agriculture sector without adequate consideration being placed in the environmental and health risks. The media have in the past been very active in charging its opponents blowing potential hazards associated with the crops as a way of manipulating the public opinion against the new technology (Ronald, 2014). During this time, the media and the developing scientists have been accusing the public of their lack of understanding. It is not rare to hear statements such as “Acceptance by the public will improve as a soon as start benefitting directly” or “The media takes the entire fault for poor coverage on the issue.”

Over the years, comprehensive works conducted on the topic of Golden rice has helped provide both the media group and the public with information that has helped change peoples’ perception of this technology (Yang, Xu & Rodriguez, 2014). The media does not only focus its attention on the only the disadvantages of the technology. Both the pros and cons the technology is evaluated critically which not only helps the public understand it but also helps encourage the acceptance of the technology.

Role of bias (personal or media); misperceptions of risk, toxicology, pesticides, science; and/or flawed studies play in the issue

When dealing with Golden rice, bias comes from two sides, that is, the overestimation risks of the rice by the media. From the scientists who developed the rice, the bias is placed on the benefits of the rice to make it accepted by the community (Wailes, Dixon, Nayga & Zheng, 2014). However, bias placed by the media houses have for a long time overpowered the bias coming from the scientists. As a result, Golden rise and other topics relating to GMOs have been welcomed with strong opposition.

As information on Golden rise continues made more available to the public, the bias tends to shift to the point of level grounds where the public gets to equip themselves with the information that is important to them (Jin, Wailes, Dixon, Nayga Jr & Zheng, 2014). Both the bias from the media and the scientists neutralize each other to give valid information that the public can assess, accept or reject without being unfairly compelled by one of the sides.

What role have activist groups and/or activist scientists played?

Activist groups effort to agree and disagree with the introduction of Golden rice seem to have been equal and therefore activists played no significant role in delaying the introduction of the Golden rise. Regular activist and activist groups were against the introduction of the rice due to its uncertain consequences (Delwaide, Nalley, Dixon, Danforth, Nayga Jr, Van Loo, & Verbeke, 2015). However, the activists from scientific groups had a strong base for the acceptance of the rice since vitamin A deficiencies blinds and kill hundreds of thousands of children every year all over the world. Genetically modified rice offered one of the most promising solutions to this problem. In addition, rice is consumed by half the people leaving in the world every day, to come up with such as solution is not a simple task. Despite the hard work put in place to come with this solution, many critics of the Golden rice is eagerly waiting to point out and campaign against any weaknesses that might present themselves as a result of the rice.

Policy changes implemented or are being pushed for

Currently there are no policies that have been put in places regarding Golden rice. However, to help move forward, it is clear that the rice must comply with the standards of application of soil and plant sciences to crop production and land management. For Golden rice to accomplish its nutritional goals and gain acceptance by the consumers, there is need for the Golden rice farming countries to come with strategic decisions to help navigate situations that deal with the promotion, implementation and adoption of the rice.

The decision is to address matters regarding desirable β-carotene quantities, desirable agronomic characteristics, target populations and methods to be used in the promotion and distribution of the rice (Kimura, 2013). All of these choices would be best informed if the agriculture and health policy makers can all agree on the potential benefits and need for technology. This will only take place if Non-governmental organizations who work with developing countries embrace the idea. From this approach, bio-fortification (the process through which the nutritional contents of the edible portions of plant foods are increased to levels that exceed the average content) is relatively challenging. Therefore, future investments need to be highly driven by policy dialogue.

The Golden rice provides a good platform for the guidance on other bio-fortification efforts. The first platform allows for any bio-fortification of staple crops to be genetically engineered; this method is expected to encounter great political resistance as well as other challenges regarding delivery and safety assessments other than the expected genetic modification approach. The second is that any bio-fortification efforts will need guidance and support from Non-Governmental Organizations and National Agricultural Research Systems within the countries whose population is affected deficiency, this helps to design and target appropriately.


The introduction of the Golden rice has various pros and cons. The media and other stereotypical influential groups play a major role in determining the information that gets to the normal citizens. Some of the major information concerning Golden rice that makes people question it and as a result rejecting it is the fact that most people strongly claim that, not only Golden rice, but also other genetically engineered crops were never meant to occur in nature in the first place. As a result, the introduction of the Golden rice may result in hazardous consequences that will affect both other plants and animals including humans. Though there exist no solid proof, genetically engineered organism can be linked to various ailments, there are still claims that associate the two; this because, to creating genetically modified organism requires making alterations in their genetic makeup.

Most of the information on genetically modified organism is subject to bias which makes people accept or reject the technology without clearly evaluating the topic. Some of the genetically engineered crops, for example, Golden rice, holds solutions to some of the biggest problems affecting the world such as illnesses caused by lack of enough vitamin A; this include weaknesses of the body’s defence system and development of blindness.

Before accepting a concept, it is necessary to clearly looks at its pros and cons. All crops have their pros and cons. However, if the pros are greater than the cons, then the subject matter should go through further research to determine if it should be accepted by the community. The benefits as a result of Golden rice by far outweigh the disadvantages, for this reason, Golden rice should be considered as one of the top solutions to help combat blindness in young children and other disease caused by lack of vitamin A.























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Bongoni, R., Bongoni, R., Basu, S., & Basu, S. (2016). A multidisciplinary research agenda for the acceptance of Golden Rice. Nutrition & Food Science, 46(5), 717-728.

Brar, B., Jain, S., & Jain, R. K. (2015). Augmentation of Mineral and Protein Content in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice Genomics and Genetics, 6.

Carroll, M. (2016). The sticky materiality of neo-liberal neonatures: GMOs and the agrarian question. New Political Economy, 1-16.

De Moura, F. F., Moursi, M., Angel, M. D., Angeles-Agdeppa, I., Atmarita, A., Gironella, G. M., … & Carriquiry, A. (2016). Biofortified β-carotene rice improves vitamin A intake and reduces the prevalence of inadequacy among women and young children in a simulated analysis in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 104(3), 769-775.

Delwaide, A. C., Nalley, L. L., Dixon, B. L., Danforth, D. M., Nayga Jr, R. M., Van Loo, E. J., & Verbeke, W. (2015). Revisiting GMOs: Are There Differences in European Consumers’ Acceptance and Valuation for Cisgenically vs Transgenically Bred Rice?. PloS one, 10(5), e0126060.

Gartland, K. M. A., Bruschi, F., Dundar, M., Gahan, P. B., Magni, M. V., & Akbarova, Y. (2013). Progress towards the ‘Golden Age’of biotechnology. Current opinion in biotechnology, 24, S6-S13.

Gayen, D., Ali, N., Sarkar, S. N., Datta, S. K., & Datta, K. (2015). Down-regulation of lipoxygenase gene reduces degradation of carotenoids of golden rice during storage. Planta, 242(1), 353-363.

Jacchia, S., Nardini, E., Bassani, N., Savini, C., Shim, J. H., Trijatmiko, K., … & Mazzara, M. (2015). International Ring Trial for the Validation of an Event-Specific Golden Rice 2 Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 63(20), 4954-4965

Jin, J., Wailes, E., Dixon, B., Nayga Jr, R. M., & Zheng, Z. (2014). Consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for genetically modified rice in China. In 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota (No. 170503). Agricultural and Applied Economics Association

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Lee, H., & Krimsky, S. (2016). The Arrested Development of Golden Rice: the Scientific and Social Challenges of a Transgenic Biofortified Crop. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(11), 51-64.

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Moghissi, A. A., Pei, S., & Liu, Y. (2016). Golden rice: Scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism. Critical reviews in biotechnology, 36(3), 535-541.

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Circuit Analysis

November 29, 2016


Design of electronic and electrical circuits involved a number of stages that are critical for their successful operation. Most of the designs require a lot of analysis in order to establish that the actual intended results are obtained from the design. The design process normally starts with the simulation of the circuit under controlled environment. This implies that the designer will be required to make use of simulation tools in order to determine the overall operation of the circuit. Once the simulation results are obtained and evaluated to be positive the designer can then proceed to fabricate the circuit on a printed circuit board. Most of the laboratory experiments however make use of bread boards as part of the fabrication (Boylestad, 2014).

Each step is considered essential. The components used to build the circuit and their values are normally determined using simple laws. Some of the common laws that exist in the electrical design include Kirchoff’s law, Norton and Thevenin laws, superposition law and many others. This lab experiment is intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper will outline some of these laws and establish their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits will be built on the basis of the analysis performed using these laws. A small findings report will then be generated to reconcile the findings with the theoretical values (Boylestad, 2014).


This lab experiment is intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper will outline some of these laws and establish their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits will be built on the basis of the analysis performed using these laws. A small findings report will then be generated to reconcile the findings with the theoretical values.  The circuits will be built on Multisim. Multisim is a provides a general simulating environment for electrical circuits (Boylestad, 2014).

Evaluation of Kirchoff’s law

Kirchoff’s law is one of the basic electrical laws that define the relationship between voltage and current in a conductor. The voltage is considered to be proportional to the current as illustrated in the following expression;


Where R is the resistance in the conductor.

The following circuit was used to establish the relationship of current and voltage as depicted from Kirchoff’s law;

As can be seen from the above figure the total amout of current I2=V2/R2=24/24=1A

Thevenin’s Equivalent and Maximum Power

The following figure can be used to illustrate the concept of the Thevenin’s Equivalent;


The voltage drop at point 3 is the sum of the voltage drops across all the components connected to node i.e.


Class A power amplifier

The following circuit can be used to illustrate the design that was developed in Multisim.


In order to compute the efficiency of the above circuit the base and collector current will have to be determined. In reference to the circuit drawn above, the collector voltage was measured to be 11.12V, the base voltage was measured to be 6mV;

The efficiency of the system can be computed as follows;

Theoretical amplification factor=12V/0.7=17.142

Actual amplification factor=11.2/0.6=18.66


Class B Push-Pull Power Amplifier

The circuit constitutes a pair of complementary transistors that are biased at the cut-off point. The input voltage is normally adjusted to sufficiently forward bias each transistor within the appropriate half cycle of the input waveform (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the circuit design that was developed in Multisim;

The input waveform that is introduced to the amplifier is normally full cycle. However, since the base of individual transistors is negative biased the signal ends up truncating the half cycle signal. As such, there remains only one half cycle that is detected at the output. However the combination of the two transistors makes the output witness full cycle at the output (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the input and output of the two transistors of a push pull power amplifier;

Design of a signal conditioning circuit

Signal conditioning circuits are normally used to control and simulate the electrical applications that involve either too high currents or too low electrical currents that cannot be handled by the normal electronic devices. As such, the signal conditioning circuit tends to adjust the levels of the currents to meet the standards of the electronic devices. In most cases the input signal is reduced to a range of 0-5 V (Boylestad, 2014). The following circuit was developed in Multisim to simulate the signal conditioning application for industrial applications which had an internal impedance of less than 50 Ohms.

As can be seen from the above figure there were three stages that manipulated the values of the current in the circuit. The first op amp was mainly used to sum up the signals coming from different sections of the industry. The signals were then integrated to realize a linear current. The last stage inverted the signal to produce the desired output (Boylestad, 2014).

ADD inverting operational amplifier

The ADD inverting amplifier is a very useful concept that not only adds multiple signals that are introduced at the input but also inverts the output to the desired state. Depending on the number of inputs that are introduced at the input the voltage divider rule can be used to sum up all the inputs which are then introduced to the inverting terminal of the op amp. In this way the output of the op amp will be inverted (Boylestad, 2014). The following figure can be used to illustrate the concept of the ADD inverting operational amplifier.


The paper has considered several applications that have been developed and built in Multisim. Each of the process involved the analysis and determination of the circuit parameters that will optimize the design. Each step is considered essential. The components used to build the circuit and their values were normally determined using simple laws. Some of the common laws that exist in the electrical design include Kirchoff’s law, Norton and Thevenin laws, superposition law and many others. This lab experiment was intended to establish the applicability of some of these laws. The paper also outlined some of these laws and established their applications on the circuit design. Different circuits were built on the basis of the analysis performed using basic laws.


Boylestad, R. (2014). Introductory circuit analysis. 1st ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson.



Effects of Parenting on Child Development

November 25, 2016














Effects of Parenting on Child Development

Student Name:

University Name:

Effects of Parenting on Child Development


This research paper analyzes three journal articles within the realms of parenting and child development. Consequently, the first article was authored by Kaufmann et al. (2000). This article examines the relationship between authoritative and authoritarian parenting approaches. The second article by Sebrin et al. (2014) examines whether parental support, behavioral control and structure has a bearing on early childhood health care consumption as well as whether it reduces the adverse effects of  socioeconomic disadvantages. The third article which was authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013) sought to examine the dominant parenting approaches, as well as the influence of this type of parenting on the social development of children. Whereas the first and the third journal articles share certain similarities, they differ fundamentally as the former is a scholarly journal while the latter, an empirical research article. The subsequent section reviews the literature review across the three articles.

Literature Review

Within the field of lifespan development, the research topic ofKaufmann’s journal relates to the field as it offers insight into ‘childhood’ which is the second of the six phases of lifespan development. Accordingly, this stage of development is characterized by the push for individuality from children as they seek to become independent from their parents, having learned to do things for themselves.Similarly, it is at this stage where children begin developing cognitive skills as they begin telling right from wrong. Kaufmann’s research attempts to shed light into the different approaches of parenting at this crucial stage, as well as how each parenting technique ultimately impacts the child’s capacity to adjust socio-emotionally while in their elementary schools. As noted earlier, this research focuses on the childhood developmental stage. According to Kaufmann’s journal, the children are between the first and fifth grades which places them in the childhood stage.

This research is based upon the theoretical frameworks developed by Baumrind(1966), where the author postulates three prototypes of parenting approach mainly authoritarian, authoritative as well as permissive. Accordingly, the paper argues that authoritarian parents believe in the strict enforcement of their rules and have no room for discussions with their children as they prioritize obedience and discipline. As expected, the paper notes that such authoritarian parents score poorly on parental warmth to their children and responsiveness to their emotional needs. As for the authoritative parent, the article notes that such parents do well on acceptance and control.Essentially, authoritative parents maintain their control during disagreements but take note of their children’s different perspectives. More importantly, the authoritative parent allows for deliberation over the set rules. For Kaufmann et al. (2000), the research sought to establish whether past findings on the positive impacts of authoritative parenting approach and the more adverse outcomes of authoritarianism would be replicated in the existing sample of children, with their mothers playing the role of informants. The study was also informed by the desire to find out whether such impacts were consistent across socio-demographic groupings.Within this study, the authors emphasize developmental domains like children’s socio-emotional development as this is the focus of the study.

The topic within research journal by Sebrin et al. (2014) is equally relevant in the field of lifespan development as it addresses the issue of child healthcare. Essentially, the research explores the impact of parental support, structure as well as behavioral control on the usage of pediatric medical services like nonemergency care, emergency room visits as well as hospitalization. By establishing a connection between parental care and child safety, this paper offers significant insight into the lifespan development discourse. Like in the case of Kaufmann’s paper, Sebrin et al. places emphasis on the second developmental period of childhood. This is evidenced by the research sample of children between the age of 1 and 6 years as can be seen from the methodology section of the paper.

Consequently, the research is informed by an earlier multideterminant modelin the child development literature that hypothesizes aspects of parenting like parental support, structure, as well as control. According to this theoretical framework, parental support is the parent’s ability to have awareness and be responsible to the needs, states, and goals of their children while also remaining warm and respectful to them. This model argues that parental support leads to positive outcomes like greater psychological functioning and social competence. The second aspect of this model structure which refers to how parents offer a well-organized and consistent environment to their children. Earlier studies suggest that good parental structure leads to children’s competence, compliance and adjustment.The third element under the framework is ‘control’ which means actions towards children that direct their behavior towards standards that are both acceptable and age appropriate without being too punitive.

The third and final research paper is authored by Konnie and Alfred (2013). Like in the first paper, the research topic is relevant to the field of lifespan development as it addresses the relationship between parenting style and its impact of child social development. According to the child developmental stages, the onset of puberty indicates one’s transition into ‘adolescence’ stage. Like in the ‘childhood’ stage, children in this age strive to form their own identity. Unlike the child, however, adolescents tend to be more idealistic and complex in their thoughts. Thus, the research offers scholars and parents insight into how such development may be enhanced. Unlike in the first research journal by Kaufmann et al., this research emphasizes the adolescence phase as can be seen from the research sample size made up of 480 boys and girls in their teen age.

Like in the kaufmann research, this study was based on Baumind’s parenting typology of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive approaches. By using empirical data collection instruments like questionnaires and structured interviews, the study was able to establish that the parenting approach has considerable impact on the social development of students. The study further infers that authoritative parenting approach founded on reason, understanding, trust as well as consensus leads to pro-social traits whereas authoritarian parenting characterized by tough rules, threats and punishments leads to anti-social behavior.


The information within the three research articles will be quite resourceful in helping scholars advance the body of knowledge in the field of lifespan development. The study by Kaufmann et al. (2000) adds yet another scope of knowledge to our comprehension of parental behaviors and attitudes in the second stage of development. Thus, the study will encourage future researchers to include data from other multiple angles. More importantly, it clears the way for future researchers to investigate all elements of the Baumind’s parenting typologies as noted in child development literature as well as their effect on children’s competence and emotional development.

As for the second paper, the findings offer an important revelation of how certain parenting practices may prove resourceful in helping to improve healthcare among children especially those whose parents belong to the lower economic cadre, as well as other population considered to be at risk. At present, there are numerous programs aimed at promoting parental support for the health of children. However, most of these programs focus on certain practices like the hygienic preparation of food and hand washing. Whereas the programs may have attained certain objectives in the past, it is apparent that sensitizing parents on other workable approaches may prove valuable for their children’s well-being.In this regard, health practitioners such as pediatrics and child developmental experts have the unique opportunity to create, enforce and conduct assessment on new programs that relate to their particular areas of specialization in parenting as well as child development. As can be noted from the article, children who come from families and neighborhoods considered poor are at a higher risk of suffering poor health. Event when they have a medical emergency, they still find it challenging to access the hospitals. These findings also offers them an opportunity to benefit immensely from the initiatives aimed at improving their parenting skills.











Kaufmann, D. et al. (2000). ‘The relationship between parenting style and children’s adjustment: the parents’ perspective’.Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 9(2), pp. 231–245

Serbin, L. A. et al. (2014).‘The influence of parenting on early childhood health and health care utilization’.Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 39(10) pp. 1161–1174.

Konnie,M.M.  &Alfred,K. (2013).‘Influence of parenting styles on the social development of children’.Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 2 (3), Doi:10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p123



Comparing Healthcare Behavior between American and Dominican Culture

November 25, 2016

Comparing Healthcare Behavior between American and Dominican Culture

Name of Student:






Various cultures have different systems of health beliefs on what causes illnesses, how to cure or treat them along with who participates in the provision of healthcare services.  The extent to which the cultural setting is relevant to their normal life can have profound influence on the reception of traditional and modern health practices and their willingness to use them. Industrialized societies including the United States and other European nations perceive disease as caused by natural scientific occurrence. Consequently, they advocate for combating the microorganisms through medical treatments and using sophisticated technologies in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.  Other societies often from the less developed regions believe the illnesses result from supernatural phenomena. For such, they emphasize prayers and spiritual interventions such as deliverance to counter and avert the alleged disfavor emerging from the powerful forces. Taking the context of the industrialized and less developed societies, this article compares the behaviors linked with health and illness in American and Dominican cultures.

Comparing Behaviors

Seeking healthcare services varies across societies emerging from the dominant factors translated into determinant factors in the choice. The medical pluralism today leaves the society open to various treatment options including self-treatment, prescribed treatment, biomedicine and alternative medicine. For instance, an American suffering from back pain may prefer taking over-the-counter pain relievers, hot-tub soaking, or taking slight physical exercises. In addition, one may seek appointment with a massage therapist, chiropractor or orthopedic surgeon relative to the severity of the pain. Elsewhere in an environment of tribal culture such as the Bwa Mawego setting, individuals with a similar feeling may either take semi-traction rest or use medicinal herbs. Others might engage the services of a shaman who would prescribe herbal medications besides performing exorcism rites to counter the evil spirit causing the pain to the patient(Quinlan 62).

The dominant medical system used in a society traces to the leading aspect evident in the culture. This is demonstrated by the varying use of healthcare divisions including folk, professional and folk care across the two cultures. The popular sector is a dominant treatment option where regular individuals care for themselves and their immediate families. For example, the American opt for self-treatment by purchasing over-the-counter drugs(Quinlan 62). Alike the third world regions, popular sector comprise a major preoccupation of Bwa Mawegans. Although no monetary transactions are involved, the vast majority of healthcare in the rural village occurs through the popular sector(Quinlan 63). Besides self-treatment, a family member or a close friend may administer the bush medicine. However, the use of the folk sector across the two cultures has greatly declined despite its dominant use by American in the 1900s. Although the Bwa Mawegans have stuck to the bush medicine, Americans have resorted to more professional healthcare services parallel to their industrialized status.

The healthcare sector in American culture is marked by a professional set-up where the practitioners are identified with their roles and specialization. For examples, healthcare services are collectively provided by qualified practitioners with definite titles such as nurses, doctors, surgeons, pharmacists, and chemists. Furthermore, their titles are identified with their levels of specialization including advanced practice nurses, clinical nurse specialist, surgical registered nurse amongst others. This differs to the modest healthcare sector in the Bwa Mawegan bush medicine. Although the Bwa Mawega residents possess vast curative knowledge no specialized bush doctors and they perceive the title an exaggerated compliment. Referring certain people as bush doctor is perceived as not only bragging but such would likely charge for their services as witnessed amongst the Roseau village(Quinlan 65).

Accessibility of Healthcare Facilities

Access to professional healthcare differs across the societies given the variation in infrastructural development. The industrialized regions majorly occupied by the Americans are endowed with basic healthcare facilities, emergency units and referral hospitals. Besides, community healthcare clinics and emergency units are served with a fleet of ambulances thus facilitating ready access to healthcare services. Allied to the insufficient infrastructural development, Bwa Mawegans lack access to a dependable healthcare facility(Quinlan 65). Although they seek the intervention of nurses from the biomedical clinic, it is often regarded inaccessible to the patients owing to the steep path. Although opened for longer hours, the clinic frequently runs out of medical supplies. For many, they perceive it as a center for immunization and an alternative when bush medical treatment becomes ineffective in severe illnesses. Self-transport is barely an option for their impoverished lives leaving them to embrace the immediate and free bush medicine(Quinlan 65).

Misgivings on Biomedicine

Levels of information about the medical science vary in the two societies relative to the education levels. While the American society features both an educated and informed population, the Dominican residents are less informed about medical science and therefore remain reserved to seek healthcare services from the professional sector. Oppositely, the higher levels of education and easier access to information facilitate an open-attitude to seek professional healthcare amongst the Americans. The majority of Bwa Mawegans are reluctant when dealing with the biomedical professionals especially those from other communities. This degenerates into a rapport issue especially when they distrust and dislike nurses from other communities and consider them foreigners. Although liberal residents seeking biomedical care do not fear the physicians, they feel uncomfortable showing their bodies to strangers(Quinlan 65).

Americans culture associate biomedicine as breakthrough innovations in science to deliver mankind from illness. The use of tablets, injections and medical technologies are a welcome feature by patients, translated to complying with the prescriptions. In contrary, Bwa Mawegans associate biomedicine with lost control since they must submit to their interests to the prescriptions and the power of the medications. Additionally, biomedical pharmaceuticals are presumed as concentrated bush herbs in a form that one can neither tell the identity nor its strength(Quinlan 65). Some residents view doctors as greedy individuals and suspect them of viewing bush medicine as competing with their prescriptions. They fear that professional doctors would eliminate the local remedies and thereafter drum up their businesses. Where the continued use of rare herbs has left them extinct, such is interpreted as selfish motives by the medical doctors to cut down the popular bush medicine. To the villagers, anesthesia administered during surgery is linked to high science and wicked intervention whose philosophy is making biomedicine professionals and manufacturers wealthy(Quinlan 66).


Folk-sector medicine is the rarely used by the Bwa Mawego residents and therefore regarded the last resort. However, there exist three classifications of folk healers including curers, faith healers and magical doctors.  While faith healers utilize their God-given powers for good purpose, magical doctors are known to use their powers to either for both good and evil intentions. Presently, Bwa Mawegans only seek the services of priests and obeahmen given that no resident has replaced the last midwife(Quinlan 67). This emerges from the standard rationale that becoming an expert competing directly with biomedical doctors poses great risk of elimination. The older residents reveal that the biomedical doctors killed the last midwife through poison tablets for her powerful healing as residents would overlook the physicians for her services(Quinlan 68). The priest is regarded more trustworthy than physicians and obeahmen as conduit of Gods power. Secondly, visits to the priest are associated with more secrecy as the violator is directly condemned to hell. However, a considerable population in the village considers the obeahmen stronger than priests for identifying the evildoers and revering the curse to them. Equally, they are preferred for informing what patients should do to cure themselves(Quinlan 67). This differs greatly with the American culture where use of fork-sector is inversely proportional to the widespread biomedicine.



Popular Treatment

Self-treatment through over-the-counter pharmaceutical is a persistent practice amongst the Americans given the ease of accessing drugstores, chemists and pharmacists. Currently, purchasing over-the-counter pharmaceuticals is infrequently used by rural Dominicans. Pharmacists are scarcely located in the region necessitating long walking distances. This process is perceived uncomfortable and inconvenient by a majority of the Bwa Mawegans(Quinlan 69). This leaves most residents preferring the bush medicine unlike in the American environment where individuals have acculturated to incorporate the over-the-counter drugs within the popular scope of healthcare.

Many individuals drawn from various societies including the industrialized Western cultures trust that leading well-balanced lifestyles translates to healthier minds and body. They commit to balanced diets and establishing work and play harmony through exercising. this position resembles the humoral medicine concept where wellness is accomplished by striking the balances between opposing forces including dryness and wetness alongside hot and cold situations(Quinlan 70). Although the two societies hold a converging view of the symbolic value in the concept the hot-cold humoral system in America is associated with mental and physical states. For example, North Americans associate indifferences with coldness oppositely to anger judged as hot-headedness.  This differs to the Dominicans hot-cold humoral system where only certain illnesses and plants fit the opposing classification (Quinlan 71).

Hot and Cold Humoral System

Bwa Mawegans humoral system conclude whether the plants are either cold, hot or neutral from the perceived effect they have on their bodies. Consequently, the use of the plant in either of the status emerges from its predetermined effect it has on the internal logic of ones ethnomedical system. In particular, Dominicans consider constipation as hot therefore would use plants with laxative results for its coldness to overcome the hot condition (Quinlan 74). The assignment of the humoral quality in the plant rarely conforms to the human physiological use and reaction to it. This is affirmed by Puerto Ricans living in New York in their classification of white beans as hot while the kidney beans are regarded hot. This contradicts the Dominicans system where the hot and cold values are assigned often citing a reason (Quinlan 74).

Furthermore, where the Americans make distinctions between cooked versus raw, processed versus uprocessed, wild and domestic, Bwa Mawegans have contrasting views. This is translated to strengthen their humoral system where considerable population of plants and animals are assigned the neutral status. Similarly, most illness are considered neutral in their own humoral right. For example, Dominicans view cuts and wounds alongside the treatment as neither hot nor cold but neutral. However, an infected would turn the condition hot thus necessitating cold treatment. This perception is widely observed where most illnesses are considered neutral given that the treatments merely focus on imbalances emerging from causes beyond the hot and cold values (Quinlan 75).

Body Image

The circulatory system is treated with utmost respect in both the American and Dominican cultures. Specifically, the heart is considered a muscular pump receiving blood and later squeezing the blood in a threefold exit including the head, right and left sides of the body. Besides, the blood quality is considered by the Dominicans as mainly the cause and indicator of illnesses and health(Quinlan 79).  However, blood quality is judged using the basic criteria of viscosity, purity and quantity.  Blood thickness varies with temperatures, activities and emotions. Prolonged warm temperatures lead to thin blood that circulates on its own, but may cause anemia. When the blood becomes cold following exposure to cold temperatures, it thickens making clotting easier. This is alleged to inhibit circulation leading to stifle joints and sudden death(Quinlan 80).

While the industrialized regions of the American societies adopt the description provided by cardiologists, Bwa Mawegans interpret blood pressure constitute a hot condition. They allege that the condition is caused by imbalanced diets, digestion and emotional stress. It results in inflammation that causes swelling thus restricting blood circulation. Eventually, the hot blood cooks thus turning concentrated and thick to circulate freely in the compromised veins leading to pressure build up. Alike the medical doctors, the residents regards pressure resulting from emotional stress emerges from overworking the brain. Equally, Americans and the Dominicans share in the view that dietary pressure arises from increased consumption of alcohol and processed starches(Quinlan 81). Expectant women in both cultures are cautiously treated to protect the unborn. For instance, Dominicans alike the Americans restrict pregnant women to eating healthier foods and avoiding processed starches(Quinlan 82). Likewise, they regard the most health challenges arise from pollutants that find their way into the body.  The residents of Bwa Mawego village view that internal dirt irritates the body internally thus prevent efficient circulation(Quinlan 86).

Treatments of Cold Illness

Presence of local concepts in the diagnosis and interpretation of illness affect the overall treatment behavior assumed by the residents across the cultures. Americans may seek curative, preventive or pain relievers. In the contrary, bush medicine center on curative treatment rather than protecting and strengthening the individual defense mechanism to withstand the causes of evolving illnesses. As such, the Dominicans classify the common illnesses into hot illnesses, stomach infections, external problems and cold illnesses. The classification is loudly rationalized on their causes, symptoms, effects on the body, and potential treatments options(Quinlan 91).

It is evident that most illnesses affecting the Bwa Mawegan  are classified on basis of the humoral theory of cold and hot elements. Unlike the Americans who perceive common cold as a viral infection, the residents link it with the exposure to cold temperatures including rain, quick penetration of cold through the pores and swimming in cold temperatures(Quinlan 92). The villagers hold that treating common cold involves exposing the mucus-producing areas to humoral and thermal heat. Although they consider the colds and coughs as different, similar herbs are used in treating those using indifferent processes. Nevertheless, the note that one can develop coughs without exposure to cold, but by breathing cold air(Quinlan 92).

Bwa Mawegans hardly welcome the quest for preventative medicine. They will often prohibit healthy individuals from taking plants identified as hot especially when one is healthy and not suffering from coldness. Foremost, healthier residents should avoid consuming hot herbs during high-temperature days. Taking hot bush tea when the drinker is cold is perceived as causing shock in the system, therefore destabilizing the humoral equilibrium(Quinlan 94), Much like the cough, Asthma have twofold weaknesses leading to more cold in the lungs. Here, the residents assume that asthmatic people have thin lungs that allow more cold to the body. Equally, the asthmatic patients have sensitive nerves affected by emotional fright. This concurs with the biomedical studies that established that stress induces breathing complications translated into asthmatic attacks. The treatment seeks on delivering relaxation perceived as missing warmth in the lungs thereby use cannabis sativa and Tabak Zombi plants. The former is medically tested for its calming, anti-inflamatory and pain-relieving effects on asthma treatment(Quinlan 97).

Rheumatism like the fright and something that hurts the emotional equilibrium emerges from cold and chilled blood that causes joints to become cold when blood flows. Although a cold illness, treating rheumatism targets to generate warmth and movement of the affected joints. Rubbing bay oil and other types including castor oil and snake oil creates the heat the affected joints(Quinlan 101). Headaches are described a neutral condition that can either emerge from hot and cold conditions. Bwa Mwagans consider headaches as the body sign revealing an imbalanced metabolism. Furthermore, the individual may be already sick or engaging in activities that cause the headache. Unlike the use of aspirins in biomedical practices, such are simply painkillers contrasting the Bwa Mawegans remedies of reversing what might be causing the headache(Quinlan 102).

Treatment of Hot Illnesses

Individuals suffering from cold conditions experience continue body heating to regulate the imbalanced internal temperatures. The body may occasionally overheat thereby causing fever identified as hot illness(Quinlan 103). Nevertheless, fever may also strike as a cold illness therefore mandating the residents to treat the symptom rather than their bodies. Herbal treatments such as lime leaf tea to resolve the fever, cold and cough illnesses. The lime tree just as bathing with cool water and applying rum, facilitate evaporation thereby cooling the body temperatures. This approach is utilized by the Jamaican and Montserrat as infusion for common codes(Quinlan 104).

Although sore throats emerge as hot illnesses, they fit better when classified as neutral given its overlap with hot and cold illness. They are however, treated as hot illnesses given the high temperatures in the inflamed areas. The Dominicans eat fresh and cooked tomatoes to numb the inflammation and eliminate the sickness feeling by gargling the strained liquid(Quinlan 105).  Although inflammation occurs from other biomedical conditions, it comprises a hot illness that may restrict the blood flow. The treatment approach requires using laxatives and refreshments to cool and clean out the dirt from the body systems. Other American residents such as Caribbean and Jamaicans use koukouli for its cooling effect on the inflamation   (Quinlan 106).


Most people will often prioritize trying home treatment before visiting medical specialists for their advice. Individuals leaving in the developing regions result to heavy reliance on self-treatment for a multiplicity of factors deterring them from seeking biomedical treatment. Often, such facilities are scarcely located breaking the quest already de-motivated by the relatively higher cost in biomedicine. In contrast, the self-treatment using bush medicine is free and easily accessible. Additionally, cultural variations and socioeconomic deprivations emerging between the host Bwa Mawegans and the physicians adversely erodes doctor-patient relationships. This translates to a reserved attitude leaving the residents to prioritize their bush medicine. Although the two cultures have different assignments in the humoral theory of cold and hot elements, they converge at overcoming the illnesses. Lastly, though biomedicine is gradually growing to break into the conservative Bwa Mawegans, the village still suffers isolation, undependable transport network, and scarce pharmaceutical yet inadequately stocked unlike in the developed American regions.

Works Cited

Quinlan, Marsha B. From the Bush: The Front Line of Health Care in a Caribbean Village. Belmont, CA ;: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004.




November 25, 2016












University Details

Submission Date








Question 1: Reliability ofPubMed Database

PubMed database uses sources from the U.S National database (Medline) for referencing. The U.S National Library contains over 19 million medicine sources of information. These sources include journal articles that are peer reviewed. Besides journal articles, the database contains information from newspapers, magazines and news articles. Therefore, students, scholars and other researchers in the field of nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, dentistry, veterinary science and public health easily access validated and up to date information from PubMed database. Additionally, this database is particularly helpful to users who are not familiar with searching online data given that it is easy to use. The database also allows a user to fine-tune his or her search so as to access information quickly.

Most importantly, PubMed database contains data that an advisory committee reviews. Furthermore, the National Institute of Health is responsible for the operation of the literature review committee given that it monitors its activities. Therefore, it is evident that PubMed database contains information that is credible giventhat it is peer reviewed and accredited. Besides sourcing its information from the National Institute of Health, the database contains literature from government agencies and non-governmental websites.

 Performance enhancing drugs

Performance enhancing drugs are medications that individuals consume with the main purpose of improving their physical performance. Individuals in sports, such as athletes, mainly consume the drugs with the expectations of boosting their energy levels. Individuals also refer to these drugs as doping agents. Performance enhancing drugs are classified according to the specific functions that they perform. For instance, they include human growth hormones, anabolic steroids, diuretics, androstenedione, erythropoietin, creatine, and stimulants.

Mostly, athletes take doses of anabolic-androgen or anabolic steroids so as to build up muscle strength and mass. Notably, these drugs contain a certain level of testosterone hormonesthat alters the normal functioning of the body. For example, steroids with anabolic effects contain mineral elements that aid in the growth of body muscles. Thus, athletes take these drugs to increase the rate at which their body muscles grow and also to maintain their body mass. Athletes may also take steroids with androgenic effects so as to enhance their male traits such as deepening of thevoice. Furthermore, individuals with a habit of indulging in vigorous activities take performance enhancing drugs not only to build muscles but also toaid in the quick healing of torn muscles.

The effectiveness of anabolic steroids

Health practitioners use anabolic steroids for medical purposes but in no way do they prescribe it as a medication that can boost athletes’ performance. Although the drugs have severe consequences on the users, athletes still use it to improve their performance. The drug boosts their energy as well as fasten the growth of body muscles, especially on the thighs, arms, legs, and chest sections. Additionally, intensive physical activities may at times lead to the wearing of muscles thus causing a decrease inbody mass. Individuals in sports consume performance enhancing drugs so as to help the body recover quickly from intensive physical activities. Thus, it is correct to state that anabolic steroids enhance athletic performance only for ashort while but they do not have a long-lasting effect.

Side effects of anabolic steroids

The habitual use of anabolic steroids may severely affect the health of an individual. Kidney failure is one of the health consequences of using steroids. Intake of the drugs results in the overworking of the kidneys which in turn lead to their inflammation. The kidneys overwork because body muscles increase at an abnormally high rate than the normal rate. Hence, they have to increase their rate of filtration which causesthe organ to strain. Additionally, health research institutes prohibit the use of anabolic steroids for performance enhancement reasons because they contain toxic elements that can harm the kidneys. Thus, both male and female athletes put their health at risk when they consume performance enhancing drugs.

Athletes face the challenge of stopping the usage of anabolic steroids because they contain addictive elements just like alcohol and tobacco. Also, steroid dependenceoccurs as a result of an athlete wanting to perform well. Thus, they heavily rely on the drugs to improve their performance. The individuals who decide to stop using the drugs may experience depression episodes. Hence, they may show aggression, withdraw from friends and family, become violent and even entertain suicidal thoughts. Both men and women who experience withdrawal symptoms may continue to have a diverse range of symptoms for several months. Also, men using steroids may experience difficultiesregarding sexual performance when they are not using the drugs.

Individuals who take anabolic steroids also experience hormonal imbalance. Steroids interrupt normal secretion of hormones thus affecting theproper functioning of the body. Hormonal changes can have irreversible or reversible effects to men or women. For example, men start producing lesser sperms than what they would produce when their bodies were normal. Additionally, some men experience the shrinking of testicles. These changes may affect the fertility of a man. An impotent man may develop complex psychological problems associated with depression, anxiety and self-esteem issues. Hormone imbalance can result in breast development which may affect the self-image of a man. Women, on the other hand, may develop male features such as growing too much hair on their legs and chest regions. They may also develop excessive muscles which may make them appear masculine.Androgenic drugs may cause male users to develop baldness as a result of hormonal imbalances. This change is irreversible.

Performance enhancing drugs affect the cardiovascular system. Excessive use of anabolic steroids increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Incidences of thrombus formation among patients with a habit of using steroids are common in health care systems. These patients also test positive for increased blood pressure. Patients who stop using the drugs resume normal health while those who insist on taking the drugs even after showing signs of cardiovascular problems increase their risks of getting heart-related diseases. Notably, individuals who use anabolic steroids rapidly experience thrombosis which heightens the chances of getting a heart attack that may result in sudden death. An athlete using steroids may also suffer from an increased stiffness of the left ventricular wall. The reason being that the blood vessels in this region increase in thickness due to the high levels of blood pressure.

Lastly, anabolic steroids harm soft body tissues and cause premature closure of the growth plate. Athletes who indulge in vigorous physical training while at the same time take performance enhancing drugs cause the tearing of connective tissues such as tendons. Although the drugs help in the formation of muscles, the rate at which these muscles grow and the intensity of a workout create an imbalance in the body function as connective tissues experience strain. Additionally, anabolic drugs affect the development of epiphyseal plates that are responsible for human growth. The usage of these drugs, especially among teenage athletes, results in the excessive release of estrogen which causes growth plate to close prematurely. Therefore, the users of these drugs may fail to grow accordingly.

Question 2: Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of Canada

IBD is a chronic condition that mainly affects the gastrointestinal tract. The characteristics of patients with Crohn’s disease differ from those with ulcerative colitis depending the location of the inflammation.

Crohn’s Disease

This disease is a chronic inflammatory health condition that affects the gastrointestinal tract.It affects any part of the gastrointestinal wall such as the mouth, ileum, perineum or the anus. At an advanced level, the Crohn’s disease can affect the skin, eyes or the joints. Patients with this condition normally experience symptoms such as diarrhea, rectal bleeding, fatigue, significant weight loss, and fecal incontinence. Crohn’s disease can cause morbidity at an advanced level especially if it goes unrecognized. Young people living in Western countries are at high risk of getting the disease. Particularly, the condition is prevalent among people who are schooling, working or are having a family. Research does not indicate clearly the causes of Crohn’s disease, but genetics and the environment play a role in the advancement of the disease. For instance, a person is likely to get the disease if he or she is closely related to a person with the disease. Environmental factors such as smoking and a poor diet heighten the risk of an individual suffering from the disease. Given that the disease is chronic, people suffering from it have to manage it through medication and living a healthy lifestyle.

Ulcerative Colitis

It is a chronic infection that involves the diffusion of mucosal inflammation in the colon region. The rectum is the most affected part of the gastrointestinal tract,but with time, the inflammation can spread in a circular manner to the rest of the large intestine. Patients with the condition usually complain of abdominal pains, suffer from diarrhea and hematochezia. In severe cases, patients experiencing diarrheas may spot blood stains in their stool. Cases of frequent bowel movement and weight loss are also common among such patients. Additionally, the advancement of ulcerative colitis may result in arthritic complications. Patients that develop this complication prior or after the disease feel pain in weight-bearingjoints such as ankles or knees. Ulcerative colitis is prevalent in Europe, the United States, and other developed countries. It is, however, less prevalent among the underdeveloped states. Females tend to be the most affected group as opposed to males. Notably, it is common among young adults. Environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, oral contraceptives, and poor diet cause the condition. Thus, patients are usually put on medication to manage the condition given that it is chronic.

Collagenous colitis

It is also a type of IBD that involves colon inflammation. The damaging and thickening of connective tissuescomprising of bones, tendons and skin cause collagenous colitis. The affected area is similar to that of ulcerative colitis, but it slightly differs given that the last portion of the bowels next to the anus is affected. The main symptom of the disease is watery diarrhea. Notably, patients with this symptom do not release blood-stained stool. Collagenous colitis is incurable just like the other IBDsbut patients who strictly observe their diet and take medications according to the doctor’s prescription always manage to contain the disease.

Lymphocytic colitis

Research indicates a close similarity between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis given that they affect the same region of the body, the colon, and show similar symptoms. It is yet to be proven if it is true that the two conditions are the same only that they occur in different stages of inflammation. The build-up of the immune system cells, lymphocytes, causeLymphocytic colitis. Similar to collagenous colitis, patients with lymphocytic colitis experience chronic watery diarrhea that does not contain pus or blood stains. Also, patients suffering from the condition may be unable to contain bowel movements and may experience bloating or stomach discomfort. Fatigue is a common symptom of the disease given that patients lose much water from frequent diarrhea.  The disease is, however, non-contagious.

The role of Vitamin D in IBD

The intake of Vitamin D helps in the prevention of collagenous colitis because it strengthens bones. Additionally, patients with ulcerative colitis tend to have low vitamin D thus the nutrient helps to reduce inflammation. Furthermore, apatient who takes adequate levels of Vitamin D regulates their body immunity. Likewise, patients with Crohn’s disease register health improvement if they take vitamin D. Patients can take this nutrient in the form of supplements,food or fromsunlight.

Question 3: REMICADE

 REMICADE Administration

Remicade is a medication given to IBD-relatedailments such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and psoriatic arthritis. Based on theinformation retrieved from the Remicade (infliximab) official website, the doctor administers the drug through intravenous infusion. The process of administration takes approximately two hours. The patient receives the medication through a needle that the doctor places in a vein in his or her arm. Depending on the situation of the patient, the doctor decides whether to administer medication before initiating the process. The doctor also determines the right dosage for the patient depending on their unique cases. For instance, patients with Crohn’s disease will take 5mg/Kg daily then after two weeks, six weeks and lastly after eight weeks. Patients losing their response after adhering to this medication may be allowed to increase their dosage upto 10mg/Kg. For the ulcerative colitis, patients take 5mg/Kg daily, then after two weeks, after six weeks and after every eight weeks. The correct form of administering the dose for intravenous infusion should be 100mg of lyophilized infliximab ina 20 mL vial. During the administration of the drug, a healthcare professional should constantly monitor the patient to detect the development of any side effects. In particular, the physician can conduct several tests to identify any side effects.

Patients should check out for the following:

Patients taking REMICADE medication have to be very cautious of developing health complications because they affect the normal function of the drug. Case in point, patients over the age of 65 are vulnerable to serious infections as they receive medication because of a low body immunity. These patients, therefore, have to be watchful of signs and symptoms such as fever, fatigue,cough, painful skin or development of flu-like symptoms.Patients ought to report this observation to their doctors as soon as possible so that they can test for tuberculosis.

Patients with a condition called congestive heart failure also have to report their case to the doctors so as to facilitate a closer observation of their health by the health care practitioners.The reason being that the condition may worsen during REMICADE medication. Some of the signs and symptoms that a patient should note include shortness of breath, gaining weight suddenly and swelling of ankles or feet.

Lastly, patients taking REMICADE may develop allergic reactions,and their severity may differ. The allergies can develop during the medication or afterward. Patients are therefore urged to check out for common signs and symptoms such as itchy and red skin patches, difficulties in breathing, low or high blood pressure, fever, chills or chest pains. Noteworthy, these signs occur immediately after a doctor puts the patient on medication. On the other hand, delayed allergies include either or more signs that take place between three to twelve days after drug administration. For instance, a patient may experience fever, rash, headache, sore throat, joint ache difficulty in swallowing food or saliva and swelling of the face or hands.

Statistics on the status of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disorder that affects the skeletal muscles by reducing the density of the bones and making them vulnerable to fracture. The disease is mainly dominant inolder women than men. However, it affects children, adolescents, young adults and middle-aged individuals. Thus, risk factors for osteoporosis include advanced age, past fracture incidences,cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption as well as bone depleting medications.

Statistics indicate that 10% of Canadians of forty years and above suffer from osteoporosis (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2009). Out of the 1.5 million (10%) individuals, the percentage of women was four times higher than that of men. 21% of the women suffering from osteoporosis had a history of bone fracture after reaching 40 years old. Notably, areas that were most affected included the wrist, spine, hip and the pelvis.

59% of Canadians with osteoporosis are under medication. Less than 50% of 40-year-olds and above Canadians ailing from osteoporosis indulge in routine physical activities. Additionally, only 40% of them take calcium and 42% take Vitamin D. These statistics indicates that a huge population of Canadians is not getting medication for osteoporosis while only a few percentage of those people under medication aretaking their treatments seriously.

Canadian individuals of 40 years and above that have never undergone osteoporosis test are at a high risk of osteoporotic fracture. 29% of these people were women that aged 50 years while 33% comprised of men over 50 years old.  15% of these individuals weighed below 60Kg while 12 reported drinking alcohol on a daily basis. Thus, the statistics imply that a big number of Canadians are at high risk of getting osteoporosis.

Furthermore, only 47% of Canadians over 65 years have gone for bone density screening. Only one out of two Canadians with a history of arm, wrist, hip, pelvis, and spine regions have gone for bone density tests. Hence, it is evident that a majority of Canadians at risk of osteoporosis are not undergoing screening.

Lastly, statistics indicates that about 8% of Canadians have a history of fractured wrist, upper arm, hip and spine after 40 years. It is usually a health complication brought about by osteoporosis. 63% of the reported cases were anupper arm and spinal fractures consecutively. Additionally, 9% of the Canadians also reported of fractures in more than one place. This statistics, therefore, indicates that older people are at high risk of the disorder.

Question 5

  1. Five Vitamins



Vitamin A

Vitamin B12

Vitamin D

  1. Specific Uses


Folate forms part of the essential types of vitamin B that play significant roles in the synthesis of nucleic acids such as DNA. Besides they production of nucleic acid, Folate also plays important roles related to cell division and the generation of amino acids. Specifically, folate is crucial to the proper development of the skull, spine, and brain of a fetus in the first weeks of pregnancy. In addition to facilitating the healthy development of the fetus, folate benefits pregnant women by expanding not only their blood volume but also growing fetal and maternal tissues. The Canadian Food Guide recommends enough intake of folate among women of a childbearing age to prevent complications and defects related to the neural tube. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the common neural defects associated with folate deficiency in the contemporary world. Increased folate intake in addition to higher RBC folate concentrations decreases the risk of the fetus developing neural tube defects.


Similar to folate, niacin, at times referred to as vitamin B3 is essential for the general well-being of the body. Specifically, niacin lowers risks related to the cardiovascular systems besides improving the levels of cholesterol. The use of niacin as a cholesterol supplement is on the increase due to its efficiency in lowering the levels of triglycerides. In addition to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases through reduced levels of cholesterol, niacin helps minimize the development of atherosclerosis. Niacin helps harden the arteries, therefore, lessening the development of atherosclerosis. The intake of niacin among persons that have suffered a heart attack is important because it lowers the risk of a second occurrence. Sufficient intake of vitamin B3 minimizes the possibility of pellagra, a niacin deficiency associated disease. Medical practitioners utilize niacin for the treatment of health complications such as type 1 diabetes, cataracts, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin A

Over the years, physicians have associated the sufficient intake of vitamin A with improved eyesight and vision. Apparently, deficiencies related to the intake of vitamin A can result in visual problems due to the absence of retinal. Retinal usually combines with opsin to produce rhodopsin, which is an essential light absorbing component for color vision. Besides improved eye vision, vitamin A plays a crucial role in the maintenance of a robust immune system. Sufficient intake of vitamin A boosts the growth of cells. Specifically, vitamin A stimulates the production of retinoic acid that enhances the growth of epithelial body cells. Just like folate, Vitamin A in the form of retinoic acid is a crucial element for the transcription of genes. Retinoic acid maintains skin health through the activation of genes that enhance the development of undeveloped cells into mature epidermal cells.

Vitamin B12

The use of Vitamin B12 as a supplement is extensive. For instance, physicians recommend the oral intake of Vitamin B12 to treat conditions related to its low levels in the body. The oral intake of vitamin B12 also helps manage complications related to pernicious anemia among the elderly. Vitamin B12 boosts memory by treating Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, medical practitioners encourage sufficient intake of Vitamin B12 because it stimulates body functions related to the cognitive and immune system. Vitamin B12 is an efficient heart disease treatment in addition to slowing aging. Clinicians associate the mouth ingestion of Vitamin B12 supplements with the treatment of Lou Gehrig’s disease. Adequate consumption of vitamin B12 reduces the probability of developing age-related macular degeneration, a condition characterized by excessive production of the thyroid hormone. The application of vitamin B12 to the skin helps in the treatment of eczema and psoriasis conditions.

Vitamin D

Principally, vitamin D is associated with the treatment and prevention of rickets, a condition connected with its deficiency. In addition to preventing and treating rickets, Vitamin D enhances the development of healthy bones through the treatment of osteoporosis and osteomalacia. The vitamin also helps treat bone loss in persons with fragile or easily broken skeletons. Sufficient intake of Vitamin D promotes good health among individuals with kidney failure because it prevents low calcium and bone loss. Besides skeletal conditions, Vitamin D helps in the treatment of heart and blood vessels illnesses associated with high cholesterol and HBP. The vitamin also treats obesity, COPD, muscle weaknesses, diabetes, arthritis, bronchitis, and asthma. The fact that vitamin D regulates the levels of minerals indicates its significance in the treatment of diseases related to low concentrations of phosphorus and calcium.

Question 6

Current Vitamin D Recommendations

The adversities associated with excessive intake of vitamin D necessitated the development of recommendations that guide its consumption in the general population. Excessive intake of vitamin D not related to sun exposure can result in a condition commonly referred to as hypervitaminosis D or intoxication. Conditions related to vitamin D intoxication lead to not only to hypercalcemia but also cardiovascular and renal damage. Notably, the government recommends the use of Serum 250HD as a marker of vitamin D nutrition. Apparently, the circulation of serum 250HD levels is the best available indicator of the net incoming contributions related to foods and supplements. The standard of serum 250HD serves as biomarker exposure because it reflects the supply of vitamin D to the body. Serum 250HD is also a valuable adjunct in the examination of the intake level of vitamin D.

The use of 250HD levels as a vitamin D nutrition marker raises significant concerns related to its efficiency as a biomarker element. Critics question the probability of 250HD levels relating to health outcomes via a central pathway. Additionally, they examine the possibility of 250HD levels serving as predictors of similar outcomes. Regardless of the endless criticism regarding the use of 250HD levels as biomarker element, it is still a significant consideration in the development of DRI values for the intake of vitamin D. Factors such as dietary intake, and sun exposure affects the levels of serum 250HD concentrations in the body.

The current recommendations classify foods such as red meat, egg yolks, fortified cereals, oily fish, and liver as good sources of vitamin D. In addition to the foods as noted above, the government recommends dietary supplements as another excellent source of vitamin D. Babies of between ages 0-1 years require approximately 8.5-10 micrograms of vitamins daily. On the other hand, their one year and above counterparts and adults need around ten micrograms daily for the proper functioning of the body. Pregnant and lactating mothers also need similar amounts of vitamin D. In addition to the daily intakes of vitamin D, the department of health recommends the consumption of supplements among babies of ages 0-1 years. Apparently, children require daily supplements of 8.5 to 10 micrograms to ensure sufficiency. Similarly, the department disapproves the intake of vitamin D supplement among children receiving infant formula. Apparently, infant formula is fortified with vitamin D.

The department recommends the intake of daily supplements of 10 mg among children of ages 1-4 years. Adults and children of ages five years and above should take more supplements because it is hard for them to get enough vitamin D from naturally occurring foods. Despite the government recommending the fortification of vitamin D in other food, the department of health recommends the intake of vitamin D supplements among adult populations. Specifically, the department recommends the consumption of daily supplements containing around ten micrograms of vitamin D for healthy body functioning. For persons with limited or no exposure to sunshine, the department of health commends the consumption of daily ten micrograms of vitamin D supplements.  The department classifies this particular group of persons as those that are frail, institutionalized or wear clothing that cover most of their skin.

In addition to providing guidelines that direct the consumption of vitamin D supplements among children and adults, the department warns about excessive intake. Apparently, excessive intake of vitamin D over long periods can result in hypercalcemia, a condition in which the body absorbs more calcium than it can excrete. High levels of calcium in the body not only damage the heart and kidneys but also weaken bones. Persons that consume more than 100 micrograms of vitamin D supplements daily risk the development of hypercalcemia. Children of ages 1-10 should not consume more than 50 micrograms daily. Similarly, infants of less than one year should not have more than 25 micrograms. For persons with medical conditions that limit their intake of vitamin D supplements, adequate consultation with physicians is essential. Doctors may recommend the consumption of different types and amounts of supplement.

Question 7


Over the last few years, bisphosphonates group of drugs have been undergoing a broad range of safety reviews. Medical practitioners utilize this class of medication in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.  Apparently, the ongoing safety reviews resulted from the drugs’ connection with increased risk of a rare but severe type of bone fractures related to the thigh. The government of Canada through its health department desires to inform the public and healthcare professionals regarding the safety concerns associated with the use of bisphosphonate group of drugs. Canada’s reviews will encompass considerations of the labeling change recently communicated by the U.S FDA. According to the U.S FDA, bisphosphonates hinder the loss of bone mass in persons suffering from osteoporosis.  However, its continued use in periods longer than five years may result in fractures.

Scientific reports have suggested connections between continued consumption of bisphosphonates with a bone condition commonly denoted as atypical femur fracture. Specifically, recent reports by the ASBMR indicated the link as noted earlier. Based on the findings of the report, these rare and severe bone fractures often occur in both the general population and patients under bisphosphonate therapy. However, the risk of this rare condition increases among persons using bisphosphonate group of drugs. The risk is especially high after several years of treatment. The use of bisphosphonate is great among post-menopausal women and senior men. In addition to postmenopausal women, bisphosphonates prevent the development of osteoporosis among patients under glucocorticoids therapy.

As mentioned earlier, bisphosphonates is a class of drugs that encompasses a broad range of brand names. The commonly recognized brand names in Canada include Didrocal, Actonel, Fosamax, and Aclasta. The accessibility of the generic forms of Didrocal, Actonel, and Fosamax drugs is unrestricted in Canada. However, the government of Canada restricts the use of Aclasta in either original or generic form. Practitioners associate osteoporosis with aging. The condition usually results in disability, painful fractures, and deformity due to the loss of bone density. Regardless of the recent concerns associating the use of bisphosphonates with atypical femur fractures, the therapy has proved efficient in the management of osteoporosis among the elderly.

Notably, the health department of Canada is yet to restrict the use of bisphosphonates in the management of osteoporosis because its benefits outweigh its risks. When utilized according to the recommendations of the Canadian Product Monographs, the health benefits of bisphosphonate are extensive. Health Canada is yet to identify new information regarding the safe use of bisphosphonate that limits its potential hazards. If the Canadian Heath Department identifies new safety information, the government will undertake appropriate measures desired to inform the general public and health practitioners about the necessary course of action. Health Canada classifies unusual pain in the hip or groin areas to be the common signs of possible thigh bone fractures. The department encourages patients under bisphosphonate therapy that experience this kind of a pain to consult medical professionals for further tests.

Question 8

  1. Concerns of Supplemental Calcium

Health Canada has been undertaking reviews aimed at ascertaining the benefits and hazards associated with the intake of calcium supplements. Undoubtedly, calcium forms part of the essential minerals that enhances body processes related to the building of bones and other tissues necessary for proper body functioning. Typically, early adulthood marks the development point of bones because they reach their thickest and largest size during this period. After reaching their maximum development stage, bones become thinner gradually. The thinning of bones accelerates around the age of menopause among women. Therefore, adults require around 1000 to 1200 micrograms of calcium daily for healthy body functioning. A calcium deficit will occur if the body fails to get enough minerals from the foods consumed. These deficits force the body to remove calcium from the bones to facilitate the proper functioning of other tissues. Continued calcium deficiencies result in osteopenia, a condition characterized by the gradual thinning of bones. In severe cases, continued calcium deficits lead to osteoporosis, an illness that makes bones fragile.

Notably, not everyone can achieve the daily requirement of calcium, which necessitates supplementation. The supplementation of calcium may as well demand the intake of supplemental vitamin D to enhance the absorption of calcium and phosphorus that are essential for healthy bones. In spite of facilitating the development of healthy bones, calcium supplements have been associated with increased risks of heart attack among healthy senior women. Health Canada issued a communication about a report published in the British Medical Journal. Apparently, the report demonstrated a probable connection between calcium supplementation and increased occurrence of cardiovascular events among osteoporosis patients. Specifically, the British Journal termed calcium supplementation without supplemental vitamin D as hazardous.

After reviewing this study regarding its strengths and limitations, Health Canada established some inconsistencies between cardiovascular risks and calcium supplementation. However, the department assures the public of continued evaluations with the emergence of new data to take necessary actions desired to enhance the well-being of Canadians. According to Health Canada, calcium supplementation reduces complications related to bone loss. Similarly, these supplements lessen the risk of the development of osteoporosis during adulthood. The government regulates the intake of calcium through DRIs that ensure safe upper-level consumption and sufficient intake. Calcium DRIs are currently under review by an independent organization to examine the modern scientific evidence in relation to update measures. Health Canada anticipates the findings of the IOM study to assess and make necessary adjustments related to the currently recommended consumption levels of calcium.

Reliable calculation of the estimated daily consumption of calcium depends on the quantity and types of foods consumed in a typical week. As discussed earlier, calcium is not only essential for the development of healthy bones but also for overall good health. Physicians utilize the calcium food calculator to determine the amount of calcium in certain foods. The calculator also plays a significant role in the determination of the amount of calcium required for the proper functioning of the body. Moreover, the calcium calculator informs physicians about the procedures required during supplementation. Notably, the calcium calculator consists of questions related to a number of calcium nutrients patients get from different foods. Issues related to the gender, age, and the amount of calcium consumed are essential for the efficient calculation of the number of minerals consumed. After answering background-related questions, patients enter the servings of food they consume daily to ascertain the amount of calcium they possess. Physicians click the calculate button to determine the total amount of calcium required and compare it to the patients’ daily consumption. Clinicians often recommend calcium supplementation in the case of deficiency.

The amount of calcium supplements consumed depends on the age of the patients. For instance, children of ages 1-3 years consume 500 micrograms of calcium daily. Their 4-8 years counterparts take 800 micrograms while adolescents aged 18 years and below take 1300 micrograms, the highest amount. Adults of ages 19-50 take 1,000 mg, while their 51 and above counterparts consume 1,200 micrograms. Notably, the calcium supplement intake of pregnant and lactating teens differs from that of adults of the same category. Precisely, pregnant and breastfeeding teens consume around 1, 300 micrograms of calcium daily. On the other hand, their adult counterparts consume 1,000 micrograms. The intake recommendations as noted above denote the minimum consumption for each of the groups.

Health Canada also provides the maximum limits of calcium desirable for persons of all ages. Apparently, most people do not get amounts exceeding the classified upper limits alone. Clinicians often associate excessive intakes with the consumption of calcium supplements. At the maximum, birth to 6 months, babies should consume 1, 000 micrograms of calcium. Their 7-12 months and 1-8 years counterparts should ingest 1, 500 mg and 2,500 mg respectively. The consumption of supplements is expressly high among teenagers of ages 9-18 years because they require a significant amount of calcium for proper bone development. Their recommended upper limit is 3, 000mg. Similarly, adults of ages 19-50 years take substantially large quantities of calcium supplements. They consume 2, 500 mg while their counterparts of ages 51 and above consume 2, 000. Pregnant and breastfeeding teens and adults ingest 3,000 and 2, 500 mg supplements daily.







Public Health Agency of Canada. (2009). The impact of osteoporosis in Canada and what are Canadians doing to maintain healthy bones. Retrieved from Public Health Agency of Canada website: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cd-mc/osteoporosis-osteoporose/pdf/osteoporosis.pdf



The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status Composite and A Student’s Mathematics Identity from the High School Longitudinal Study data set Student Name Institution

November 24, 2016










The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status Composite and A Student’s Mathematics Identity from the High School Longitudinal Study data set


Student Name













This paper seeks to establish the relationship between socioeconomic status composite and a student’s Mathematics identity from High School Longitudinal Study data set. The research question is whether high-school students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have high Mathematics identity scores compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds.

Null Hypothesis: High-school students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to have high Mathematics identity scores compared to students from high socioeconomic backgrounds. The T1 socio-economic status composite variable is the independent variable and is measured on an interval scale, while the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity is the dependent variable, and is measured on an interval scale.

To determine the relationship between the T1 socio-economic status composite and the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity, a Pearson correlation was conducted, and it  showed a weak positive correlation between T1 socio-economic status composite and T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity, which was statistically significant, r(21157) = .139, p < .000.

A bivariate linear regression analysis was also used to test if the T1 socio-economic status composite significantly predicted the T1 Scale of Student’s Mathematics identity. A significant regression equation was found (F(1,21157) = 417.47, p <.000), with an R2 of 0.019.  The students’ predicted Mathematics identity scores are .028 + .179 (Socio-economic status composite). The students’ predicted Mathematics identity scores increased .179 for every unit increase in the socio-economic status composite. This model explains 1.9% of the variance.

These findings imply that indeed there exist performance gaps, which are partially determined by the socio-economic status of the students. For instance, the values and beliefs assigned to the subject affect the attitudes of the students and teachers, thus influencing the socially reconstructed Mathematics identity (Fox & Larke, 2015).  Therefore, in addressing the issue of academic achievement among students from different socio-economic backgrounds, it is important to analyze achievement different as they relate to social and economic conditions of the students.


Fox, B. L., & Larke, P. J. (2015). Socioeconomic Status and Mathematics: A Critical Examination of Mathematics Performance in Grades Three through Eight by Mathematical Objective. MLET: The Journal of Middle Level Education in Texas1(1), 1.


Appendix 1

Table 1: Pearson’s Correlation Results

    T1 Socio-economic status composite T1 Scale of student’s mathematics identity
T1 Socio-economic status composite Pearson Correlation 1 .139**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
N 21444 21159
T1 Scale of student’s mathematics identity Pearson Correlation .139** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000  
N 21159 21159
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).  


Appendix 2: Bivariate Linear Regression Results


Table 2: Model Summary

Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .139a .019 .019 .99402
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Socio-economic status composite
b. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity


Table 3: F-Statistic

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 412.489 1 412.489 417.469 .000a
Residual 20904.612 21157 .988    
Total 21317.101 21158      
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Socio-economic status composite  
b. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity  


Table 4: Model Coefficients

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) .028 .007   4.061 .000 .014 .041
T1 Socio-economic status composite .179 .009 .139 20.432 .000 .162 .196
a. Dependent Variable: T1 Scale of student’s Mathematics identity        





Testing for multiple regression

November 24, 2016











Testing for multiple regression






Testing for multiple regression


From the Afro-barometer dataset, this study aimed at testing the effect of countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government on the fear of crime at homes using multiple regression technique.

Research question

Does of countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government impact on the fear of crime at homes?


Null hypothesis: Fear of crime at homes is not influenced by countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government.

Alternative hypothesis: Fear of crime at homes is influenced by countries present economy and the complications in the politics and government.

Analysis results and discussions

The regression model summary yielded an R-squared value 0.010 implying that the model fit was poor. The r-square value implied that 1.0% of the variations in the fear of crime at homes were explained by the complications in politics and government, and the countries present economic condition.

Summary of the Model analysis
Model R value R Square Adjusted R Square Standard Error
1 .100a .010 .010 1.175
a. Predictors: (Constant), Q16. Politics and government too complicated, Q3a. Country’s present economic condition

The results of the ANOVA yielded an F-statistic value equal to 244.043 with a significance value equal to 0.00. This implied that the model was statistically effective.

ANOVA results
Model SS Degrees of freedom MS F-stat Signf.
  Regression 673.645 2 336.823 244.043 .000b
Residual 66394.878 48106 1.380    
Total 67068.523 48108      
a. Dependent Variable: Q9b. How often feared crime in home
b. Predictors: (Constant), Q16. Politics and government too complicated, Q3a. Country’s present economic condition


The summary of the results of the coefficient analysis yielded values equal to 0.966, -0.095 and -0.005 representing coefficients of the model constant, country’s present economic condition and complications in politics and government.

Model Unstandardized Coeff Standardized Coeff t-stat Signf.
B(coeff) Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) .966 .015   64.571 .000
Q3a. Country’s present economic condition -.095 .004 -.100 -21.952 .000
Q16. Politics and government too complicated -.005 .004 -.006 -1.287 .198
a. Dependent Variable: Q9b. How often feared crime in home


The t-statistics associated with the coefficients of the regression terms were equal to -21.952 and -1.287 with significant values of 0.000 and 0.198 for the country’s present economic condition and complications in politics and government. Clearly the probability value associated with country’s present economic condition was less than 0.05 (5% alpha), hence, the study rejected the null hypothesis and concluded that Country’s present economic condition significantly influenced the fear of crime at homes. The absolute probability value associated with the complications in politics and government was equal to 1.98, greater than 0.05 (5% alpha), hence, the study failed to reject the null hypothesis and concluded that complications in the politics and government never influenced the fear of crime at homes (Berry & Feldman, 2014).


This study recommends that the society should embrace activities which aim at improving the countries’ economic condition since the study showed that good economic conditions reduced fear of crime at homes.



Berry, W. D., & Feldman, S. (2014). Multiple regression in practice. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.




Multiple regression













Multiple Regression

Research question

How well does family income in constant dollars predict the respondent’s prestige score?

Null Hypothesis

H0: Family income inconstant dollars is not a significant predictor of the respondent’sprestige score.

Research design

The research design used for this question is causal design. Causaldesign can be used to measure the impact a certain change has on an existing assumption (Labaree, 2016).

Dependent variable and how it is measured

The dependent variable for the study was the respondent’s prestige score.  The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Independent variable and how it is measured

The independent variable is family income in constant dollar. The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Control variables added in the model

The control variables added in the study included:

  • Age of respondent
  • Number of hours usually work a week
  • Respondent’s highest degree

Justification for adding the variables

The researcher was not particularly interested in the control variables but acknowledges some relationship to the dependent variable. Zhou’s (2005) study on occupational prestige uses college education and work hours as control variables, and this justifies their uses as control variables. The researcher was also interested in establishing whether the dependent variable can be controlled for age.

Significance and stregth of effect

From table 2 in the appendix section, since the p-value is less than 0.05 this means that the model has reached statistical significance. However, since the variable family income in constant dollars has a p-value of 0.794 as shown in Table 3. The independent variable is not significant in predicting the respondent’s prestige score. Therefore, the researcher did not find any significance.

Explanation and research question

Table 1 from the appendix shows that the Adjusted R Square is 0.364. This means that 36.4% of the variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the variation in the independent variables.  Table 3 also shows that only the variable respondent’s highest degree had a significant contribution to the model. Given this result, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that family income does not predict prestige score





Labaree, R. (2016, October 21). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from USC Libraries: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns

Zhou, X. (2005). The Institutional Logic of Occupational Prestige Ranking: Reconceptualization and Reanalyses1. American Journal of Sociology, 90-140.














Table 1


Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .659a .434 .364 10.343


Table 2


Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2628.403 4 657.101 6.142 .001b
Residual 3423.489 32 106.984    
Total 6051.892 36      
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)

Table 3


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 24.578 10.190   2.412 .022
FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS -1.239E-005 .000 -.048 -.263 .794
AGE OF RESPONDENT .074 .146 .079 .508 .615
NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK .211 .157 .202 1.340 .190
RS HIGHEST DEGREE 5.980 1.446 .628 4.134 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)





Multiple regression

November 24, 2016






Multiple regression













Multiple Regression

Research question

How well does family income in constant dollars predict the respondent’s prestige score?

Null Hypothesis

H0: Family income inconstant dollars is not a significant predictor of the respondent’sprestige score.

Research design

The research design used for this question is causal design. Causaldesign can be used to measure the impact a certain change has on an existing assumption (Labaree, 2016).

Dependent variable and how it is measured

The dependent variable for the study was the respondent’s prestige score.  The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Independent variable and how it is measured

The independent variable is family income in constant dollar. The variable is measured using a ratio scale

Control variables added in the model

The control variables added in the study included:

  • Age of respondent
  • Number of hours usually work a week
  • Respondent’s highest degree

Justification for adding the variables

The researcher was not particularly interested in the control variables but acknowledges some relationship to the dependent variable. Zhou’s (2005) study on occupational prestige uses college education and work hours as control variables, and this justifies their uses as control variables. The researcher was also interested in establishing whether the dependent variable can be controlled for age.

Significance and stregth of effect

From table 2 in the appendix section, since the p-value is less than 0.05 this means that the model has reached statistical significance. However, since the variable family income in constant dollars has a p-value of 0.794 as shown in Table 3. The independent variable is not significant in predicting the respondent’s prestige score. Therefore, the researcher did not find any significance.

Explanation and research question

Table 1 from the appendix shows that the Adjusted R Square is 0.364. This means that 36.4% of the variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the variation in the independent variables.  Table 3 also shows that only the variable respondent’s highest degree had a significant contribution to the model. Given this result, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that family income does not predict prestige score





Labaree, R. (2016, October 21). Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Types of Research Designs. Retrieved October 24, 2016, from USC Libraries: http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/researchdesigns

Zhou, X. (2005). The Institutional Logic of Occupational Prestige Ranking: Reconceptualization and Reanalyses1. American Journal of Sociology, 90-140.














Table 1


Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .659a .434 .364 10.343


Table 2


Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2628.403 4 657.101 6.142 .001b
Residual 3423.489 32 106.984    
Total 6051.892 36      
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)

Table 3


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 24.578 10.190   2.412 .022
FAMILY INCOME IN CONSTANT DOLLARS -1.239E-005 .000 -.048 -.263 .794
AGE OF RESPONDENT .074 .146 .079 .508 .615
NUMBER OF HOURS USUALLY WORK A WEEK .211 .157 .202 1.340 .190
RS HIGHEST DEGREE 5.980 1.446 .628 4.134 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Rs occupational prestige score (2010)





Multiple Regression Analysis

November 24, 2016








Multiple Regression Analysis


Name of Institution
















Research question

Are the following statistically significant predictors of a student’s math self-efficacy?

  1. sex
  2. number of years math teacher has taught high school math
  3. belief about usefulness of math in everyday life
  4. belief that most people can learn to be good at math



The results are presented in the tables below.


Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change
1 .413a .170 .170 .91765 .170 726.198 4 14157 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Student’s sex, Years math teacher has taught high school math, Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life, Most people can learn to be good at math


Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 2446.067 4 611.517 726.198 .000b
Residual 11921.327 14157 .842    
Total 14367.394 14161      
a. Dependent Variable: T2 Scale of student’s mathematics self-efficacy
b. Predictors: (Constant), T1 Student’s sex, Years math teacher has taught high school math, Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life, Most people can learn to be good at math


A total of 14162 cases were analysed in this study. The model summary results show that sex, number of years math teacher has taught high school math, belief about usefulness of math in everyday life, and belief that anybody can learn, and the belief that anybody can learn to be good at math are a statistically significant predictor of a student’s math self-efficacy in students, with R = .170, p < .001. Thus, 17.0% of the variance in self-efficacy is explained by these factors. Further, the ANOVA test confirms that the predictor variables are statistically significant predictors of a student’s self-efficacy for mathematics, with F(4, 14157) = 726.198, p < .001.


Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) -1.855 .050   -37.255 .000 -1.953 -1.758
Years math teacher has taught high school math .004 .001 .032 4.214 .000 .002 .006
Most people can learn to be good at math .398 .012 .274 34.409 .000 .375 .421
Teenager thinks math is useful for everyday life .308 .011 .225 28.315 .000 .287 .329
T1 Student’s sex -.164 .015 -.082 -10.635 .000 -.195 -.134
a. Dependent Variable: T2 Scale of student’s mathematics self-efficacy


The coefficients table above shows that each of the independent variable is a statistical significant predictor of a student’s math self-efficacy. The model summary is as follows:

Math self-efficacy = -1.855 + 0.004 (years math teacher has taught high school math) + 0.398 (level of belief that most people can learn math) + 0.308 (belief that math is useful for everyday life) – 0.164 (Female)

The model summary shows that for every year increase in the number of years math teacher has taught high school math, we expect 0.004 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Though the number of years math teacher has taught math in high school is a significant predictor of math self-efficacy, it accounts for a very small positive change. For every increase in the level of belief that most people can learn math, we expect 0.398 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Similarly, for every increase in the level of belief that math is useful for everyday life, we expect 0.308 unit increase in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy. Finally, being female is associated with 0.164 unit decrease in the level of a student’s math self-efficacy.

These results provide knowledge for improving math self-efficacy among students. First, study shows the need to encourage girls to like math and believe that they can do well in mathematics. Second, it shows that students need to be encouraged that anybody can do well in mathematics so that they can understand that math is not a preserve of a specific group of students. Three, students need to be made to understand that math is useful for their everyday life.