Extended Written Response

April 27, 2017

Abstract

A review of the history of Australian Catholic education, both from the historical and the contemporary perspectives, reveals the mark it has left on today’s Catholic religious education. The first Catholic schools in Australia sprang up in the 1800s. The primary goal for the establishment of these schools, at that time, was to provide a socializing place to get more people to become Catholics. In the 20th century, the approaches used in the teaching of religious in Catholic schools had evolved tremendously. The first approach, which involved the use of catechism books as references, was the dogmatic approach. The Kerygmatic approach followed after this and was later replaced by the life experiences approach. In time, many other approaches have been applied in the teaching of religious education. Church documents played a crucial role religious education develop ment. The documents addressed some agendas concerning the education provided in Catholic schools.  The foundations that were laid down in the development of Catholic school still hold up to today.

 

Throughout history and all around the world, apart from spreading the word of God, the Catholic Church has always taken an interest in education, well-being, and cultures of the people. It was no exception in the early settlement of Australia. In the course of the 1800s in Australia, Catholic bishops arrived at the decision of having a system of Catholic schools. Early Catholic schools sprang up in Sidney, Australia in 1830. In Melbourne, the first school was established by one Father Patrick Geoghegan in 1840. Queensland followed after that with their first schools built in the 1850s and 1860s. By the year 1878, there were about 33 schools in Queensland alone. The current Catholic school religious carry the history marks of these first schools to be established .[1]

Their main intention for the establishment of these schools was to create places that would have a primary socializing influence to get children to become Catholics. They also wanted to establish a Catholic community in Australia. For about 80 years, with the help of brothers and sisters, they were able to accomplish this goal. One of the main reasons why they were successful in doing this was the fact that they worked amongst a Catholic population, most of whom were of Irish descent and who were in many ways, socially homogenous.

A majority of the Catholics were working class but poorly educated people. Most of them readily accepted the will of the Church to get educated. The brothers and sisters who were the educators received training, and they taught children way they were instructed to enable them to grow morally upright.[2] Among the societal and cultural pressures that the bishops used to convince their congregation to bring their children to school included peer pressure, fear, need for security as well as identity. After some time, amidst resistance and challenges, parents started sending children to school, and in the process, they realized both the spiritual and physical benefits.

With the Education Acts of 1870 and 1880, education became free, compulsory and secular and all aid from the government to Catholic schools came to a stop.[3] The Catholic community wanted the Catholic schools to continue, and so religious brothers and sisters from Europe came to Australia. Together with the support of vocations and new religious orders, they shared the task of providing education in Australia. Over the past 150 years, the religious orders, backed by the teachers, have contributed tremendously to the Australian education and culture.

The Nature and Purpose of Catholic Education

  • Dogmatic Approach

Catholic education in the early Christian centuries up to the mid-20th century involved the development and use of Catechisms. Catechism of the Catholic Church is an organized presentation of the essential teachings of the Church with regards to both morality and faith.  It was used as a reference text for the teaching of the doctrines of the Catholic Church. The early Catholic schools in Australia adopted the use of these catechisms. The catechetical approach to teaching was adopted because most people had limited access to the written word and very few people could read and write. [4]The approach focused on the spoken word. Among the limitations of the catechetical approach was its lack of serious content. Also, it did not take into account the developmental stages of children or the ever-changing multicultural face of the Australian society. The religious education was reduced to a set number of questions and answers.     Kerygmatic Approach

The Kerygmatic approach to teaching religious education in Catholic schools arose because of growing dissatisfaction with the dogmatic approach which involved the use of catechism text. The basis of this approach was the proclamation of the word and the message of salvation from the Bible. The Bible, therefore, became a major part of the teaching of Catholic education. The renewed liturgical celebrations and the systematic teaching were of great importance.[5]

While this approach recognized that the children came from families that were religiously weak and a society that was becoming secularized rapidly, it assumed that all participants in the religious education were believers. It still focused on memorization at the end of instruction rather than at the beginning. This approach was further criticized because children were taught differently from their parents and teachers also lacked adequate training in this method. [6] Life Experience Approach

A significant influence upon this approach adopted by the Melbourne guidelines was Father Amalorpavadass. He emphasized a catechetical pedagogy that drew from both theology and human science. This approach involved a series of four stages which included, one, experienced shared which means bringing into focus the aspect of human experience.[7] The second stage included deepened reflection where both students and teachers come to the deeper understanding by reflecting on their experiences. Third, was the expression of faith to enable educators and students the relationship that exists between the Christian story and life experiences. Lastly, the final stage involves reinforcement of insights which provided the revisiting and reflecting on the process as a whole. The Melbourne guidelines stressed the need for the children to grow in awareness of themselves, others, the world and the community.[8] This approach recognized cultural experiences of children but was said to lack educational methodology.

Church Documents

  1. Gravissimum Educationis

One of the church documents that played a key role in Catholic religious education is the Gravissimum Educationis or Declaration of Christian Education. The Pope Paul IV proclaimed this Declaration in the year 1965. The importance of education to the people and its growing influence in the society is largely mentioned in the document. The first is the universal right to education. People of all ages or races were declared to have a right to education so that they can acquire the ability to reach their full potential at an individual level and together as a society. Additionally, the rights to Christian education, helps Christians understand the gifts they have and how they can get closer to God, in love and faith.[9]

Some agendas are addressed in the document. They include, first the paramount importance of education in the modern world and how it helped people understand their responsibilities in the economic, social and political spheres. Secondly, the deficiencies that exist in the education despite the progress that has been made so far should be remedied. Third, it is the Church’s goal to bring Christ to the world through education. Besides, the first educators of children are their parents, and they are charged with the responsibility of creating an atmosphere at home that inspires love and devotion for God and other people. [10]It also promotes personal, integrated and social education for the children. The family, therefore, is a child’s first school where they learn about the worship God and love for their neighbors. Parents have the responsibility of ensuring their children acquire a balanced progress in their preparation for life on earth as well as in their Christianity

The document also mentioned how the society takes part in educating young people, so that common good and assistance to parents is promoted among them. Additionally, a key role is played by the church in the education of children. It is the Church’s duty to help parents and the society in providing education in schools. The document further pointed to the importance of schools in the development of culture, skills, values, intellectual faculties and sound judgment. The vocational of teaching is mentioned to be an important vocation and students are encouraged to pursue it. The state is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that every citizen has equal access to education in preparation for civic duties. The Catholic faithful have great contribution to make in the development of education in the society, both morally and intellectually. [11]

The document further points it is the duty of the Church to reach out to all Catholic students in non-Catholic schools and make sure that they get a good Christian education. The church has the right of establishing schools so as to advance culture, promote parents’ rights and protect the liberty of the conscience.

Finally, the document speaks about Catholic higher education and how it is important in improving the academic spirit as well as a healthy balance of faith. The Catholic universities and colleges should maintain to high standards and care for the spirituality of the students. A further responsibility of the church is the establishment of centers at non-Catholic colleges and universities so that they can provide assistance to Catholic students in their spiritual, intellectual and moral development. [12]The faculties of Catholic theology have the grave responsibility of preparing students for the priesthood, and lastly, Catholic schools at all levels aim at the preservation and advancement Catholic’s education.

  1. The Catholic School

The document “The Catholic School” was also written to the congregation concerning education in Catholic schools. The document gives the definition of a school as a privileged place where integral formation occurs through a living encounter with cultural inheritance. Further, the document clarified that a school is not just a place where one acquires intellectual values but an array of values which actively apply to life are also presented.[13] Its principal roles included a reminder of the Catholic schools’ contribution to the salvation the Church’s mission. The schools share the goal of the church through education in the faith.  The church’s educational involvement and cultural pluralism are also asserted in the document. Cultural pluralism reaffirms the mission of education and the development of strong character among students. The Church has to uphold plurality of school systems as a way of safeguarding its objectives in the face of cultural pluralism. In simple terms, the Church encouraged co-existence and cooperation among various educational institutions.

According to the church, educational aims of the Catholic schools perform an essential service to the Catholic Church itself and that the loss of Catholic schools would be a great setback to civilization. Christ is the foundation of all education enterprises in a school. Concepts of the Gospel are part of the educational norm since the school uses it as a source of motivation and as their final goal. Integrating faith and culture and integrating faith and life are the two premises that that show the content of a Catholic school and its duties. The former is achieved through the integration of all aspects of the knowledge of human beings in the light of the gospel. The latter is achieved through growth of values that are typical of Christians. Summing up, the document encouraged every possible effort to promote Catholic education as it holds a unique position of offering an exemplary and compulsory service to the community. Catholic schools offer their collaboration to those involved in the development of the new world.[14]

Lay Catholic in School: Witness to Faith

The “Lay Catholics in Schools: Witnesses to Faith” was also a Vatican document written on Catholic education. This report addressed some issues about lay Catholics. The document acknowledged the importance of lay Catholics, both men, and women, who devoted themselves to teaching not only in Catholic schools but other schools[15]. They were mentioned as important because whether they were believers or not, the schools would not be in a position to accomplish any of its objectives without them.

The lay Catholics who work in schools bear witness to the faith. The sacred congregation and the laity, therefore, have to offer services to them for the task that they are accomplishing for the Church. The document also mentioned that the lay Catholic teaching in Catholic schools was part of God’s people. [16]They are united in Christ through baptism and share in the basic dignity that is common for all members of the church. They all possess in common, one salvation and one entire ministry. The lay Catholic as an educator is an issue that is extensively addressed by the Second Vatican Council in this document. An educator is defined as anyone who makes a contribution to the integral human formation.[17] For, the teachers, this is their profession. The teachers deserved special attention mainly because of their institutional purposes in schools. However, everyone else who shared in the formation and who complemented the educational activities was also added to the discussion. The one particular characteristic that takes on its vital importance in the Catholic educator is the communication of the truth to the students. The communication of the truth forms a crucial part of the prophetic mission of Christ carried on during the teaching.[18]

Since every type of education is under the influence of a particular concept. The Catholic educator has always to motivate his or her teachings with the Christian concept. Also included in the vocation of every lay Catholic is work in social development which involves forming men and women with the readiness to take their place in the society, be socially committed and make improvement in the social structures. The document concludes by affirming that all lay Catholic educators constitute a critical component of hope for the Catholic Church. The Church entrust these lay educators with the responsibility of integrating temporal reality with the Gospel. Of more importance, is the trust given to them by the Church to provide integral formation of the students and faith education.

In conclusion, an evaluation of the history of Australian Catholic schools in, the various teaching approaches they used in the 20th century and the key church documents that influenced the direction of education in the schools, provide insight on how the religious education in Catholic has held sway over the course of many years. Under the guidance of the Catholic Church, Catholic schools have continued to provide to teach students by integrating temporal formation and faith education

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Buchanan, Michael and Adrian-Mario Gellel, eds. Global Perspectives on Catholic Religious Education in Schools. Springer, 2015.

English. Catholica Commentary by Dr Graham English: Religious Education in Catholic Schools, 2007.

Gallagher, Jim. Soil for the seed: Historical, pastoral and theological reflections on educating to and in faith. Essex, England: McCrimmons, 2001.

Hater, Robert. The Catholic Parish: Hope for a Changing World. Paulist Press, 2004.

Hoebel, Thomas. Laity and participation: a theology of being the Church (Vol. 29). Peter Lang, 2006.

McLaughlin, and O’Keefe, Joseph. (Eds.). The Contemporary Catholic School: Context, Identity And Diversity. Routledge, 2003.

Milton, A. Catholic and Reformed: The Roman and Protestant Churches in English Protestant Thought, 1600-1640. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Module 1 Workbook: A Brief History of Religious Education in Religious Education .In Schools, print, 2017.

Module 2 Workbook: A Brief History of Religious Education in Religious Education. In Schools, 2017.

Ryan, M. Church documents on religious education. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in catholic schools, 2013.

 

[1] English. Catholica Commentary by Dr Graham English: Religious Education in Catholic Schools, 2007.

[2] Buchanan, Michael and Adriano Gellel (Eds.). Global Perspectives on Catholic Religious Education in Schools. Springer, 2003.

[3] Module 1 Workbook: A Brief History of Religious Education in Religious Education .In Schools, print, 2017.

[4] McLaughlin and O’Keefe, Joseph (Eds.). The Contemporary Catholic School: Context, Identity And Diversity. Routledge, 2003.

[5] Gallagher, Jim. Soil for the seed: Historical, pastoral and theological reflections on educating to and in faith. Essex, England: McCrimmons, 2001.

[6] Module 1 Workbook: A Brief History of Religious Education in Religious Education .In Schools, print, 2017.

[7] Hater, Robert. The Catholic Parish: Hope for a Changing World. Paulist Press, 2004.

[8] Hater, Robert. The Catholic Parish: Hope for a Changing World. Paulist Press, 2004.

[9] Ryan Maurice. Church documents on religious education. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in catholic schools, 2013.

[10]Ryan Maurice. Church documents on religious education. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in catholic schools, 2013.

[11] Ryan, M. Church documents on religious education. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in catholic schools, 2013.

[12] Ryan, M. Church documents on religious education. In a common search: The history and forms of religious education in catholic schools, 2013.

[13] McLaughlin, and O’Keefe, Joseph. (Eds.). The Contemporary Catholic School: Context, Identity And Diversity. Routledge, 2003.

[14] Module 2 Workbook: A Brief History of Religious Education in Religious Education. In Schools, 2017.

 

[15] Hoebel, Thomas. Laity and participation: a theology of being the Church (Vol. 29). Peter Lang, 2006.

[16] Hoebel, Thomas. Laity and participation: a theology of being the Church (Vol. 29). Peter Lang, 2006.

[17] Buchanan, Michael and Adrian-Mario Gellel, eds. Global Perspectives on Catholic Religious Education in Schools. Springer, 2015

[18] Hater, Robert. The Catholic Parish: Hope for a Changing World. Paulist Press, 2004

Teaching early childhood

April 27, 2017

Introduction

Early education is the most important part of ones’ education since it is the first step in education. It greatly helps shape a persons’ take on life and general issues in the society. It is therefore very important that a teacher strives to make the lessons memorable and interesting. The teacher should greatly also try not to be a source of information, but much more like a friendly source of knowledge. This will make is easier for the child to capture what is being taught. Through the use of teaching aids, achieving the position of an ideal teacher is made partially possible. Photographs and illustrations are a great component of teaching aids. Through the use of visual imagery and metaphoric photography, the scope of focus of a photograph is made broad and some philosophical ideologies that cannot be captured in a photograph are captured.

The photographs below were randomly taken. They touch on several social issues such as pollution, family love and child neglecting among families. Through these images, the metaphorical imagery will be broadly explored with psychological arguments being based on the topics covered by the photograph. The topics will be of great relevance in depicting the understanding of critical pedagogy and the role of using photographic philosophy as an aid to teaching and specifically in early childhood education in Australia.

In image selection, it was relevant to consider several topics of national and global concern. The main social issues that influenced the selection were child neglect (image I), environmental pollution (image II) and global warming (image III)

Child Neglect

Image I: Child neglection in modern societies.

During the past few years, the number of street families, children homes and generally the number of abandoned children has gradually risen. Lamont (2010) argues that despite protecting children from child abuse, they also need to be protected from neglect. Many children’s deaths result from being neglected.  As an early childhood educator, it is of great importance to ensure the attitude of the student is not negative towards neglect children. The sense of responsibility also comes hand in hand with this sensitization. It is therefore from this point of view that the photograph of a neglected child standing a banner stating that neglected children feel invisible was taken.

The notion of invisibility of a neglected child is the fact that his/her parents have left him/her to face the world alone and relatively nobody cares about their well-being.  Many are the times when this child actually has to beg for money or even for food from passersby. This makes the kid have the idea that unless he/she attracts the attention of someone, nobody actually cares about them.  This photograph metaphorically advocates for the rights and plights of abandoned children. The child in the picture must not have necessarily been neglected but could also have posed for the photograph.

Through showing a class this photograph, the expected outcome is that the students’ attitude towards the plight of neglected children will change. The common attitude towards the situation of having neglected children is that they are responsible for their separation with their parents otherwise, their parents are.

Psychologically, it would be important to mentor the children so that even during their parenthood, they will have a sense of responsibility most importantly towards their children. (Stoddard & Wellman, 2011, p. 194)

Neglect is not only physical but also includes physical neglect. Some of the children in the class may even be suffering from this. The Oxford Dictionary defines the word neglect as “Fail to care for properly”. Failing to care for someone emotionally is what is termed as emotional neglect. Therefore, through this metaphoric photograph, one may choose quite a number of areas of child neglect to discuss with the students. It is, however, important to make any child who may be victim to any area of discussion not to feel stigmatised as this is not the objective of the lesson. The teacher should also try to offer assistance in a friendly manner to children who may be victims of neglect by any possible means.

 

Environmental pollution

Image II: The drawbacks of environmental pollution, especially around water bodies and coasts

This photograph shows a dead bird that has been dissected. The contents of the body are clearly revealed. The bird, which feeds on sediments in water bodies.  The bird must have been killed by feeding on too many plastic deposits in water bodies. In their book The healing forest in the post-crisis work with children, Berger and Lahad clearly explain the role of children in caring for the environment. The young people are definitely more energetic and free from prejudice. The most suitable caption for this image would be “If you don’t pick it up, they will”.

Through displaying this photograph to children, it no only sensitises them on the effects of pollution but also helps the develop a positive attitude towards environmental conservation. Pollution is not just when a big company emits clouds of fumes into the atmosphere but even when one drops a small piece of plastic paper, it definitely has adverse effects. Moreover, the effects of pollution may not necessarily be felt by us humans, but nature at large is affected. This attitude and level of information is the main motive behind using this as a teaching aid. Basically to metaphorically tell the kids that it is every person’s responsibility to conserve the environment.

Global Responsibility

In his book, “Splendid Literarium: A Treasury of Stories, Aphorisms, Poems, and Essays”, Aberjhani & West (2003) state that diversity is an aspect of human existence that cannot be eradicated by terrorism or war or self-consuming hatred. It can only be conquered by recognising and claiming the wealth of values it represents for all. This is seen as a call for an appreciation of everyone as they are. Through the photograph below, metaphorically, one can draw ideas of global acceptance for all.

Image III: Our responsibility towards the world.

If this photograph was displayed in a classroom, the student may only see it as a person holding a globe, but through it, the ideas acquired from visual imagery and photographic psychology may be employed to illustrate to the students that each person has a responsibility towards achieving global cohesion.

If a household in Australia increased their monthly consumption to 1000 litres a month, for instance, nobody would sue them for the same. In addition, nobody would prove beyond reasonable doubt that the household contributed to a drought in a place as far as Africa. However, if every household increased their consumption by the same rate, the world would be uninhabitable. This calls for logical decision making and a sense of responsibility before taking any steps. This image may, therefore, be deemed as deeply metaphorical as it may be used to address multiple global issues such as global warming, racism, pollution among others.

Conclusion

In critical pedagogy, one must employ the art of creativity and use it to help the students develop critical consciousness. This is in the sense that students gain an in-depth understanding of the world and having a clear and positive point of view towards social issues. Through the illustrations made from the above photographs, it is evident that visual metaphors can be employed in early education. The main purpose of the same is to help students benefit from the use of visual aid in teaching on top of the use of literature.

 


References

Aberjhani, & West, S. L. (2003). Encyclopaedia of the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Facts On File, Inc.

Bailey, N., & Van Harken, E. (2014). Visual images as tools of teacher inquiry. Journal of Teacher Education, 65(3), 241-260.

Berger, R., & Lahad, M. (2013). The healing forest in post-crisis work with children: A nature and expressive arts programme for groups.

Carter, S. & Pitcher, R. (2010). Extended metaphors for pedagogy: Using sameness and difference. Teaching in Higher Education, 15(5), 579-589. DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2010.491904

Daniels, K. (2013). Supporting the development of positive dispositions and learner identities: an action research study into the impact and potential of developing photographic learning stories in the Early Years. Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 41(3), 300-315.

Lamont, A., Australian Institute of Family Studies, & National Child Protection Clearing House (Australia). (2010). Child deaths from abuse and neglect in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Stoddard, G. D., & Wellman, B. L. (2011). Child psychology. New York: Macmillan Co.

 

Research in Practice

April 27, 2017

Abstract

            The Perfume Shop in the United Kingdom was acquired by A.S. Watson Group (the largest retailer of health and beauty products globally) in 2005. In most instances, most mergers and acquisitions do not end well. This is evident in the fact that the profits and sales of the minor company tend to reduce as well as its performance after an acquisition. However, some companies are able to beat the odds and still do well after an acquisition. The acquisition of the Perfume Shop by A.S. Watson Group is one such case. This report aims at bringing to light the results of the merger between the two companies and the related factors.

Aim, Objectives and Rationale

Aim

To critically evaluate the factors behind the success of the Perfume Shop

Objectives

  1. To find out about the Perfume Shop.
  2. To find out about theA.S. Watson Group (This is the company that bought the Perfume Shop).
  3. To find out the reasons for the continued success of the company even after the acquisition.

Rationale and Introduction

According to the Raconteur, the United Kingdom’s beauty industry has an estimated total worth of 17 million pounds. This is a considerably high mount which implies that this is a major industry in the United Kingdom. Focusing on the Perfume Shop in the United Kingdom, this company was started in 1992. Originally, in 1991, the Perfume Shop was called Eauzone. The Merchant Retail Group Inc. purchased the company then. As at that time, the Perfume Shop had a total of six stores. However, three were closed down with only those in Portsmouth, Basingstoke and Guildford left. Afterwards, the company expanded and developed branches in Sheffield, Bromley and Meadowhall. The company has maintained these branches over time and opened others within the United Kingdom. Currently, the Perfume Shop has over 265 retail shops nationwide. These shops pride themselves in selling all major brands of fragrance at prices which offer value for the customers’ money. The Perfume Shop takes pride in the fact that it provides a matchless customer service whose staff are well equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge to pass on to each of their customers.

It is also important to focus on the A.S. Watson Group. This is the largest beauty and health retail group in Hong Kong. The A.S. Watson Group has more than 12,000 stores worldwide and these stores serve approximately 28 million customers every week. This group operates the largest portfolio of retail brands and formats around the globe. Majority of the company’s shareholdings are owned by the multinational conglomerate C. K. Hutchison Holdings Limited. A small percent (approximately 25%) of the company’s shares are owned by Temasek Holdings, a company owned by the government in Singapore. The headquarters for the A.S. Watson Group are in the Watson House. Initially, the A.S. Watson Group was started as the Canton Dispensary and Soda Water Establishment. This was in 1828 when it was a dispensary where the poor people of Guangdong went for free medical services. It was not until 1871 that the company adopted the name “A.S. Watson Group.”This group had a major acquisition in Europe with the Perfume Shop in 2005(Beauty, 2014).

Brief Literature Review

When the Perfume Shop in the United Kingdom ventured into the market, it worked to improve customer satisfaction in the world of fragrance(Edwards, 2015). The company had strong core values, mission and a vision all of which were aimed at ensuring the customer’s needs are considered. The company provided quite a large number of people with a source of livelihood by employing them. This is a corporate social responsibility that every company must address. Over time, the company has gone through a merger where it was absorbed by the A.S. Watson Group. This acquisition has not affected the success of the business. Evidence to this is the fact that the company (The Perfume Shop) has managed to remain in the market and stand the competition in the world of perfumes. The success of the company even after an acquisition is not an easy task and the reasons behind this need to be addressed in detail. This is in light of the fact most acquisitions do not succeed especially for the minor company; the probability of its survival is slim after an acquisition.

Methodology

For this report, secondary research is going to be used since there is enough research on the subject. The report aims at discussing the factors that have contributed to the success of the Perfume Shop even after its acquisition by the A.S. Watson Group. In order to achieve this objective, a range of both qualitative and quantitative data will be utilized. The major source of the data that will be collected will come from the internet blogs, articles and journals. Some mental aspects will also be included.

To ensure that there is no probability of having a bias in the findings and conclusions of this research, the report will use a number of resources. Undeniably, the more recent the source, the more reliable the data is. For this reason, this report will utilize materials that have been created within the last 10 years since using data collected too long ago introduces the risk of having invalid and outdated results.

Findings, Analysis and Discussion

The Perfume Shop has recorded a 46 % increase in profits in the last year and a 29% increase in sales. This has seen the company make an approximate profit of 514, 000 pounds with a sales amount of 21.72 million(Henderson, 2001). This clearly shows that indeed the company is doing well in the market. For this reason, it is important to find out why this company is still doing well after an acquisition unlike many other companies that go through the same process(Nicholls, 2007).

The first factor to consider is the staff of the company. The staff of the Perfume Shop are a perfect epitome of elegance. Considering that human resource is the greatest asset a business can have, then it means that the employees of an organization have a great effect on the performance of the organization. When the employees are demotivated or unprofessional, the company is bound to fail. For this reason, it is undeniable that the elegance and zeal to work among employees of the Perfume Shop proves the fact that the human resource asset has contributed positively to the success of the company. The Perfume Shop retained some of its former employees even after the merger/acquisition. This means that the company employees have quite a number of years of experience on the job. Consequently, the company is bound to succeed all other factors held constant. Moreover, the employees in the organization are motivated evident from the fact that the Perfume Shop was ranked among the best 100 companies to work for (Nicholls, 2007).

`           Another relevant factor is the number of brands that the company deals in. Evidently, the lesser the number of products/varieties that a company deals in, the higher the probability that the company will not do well in the market and may be faced-out due to stiff competition. The Perfume Shop knew this trick and have diversified their brands numerously. By diversifying, the company has reduced the probability of leaving the market or facing losses after one of their brands or some become obsolete or their demand reduces significantly. This is another reason why the Perfume Shop has been able to remain competitive even after its acquisition by the A.S. Watson Group(Cooper & Finkelstein, 2014).

The third relevant factor that has contributed to the success of the Perfume Shop in the United Kingdom is matching the current marketing standards in the economy. The Perfume Shop has gone online. Having a company website is very beneficial since it increases the market for the products of the company. This is because the customers of the products are not limited to the geographical locations of the stores set up by the company but everyone who can access the internet despite their location around the globe has access to their products. The wider the market for the goods produced by a company, the higher the probability that the company will have more sales and hence remain in the market. The Perfume Shop has achieved this benefit hence its success even after an acquisition(Bebenroth, 2015).

The fourth factor that has contributed to the success of the Perfume Shop in the United Kingdom even after its acquisition by the A.S. Watson Group is the alignment of the cultures of both companies. The success of a company after a merge/acquisition greatly depends on whether there is a fit between them. This fit is based on the compatibility of the values of the two companies. Considering that the A.S. Watson Group is also a company in the beauty industry, then there is a high correlation between the two companies. This correlation and compatibility is responsible for the success of the Perfume Shop even after the merger/acquisition(DePamphilis, 2011).

The fifth factor is the organizational culture. The Perfume Shop has a culture that allows it to fit in the beauty industry comfortably and compete healthily. One of the cultures that the company has acquired over time is the after sales services. For example, the company offers free delivery of its goods when need be. This may seem like a negligible act but it goes a long way in increasing customer loyalty. Another aspect is the rewards that have been introduced by the company. These rewards motivate customers to purchase at the stores of the Perfume Shop hence ensuring that the company remains in the market even after the merger(Cron, 2015).

The sixth factor that can be attributed to the success of the Perfume Shop even after its acquisition/merger is the fact that there was a complete integration plan between the two companies before the acquisition took place. In most instances, when two companies merge, they tend to fail if the integration plan was not completely set out. This was not the case with A.S. Watson Group and the Perfume Shop. Consequently, because of a well laid out plan, the Perfume Shop has still succeeded even after the acquisition(East, 2012).

Conclusion and Recommendations

From the above analysis, it is evident that the success of the Perfume Shop has not been on a bed of roses. The company has had to set strategies to bring forth this success. This cannot go unappreciated since statistics show that more that 70% of companies which merge or go through an acquisition do not survive for long. Possible reasons for the fall-out may be due to miscommunication when the merger or acquisition wasbeing done which made one of the parties make an uninformed decision. In addition to this, there may be no well laid-out integration plan for the two companies after the merger or acquisition. Also, the non-compatibility of the companies is another factor that can contribute to their failure after the merger/acquisition. Evidently, the Perfume Shop has been able to put all these factors in place and consequently guaranteeing its success.

Focusing on the recommendations, there are several aspects that the Perfume Shop should consider to increase its success. One of these is to increase the number of stores worldwide. This will increase the market share hence the volume of sales will increase. All other factors held constant, when the sales increase, the profits are bound to increase too. This means that the company will have a better competing edge and hence be more successful in the beauty industry.

Another recommendation for the company would be to utilize technology in its operations. This will reduce the operation costs of the company and hence increase their profitability. The Perfume Shop may also increase the brands of perfumes it deals in. This will ensure that the risk of being faced out reduces significantly. Moreover, increasing the number of brands also increases the level of customer satisfaction since different customer specifications will be met.

In a nutshell, it is important for every company to weigh its options before choosing to go for a merging or acquisition offer. As shown by the case of the Perfume Shop, there are indeed some companies that still do well even after a merger or an acquisition. However, there are very few companies who enjoy this benefit. For this reason, it is essential that the right parties are consulted so that a company makes the best decision when it comes to the issue of mergers, amalgamations and acquisitions. Since the Perfume Shop has succeeded in it, then it is evident that mergers, amalgamations and acquisitions can be of benefit to a company if the right factors are put in place.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Aidin, B. (2014) UK beauty industry review. Available at:

http://raconteur.net/lifestyle/business-face-of-uk-beauty

Briefing, C. (2015) China’s cosmetics industry: Opportunities and challenges for foreign investment – china briefing news. Available at:

http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2015/09/01/chinas-cosmetics-industry-opportunities-and-challenges-for-foreign-investment.html

Beauty, B. f. o. U., 2014. Raconteur. Business face of UK Beauty.

Bebenroth, R., 2015. International business mergers and acquisitions… by Ralf Bebenroth. 10 ed. Tokyo : Springer.

Cooper, C. L. & Finkelstein, S., 2014. Advances in mergers and acquisitions. Vol. 13 by Sydney Finkelstein. 13 ed. Bingley, U.K: Emerald.

Cron, K., 2015. Mergers and acquisitions: key success factors. Financier Worldwide Magazine.

DePamphilis, D. M., 2011. Mergers and acquisitions basics. 11 ed. Amsterdam : Academic Press.

East, T., 2012. 5 Drivers of Successful Mergers, Acquisitions. The HVACR Management Magazine, 07 01.

Edwards, M., 2015. The Perfume Shop. Expertise.

Henderson, A., 2001. Interim surge at Merchant Retail. Growth Company Investor.

Nicholls, C. C., 2007. Mergers, acquisitions, and other changes of corporate… by Christopher C Nicholls. 2nd ed. Toronto : Irwin Law.

 

 

CHEROKEE’S RELOCATION: ANALYSIS AND ARGUMENTS

April 27, 2017

Introduction

Cherokee Nation between years 1794 – 1907 was acknowledged as a tribal government, located in the Northern part of America.[1] The territory consisted of the Cherokee people who were the Native American tribe and spoke Cherokee during the 19th century. In 1802, the federal government sought to get rid of the Native American titles to lands in Georgia in return for the U.S federal government formal cession of parts of the Mississippi Territory.[2] As a result, in 1815, the federal government set up Cherokee Reservation near the Missouri Territory and then convinced the Cherokee people through the ‘The Removal Act’ to move to these reserves.[3] However, the Cherokee nation declined. In the light of the developments, the essay seeks to present Cherokee’s argument and what their case based on, but first, it will carry out an analysis of Ebenezer Tracy’s Text on Cherokee’s Relocation.

Analysis

The primary source is acknowledged as ‘Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts’ was written by Tracy Ebenezer Carter. It was published in 1845 by Crocker and Brewster in Boston, USA. The book’s principal topic is Jeremiah Evarts (1781-1831).[4] In a historical context, the book was published about six years after the Trail of Tears, a period that refers to the relocation of the Native Indians to the west of the Mississippi. It was also written in memory of Jeremiah F. Evarts who was a strong advocate for the need to uphold the sovereignty of the Cherokee nation. The book is published about 14 years since Evarts, F.E., was laid to rest. It was written at a period in which the American population could compare Evarts’ argument and the outcome of the relocation of the Cherokee group.

The author’s background is that of a Christian missionary. Tracy played the role of a religious leader. His role in society was almost similar to that played by Evarts. However, Evarts played an active role, as a lawyer, writer, and activist, in advocating for the rights of Indians. Tracy was likely to follow similar beliefs to those of Jeremiah Evarts. In the Cherokee relocation case, Evarts had taken the position of natural law and religion. Following Evarts’ arguments, Tracy is expected to provide a view that elaborates on natural law and a religious view on the issue. His bias is that he may personalize Evarts’ argument, considering that they follow the same religious beliefs and their social relationship. Tracy is strongly against labeling of Cherokee as “savages”, for their greatness in supporting the American commercial and education systems.[5] The labeling of Cherokee as “savages” appeared as a way of justifying their displacement from their lands. Inability to integrate with the American way of life was one of the reasons issued for relocation.

In other aspects of the text, Tracy does not appear to express strong arguments against or for, but he presents some of the issues that bear weight. For example, he suggests that Presidents Jackson and Van Buren failed to adhere to a court ruling that upheld that treaties and the laws gave Indians sovereignty over their land. He presents his view from an Indian perspective, which makes them more appealing to the reader. It is as if an Indian representative is addressing the reader. As a result, he does not seem to argue for any issue but gives the reasoning in the minds of the Cherokee. For example, they believed they had an original right to their ancestral land, which had been secured by treaties and the laws of the USA. Tracy does argue whether the argument is weak or strong, but he gives the reasons that would have prevented the Cherokee from leaving their land willingly. He gives the dangers they would have encountered by going to the other side of the Mississippi.

The text’s intended audience is the current historians and those who sympathize with the Indians about their forceful eviction from their ancestral land against treaties signed by the founding fathers. Sympathizers are the target audience because the text is written from the perspective of the Indians. It shows their assessment of the situation and their conviction that the treaties and the laws would have protected them from invasion into their land. In the case of current historians, the document’s most important message is to make them affirm what went on during the ‘Appeal of the Cherokee Nation’ and all the other relevant issues during this period, and they developed. As well, the target audience is not accurate and encompasses anyone that would like to acknowledge what went on during the time.

The central issue in the document is the relocation of the Cherokee. Other sub-issues that emerge from this relocation include the impact of this relocation to the group and reasons for the relocation.[6] The Cherokee had justified legal argument against their removal. For instance, their arguments based on both national and individual rights that justified their stay in the area. Under the justified right, the Cherokee highlighted that since that was their land, they had the right to remain in their ancestral land. Many of them got raised in that land and lived in that particular area during their lifetime.[7] As a result, the federal government had no right to force them to move away from their land to the Indiana territory since the land was ancestral.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is evident that to foster an understanding of the text; Tracy gives an argument from the perspective of the Cherokee that justified his background as a Christian missionary. The ‘Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts’ is informative and combines diverse aspects of the Cherokee nation relocation. Moreover, it through this primary source that we get an insight into the reasons why the Cherokee Indians had refused moving away from the Mississippi area towards the Indian territory. For example, they asserted that the land was inherited and that it was their national and individual right to defend it against white incursion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Tracy, Ebenezer, 2009, Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts. Charleston: BiblioBazaar.

Voorhees (fl., 1 1870, ‘Treaty with Cherokee Nation’, Adam Matthew Digital, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 July 2016.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] Voorhees (fl., 1 1870, ‘Treaty with Cherokee Nation’, Adam Matthew Digital, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 July 2016.

[2] Ibid., 127

[3] Ibid., 128

[4] Tracy, Ebenezer, 2009, Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts. Charleston: BiblioBazaar.

 

[5] Tracy, Ebenezer, 2009, Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts. Charleston: BiblioBazaar.

 

[6] Tracy, Ebenezer, 2009, Memoir of the Life of Jeremiah Evarts. Charleston: BiblioBazaar.

[7] Voorhees (fl., 1 1870, ‘Treaty with Cherokee Nation’, Adam Matthew Digital, EBSCOhost, viewed 26 July 2016.

 

COMMUNITY SERVICE

April 27, 2017

PAPER 1

Description of what happened

My recent visit to an orphanage marked one of my most historical moments. On arrival, we received a warm welcome from happy little kids. Their faces were glowing and portrayed joy and happiness for seeing us. We took a short tour, guided by the manager around the orphanage. The compound was small and the place looked squeezed and overpopulated. They had a small playground and their rooms were squeezed in one corner. They also had a small garden where they grew vegetables for their own consumption. We took photos and helped them water the crops. They enjoyed it very much and for a moment, it is as if they forgot all their problems. Before we left, I had a noble opportunity to interview a 10-year-old boy who willingly shared his experiences in the orphanage. One thing I garnered that moved me was that the orphan lived craving for a day some well-wisher would show up to adopt him.

Feelings

I could not help but think of my life compared to those children. My parents availed everything to my comfort, which I sometimes disregarded. I had the habit of acting insatiable and cursing my fate. I had everything I needed, that which these children could not even dream about. This visit served as a starting point of my change of attitude.

Evaluation

This visit had a host of many good things as well as bad ones. One of the good things is that we learned that it is always important to appreciate the little things we have before asking for more. These children led a happy life though they lacked so much. One bad thing I learned is that orphanages are mostly neglected.  This tour also geared me to desire to conduct a research about orphanages and how the government and well-to-do agencies might help them hold up.

Analysis

It is possible that other orphanages, which we did not visit, are in poorer conditions than the one we visited. It is imperative that the society seeks to help such institutions run.

Conclusion

Given an opportunity, I could have sought the cooperation of my classmates in collecting any material items we could afford to take to the orphanages.

Action Plan

We plan to visit orphanages regularly. This time not empty handed, but with the little help and support we can offer.  We recommend the government to take its social responsibility to fund the running of orphanages.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAPER 2

Description of what happened

A few days ago, we had a noble opportunity to visit an orphanage. We were received warmly by a host of joyful, expectant children. It was from here that I started noting the miserable lives that these poor children led without an option. Many of the children wore old clothes repeatedly because they did not have much to choose from. They had a poor command of language having not had the opportunity to go to school. They engaged in small jobs like watering small plants, washing dirty clothes and other duties that many of us found odd, especially as ladies. I happened to interact with some orphans for a chat about their lives in the orphanage, who in a sweet gentle voice answered all my questions anxiously. She told me that food was a problem and they sometimes work the entire time in empty stomachs. This shocked me to the point of almost shedding a tear. Seeing this, she told me in a small voice that they were accustomed to all hardships and there was no use crying. She further told me that most of the children were fond of studying, only that they were limited off the opportunity.

Feelings

Throughout my tour, I could not help but wonder and fathom how these kids survived in an environment of hardships like that. Their access to basic needs was limited and they still maintained compassionate tones unlike us who have all but are still uncomfortable. I felt challenged by the whole situation. I wished I had all the might to enable each of these children get to the reality of their assorted dreams.

Evaluation

One good thing about my experience is that it exposed me to the reality of life. People have unequal opportunities; some are privileged, while others are just unlucky. But no matter what side one finds themselves in, life provides one a chance to thrive. One bad thing about my experience through the visit was that I went back home feeling like crying after realizing how unfair and unbalanced that life can be.

Analysis

A further look at the situation made me realize that this was not the only orphanage in the locality. I could not help imagine what other orphanages looked like, and this gave me sleepless nights.

Conclusion

I concluded that I had to try to influence my friends to create an Interact Club through which we could be visiting orphanages and offer them the help (moral or material) that we could.

Action Plan

If an opportunity like this comes again, I would be better prepared to help these less privileged children as much as I could both materially and with the right words to encourage them to move on with life no matter the circumstances are.

How did free trade market liberalization policies and in creased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid-twentieth to late twentieth century effect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S.-Mexico border. The ess

April 27, 2017

 

Name

Instructor

Institution

Date

 

Argumentative driven essay

How did free trade market liberalization policies and increased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid –twentieth to late twentieth century affect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S-Mexico border?

The Mexicans and the United States have in the past had a hostile relationship that led to the fortification of a wall that was meant to separate the two nations. The border residents objected the construction of the wall. The Mexican government insisted that a wall was never a solution to their problems and that there were other means of resolving the problems. The Mexicans in the border regarded it as stupid, offensive and ineffective while the US side did not see anything positive, especially those who frequently went to Mexico. The uproar was intense. Despite the wall, the economic relationship between the resident at the border remained stable. NAFTA was approved to be tried for three years; therefore, the Mexican truckers were allowed to transport their cargo to the US other than transferring to other truckers at the border. The tourism sector in Mexico, which is one of their largest foreign earners, was hard hit. Even though the US investors in Mexico were affected, they remained adamant about the wall, and they even expanded their businesses. The California’s agricultural sector also suffered.

Free trade economic policies protect against discrimination against imports and exports to foreign countries. This means people can freely import and export without being imposed tariffs, subsidies, prohibitions, and quotas. It is the opposite of protectionist policies. These agreements are made between governments. In most occasions, people migrate in such of more business opportunities. This plays a significant role in improving the economy of the individuals and the nation as a whole. The approval of the NAFTA (NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE ACT) boosted the economic relationship between Mexico and Canada. Mexico became the leading exporter to California around 17% of the total imports in California, replacing the Japanese (McBride,n.p). The integration of the two economies was quite evident. There was a large volume of remittance that was sent back by the migrants. The effects of the economic integration were not always positive. Cases of accrued medical bills were reported, this was attributed to improper documentation of migrants, and also, there were cases of drug and human trafficking.

There was also a gravies problem between Mexico and US. They shared water from the Colorado River. There was a treaty between Mexico and US, Mexico owed US 465 billion gallons of water but as a result of increasing population in Mexico, it became so difficult to fulfill the treaty, and the situation became even worse during the periods of drought, whereby, the volume of the rivers decreased tremendously as a result of increased demand. There were also other conflicts on environmental pollution of water and air. The sources of pollution were from industries and pesticides. The Mexican environmental agency argued that pollution does not know boundaries. The conflict was further aggravated. In 2012, Mexico and the US signed an agreement of border agreement with the aim to securing their countries and also protecting themselves against pollution. The twentieth-century integration invoked different feelings among the Mexicans. At one hand, they believed that binational economic integration was going to help them alleviate their perennial poverty while on the contrary, they feared the power that the US holds, and they did not want to be assimilated into their culture that they perceived to be materialistic.

The relationship between Mexico and US has never been friendly; they have had a tense relationship since independence. In the 19th century, Mexico lost half of its territory to the US. The US is the largest Mexican trading partner while Mexico is a third best trading partner for the US. Their relationship has evolved over the years from the 19th century. Their relationship has been contributed significantly by the long boundary they share, the economic, political and social tires that they have and the troublesome history that they share. Mexico is part of the North America Free State Agreement (NAFTA). With the end of the troublesome relationship between Mexico and the US, it was marked by NAFTA that brought about debt relief, immigration, and drug trafficking efforts. This has strengthened cooperation between the two countries. President Bush and Carlos of Mexico also championed for a pragmatic approach to bilateral issues. NAFTA was intended to bring about economic integration, that is, free trade. After, President Bush of the US, the institutionalization continued with Bill Clinton and Ernesto Zedillo (1992-2000) (Villarreal et Ferguson, 2). NAFTA lead to the rise of ZAPATISTA MOVEMENT IN Chiapas, a revolt led by Subcommander Marcos, he pointed out the adverse impact of economic integration for the plight of the indigenous Mexicans who were dispersed in their own country, despite the problems that both sides faced. The first six years since NAFTA was signed, brought great economic growth in Mexico, it was US’s second largest trading partner gaining approximately 210 billion dollars in 2002. NAFTA led to the creation of more plants of maquiladora in the north Mexico border but it had a negative implication since it widened the gap between the economy of the north and south. The southern Mexico had less wealth than the north making them poorer. While the benefits from the free trade were more to the Mexicans than the United States, the president did not cease to champion for Mexico and also the Latin Americans.

The NAFTA received criticism, and it was blamed to have an adverse impact on the social fabric, it led to increased cases of drug-funded official corruption in 1990’s in Mexico. The human rights were believed to be abused as a result of the increase in the economic inequalities between the different parts of Mexico; the North and South. The military suppressed the impoverished people in Mexico. The issue of integration brought division in both countries; some people were opposed to the idea of integration. The major contribution of the free trade were increased cooperation I the areas of immigration, combating drug trafficking and improving security between the two borders but, there were other sensitive issues that brought about memory of the past relationship between the two countries, this was quite a challenge to overcome and be able to suppress suspicion between the two countries. The collaboration between the two nations was a necessity to build strong ties. Although the gains of free trade vary between countries, both countries gained from the free trade, the welfare of the countries were improved. They increased their economies of scale that is the prices of the goods were lower as the market was increased. There was increased market competition especially for the domestic monopolies boosting productivity, and competition is an indication of healthy markets. Bilateral trades enhance innovation and US and Mexico had a chance to exchange their innovation and improve their efficiency. There was the infusion of new technologies between the two countries. As earlier indicated, the living standards of Mexicans was developed, especially in the north parts, therefore, improving the social welfare of the people. Politically, the cold relationship between Mexico and the US was improved, looking at what they went through during the war, a good relationship was created. Countries which are involved in free trade, create their own market dynamic ,they are able to create more opportune for its citizens, which will, in turn, improve their living standards, even the most impoverished.  This is evident with the United States and Mexico relationship. The freed trade had also had a significant impact on the social fabric between the two nations. There had been an infusion of culture. They have exchanged their cultural practices.  This has created diversity. The integration also promoted political tolerance between the two countries. From the history, the two nations had a troublesome relationship, but with free trade, they are able to accommodate each other.  A prosperous Mexico leads to the prosperous United States. In one way or the other, free trade positively influences the Society, politics and the economy of the two countries and this should always be upheld. More bilateral trading should be championed for by the leaders. When the leaders collaborated especially the presidents, they were able to combat insecurity between the two countries. The citizens felt secure then more than before the world wars. There was also more tolerance among its people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

McBride, James. NAFTA’s Economic Impact. CFR. 2017. Web. 23rd April, 2017.

Villarreal, A., M. & Fergusson, I., F., The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).         Congressional Research Service. 2017.

How did free trade market liberalization policies and in creased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid-twentieth to late twentieth century effect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S.-Mexico border. The ess

April 27, 2017

 

Name

Instructor

Institution

Date

 

Argumentative driven essay

How did free trade market liberalization policies and increased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid –twentieth to late twentieth century affect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S-Mexico border?

The United State and Mexico border have been faced by various issues both positive and adverse. There have been market liberation policies that have positively impacted on the increased economic activities in the border. The Mexicans and the United States have in the past had a hostile relationship that led to the fortification of a wall that was meant to separate the two nations. The border residents objected the construction of the wall. The Mexican government insisted that a wall was never a solution to their problems and that there were other means of resolving the problems. The Mexicans in the border regarded it as stupid, offensive and ineffective.

There were many cases of prostitution across the borderland in 1903-1910. The American government was vigilant at the woman from Mexico who crossed the border to associate in prostitution in Texas and other cities. Brown and her counterparts had a lot of brothels within the United States. Brown was charged with the task of importing the women from Mexico, and thus she knew all the routes that connected the two countries (Delgado, 158). She knew when to lie low and to appear publicly. She had numerous connections with the corps and the political leaders. The business flourished and attracted the attention of various organizations that were against the white slavery. Prostitution is one of the economic activities that existed in the US-Mexico border and received a negative reaction from other people, authority, and various organizations. Within the period the border was plagued with various illegal business activities, that is white slavery and prostitution.

The increase illegal immigration across the border has led to negative effect in the United States. In 1912, Samuel Bryan listed the evil that comes with the increased illegal immigrants from Mexico to US (Oliviero, 700). The immigrants were not learned and were very slow to learn English. They also harbored criminals and mostly lived together promoting their culture and try they best not to be assimilated into the Americans’ culture. These are some of the evil that resulted from the borderland and resulted in strict legislation in the area.

In around 1945-1965, the greatest threat of all-time hit the border. The narcotic started growing up, and the primary market that was targeted was the United States (Gootenberg, 245). Mexico being the immediate border to the US had an easy time transporting their Drugs into the US. The Cartels started forming, and the border became the central place for the transport of the Drugs into the state. The government had to intervene and come up with the best way to deal with the new business that was claiming lives at a very faster rate. The numerous crime wars claimed lives of many innocent people that are usually caught in the crossfire. The Mexicans that had illegally migrated to the US harbored their criminal counterparts. As a result of the crime in the border, legislations were set up by the US government to control the number of people who owned firearms in the area.

The government became fierce and even started making measures to control and monitor the people that moved through the border. There have been efforts to enhance fortification of the boundary along the US-Mexico border. The fortification has been mainly intended to limit the illegal immigration of Mexicans into the US. However, fortification or building of the wall cannot fully cover the boundary since it does not include the water and space. There are acts that have been passed by the US in in 1996 and 2006 authorizing the building of a fence along the border (Dear, 148). The Mexican government has assured that the wall is not the best solution in that it will cut the communities apart and in the end, the wall will still get torn down.

On the positive side, the trade policies and treaties have resulted to positive trade in US and Mexico as well. The North American Free Trade Agreement has single-handedly positively impacted on the border trade positively (Dear, 76). The US-Mexico border became the fourth member of the agreement. In 1995, the Mexican shoppers spent $22 billion in the US and also, they paid $1.7 billion in taxes to the United States. The association created 400, 000 jobs within the United States.  When this was balanced against what the US spent on the illegal immigrants the states still had 600% profit. These gains made Mexico be the second largest trading partner. Despite all these benefits, there are certain challenges that the United State has to deal with. In the US-Mexico border has a 22 million inhabitants and the government earned $300 billion as gross domestic product and $100 billion in trade in 1995. In 1995, the border had 225 million people that crossed the border legally, and the crossing had the benefit for both Mexico and US (Brown, 106).

Since 1965, when the United States and Mexico started forming trading programs, there has been an increase in population and economy in the region. The three important programs between the two border nations that are the Bracero Program, the Programa Nacional Fronterizo and the Border Indus tribalization Program. In most cases, scholars have analyzed the economic impact of these programs and ignore the social consequences of the increasing population at the border. It is easy to ascertain that the trade treaties and the programs have improved the economic activities of the two regions. However, the devastating social effect of the increasing population and illegal activities in the border.

The Bracero Program was intended to help the Mexican people to get employed in the United States temporarily. It improved the economic relationship between the two countries and when it finally ended many Mexicans became unemployed when they were sent back to their nation. The many unemployed people returning to Mexico only increased the poverty rates in the country, and it resulted in many struggling within the Mexicans. The Programa Nacional Fronterizo was started to ensure that the development of the border, it ensured that many infrastructures were developed and trade in the border enhanced (Frieda, 31). The programs served its purpose and the parks around the frontier became accessible and the trade was improved. The Border Indus tribalization Program was started to alleviate poverty in the border. The program collaborated with the United States, and it ensured that Industries were started up in Mexico to provide employment for a large number of the unemployed people in Mexico. The industrialization of the border improved the living standard in Mexico. However, as a result of the increasing population in the frontier, the industry could not provide employment for everybody.

In conclusion, the increased business treaties and programs helped to improve the economic activities and social events in the region. Before the treaties, the border was mainly ridden with illegal business and poverty. The prostitution, white slavery and narcotics were the main activities on the U.S-Mexico border. There have been acts that had been put in place to ensure the fortification of the frontier. The Mexican governments have always been against the idea of the wall since it was presented in 1965. When the NAFTA treaty came into the plan and had U.S-Mexico border has the fourth member the economic activities greatly improved. The economic activities have significantly improved and the United States substantially gained from the treaties. The three programs positively improved the economic and social standards of the both the United States and Mexico. However, United State suffers social issues regarding the free movement that has resulted from the massive illegal Mexican immigrants moving to the states. The treaties made it easy to easily move across the borders. When some of the programs ended it resulted to devastating effect and thus the need to keep the programs running.

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Brown, Timothy, C., The Fourth Member of NAFTA: The U.S.-Mexico Border.  Annals of the     American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 550, NAFTA Revisited:          Expectations and Realities. (Mar., 1997), pp. 105-121.

Dear, Michael. Why Walls Won’t Work: Repairing the Us-Mexico Divide. Cary: Oxford      University Press, USA, 2014. Print.

Delgado, Pena, Grace., Border Control and Sexual Policing: White Slavery and Prostitution         along the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, 1903–1910. Western Historical Quarterly 43 (Summer 2012): 157–178

Gootenberg, Paul. Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill: University of      North Carolina Press, 2008. Print.

Frieda, Molina, The Social Impacts of the Maquiladora Industry on Mexican Border Towns.         Berkeley Planning Journal, 2(1). 1985.

Oliviero, Katie, E., Sensational Nation  and the Minutemen: Gendered Citizenship and Moral       Vulnerabilities. The University of Chicago. Signs, Vol. 36, No. 3. Spring 2011, pp. 679-      706.

 

How did free trade market liberalization policies and in creased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid-twentieth to late twentieth century effect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S.-Mexico border. The ess

April 27, 2017

 

Name

Instructor

Institution

Date

 

Argumentative driven essay: Increased Trade in The US-Mexico Border has improved Economy and Social Lifestyle in the Border.

How did free trade market liberalization policies and increased economic integration between the United States and Mexico from the mid –twentieth to late twentieth century affect the political, economic and social fabric of the U.S-Mexico border?

The United State and Mexico border have been faced by various issues both positive and adverse. There have been market liberation policies that have positively impacted on the increased economic activities in the border. The Mexicans and the United States have in the past had a hostile relationship that led to the fortification of a wall that was meant to separate the two nations. The border residents objected the construction of the wall. The Mexican government insisted that a wall was never a solution to their problems and that there were other means of resolving the problems. The Mexicans in the border regarded it as stupid, offensive and ineffective.

 

 

On the positive side, the trade policies and treaties have resulted to positive trade in US and Mexico as well. The North American Free Trade Agreement has single-handedly positively impacted on the border trade positively (Dear, 76). The US-Mexico border became the fourth member of the agreement. In 1995, the Mexican shoppers spent $22 billion in the US and also, they paid $1.7 billion in taxes to the United States. The association created 400, 000 jobs within the United States.  When this was balanced against what the US spent on the illegal immigrants the states still had 600% profit. These gains made Mexico be the second largest trading partner. Despite all these benefits, there are certain challenges that the United State has to deal with. In the US-Mexico border has a 22 million inhabitants and the government earned $300 billion as gross domestic product and $100 billion in trade in 1995. In 1995, the border had 225 million people that crossed the border legally, and the crossing had the benefit for both Mexico and US (Brown, 106).

Since 1965, when the United States and Mexico started forming trading programs, there has been an increase in population and economy in the region. The three important programs between the two border nations that are the Bracero Program, the Programa Nacional Fronterizo and the Border Indus tribalization Program. In most cases, scholars have analyzed the economic impact of these programs and ignore the social consequences of the increasing population at the border. It is easy to ascertain that the trade treaties and the programs have improved the economic activities of the two regions. However, the devastating social effect of the increasing population and illegal activities in the border.

The Bracero Program was intended to help the Mexican people to get employed in the United States temporarily. It improved the economic relationship between the two countries and when it finally ended many Mexicans became unemployed when they were sent back to their nation. The many unemployed people returning to Mexico only increased the poverty rates in the country, and it resulted in many struggling within the Mexicans. The Programa Nacional Fronterizo was started to ensure that the development of the border, it ensured that many infrastructures were developed and trade in the border enhanced (Frieda, 31). The programs served its purpose and the parks around the frontier became accessible and the trade was improved. The Border Indus tribalization Program was started to alleviate poverty in the border. The program collaborated with the United States, and it ensured that Industries were started up in Mexico to provide employment for a large number of the unemployed people in Mexico. The industrialization of the border improved the living standard in Mexico. However, as a result of the increasing population in the frontier, the industry could not provide employment for everybody.

There were many cases of prostitution across the borderland in 1903-1910. The American government was vigilant at the woman from Mexico who crossed the border to associate in prostitution in Texas and other cities. Brown and her counterparts had a lot of brothels within the United States. Brown was charged with the task of importing the women from Mexico, and thus she knew all the routes that connected the two countries (Delgado, 158). She knew when to lie low and to appear publicly. She had numerous connections with the corps and the political leaders. The business flourished and attracted the attention of various organizations that were against the white slavery. Prostitution is one of the economic activities that existed in the US-Mexico border and received a negative reaction from other people, authority, and various organizations. Within the period the border was plagued with various illegal business activities, that is white slavery and prostitution.

The increase illegal immigration across the border has led to negative effect in the United States. In 1912, Samuel Bryan listed the evil that comes with the increased illegal immigrants from Mexico to US (Oliviero, 700). The immigrants were not learned and were very slow to learn English. They also harbored criminals and mostly lived together promoting their culture and try they best not to be assimilated into the Americans’ culture. These are some of the evil that resulted from the borderland and resulted in strict legislation in the area.

In around 1945-1965, the greatest threat of all-time hit the border. The narcotic started growing up, and the primary market that was targeted was the United States (Gootenberg, 245). Mexico being the immediate border to the US had an easy time transporting their Drugs into the US. The Cartels started forming, and the border became the central place for the transport of the Drugs into the state. The government had to intervene and come up with the best way to deal with the new business that was claiming lives at a very faster rate. The numerous crime wars claimed lives of many innocent people that are usually caught in the crossfire. The Mexicans that had illegally migrated to the US harbored their criminal counterparts. As a result of the crime in the border, legislations were set up by the US government to control the number of people who owned firearms in the area.

The border relation also has negative effect on both the US and Mexico. The government became fierce and even started making measures to control and monitor the people that moved through the border. There have been efforts to enhance fortification of the boundary along the US-Mexico border. The fortification has been mainly intended to limit the illegal immigration of Mexicans into the US. However, fortification or building of the wall cannot fully cover the boundary since it does not include the water and space. There are acts that have been passed by the US in in 1996 and 2006 authorizing the building of a fence along the border (Dear, 148). The Mexican government has assured that the wall is not the best solution in that it will cut the communities apart and in the end, the wall will still get torn down.

In conclusion, the increased business treaties and programs helped to improve the economic activities and social events in the region. Before the treaties, the border was mainly ridden with illegal business and poverty. The prostitution, white slavery and narcotics were the main activities on the U.S-Mexico border. There have been acts that had been put in place to ensure the fortification of the frontier. The Mexican governments have always been against the idea of the wall since it was presented in 1965. When the NAFTA treaty came into the plan and had U.S-Mexico border has the fourth member the economic activities greatly improved. The economic activities have significantly improved and the United States substantially gained from the treaties. The three programs positively improved the economic and social standards of the both the United States and Mexico. However, United State suffers social issues regarding the free movement that has resulted from the massive illegal Mexican immigrants moving to the states. The treaties made it easy to easily move across the borders. When some of the programs ended it resulted to devastating effect and thus the need to keep the programs running.

 

 

 

Work Cited

Brown, Timothy, C., The Fourth Member of NAFTA: The U.S.-Mexico Border.  Annals of the     American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 550, NAFTA Revisited:          Expectations and Realities. (Mar., 1997), pp. 105-121.

Dear, Michael. Why Walls Won’t Work: Repairing the Us-Mexico Divide. Cary: Oxford      University Press, USA, 2014. Print.

Delgado, Pena, Grace., Border Control and Sexual Policing: White Slavery and Prostitution         along the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands, 1903–1910. Western Historical Quarterly 43 (Summer 2012): 157–178

Gootenberg, Paul. Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill: University of      North Carolina Press, 2008. Print.

Frieda, Molina, The Social Impacts of the Maquiladora Industry on Mexican Border Towns.         Berkeley Planning Journal, 2(1). 1985.

Oliviero, Katie, E., Sensational Nation  and the Minutemen: Gendered Citizenship and Moral       Vulnerabilities. The University of Chicago. Signs, Vol. 36, No. 3. Spring 2011, pp. 679-      706.

 

Advanced practice nurse

April 27, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Statement: Nursing

Name

Institution

Course Title

Instructor

Date

 

 

Nursing is a lifetime learning experience, a profession and a vocation I would really wish to be part of. My desire is to be a fully registered and qualified nurse who is trusted in the construction of a foundation past nursing training and future advances. As a nurse, I believe it is essential to have realistic and a robust understanding of what it is to be a nurse before going through training. I have strong belief that my past experiences and my current practice in the field of advanced practice nursing will turn me into a confident and committed individual to the benefit of the industry. The various healthcare settings that I have been through in the past couples with nursing academic challenges will turn me into a reliable, trustworthy and motivated practitioner. I am fully aware of the nursing academic demands and the rigorous nature of the course which is tough but I strongly believe in my ability to bring out the best in myself and the larger nursing profession.

I believe that an advanced nursing practitioner must possess certain special qualities and skills that revolve around critical thinking, ability to lead, interpersonal, team work and organizational skills. All these skills cannot be acquired overnight but through years and years of hard work, commitment and excellence. It was during my placement at the Philippine Red Cross that I acquired my leadership skills. As a nurse instructor at the community nurse department, part of my duties revolves around health promotion and disease prevention which involved having one on one conversation with the people of the community. Having to talk with different people in the community was quite challenging for me because sharing health information with people who have problems in reading and understanding could be essentially very hard but I accomplished my goals effectively. As a practitioner in the field of nursing, I believe all nurses must have great critical thinking skills and pay exceptional attention to detail which I must say I have been successful in while in the oncology department.

Ensuring patients are provided with chemotherapy demands nurses to be detail oriented especially when checking for abnormal signs. A case in scenario was when a patient came in for her third therapy denying having any symptoms of fatigue though I noticed that she did not have enough energy to perform normal duties. Overlooking such small details could lead to unacceptable results which could later affect the patient’s condition. Whenever I got the chance, I would practice how to apply my critical thinking skills in decision making. During chemotherapy, I realized that I must be able to think fast and act even faster to prevent the patient from any adverse effects. Apart from the abilities and skills that every nurse must be in possession of I have other attractive qualities like compassion, encouraging and caring. These qualities have appreciated more during my time at Ospital ng Makati in Phillipines. Though it was a government hospital, it was during this experience that was presented with the privilege to work with less privileged communities, taking care of them, treating them with equality and motivating them into bringing out the best in what they do. Being a nurse I believe is part of my duty because I am called not only to treat but to take care and motivate patients, treating them with so much compassion and respect regardless of their condition and social placement.

I have confidence that my 10 year working experience as a nurse practitioner in the different community settings would grow me into a successful, committed and motivated nurse practitioner. Should I be accepted into this course, my primary goal would be to find specialization in Oncology nursing because I have great admiration and respect for clinical nurse specialists because of their dedication and professionalism. Serving underprivileged communities solidified my dream to have a desire to help the underprivileged find resources and abilities to help them access quality healthcare. This experience drove me into anticipating ways in which we as a nursing profession can work to integrate health promotion, disease prevention and health maintenance into Philippine communities to escalate their general status. Among my primary goals is to make quality healthcare accessible to those of low economic backgrounds. In this nature, I would like to serve both the rural and urban setting to ensure every member who needs treatment finds it. I plan to make use of my role as a nurse practitioner to help the poor find insurance options among other funding schemes that are necessary for them to acquire treatment. At the end of my studies, my main goal is to increase in compassion, competency and collaborative work in nursing as long as patient outcomes are improved. My decision to enroll in this university lies in the belief that all I need to make the society a better place is by finding a better educational foundation and environment that will foster growth and change. I believe that the environment and the courses offered in this institution will propel me into becoming a person of influence in my dream of providing high, quality and cost effective healthcare to the less privileged communities.

Advance practice nurse

April 27, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Statement: Nursing

Name

Institution

Course Title

Instructor

Date

 

 

SON 1

Nursing is a lifetime learning experience, a profession and a vocation I would really wish to be part of. My desire is to be a fully registered and qualified nurse who is trusted in the construction of a foundation past nursing training and future advances.

Strengths

The field of nursing requires one to be kind and compassionate. I am very kind and compassionate and these have been my major strengths even before I decided to be part of the nursing profession. I have strong interpersonal skills which are evident in the way I socialize, treat other people and how I run my day to day activities. I have mastered very well the ability to bring out the best not only in myself but in others as well. I am also a determined individual. I will not stop at something unless I have fully accomplished it. I do not give up easily and I would not stop until the work is properly done. Caring for others, being kind and staying determined has made me fit without struggling into the nursing profession and increased the ability to be trusted by patients, fellow colleagues showing I could be a potential leader in the absence of top management.

Weaknesses

I am always worried every time work is not done up to standard because I would make sure I double check the work all the time to ensure guidelines are followed. I only encourage exceptional work and so I would not rest until I confirm everything has been done to standard. This has made it easier for me to be trusted as a leader because the top management does not have to worry when I am in control. At Philippine Red Cross placement, I was placed at the forefront of designing health promotion techniques and building community relationships. I am not detail oriented and patient but I believe the nursing experience that lies ahead of me will turn me into a patient and detail oriented individual.

SON 2

It was during my placement at the Philippine Red Cross that I acquired my leadership skills. As a nurse instructor at the community nurse department, part of my duties revolves around health promotion and disease prevention which involved having one on one conversation with the people of the community. Having to talk with different people in the community was quite challenging for me because sharing health information with people who have problems in reading and understanding could be essentially very hard but I made it accomplished my goals effectively and this determination is what I believe makes me unique. As a practitioner in the field of nursing, I believe all nurses must have great critical thinking skills and pay exceptional attention to detail which I must say I have been successful in while in the Oncology department.

I was also charged with the responsibility of ensuring patients are provided with chemotherapy demands. It was at this point that I realized that nurses must to be detail oriented especially when checking for abnormal signs. A case in scenario was when a patient came in for her third therapy denying having any symptoms of fatigue though I noticed that she did not have enough energy to perform normal duties. Overlooking such small details could lead to unacceptable results which could later affect the patient’s condition. Whenever I got the chance, I would practice how to apply my critical thinking skills in decision making and polish my attention to detail skills.

During chemotherapy, I realized that I must be able to think fast and act even faster to prevent the patient from any adverse effects. These qualities have appreciated more during my time at Ospital ng Makati in Phillipines. Though it was a government hospital, it was during this experience that I was presented with the privilege to work with less privileged communities, taking care of them, treating them with equality and motivating them into bringing out the best in what they do. I am a unique candidate for this application because I have firsthand experience in knowing the basic health needs at community level and will be of help in designing health prevention techniques for the university in future.

SON 3

I have confidence that my 10 year working experience as a nurse practitioner in the different community settings would grow me into a successful, committed and motivated nurse practitioner. Serving underprivileged communities solidified my dream to have a desire to help the underprivileged find resources and abilities to help them access quality healthcare. This experience drove me into anticipating ways in which we as a nursing profession can work to integrate health promotion, disease prevention and health maintenance into Philippine communities to escalate their general status which prepared me even better to become an advanced practice nurse. For instance during a one on one session with the chemotherapy patient, I was presented with a chance to apply my critical thinking skills and design my own model of leadership.

A leader must pay attention to detail and use exceptional critical thinking and decision making skills for the safety of the patient. In this experience I met all these demands which has strengthened my desire to stay at the leadership position. In working with underprivileged communities, I was presented with the chance to design a strategy that will ensure the healthcare needs of the same community are met. At the forefront, I was able to apply all the theories and concepts taught in the nursing profession into designing strategies that will integrate health promotion, disease prevention and maintenance of health in the community. The unique background at the governmental hospital in Philippine just how much I thirst for more knowledge in nursing than I thought. It was from my experience background that I learnt to be not just caring but more caring not only with patients but in other interpersonal relationships.