ASSIGNMENT 1: REPORT (SECTOR ANALYSIS)

Sector Outline

            This report will focus on the civil service sector as a potential employer for business graduates. The Civil Service is an independent and politically impartial sector that encompasses the central government agencies, departments as well as non-departmental government bodies. Government ministers, the police, National Health Service employees, the Royal Household staff, British Armed Forces members and local government officers are not part of the Civil Service (Stanley, 2016). The Prime Minister is the coordinator and manager of this sector and is regarded as the Civil Service Minister. A permanent secretary is the chief civil servant in different departments within the sector.

Since the Civil Service sector has to hold accountability to citizens or the public, it has to attain the highest standards possible. All civil servants should exercise integrity, which entails putting the public service obligations above personal interests. They must also display honesty, which means being open and truthful in all circumstances. Objectivity is another aspect, which refers to basing all the decisions and advices on an in-depth analysis of available evidence (Stanley, 2016). Civil servants are required to exercise impartiality, which means to act on the basis of the case’s merits and serve governments of diverse political parties equally without favouritism.

The Civil Service comprises of 25 professions, which each profession having an independent competency framework. There are diverse professional roles ranging from engineers and communicators to lawyers and procurement managers. Some of the recognised professions include government communication service, corporate finance, counter-fraud standards, government economic service, government IT, government finance, government planning inspectors, among other professions.

Graduate Opportunities within the Civil Service Sector

Currently, the U.K government has 453,000 civil servants working on a full-time basis. These employees are talented individuals who play the role of helping the government in the development and delivery of policies in an effective way. Consequently, a career in the Civil Service sector is quite exciting and important. The dedication and hard work that civil servants put in their work has a significant impact in the lives of citizens. The society would be dysfunctional without the input of civil servants. Thus, a major question is how graduates can get involved and the opportunities available for them in this sector.

One of the most popular and competitive opportunity for graduates to join the Civil Service is via the Civil Service Fast Stream, whose objective is to prepare well-performing graduates for management posts within the sector. This graduate scheme is available to graduates from any degree discipline (Bryon, 2010). Moreover, it offers opportunities for specialising in different areas.  Graduates that take this route are assured of more responsibility or placements faster than those who choose different routes or those that begin at lower administrative level positions. Fast streamers have the opportunity to work across a wide range of governmental departments and in different locations nationwide. However, successful graduates who manage to enroll into the scheme are assigned specific departments.

The degree requirements differ from one scheme to the other. For instance, commercial scheme has the objective of giving graduates the experience required for commercial management role in the civil sector. Graduates that join the finance scheme become professionally qualified accountants that would help in shaping the financial policy of the government (Bryon, 2010). These individuals also ensure that the costs are managed and there is delivery of public services in an efficient and effective manner. With the generalist scheme, graduates get the opportunity to serve in various departments and professions.

Within a specific department, graduates gain vast experience by taking part in various work placements, which last between 12-18 months. The experience gained falls in two to three core work areas, which are, corporate services, policy and operational delivery. Corporate services are necessary to ensure the smooth running of all government departments. Graduates that gain experience in corporate services might be serving in the finance, IT, procurement or the HR departments (Stanley, 2016). This job comes with huge responsibility, particularly in terms of coordinating and overseeing departmental budgets. Policy entails working on governmental initiatives and strategy. It involves intensive research, analysis as well as working collaboratively with stakeholders to prepare, plan, implement and evaluate policies. Operational delivery involves the provision of quality public services. In this case, the public directly interacts with governmental work, and the graduate developing this aspect might be controlling administration procedures or managing Job Center operations.

Placement opportunities in the Civil Service sector are also available to graduates. Since the Civil Service sector is diverse with different careers, it is a smart choice for graduates to consider work experience opportunities. Placements help graduates to establish their interest and provide insight into what they can expect when serving in the Civil Service sector. Some departments have structured work experience that is offered as summer internships or sandwich placements that last for 12 months. Some common examples are the Government Economic Service, which caters to economic students (Stanley, 2016). There is also GCHQ that considers STEM students while Foreign Commonwealth Office offers placements to international relations graduates.

Another opportunity worth noting is the Summer Diversity Internship Program, which is available to ethnic minority, disabled and disadvantaged graduates. Additionally there is the Early Diversity Internship Programme, which provides a 7-day work experience for the first-year students that are interested in finding out and learning more about Fast Stream placement program.

Graduate Attributes and Employer Requirements

            Although most graduate schemes in the Civil Service accept any qualification obtained by undergraduate students, some departments may prefer particular degrees. Some sector roles may necessitate special knowledge. For instance, for one to begin a career in chartered public finance accountancy, it would be necessary to have a finance and accountancy degree, mathematics, economics or business (Bryon, 2010). Company secretaries would be required to have a degree in law and business management. Those aspiring to be facility managers should have a qualification in construction, building management, surveying or hospitality.

            There are some attributes that graduates should have so as to work in the Civil Service sector. Excellent negotiation and organisation skills are fundamental since individuals working in this sector may be required to juggle various projects with different levels of priority. Flexibility and creativity are also needed, and these entail the ability to embrace change and creatively solve problems. In the Civil Service sector, employees are keen to gain insight into becoming great leaders as well as influencing and inspiring the people around them (Bryon, 2010). Thus, leadership and communication skills are fundamental. Team-working skills are also essential since these employees work with a wide range of people with different qualities and skills. It would be necessary for a civil servant to know how to motivate and work collaboratively with different people.

A graduate that desires to work in the Civil Service sector should be enthusiastic and committed toward current affairs, policy issues and politics. Since policy and politics shapes a country, every person has an opinion. A person that wants to work in the Civil Service should be aware of the current controversies and be in top of such issues (Bryon, 2010). Since the sector has numerous personalities and is extremely competitive, a potential candidate should have the drive and confidence to perform any role assigned. Time management skills are also necessary since they would enable a civil servant to manage the assigned workload within the given deadlines. Other additional attributes include interpersonal skills, project management skills and commercial awareness.

Employer’s Recruitment and Selection Practises

            The recruitment and selection process in the Civil Service sector has always been known to be impartial and fair. The recruitment decisions are based on both competencies and success profiles. The Competency Framework was introduced in April 2013 and it provides a recruitment approach that is consistent (Stanley, 2016). The approach entails identifying the knowledge, behaviours ad skills that result in successful performance. A break down is then made on how the skills in question can be applied at each grade. A special focus is given to past behaviour examples as a means of predicting future behaviour in specific job areas. With this approach, assessment of all candidates adheres to similar criteria. The approach also ensures that recruiters use the same language for the selecting or recruiting purposes. Therefore, the Competency Framework has had a positive impact on the Civil Service Sector.

Success Profiles have also been used to successfully recruit employees into the Civil Service sector. The elements that are assessed using this approach include Civil Service Behaviours, ability, strengths, technical skills and experience. The approach considers the natural talents and strengths of an individual, which gives the applicants an opportunity to show their suitability and ability to carry out a specific role (Bryon, 2010). Success Profile approach also allows the recruiting managers to design the selection criteria methods on the basis of the available vacancies. This maximises the ability of the recruiters to get the best candidates for specific roles. With Success Profiles, both the external and internal candidates would have a level playing field.

A case study that can be used to demonstrate the recruitment and selection practice is Southwood School that needed to hire a business teacher with managerial skills. The first step that the human resource manager took was to post the recruitment advertisement to a U.K national newspaper (Robson, 2008). The advertisement contained details such as the job title, the responsibilities and the skills that potential candidates had to possess. Potential candidates should have accurate and clear information regarding the position and the recruitment process. Another step is making a selection day timetable, which gives a schedule of events noting the time and location that the selection process will be done. According to Robson (2008), it is also necessary to structure the interview questions, with the questions stemming from different stakeholders. The question should test the candidates’ technical skills, competencies, managerial skills, conflict resolution skills, strengths and weaknesses as well as creativity skills. Such diverse questions ensure that the individual chosen for the position is competent and all-rounded. Once all the mentioned preparations have been completed, applicants are shortlisted, called for an interview and then a candidate that is a best fit for the position is given the job.

Personal Development Plan

Short-term plan

These are the goals that are achievable within a year or less. My short-term objectives and plan include acquiring training in good leadership skills, communication skills and decision-making skills. I also plan to have a great team relationship with my colleagues and within the organisation I will intern with. The target completion time is one year. Since I plan to undertake my internship for six months, I plan to attend various leadership training that will enable me acquire good leadership skills. The internship role will also help to improve my communication skills.

Medium-term plan

            This plan focuses on professional skills that will take more than a year to acquire. They include ability to support other people, motivate and inspire staff, delegate responsibilities, write reports and analyse information. At this stage, I plan to apply for a junior managerial position, which will give me the chance to display my acquired leadership skills. The target completion time is 2 years from now.

 

 

Long-term plan

My long-term goal is to hold a senior business managerial position. This plan will be achieved within a 4-year period. I hope to display good leadership skills, which will enable me to support, motivate and inspire my colleagues. I also hope to use good communication skills to enhance the process of making decisions, writing reports as well as analysing situations and problems. Another goal is to display the skills that would help in building trust and confidence among the people around me. I will make an annual review of the goals mentioned and check whether each of the set goals has been attained within the set target date.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Byron, M., 2010. How to pass the Civil Service Qualifying Tests: The Essential Guide for Clerical and Fast Stream Applicants. Kogan Page Publishers.

Robson, F. L., 2008. Southwood School. A Case Study in Recruitment and Selection. Society for Human Resource Management.

Stanley, M., 2016. How to be a Civil Servant. Biteback Publishing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

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Reducing Inequalities in Educational and Life Chances of Students from different Backgrounds in Newark, New Jersey Schooling Community

Introduction to the Sphere and reason for the Choice

In sustained efforts to become responsible citizens, we need to confront the question regarding whether the current educational inequalities matter. The answer to this question is that these inequalities are significantly a cause of concern and thus, they greatly matter. The educational difference is a significantly growing problem in Newark, New Jersey and America at large. While some students have had the opportunity of attending public schools that are considered as the best in the globe, a majority others are cast off into unsupportive, unsafe, under-resourced, and unchallenging schools where there are minimal chances of succeeding academically (Welner & Farley, p.1). The inequality relates to diverse issues that powerfully link to parental wealth, race and ethnicity as well as education; and have persisted across generations. Welner & Farley (p.1) posit that following the lack of equality, a significant group of children who have attained the school-going age does not get the opportunity to join good schools while some do not secure the chance at all following the disparity mentioned above.

Garcia & Weiss (p.3) argue that it is common knowledge that the existing inequalities, especially in the education continuum, will consequently derail the realization of the American dream. Because of this realization, the research on the reduction of educational disparities is crucial as it provides substantial information to help understand the broader connection between education and outcomes. Moreover, the research will provide information which addresses critical issues relating to the inequalities in life and education and how to overcome them. Therefore the topic is an important area to study given the strong relationship between education acquisition and economic growth. According to Garcia & Weiss (p.3), relevant bodies and legislators need to look at ways through which the existing education inequalities can be curbed in a bid to drive equality in the region.

The process of Identifying the Sphere and Initial Preconceptions

In identifying this sphere, I had to engage in direct interviews with the schooling community in Newark. Consequently, I engaged in participative interviews using online surveys and questionnaires. My desire for this specific sphere was fuelled by my concerns for the growing inequalities in the education sector which are significantly derailing the realization of the American Dream of equality. Before engaging in this fieldwork, I had preconceived perceptions that the educational inequalities were as a result of poverty alone. However, through the interviews, I came to learn that several other issues facilitate biases despite the set standards for delivering equality in education and life. Consequently, the fieldwork gave me insights that reducing inequalities among the schooling community in Newark prerequisites for more than just addressing poverty because other issues such as racial and ethnic segregation have played a substantial in the advent of the apparent inequalities.

Logistics Difficulties

The primary challenge faced for this fieldwork was on data collection. It was not easy to decide which method was more efficient for collecting primary data as the process required funds which were a limiting factor. My initial plan was to organize in-person interviews because I felt this would increase the chances of obtaining unbiased data. Notably, I was convinced that I could employ both verbal and nonverbal communication techniques and as such obtain authentic feedback from the participants. However, coordinating in-person interviews required monetary resources since it mandated me as the researcher to look for convenient places to meet with the participants (they were not easy to find). Finding a considerable number of participants who were willing to take part in the research was also a challenge as most people were not ready to discuss the issues on as it felt personal to them. Consequently, I settled for an online interview process (through email exchange) which also had its fair share of challenges. For instance, in using of online interviews, it was not possible to receive all the feedback at once as some participants took more time than others before returning the letters and questionnaires. Consequently, this fieldwork was constricted by time and financial constraint.

Work Cited

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate. Economic Policy Institute, 2017, pp.2-15

Welner, K., & Farley, A. “Confronting Systematic Inequity in Education: High Impact Strategies for Philanthropy, National Committee for Response Philanthropy, 2010, pp.1-19

Reducing Inequalities in Educational and Life Chances of Students from different Backgrounds in Newark, New Jersey Schooling Commu

Introduction to the Sphere and reason for the Choice

In sustained efforts to become responsible citizens, we need to confront the question regarding whether the current educational inequalities matter. The answer to this question is that these inequalities are significantly a cause of concern and thus, they greatly matter. The educational difference is a significantly growing problem in Newark, New Jersey and America at large. While some students have had the opportunity of attending public schools that are considered as the best in the globe, a majority others are cast off into unsupportive, unsafe, under-resourced, and unchallenging schools where there are minimal chances of succeeding academically (Welner & Farley, p.1). The inequality relates to diverse issues that powerfully link to parental wealth, race and ethnicity as well as education; and have persisted across generations. Welner & Farley (p.1) posit that following the lack of equality, a significant group of children who have attained the school-going age does not get the opportunity to join good schools while some do not secure the chance at all following the disparity mentioned above.

Garcia & Weiss (p.3) argue that it is common knowledge that the existing inequalities, especially in the education continuum, will consequently derail the realization of the American dream. Because of this realization, the research on the reduction of educational disparities is crucial as it provides substantial information to help understand the broader connection between education and outcomes. Moreover, the research will provide information which addresses critical issues relating to the inequalities in life and education and how to overcome them. Therefore the topic is an important area to study given the strong relationship between education acquisition and economic growth. According to Garcia & Weiss (p.3), relevant bodies and legislators need to look at ways through which the existing education inequalities can be curbed in a bid to drive equality in the region.

The process of Identifying the Sphere and Initial Preconceptions

In identifying this sphere, I had to engage in direct interviews with the schooling community in Newark. Consequently, I engaged in participative interviews using online surveys and questionnaires. My desire for this specific sphere was fuelled by my concerns for the growing inequalities in the education sector which are significantly derailing the realization of the American Dream of equality. Before engaging in this fieldwork, I had preconceived perceptions that the educational inequalities were as a result of poverty alone. However, through the interviews, I came to learn that several other issues facilitate biases despite the set standards for delivering equality in education and life. Consequently, the fieldwork gave me insights that reducing inequalities among the schooling community in Newark prerequisites for more than just addressing poverty because other issues such as racial and ethnic segregation have played a substantial in the advent of the apparent inequalities.

Logistics Difficulties

The primary challenge faced for this fieldwork was on data collection. It was not easy to decide which method was more efficient for collecting primary data as the process required funds which were a limiting factor. My initial plan was to organize in-person interviews because I felt this would increase the chances of obtaining unbiased data. Notably, I was convinced that I could employ both verbal and nonverbal communication techniques and as such obtain authentic feedback from the participants. However, coordinating in-person interviews required monetary resources since it mandated me as the researcher to look for convenient places to meet with the participants (they were not easy to find). Finding a considerable number of participants who were willing to take part in the research was also a challenge as most people were not ready to discuss the issues on as it felt personal to them. Consequently, I settled for an online interview process (through email exchange) which also had its fair share of challenges. For instance, in using of online interviews, it was not possible to receive all the feedback at once as some participants took more time than others before returning the letters and questionnaires. Consequently, this fieldwork was constricted by time and financial constraint.

Work Cited

Garcia, E., & Weiss, E. “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate. Economic Policy Institute, 2017, pp.2-15

Welner, K., & Farley, A. “Confronting Systematic Inequity in Education: High Impact Strategies for Philanthropy, National Committee for Response Philanthropy, 2010, pp.1-19

Academic Development

 

Job Evaluation

Job evaluation is a systematic strategy used in the determination of the relative worth of a job within a firm. It is used in the development of equitable salaries and wages in organizations. Job evaluations are done in two main ways which include: Job ranking where jobs are ranked against each other. In the other method, points are awarded to each job, for instance, the education and experienced need to perform specific tasks. The objectives of job evaluation are establishment of standardized procedures for the determination of wages and remuneration, ensuring of equal salary for a job and reasonable wages in different jobs and the hierarchy within companies (Guest, 2017). Additionally, job evaluation helps in determining job rates in comparison with other firms in the industry, assists in the evaluation of inequalities in wages, used in the determination of bonuses and incentives and provides a benchmark for progression of careers and promotions within organizations.

The job evaluation process is based on certain factors such as:

Know –how

Know-how involves the skills, knowledge, and experiences needed for standardized and acceptable job performance. It incorporates the professional and technical skills and the time required for organizing and working through a team.  Know how is based on three dimensions, the technical know-how, managerial and the human relations knowhow (Guest, 2017).

Education

It is the formal education required when to perform tasks in a particular job position. To avoid overlap with experience, the education level of a new incumbent is considered for external recruitments (Hoert et al., 2018).

Experience

Experience incorporates the period of technical expertise and managerial familiarity in addition to formal education.

Complexity

Complexity is used as a measure of the time taken in learning and adjusting to the particular job requirements, the thinking required in rapidly adapting to dynamic situations and innovations (Nankervis et al., 2016). Others include accountability, the scope of the job, and problem-solving. Job evaluations can be applied in the work environment where there are competing opportunities for job promotions and salary raises. An evaluation will ensure that the process is transparent, has equality and is fair to all parties (Nankervis et al., 2016).

Performance Management and Employee Management

A performance management system is an interaction between the employee and the organization from when a job is defined by the organization to a point where the employee leaves the organization. The components of the management system include the development of job descriptions and recruitment plans, recruitment of potential employees and conducting of interviews (Guest, 2017). The most qualified candidate is offered the salary and compensation benefits, paid time off among other payments as negotiated.

Secondly, the employees are oriented to the organization, assigned a mentor and introduced to the organizational culture.  The employee undergoes, continuous training, coaching and education to improve his/her performance and career prospects. (Nankervis et al., 2016)  Also, quarterly performance development is conducted to keep the employee in check. The organization can also develop effective recognition and compensation systems to appreciate and reward employees for their contribution to the organization. Moreover, they provide promotion and development opportunities such as transfers and lateral moves (Hoert et al., 2018).

Management of employees in firms deals with organizational policy, practices, and policies. The policies and strategies are formulated to establish employee performance expectations, and monitoring and evaluation of results (Hoert et al., 2018). An effective performance management system plays a strategic role in retention and attracting of performing employees in an organization. The system also helps organizations in improving their business performance.

Employee Health and Wellness

Wellness programs in organizations help employees to make the right decisions while improving their health. The success of these programs is dependent on the organization’s culture and its intrinsic attitudes of the firm. The wellness programs differ from health insurance and other medical policies given by the organization (Guest, 2017). The typical aspects in a wellness program include the alleviation of stress, giving of advice, sufficient spaces for fitness activities and proper nutrition plans for the employees.  Wellness programs in organizations are significant investments because they aid in increasing productivity, which leads to an increase in the general performance of the organization (Nankervis et al., 2016). In this case, employees also have a heightened state of mind and body which leads to decreased absenteeism due to fatigue and lack of motivation at the workplace. Wellness programs to be established need be sensitive to the needs of the employees, and therefore a medical physician can be called to assess the employee needs.

The human resource should be tasked with overseeing the program by regular monitoring and feedback to improve the sessions. Sometimes the programs fail because of poor follow up by the management (Guest, 2017). In the work environment, health and wellness are essential in ensuring that employees have a conducive environment for working by promoting a positive psychological atmosphere. Additionally, those who may contribute to work-related disease can be held accountable.

Concepts in Human Resource Profession

The human resource is composed of various concepts and processes such as recruitment which involves attracting employees with particular job criteria. Next is selection, which is filtration and the main aim is to shortlist the candidates with matching qualifications (Hoert et al., 2018). The next step is hiring the final applicant who is finally trained to upgrade skills and abilities required for the job. Another function of human resource is the determination of employee remuneration and benefits packages. They decide how salaries will be awarded in regards to the job activities, skills and technical know-how (Guest, 2017). Another function is employee relations. The human resource professionals are tasked with ensuring that there is low employee turnover. Turnover is expensive and tedious for organizations in highly competitive fields. The human resource managers should ensure that employees have a conducive working environment, there are minimal conflicts between employees, compensation of workers, wellness and assistance programs (Guest, 2017).  They can also offer occupational counseling because of work-related stress that slows performance. The strategies, concepts, and theories in the human resource are not independent, and therefore, require a cohesive approach for them to be successful.

Professional Development

Participation in Networking Events

A professional development plan is important in giving direction and to help an individual to remain focused after graduation.  One of the ways is through attending networking events. Such events include workshops and seminars on human resource management.  They create an avenue for networking with professionals as well as promote growth in the field (Nankervis et al., 2016).  The sessions provide a networking opportunity and help one to build relationships with clients, speakers and other persons. Additionally, one can get a mentor from workshops which are imperative for successful career growth. The mentors can also inform the mentees when there are job openings, give tutorials as well as share important information.

Apart from what is learned in the classroom, practical lessons can be gotten from such professional events. More knowledge is gained in the field of focus. Further, through workshops and seminars expertise is acquired, which is important when looking for job opportunities. It also creates an opportunity for innovation and development of new ideas.  In workshops and seminars, a graduate is likely to meet diverse people, therefore, building inspiration and motivation towards the career (Nankervis et al., 2016). Through sharing enthusiasm with peers, one can grow and be inspired to be better.  Lastly, seminars and workshops are a different environment from what one is used to. It is time to be sociable and interactive.

Development of a Job Search Strategy

A job search strategy is critical, especially for graduates who wish to acquire good jobs after graduation. A job search strategy prepares one to be ready for interviews, communicate effectively and be prepared for stressful situations such as job interviews. An effective job strategy requires that one understands their priorities and individual stories (Nankervis et al., 2016).  For instance, knowing one’s accomplishments and how specific experiences have prepared the person for other roles.  For fresh graduates, they may use volunteer opportunities as part of the experience as well as the attachment period. It is imperative to also focus on one’s aspirations in terms of responsibilities, organization’s mission, and vision in line with individual beliefs and the targeted salary among others.  The above factors will be vital in enabling one to prioritize (Ammendolia et al., 2016).

Secondly, in the job search, it is important to focus on the organization rather than the job openings.  One should have more interest in working for particular organizations as opposed to jobs.  For instance, one could proactively approach such organizations before jobs are posted. This will enable the graduate to be in the talent pool of the organization, and one may be considered for job openings (Nankervis et al., 2016). The graduate can create a list of organizations they would wish to work with and proactively reach to these organizations. The network is vital in helping one know when there are openings, or when their particular skills and expertise is needed.

Lastly, in developing a job search strategy, one must have a plan. For graduates, especially 20 hours is recommended for job searching. One can divide the activities into the identification of the organizations, getting new contacts and attending networking events such as workshops and seminars. Other activities include identifying the targeted organization, getting new beneficial contacts and attendance of networking events (Nankervis et al., 2016). One can set weekly or monthly milestones for a fixed period to have a vivid idea of the aim and the need to take a just course. For accountability purposes, one can also join a job search group to provide support to each other.

Professional Human Resource

The professional human resource body is suitable for entry-level personnel, especially recent graduates, who have a focus on human resource career development in mind. It is also important for already experienced professionals who want to be sure of their basic competencies. The body is certified by the human resource certification institute (IHRCI, 2019). The basic requirement for registration in this body is 2-4 years’ experience as a human resource manager. However, students with one year prior to their graduation can also join the body after passing the professional human resource exam. The organizations’ mission is enhancing employee professionalism by promoting human resource science and technology. Also, certification is globally recognized (IHRCI, 2019).

Registering in such an organization will enable the human resource practitioner to focus on the impact that management practices have especially on the observable organizational outcomes. The decisions are thus supported by available scientific evidence (IHRCI, 2019). Technology is vital in any department in an organization. It makes work easier, saves time and is cost effective.  Therefore, organizations with the ability to utilize such technology have desirable outcomes.  Human resource professionals need technical know-how in advanced technology (Ammendolia et al., 2016). They also have the required conceptual knowledge required in selecting, managing, innovations, and evolutions in the advancements in human resource career.

The certification of these professionals shows that the persons have the required competencies in performing professional responsibilities.  Besides, it is a way of standardizing the practice. The professionals should have a standardized way of operations and also be competent as per the training (IHRCI, 2019). Ill-prepared professionals are ultimately disqualified from entering the human resource field (IHRCI, 2019). For the graduates considering to join the field, the professional human resource also offers tutors who guide the practitioners on the steps towards advancing their career growth, how to create networks among other career-related issues. It is important that recent graduates consider joining professional bodies. They will be certified as human resource professionals who are globally recognized. Moreover, they become a unique lot and stand out in interviews because of the exceptional skills they possess (IHRCI, 2019). The professional body may also defend the human resource practitioners in case of legal cases that are within their mandate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ammendolia, C., Côté, P., Cancelliere, C., Cassidy, J. D., Hartvigsen, J., Boyle, E., … & Amick,              B. (2016). Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a               workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism. BMC                Public Health16(1), 1190.

Guest, D. E. (2017). Human resource management and employee well‐being: Towards a new                   analytic framework. Human Resource Management Journal27(1), 22-38

Hoert, J., Herd, A. M., & Hambrick, M. (2018). The role of leadership support for health                          promotion in employee wellness program participation, perceived job stress, and health                behaviours. American Journal of Health Promotion32(4), 1054-1061.

IHRCI. (2019). The Associate Professional in Human Resources (aPHRi) | International Human              Resource Certification. Retrieved February 20, 2019, from      https://www.ihrci.org/certificate/aphri.

Nankervis, A. R., Baird, M., Coffey, J., & Shields, J. (2016). Human resource management:                    strategy and practice. Cengage AU.

American culture and identity

Introduction

The United States of America is known for its unique American identity whereby the country is made up by all of us, thus bringing up the spirit of “we the people”; implying that in the US, each and everyone of us has a role to play. This uniqueness of the American society creates open platform and prospects for each American citizen to grow, thrive and become successful in this unique nation (Rieser, Fuchs, & Phillips, 2013, p. 13). This is to mean that the US is well-known for its identity of having a classless society which gives each and every American citizen chances including second and third chances to realize upward mobility in the socio-economic realm.  Looking critically at the film “The Avengers” it is evident that there are various superheroes, who largely manifest the American identity of classless society, by being able to move from their past, which seemed extremely difficult to move to a bright, more successful future, thus living the American dream; the dream whereby each and every American citizen has a chance to re-correct his or her life, thus changing their fortunes in their future lives (Darowski, 2015, p.10). The American dream is an American identity whereby, each and every American citizen has an equal chance to succeed in life regardless of how their past life was. It is an identity that manifests how American society offers its citizens endless chances in life to re-adjust and pursue their path of success notwithstanding how many errors they have made in the past (DeTora, 2014, p. 28). This is what film The Avengers is all about; its characters are granted second chances whereby they are able to turn their lives away from their past mistakes and end up being better people, in the end, thus realizing their life aspirations and dreams.

A critical look at Captain America in the Avengers, it is evident that he is one of the superheroes whose life largely shows the features and elements of American identity and culture. Captain America (Steve Rogers) is a character in the film; The Avengers who was born as a physically weak person, as he was a sickly child (Rieser, Fuchs, & Phillips, 2013, p. 18). However, his physical weakness did not put him down as a person, as he went on striving for perfection and a better life.  As a small kid, Captain America always wanted to catch up with the big kids, and in many ways, he was unable to succeed in catching up with the rest of the kids. However, as evident in the movie, this did not put captain America down. Though he is a young and physical weakness, Steve Rogers does not give up and continues to persist. This is one ideal culture of the American society; they never give up and they always preserve regardless of the challenges they face. They persevere with the hope that one day they will triumph and become successful (DeTora, 2014, p. 26).  Looking further at Captain America (Steve Rogers), it is evident that regardless of his frail health, he utilizes his talent for art, a talent that gives him a room to realize some life-fulfillment through allowing him to earn some money for himself.  This is a clear indication of what American identity is all about; it is about giving each and every one of us a chance to utilize our strength to become successful in life, and also to realize our life aspirations and goals.

Captain America, though physically challenged, decides to relish his strengths instead of worrying over his weaknesses. However, as the film shows, the utilization of his talents is not enough, and he pushes himself further to achieve more in life. He even goes ahead to try his lack in the military, by making effort to enlist in the U.S Army (Darowski, 2015, p. 20).  Though he is repeatedly rejected in the U.S Army, as the army needed able-bodied men to help in the fight during world war II, Steve does not lose hope in life, and instead goes ahead to volunteer for a high-risk experiment that later transforms his life, by offering him the perfection to which all the American citizens strive to realize.  In the end, Captain America (Steve Rogers)  is able to live a fulfilling life as he overcomes all the odds to become a successful character in the movie (Rieser, Fuchs, & Phillips, 2013, p. 17). This clearly aligns with the American dream that was discussed earlier; an American identity of a classless society, which gives each and every American a chance to be whoever they want, and to succeed and fulfill their life dreams in life.

Another character in the film The Avengers who aligned with the American identity is the Iron Man. In his role in the film, Iron Man acts as a super-egoistical person, whereby he is so full of himself. However, as the film proceeds, he is depicted as not as egoistic as viewers thought, as he is portrayed as a highly successful person.  In his role in the film, Iron Man views himself as special and superior; which in many ways the right (DeTora, 2014, p. 31). His achievement generally matches his level of character portrayal; as he never succumbs during injury and time of terrorist captivity. In fact, Iron man during his low moments is able to react to stress by becoming a better, more developed human being. This is all that American identity and culture is; the culture of believing in American citizens, the identity of viewing the U.S as the ideal, free world, which offers superior and equal opportunity to all Americans (Darowski, 2015, p. 24). By failing to get discouraged during the terrorist captivity, Iron man manifests the American culture and identity of perseverance and persistence. This is all that America is all about, keeping the spirit alive even in the time of sorrows and stress.  American identity is characterized by the value of persistence and determination to succeed even in time of great obstacles. The Americans are known for their spirit of perseverance as depicted by the events of 9/11 whereby after the terror attack, they came together and in unison supported each other; thus overcoming the hard times the terrorist had put them into (Rieser, Fuchs, & Phillips, 2013, p. 20). This is exactly what iron man is showing by persevering all hardships and succeeding to better himself.

 

 

 

Segregation in Germany in the 1990s

Racism and Xenophobia: Cause of Immigrant Segregation in Germany in the 1900s

            Throughout this course, we have looked at topics ranging from the reunification of Germany, politics, and women in politics to the refugee crisis, immigration and racism in contemporary Germany. German culture, like all cultures, is complex; Language, art, social norms and mores, behaviours, and beliefs are interwoven into the fabric of contemporary Germany (Kopp, 2002). Understanding the past is integral to understanding the present and changing the future.

            Comprehension of the historical background of pre-unified Germany makes it is easier to understand the current discourse on racism and xenophobia plaguing contemporary Germany. The hegemonic view that immigrants do not want to integrate into German society is often supported by citing parallel societies (Kaes, 1995). As seen in the video, how the woman made the comments about the black male’s “customs” were not in order. In the film, the woman complained that the male chose to sit in the same seat that she was in because there were plenty of open seats around. She then went on to rant about how him sitting by her on the tram was a pester and that if the black man is going to “live off of their taxes” then he should at least behave. These statements came at no reason at all, for the black male approached the woman when he arrived on to the tram and in a polite manor, he simply asked “is that seat taken”. As then, the woman looked the man up and down, seeing that he was in fact negro, turned the other way with no reply. Seeing the situation as it was, the black man then took his seat and remained quiet for the entire trip. So when the comments were made about the man needing to behave and act appropriately to the German customs, he in fact did not violate any sort of customs, if anything he honored them with politeness, as he did not react to the racist activity in any violent manner.

            In the film, the woman stated, “What’s more – they smell awful. But of course, there is no law against that.” For this statement was just plain out uncalled for. Remember that these comments were made in the middle of the ride, after the woman had said plenty enough to antagonize the average man, but this man had stayed calm, sitting there quietly, while munching on a snack ignoring the harsh woman he chose to sit next to. These rash judgments play into the way of the whole racial views of each other globally. In the film, the camera constantly panned to different individuals that were riding the bus and hearing the woman rant. A little boy was constantly laughing, an old man was shown nodding and agreeing, and a middle-aged man was shown looking up in judgement of the old woman and then going back to his own business of reading the newspaper. When it comes to different view of people by different age groups of people, it is hard to keep a constant up-rise of outstanding citizens when there is no clear right or wrong judgement of a person.  This whole scene is a perfect example.

            Segregation generally focuses on physical differences, such as skin colour and hair type (Kaes, 1995). In Germany, as seen in the video, racism today has evolved to appear similar to xenophobia. This is because “new racism is based on a purported insurmountability of cultural differences”. After the holocaust words like “rasse” (race) and “rassismus”(racism) were problematic. However, the Holocaust was not the first or last time Germany was at the forefront of racism. Racism was not left in the past; it is omnipresent in German society today (Schilling, 2014).

            In the film this comment is made, “We don’t need these savages living off us. We’ve got enough unemployment of our own. And then they all work illegally.” These words are simply fueled by the past of this woman’s life. Being an elderly German it is safe to say that this lady grew up during the Hitler and Nazi era. Therefore, she was not raised to accept those other than pure Germans. Then she lived through the separation of Germany, the east and west era. So, when these comments were made, it was a pretty close recollection to the claims that Germans in the West made about those in the East. Not unsurprising that this woman felt the way she did, but she is not in fact judging this man on her own, but instead she is using her roots, peers, and forced ways to spurt out unreasonable things to a polite man that was just looking to get from place A to B.

            Segregation intersects on cultural differences between white Germans and minority groups. Many Germans fail to comprehend the importance of cultural relativism when new immigrants arrive in Germany (Kopp, 2002). In direct opposition to the stance Germany is a country of migration, they feel that immigrants should adopt German culture fully and abandon their own cultural identity, instead of embracing the diversification of Germany’s culture. Immigrants bring their values, beliefs, and religious preferences. Many of the refugees arriving since 2015 have come from Muslim countries, though many do not identify as Muslim. Due to German preconception that Christian ideology is correct, there has been a rise of Islamophobia against anyone coming from the Middle East and many Africans. When immigrants move into neighbourhoods with other immigrants with similar or the same nationality, they become listed as “problem neighbourhoods”. Yet this voluntary self-segregation is in response to systematic xenophobia and covert racism in German society.

            Notably, “even if people of colour totally assimilate into German culture, they are still not regarded as Germans”. The lack of acceptance as German, even when fully assimilated, should bring a more public focus on how and why more discourse is not taking place on the reason that immigrants and people of colour feel the need the be segregated. If Germany had more lenient laws on learning German formally, other necessary classes, work opportunities and education opportunities, immigrants’ integration into German society would be smoother. While laws have recently updated, German policy is a reflection of segregation on a systematic level. Many immigrants face difficulty finding a place to live and work because of the laws in Germany (Kopp, 2002). Germany has attempted to help alleviate some pressure by assigning social workers to help immigrants find work and by offering financial aid.

            Racism and segregation go hand in hand, specifically in contemporary German society. As a result of being excluded, both directly and indirectly, many immigrants find solace within immigrant populations. Assimilation is made nearly insurmountable for refugees and immigrants due to xenophobic laws dating to post WWII. Through disuse of eugenic words like race and racism, Germany invokes a historical amnesia that has negative current and future implication. Additionally, even though words like race and racism is no longer socially acceptable, the disuse does not refute the fact racism is still plaguing German society. Furthermore, even when full assimilation is successful, immigrant Germans are still seen as “others”, foreigners. Current rhetoric surrounding immigrants and refugees in the political sphere is sometimes reminiscent of Nazi propaganda. Though Germany has strived to move away from its past, many of its laws tether it from social inclusion. If such rhetoric and systematic discrimination continue, it could have a negative implication for Germany on the global stage.

References

“Schwarzfahrer-short film with English subtitles”, YouTube. 10 November 2011, Accessed           August 9, 2019,  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiuv5hzj5i4

Kaes, A. (1995). German cultural history and the study of film: ten theses and a postscript. New   German Critique, (65), 47-58.Kopp, K. (2002). Exterritorialized Heritage in Caroline Link’s” Nirgendwo in Afrika”. New    German Critique, (87), 106-132.

Schilling, B. (2014). Postcolonial Germany: Memories of Empire in a Decolonized Nation. OUP   Oxford.

CITIZENSHIP AND WELFARE

Introduction

            In today’s globalised world, the role of citizenship as evolved into a new form of mechanism that is centred around the societal integration of different nations across the world. Over the past five decades, societies have emerged in diverse forms. The emergence of different forms of societies has since threatened the existence of national citizenship. Notably, social groups that are based on identities have been established across different countries in the world. According to Lister (2011), the major role of these social groups is to champion the interests of specific individuals whose intentions and ideals are divergent from the ideals that are taken by a majority of the citizens. In more recent times, the issue of nationalism has been plagued with the concern of border securities of most nations. Countries such as the United States have witnessed a large influx of immigrants across their borders who are actively in search of jobs as well as refugee constitute (Lister 2011). This has complicated the subject of citizenship. With reference to present state of citizenship and welfare in the 21st century, this paper explores the various tenets of social integration and their interrelation with the notion of citizenship. As such, the paper explores fundamental themes that surround the discussion on citizenship and welfare. In this respect, focus is drawn on a number of cases that address different issues of citizenship and welfare in different countries across the world. More specifically, the essay is based around the identity of socially lower-class people and their interactions in different environments within the society.

The impact of Fundamental British Values and/or PREVENT on minority groups in England

            The Fundamental British Values are a set of values that schools within the larger British country are required to teach to school going children. According to Revell and Bryan (2018), the Fundamental British Values are clearly defined in strict guidance with the 2011 Prevent Strategy. In that Strategy report, there are five Fundamental British Values namely: “democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, mutual respect and tolerance of those of different faiths and beliefs.”  Schools are therefore required to operate according the government guidelines and the National Curriculum to employ teaching strategies that equip children with the five fundamental values. From its onset in 2014, teachers throughout the larger United Kingdom schools are required to comply with the necessary frameworks to instil the necessary knowledge concerning the values. Subsequent to that, the teaching of the values is overseen and supervised by Ofsted. The establishment of the Fundamental British Values was triggered by the Michael who was then the secretary of state for the ministry of education. This was after the “Trojan Horse Affair” in which it was suspected that the state schools in Birmingham were under threat from Islamists.

            Having outlined the context for which the Fundamental British Values were established, it is important to explore their impact in regards to citizenship and the welfare of people within Britain. More importantly, it is crucial to develop an understanding the role of the Fundamental British Values in moulding and nurturing children in resourceful citizens. According to Revell and Bryan (2018), the Fundamental British Values have largely been contested since their implementation in schools. Revell and Bryan (2018), state that the conceptualization of the idea and its subsequent implementation has resulted into hostile impacts to school going children. The introduction of the fundamental values has made it difficult for the children to understand their identity. More specifically, children who are drawn from marginalised groups are largely affected as they are at risk of developing an overall feeling of being side-lined in the welfare and citizenship affairs of the country.

            The whole concept of fundamental British values is inspired by the larger narrative of “Britishness”. It is important to note that the narrative of “Britishness” was at the centre of UK referendum vote which sought that leave the EU. In addition, the same narrative was used by the UK conservatives to fight for the introduction of British Bill of Rights which was to act as a replacement for the EU Convention Rights for Humans. In the context of British politics, the use of the Britishness narrative led to the rise in hate and suspicion levels among UK citizens across the country. Unfortunately, these undesirable trends of hate and suspicion have slowly infiltrated into the school system. According to Revell and Bryan (2018), some teachers in UK schools reported to have heard Muslim children being mocked as being “terrorists”. Despite the inadequacies of the fundamental British values, it is important that all schools within the United Kingdom develop a genuine willingness in their policies and frameworks to inspire children to engage in morally upright tasks. Overall, there is a more urgent need to commit to fundamental values that promote fairness in societies while building strong bonds on citizenship based on democracy.

The introduction of Universal Credit and its impact on people on benefits

            In every country, it is important to establish a system that accommodates the changing circumstances of citizens. In every country, citizens are dependent on public services including social security platforms, education services, social amenities and healthcare systems. The introduction of the Universal Credit emblems the governments goodwill intention to improve the income levels of several citizens who are suffering from poverty. Despite the good intention of initiating the Universal Credit, the underlying drivers of this agenda are shallow at addressing the fundamental factors on poverty. For instance, the implementation of the Universal Credit is prone is likely to offer employment opportunities while fighting for other working citizens to be laid off (Dwyer and Wright 2014). For this reason, the implementation of the Universal Credit may fail to yield its intended benefits for the overall good of the country.

            The Universal Credit (UC) has the potential of aiding many families in breaking free from poverty. The introduction of the UC marks a striking onset of replacing tax credits and aids which have been complicated and hence ineffective at addressing the needs of poor people. According to the previous system, citizens were required to abide by many rules which made it difficult for claimants to realize their benefits. The guiding principles of the UC system advocate for the simplification of the system while adopting a single source of assistance which accommodates change as parameters in the human environment evolve (Dwyer and Wright 2014). In the 2018, financial budget, a monetary allocation of £1.7 billion was channeled to the UC to support poor people and their families through the increase of work allowances. In effect, the living standards of low-income earners has since improved (Dwyer and Wright 2014). In addition, there have been reductions in the maximum limits for debt repayment as well as allocating more time for the repayment of advances.

            On the contrary, the impact of the UC on the incomes of families that are out of work is less lucrative. According to Dwyer and Wright (2014), most families that are in out-of-work formations are more disadvantaged in the new UC system. From a bigger picture, approximately 1.9 million people expected an annual increase in their incomes by close to £2,000 while the incomes of 2.6 million people were to be reduced by an annual figure of £1,400. For families living in and out of work a net loss is being registered. Going forward, there are some improvements that can be initiated on the UC system to aid in its success. For instance, it is important that the payment process is sped up as the five-week wait is too long for persons living in poverty conditions.

The use of specific quotas to determine access to higher education in​‌‌‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‍‌‍‌‍ Pakistan

            According to Siddiqi (2019), Pakistan’s Civil Service employs a selection system where only 7.5% are selected on merit while the rest of the applicants are selected on a quota system. Pakistan’s quota system is developed in such a manner that each province within the country is represented based on the total population of people in that province. This selection system of representation has been criticized as being discriminatory in the sense that it favors the children of Jagirdas and Waderas who live in posh urban centers but have rich rural dominance. In 1973, the Pakistan government adopted a quota system countrywide that specified that employment and admission to higher education institutions to be determined on the basis of the population within the provinces (Siddiqi 2019). This quota system was further complicated in certain individual regions such as the Sindh where admission to colleges and universities were done on the basis of urban, rural and the district that one was domiciled at. To date, the quota system is still being employed in the admission of students to universities. All the universities that exist within urban centers are largely managed by the urban population. Consequently, students who are drawn from rural regions are discriminated and denied admissions to top universities such as the Karachi University

            In view of the fact that young populations in Pakistani may be denied learning opportunities on the basis of their region of extraction, it is important that policy makers address the fundamental question of the quota system. In the context of learning, merit should be the leading factor of consideration for one to be admitted to a college or university. The failure to consider merit in the admission of students in various colleges have led to the rise of undesirable effects in several sectors across the country. For instance, the graduates that are churned out in most universities are incompetent to steer forward organizations into success. As a result, hitches have been observed in the performance of many sectors such the widespread corruption that has been witnessed in the education docket in recent years. Going forward, the Pakistani government should establish policies that aid in the improvement of the standards of education within the country. The provision of a level playing field irrespective of regional extraction would give fair opportunities to persons drawn from rural areas to enjoy their fundamental right to education.

The connection between sports education and human rights in Kenya

            Kenya has a rich constitution that is committed to the promotion of sporting activities as well as promotion of sports education within the country. The country has a rich list of sporting activities led by athletics which has put the country on a global map as a sporting nation. Other sports activities that are practiced within the country include: football, swimming, cricket, basketball, rugby and hockey. In order to support sporting activities within the country, the government through the Ministry of Sports and Heritage has outlined policies and measures in its constitution that promote sporting and cultural activities while observing the rights of humans within the country. Part of the mandate of the Sports Ministry is to promote sports education in accordance with the rights of humans (Mikinyango 2019).

            Kenya’s sporting sector is circumscribed by a number of fundamental issues on human rights. To begin with, there is the subject of discrimination of persons in various sporting activities. The country’s constitution prohibits the discrimination of any citizen from participating in a legal sport on the basis of gender, religion, ethnicity, culture, sex, colour and disability. The sports federation is charged with the task of sourcing talents from various backgrounds to engage in various sports. The countries commitment to enlighten its citizens on sports education has led to the evolution of minority sports such as that of Paralympics. In 2016, the Paralympics team registered an impressive performance in the Rio Olympics. In addition, the country’s sporting guidelines allows for the freedom of association with any sporting activity of choice. Persons drawn from all over the country are increasingly becoming aware of their right to participate in any sport provided they meet the standards that are required. In addition, the freedom of association has allowed different groups such as the disable, men and women to freely support the sports of their choice.

            The country has also advanced its sports education through the freedom of media that is enshrined in its constitution. The rights of the state to limit the freedom of the media to cover and air sporting events within the country are limited. For this reason, both local and international broadcasters have the freedom to cover and showcase sporting activities within the country. The freedom of the media has also enhanced sports education in the country through the development of various sponsorship deals within the country. For instance, Supersports and SportPesa are actively involved in the financing of the local football league called Kenya Premier League. Further, the participation of sponsors in local sports has led to an increased awareness and improvement of human rights within and without sports. For instance, SportPesa has sponsored numerous sporting events that are aimed at improving the rights of children and women in the country. Notably, the betting company recently sponsored a female boxer called Zarika in female boxing competition. This was a solid demonstration to all women in the country, that they have the opportunities to participate in any kind of sporting activity provided they possess the talent. Overall, Kenya has a sound sporting education that is supported by transparent structures to offer opportunities to every person that is gifted in every kind of sports (Mikinyango 2019).

The election of Donald Trump and notions of American citizenship and inclusivity

            The election of Donald Trump into the presidency was largely influenced by his belief in American Nationalism. Trump’s concept of American Nationalism was strikingly different from her lead rival in the 2016 presidential campaign. Whereas Hillary Clinton believed in an “American Exceptionalism” where advocated for a multicultural society based on assimilations and inclusivity, Trump believes that the only way to return America to greatness is through the promotion of the American Nationalism. In his initial days as the president of the United States, he resorted to the use of certain measures that targeted minorities living in the country. He installed a Muslim ban on seven major Muslim countries. In addition, he issued an executive order that sought to reduce the number of refugees entering America. All these activities were crowned by his major quest to install the ‘’great” southern border wall that was meant to bar Mexicans from gaining access to the country illegally (Heuman and González 2018).

            Trump’s administration has engaged in numerous efforts to propose changes in public policies that would stop America’s long practice of funding the welfare of non-American citizens through taxpayer’s money. The proposed changes, some of which have been effected, have a large impact on the welfare of foreign nationals that was traditionally funded by United States taxes. Apart from engaging in measures to stop foreign aids to minority groups in different parts of the world, Trump has faced several racial allegations against people of color. Most recently, Trump was engaged in a warfare with four congresswomen who are Alexandria Ocasio Cortez, Omar Pressley and Tlaib. Trump leveled an accusation against them claiming they hated the United States. In view of Trump’s responses to racial allegations, one would make the conclusion that he subscribes to a certain set of ideologies that define the American Nationalism and hence the right to acquire citizenship. Overall, it would be safe to conclude that Trump’s presidency has been marred with several accusations on targeting minority groups within America. As a result, minority groups such as the Black Americans have been forced to live in fear as though they are not rightful citizens of the country (Heuman and González 2018).

Exploration of personal identity and how it affects notions of citizenship education.

            Complex links exist between personal identity and citizenship. According to Portis (2016), Identity refers to the symbolic connection that exists between a person and his/her social setting. On a simplistic scale, citizenship could be used to describe the connection between a person to the community. The identity of an individual is bound by more specific characteristics that instil a sense of belonging to an individual. Citizenship, on the other hand, is a legal status which is normally assigned to an individual by an external unit granting the person to enjoy certain rights within a given jurisdiction. The interrelation between citizenship and personal identity allows people to develop valuable insights concerning the various cultures and how they can embrace and accommodate one another to develop into successful nations.

            According to Portis (2016), one of the main aims of schooling is to establish an effective citizenship education system as well as create and reinforce the identities of individuals. The development of an effective mass education system can be viewed as a model that collectively and progressively instils values and cultures in people in order to transform them into successful persons that can function in the real world. An understanding of citizenship and how it relates to personal identities is a critical component of the education system. Today, people exist in multicultural environments that draws in multiple individuals with varied cultures and identities all under one umbrella of citizenship. It is important that the curriculum that is adopted nationwide includes fundamental frameworks that allow for the development of children in line with their national values while recognizing and appreciating their distinct personal identities.

Reference List

Dwyer, P. and Wright, S., 2014. Universal credit, ubiquitous conditionality and its implications for social citizenship. The Journal of Poverty and Social Justice22(1), p.27.

Heuman, A.N. and González, A., 2018. Trump’s Essentialist Border Rhetoric: Racial Identities and Dangerous Liminalities. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research47(4), pp.326-342.

Lister, R., 2011. The age of responsibility: social policy and citizenship in the early 21st century. Social policy review23, pp.63-84.

Mikinyango, A., 2019. The Emergence of Sports Law in Kenya. In Law, Ethics, and Integrity in the Sports Industry (pp. 241-262). IGI Global.

Portis, E.B., 2016. Citizenship & personal identity. Polity18(3), pp.457-472.

Revell, L. and Bryan, H., 2018. Fundamental British values in education: radicalisation, national identity and Britishness. Emerald Publishing Limited.

Siddiqi, F.H., 2019. Discrimination is what ethnic groups make of it: subjective perceptions of peripherality among the Mohajirs of Pakistan. Nations and Nationalism25(2), pp.697-717.