Synthesis paper

October 23, 2017

This week class objectives were to introduce the class to psychological research techniques, understand how it’s done and the method used for a research, and help us to give communicated knowledge about the research procedure thoughts behind it. As a student in that class, I will use an approach of a case study with the two questions given by the professor: lessons learned about research at the level of introductory? How critique or evaluation is done from a perspective of a Christian bible? With the use of a case study it has the ability to give investigation in depth on one person and am the best-suited person for the questions

Introductory level research

In this introductory level, I have learned that a scientific research has four goals on a behavior. These are to describe, predict, causes determination, and explanation of a behavior. To describe a behavior begin is the first science goal which involves careful observations to be done. The second science goal is prediction which involves examination with consistency for one to be able to m.ake predictions.  Deterring the behavior cause is the third science goal which is very hard to know exactly the cause of such an action but one can calculate the behavior occurrence.  Action clarification is the fourth science goal where the scientists explain why it took place.

The case study based on psychological research is bullying and its behavior. Bullying is a problem which includes physical injury or verbal as well as exclusion and social isolation. Due to this, a research is conducted on one person to establish its causes and designed interventions to prevent the effects of bullying (Illing, et al, 2017).

Method

Why do people bully? What are the effects of bullying? The method used in this research was an observation to collect the needed data. The observation methods can be natural, systematic, case study, quantitative, archival research and qualitative. The natural observation method was the best in this since no audience to conduct an interview with them as the case needs me as the person answering the questions. As the researcher, I was interested in this to understand the bullying behavior well. It involved field study of this behavior to come up with answers to my questions (Jones, 2017, p.246).

 Quantitative data

As a researcher, the quantitative data was obtained in the field study where I was able to study the bullying cases around the world and the data that was collected on bullying behavior. Statically data, state data, public health data and organization data on bullying behavior was available in the field study and helped me much. I was able to see the similarities between bullying and the demographic and be able to address the behavior using the data evident.

Qualitative data

Through the natural observation method, I was able to observe the environment in which the bullying occurs in details and show that it occurs to every stage no matter the color, height, age or race.

I learned that psychologists are able to study a behavior, understand it and come up with the measure to cope with the behavior. The connections of human emotion and mind relate to the bullying behavior. How the bullying victims perceive the situation and the difference on how the reality managed the behavior matters a lot. Those watching the bullying are also part of the bullying behavior.

 

Biblical perspective

The research will help me learn how Christians can respond to a behavior of bullying. The questions to be answered are: Can a Christian bully someone? Is there a Christian manner to uphold to bullying? Also, the APA statements on this bullying are also well explained here.

Although the word bullying is not found in the bible directly, a synonym of it ‘brutish’ is there (Proverbs 12:1) which means a thuggery that is associated with savage beasts, assassins, and thieves. Christians are expected to kind to all people and give the other cheek when adversity faces one and so the bible has more to say on bullying.

God’s love: Bullying makes one feel lonely but God is assuring us that he is with us always no matter the situation (Psalms 27:7).

Love the neighbor: in the bible bullying is a negative thing since we are all called to be kind to one another. Looking after one another and having hospitality is always taught in the bible and so bullying does not demonstrate the Gods love to neighbors (1 John 3:15).

Love the enemies: it’s very hard to apply loving our enemies but God has commanded us to do so. The bullying behavior cannot be liked by people and once one commits it as a Christian he is to be forgiven and loved but that does not mean repeating it the same mistake (Mathew 5:43-48).

Everyone was created in God’s image no matter how he acts or looks (Genesis 1:26) and the person is worth the Gods dignity given to everyone. To avoid verbal bullying, (ephesians4:29) everyone is supposed to honor God with the words from our mouths and actions we do.  Close examinations of our motives and actions must be adhered to for bullying behavior to end in our society. Through the verses teaching, it is clear Christians are not supposed to bully and once one is bullied reaction matters.

American philosophical association raised bullying statements. The APA statement discusses the philosophers bullying type. The statement says once a philosopher is bullied by use of abusive language, one should not publish it or post it to the public. Bullying between the philosophers is mainly evident and the statements try to solve the underlining problem. The attack, especially on the philosopher race and another status like gender, is really unacceptable according to this.

The AACC ethics code also equips pastors, caregivers and clinical officers with truth from the bible and insights that help them to minister to affected person and bring wholeness, mental stability, interpersonal competence and matters relating to their spiritual growth of them (Wood, & Hilton, 2012, p.200).

Conclusion

I was able to address and answer on this bullying behavior research. Meaning and effects of bullying were well understood and analyzed. I was able to learn the Christian way of view to bullying and make a decision that God hates it. The research showed that psychological effects can explain the behavior of a person.

 

 

 

 

References

Maxwell, J. C. (Ed.). (2014). NIV, The Maxwell Leadership Bible, eBook. Thomas Nelson Inc.

Illing, J. C. C. M., Carter, M., Thompson, N. J., Crampton, P. E. S., Morrow, G. M., Howse, J. H., … & Burford, B. C. (2013). Evidence synthesis on the occurrence, causes, consequences, prevention and management of bullying and harassing behaviours to inform decision-making in the NHS.

Wood, J. L., & Hilton, A. A. (2012). Five ethical paradigms for community college leaders: Toward constructing and considering alternative courses of action in ethical decision making. Community College Review40(3), 196-214.

Jones, A. L. (2017). Experience of Protagonists in Workplace Bullying: An Integrated Literature Review. Int J Nurs Clin Pract4(246), 2.

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Midterm HR management

October 22, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resource Management at Emanuel Medical Center (EMC)

Name of Student

University Affiliation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resource Management at Emanuel Medical Center (EMC)

  1. Introduction
  2. Background
  3. Organizational Overview

Emanuel Medical Center (EMC) is a healthcare facility founded in 1917 by Swedish Mission Church with the aim of meeting the healthcare needs of Turlock region in California. The facility has a primary unit comprising of 150-bed capacity in its acute care hospital known as Emanuel Medical Center. The services provided in the facility are surgical, general medical, intensive care and monitored care services. Both outpatient and inpatient surgical interventions are the main source of revenue for the facility. Secondly, there is an Emergency Department (ED) established in 1970s with the aim of accommodating 17,000 visits annually. However, the hospital as per 2001 data reveals that it caters for emergency services to more than 45,000 patients annually representing a 265% growth in patients seeking emergency services. Additionally, it is clear that over 50% of all hospital admissions are from the emergency department with the hospital providing radiology, outpatient surgery and laboratory services in its outpatient segment. Furthermore, in-patient facility has semi-private rooms that affect level of satisfaction for patients. Due to low occupancy rate in the inpatient facility, the ED is normally less than 50% to capacity an indication that most patients have their own rooms. EMC campus offers both a separate diagnostic and rehabilitation center for radiology, mammograms, occupancy therapy and speech therapy services. The current study focus on practicing effectively with fiscal responsibility as a nurse administrator in the current healthcare industry while making patient safety and quality care the number one priority.

  1. Mission

EMC maim mission is creating a healthier community by operating under strong Christian values on health promotion and diseases prevention, provision of comprehensive high quality and safe health services for families and patients and maintaining fiscal responsibility to facilitate in growth, maintenance and development through a collaborative partnership with the stakeholders.

  1. Vision

The vision of EMC is the Hospital of Choice for Turlock and Nearby Communities an indication that the health facility is structured to offer quality and safe health interventions to the local community with the aim of disease treatment and prevention as well as promotion of healthy community.

  1. Community and population served

As a not-for-profit health facility, it serves local population irrespective of religious, ethnic, social, political and racial backgrounds. EMC, a religiously affiliated not-for-profit healthcare organization, has three distinct operational facilities. EMC’s main operations take place in Turlock and other eight neighboring towns.  Majority of EMCs patients (80%) are from the locality of its setting. Of all the patients’ population, 64% are from Turlock. The population in Turlock grew from 168,000 to 200,000 patients seeking primary service at EMC between 1998 and 2002. The secondary service that where patients can seek healthcare interventions include 12 additional small towns located within the range of 5-15 miles from EMC. Of the patients’ population, 14 arises from the neighboring regions with only 6% of the patients being from regions outside. The population of the elderly is increasing. For instance, elderly population was 40.1% (above 65 years) of the local population in 1999.

  1. Resources and payor mixes for the community

The population is the region could be classified in different subgroups crucial in the analysis of the type of patients EMC serves. For instance, Hispanic population in the region is fast growing to 32.5% of the total population of 200,000. Two main categories of patients are insured and uninsured patients determining their financial ability to cater for their health needs.

  1. Case Management Department

The hospital has poor case management department is tasked with the responsibility of bed management, timely discharge of patients improved patients transfer from Emergency department to the inpatient and timely admission of patients. This is an area the health facility is experiencing serious challenges on case management practices. For instance, in 2002, a patient named Ekman (child) was brought to the healthcare facility with fever symptoms and stomach discomfort. The patient and parents experienced long waiting in the ED, poor services by triage nurse and wrong diagnosis (stomach flu rather than urinary tract infection). After treatment at EMC, the child experienced higher body temperature resulting to the parents opting for care at Memorial Medical Center in Modesto, California where was diagnosed and treated with the right antibiotics. After this revelation, the family filed complaint to the institution a case that was highly publicized resulting to a negative image of the health facility. The Department of Health Services came to EMC, conducted an investigation, and determined that the facility did not maintain standard of care procedures for an ED and that the staff did not act in a considerate and respectful manner.  Under pronounced public and governmental scrutiny, Robert Moen, the President and Chief Executive Officer (CEO), sought solutions to EMC’s multiple problems. The key issues case in the investigation comprised of decreased revenue, insufficient ED processes, poor quality of care, shortage of nurses and physicians, and lack of enough measures to address organizational challenges.

  1. Budget

The hospital is experiencing serious budget-related constraints due to inefficient performance. The budget for the healthcare facility has been constrained by poor performance of the healthcare facility coupled by reduction in Medicare funding that was reduced by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 representing 14% of the GDP. In addition, there has been reduction in the cost of labour, operational cost and pharmaceutical expenditure in the facility. In summary, the hospital is experiencing budgetary constraints in management of financial, material and human resource abilities. These constraints results to underperformance, poor motivation among workforce that result to poor patients’ satisfaction.

  1. Quality

Quality of service in a healthcare facility is a key determinant of the patients’ satisfaction. A number of cases at EMC poor quality services have affected its reputation and overall performance. An example of critical case in the hospital involves concerning Ekman who received a wrong diagnosis and instances of neglect. This is an indication that the health facility is experiencing serious challenges associated with quality of care that should be addressed effectively.

  1. Safety

Stafford (2011) of Turlock Journal  highlights the safety issues arising at Emanuel Medical Center. The author cites administrative penalty accrued to EMC after California Department of Public Health noted that there was violation of health safety standards in relation to compliance. EMC was therefore fined a total of $75,000 for charges relating to lack of adherence to health and safety standards of the patients in following the surgical policies and procedures. The fined was set after critical assessment of a case that occurred in the hospital in 2010 where a guidewire was left mistakenly in a patient after surgical intervention. The guidewire is normally inserted to a patient to guide catheter in conducting surgery then removed. This is one of the several instances where the hospital has been blamed of poor patients’ safety measures in provision of healthcare interventions.

  1. Education for staff

Education is an important human resource development process that ensure that staff are continuously educated on measures to improve effectiveness and quality of care in the hospital through integration of evidence-based interventions. EMC educational department helps the clinical staff is providing education that address competency challenges in evaluating their knowledge through webinars, seminars and In-services in the clinical area. The facility provide education in the categories of Basic Life Support (CPR), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) and Advanced Cardiovascular Life support (ACLS). The classes are schedule throughout the year to employees that aims at creating, supporting, maintaining and documentation of system that are used in aiding medical and clinical staff.

  1. Work environment

The working environment is an essential part of the workforce performance enabler and motivator that is determined by working climate, motivation levels of employees and patient satisfaction level.  Though the health facility was experiencing challenging, the environment is changing effectively to cater for organizational climate in the health facility.

  1. Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN)

 

  1. Financial Management
  2. Reimbursement

Because of pressure to accept capitation or run the risk of having no patients, EMC suffered financially. HMOs pay set amounts per member per month (PMPM) to cover their members’ costs; however, HMO payment rates and relative risk were not well aligned. Initially, EMC’s accounts receivable were lower, which resulted in an improved cash flow on the front end, but because of fully allocated costs being greater than HMO payment, EMC suffered considerable losses. EMC’s experience with HMO payments was comparable to other hospitals.   Fortunately, EMC realized the need to dissolve this type of payer situation. Once HMO contracted expired, EMC realized marginal profitability. According to Beth Kutscher (2014), hospitals generally aim for net margins of around three to four percent. In 2001, EMC had $4.7 million in revenue and a net margin of 6.3%, which is quite impressive. However, they lost $4.1 million secondary to operation costs, specifically salaries and wages. They also had significant losses because of HMO programs. Over the five-year period that EMC participated in capitation payments, all but the first year resulted in operational losses.

The primary revenue generator for EMC is surgery, including inpatient and outpatient care associated with those surgeries. Outpatient services also generate considerable monies for EMC.  Non-operating revenue for EMC includes investments from the 1990s. The board realized the need to borrow funds for expanding investing unspent funds allocated for capital expenditures. EMC saw their capital reserve increase from $4 million to $23 million within three years. They also realized a $50 million dollar gain secondary to investing in the stock market, which was booming in the mid to late 1990s. Secondary non-operational revenue includes funding raising. EMC was the recipient of a matching Mary Stuart Rogers Foundation grant that provided $1.4 million of the $4 million needed to complete a birthing center expansion.

Expenses grew at a rate of 7.7% per year. Salaries and wages with benefit costs increased 4.1%. In 2002, new registered nurse salaries increased by as much as 27% because of state imposed staffing regulations and to stay competitive within their market.  There was also a dramatically increased need for temporary (agency) nurses.  In 1997, 34% of HMO premium revenue that was received had to be paid out to other providers for health care services, specifically cardiac catheterization and cardiac surgery as EMC does not provide this service.  Also, in 1997, capitation related expenses were $655,000; whereas, in 2001, they rose to $2.1 million. Also in 1997, EMC experienced a significantly higher amount of uncollectable debt because of county managed hospital’s closure. In 2001, that percentage increased to 54% with notably substantive loss.

Even though EMC is deemed a not-for-profit hospital, they must maintain positive margins to stay solvent. The financial tables below provide an analysis of EMC’s overall financial situation. First, they experienced consistently decreasing operating margins.   They also had a major decrease in excess margin.  This caused EMC to go into an overall debt state, which will result in their inability to expand and offer more services.   The deductible ratio reflects the amount of gross revenue that will not be obtained as a result of charity care and/or contractual reimbursement rates with third party payers.  EMTA mandates that all hospitals with ED services provide care to those who enter their facility, regardless of ability to pay.   This law has dramatically increased resource utilization in the ED as well as other hospital areas within hospitals across the country.  This has resulted in a significant uptick in charity care for patients who are either under/uninsured and have no means to pay their hospital bills.

An Acid Test Ratio would also be prudent in EMC’s financial analysis.  This test provides information about an organization’s liquidity assets.  This includes cash and marketable securities, as well as their ability to pay current liabilities.  Initially, capitation helped EMC’s accounts receivable ratio; however, it later caused damage.   One major factor that can affect liquidity of an organization is the Days in Accounts Receivable.  This helps measure how long it takes for an organization to be reimbursed by customers (patients) for services performed.  The longer the money sits in accounts receivable (AR), the less liquid the hospital’s assets become.   The hospital then cannot use their funds for expansion, investment, or paying toward liabilities.

  1. Diagnosis Related Groups
  2. In-patient admission
  3. Observation admission
  4. Prospective Payment System’s (PPS)
  5. Payor determines cost of care
  6. Rewards for keeping care below cost
  7. Capitation
  8. Definition
  9. Affordable Health Care Act 2010
  10. Purpose
  11. Consumer cost
  12. Reimbursement from an AHCA payor
  13. HCHAPS
  14. Who is measured
  15. What is measured
  16. How scores effect reimbursement
  17. Cost Strategies
  18. Productivity
  19. Actual time spent working
  20. Non-productive time
  21. Earned time off
  22. Staffing
  23. FTE
  24. PTE
  25. Staff Mix
  26. Social workers
  27. PCT’s
  28. Unit secretaries
  29. Materials
  30. Discharge planning assistance budget
  31. Medications
  32. Equipment
  33. Transportation
  34. Home health and/or hospice services
  35. Education
  36. Case management specific continuing education
  37. Education and training on case management software
  38. Reimbursement for case management certification

III. Materials Management

  1. Operations
  2. Software needed to do job
  3. Budget
  4. Amount needed for fiscal year
  5. Where could costs be cut
  6. Staffing
  7. Personnel Management
  8. Recruitment
  9. Marketing
  10. Job descriptions
  11. Education requirements/preferences
  12. Retention
  13. Scheduling
  14. Flexibility
  15. Advancement opportunities
  16. Clinical Ladder
  17. Opportunity for merit increases
  18. Opportunity to participate in decision making for the department
  19. Recommendations and Conclusions
  20. Christian Worldview

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Burton, C. R., & Rycroft-Malone, J. (2014). Resource based view of the firm as a                          theoretical lens on the organizational consequences of quality                                        improvement. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 3(3), 113-                115. doi:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.74

Drotz, E., & Poksinska, B. (2014). Lean in healthcare from employees’        perspectives.    Journal of Health Organization and Management, 28(2), 177-195.

Everhart, D., Neff, D., Al-Amin, M., Nogle, J., & Weech-Maldonado, R. (2013;2012;). The                      effects of nurse staffing on hospital financial performance: Competitive versus less                competitive markets. Health Care Management Review, 38(2), 146.                                           doi:10.1097/HMR.0b013e318257292b

Kennett, G. (2013). The impact of training practices on individual, organization, and                                 industry skill development. Australian Bulletin of Labour, 39(1), 112-135.

Kurnat-Thoma, E., Ganger, M., Peterson, K., & Channell, L. (2017). Reducing Annual                  Hospital and Registered Nurse Staff Turnover—A 10-Element Onboarding                                 Program Intervention. SAGE Open Nursing, 3, 1-13.                                                                       http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2377960817697712.

Millar, R. (2013). Framing quality improvement tools and techniques in                                          healthcare. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 27(2), 209-224.                            doi:10.1108/14777261311321789

Nica, E. (2013). The importance of human resources management to the health care                                   system. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 8(4), 166-171.

Tishelman, C., Heede, K. V. d., Moreno-Casbas, M. T., Busse, R., Brzostek, T., Aiken, L.             H., . . . Schwendimann, R. (2012). Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital                    care: Cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and                        the United States. 344, e1717-e1717.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PIPELINE GEOLOGY

October 22, 2017

Introduction

Before selecting the right site to drill holes, it is essential that an engineer considers the excavatability of the ground. This report provides details of the three selected sites and exploits the ease with which the ground can be excavated to identify the right sight for the hole. Point sampling of the site was also carried out to create detailed data that was used in selecting the right location (Sauter, 2010). The rock lithography of the site was analyzed as well with an aim of ensuring that the selected sites had the rocks that would offer the expected strength for the holes as well as help in avoiding sites that would cost the driller more finances. Lithographic information of the three sites have been analyzed, and their coding during graphical design explained in a legend in an excel sheet. A graph of the three sites showing height location of the various sites materials has also been drawn. The paper is limited to the available data and research on the type of rock featured in the study.

Methods

Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the hole data saved on an excel data file. The data included the relative height of a point on the sea level. The data of the sampling points were then recorded on a table as a display of the geological analyses of the rocks. Drill resections of the pipeline sections of different slopes were also analyzed. The soil layers were also analyzed from the lithography to determine the soil layers that would be encountered when performing the sections. The method used for this analysis is the Kulhaway and Goodman method that is mostly applicable for sections, measuring some meters in dimension (Wyllie, 2004).

The data is then summarized using the Hencher’s summary, using the British standards for the purposes of conformity. This method of summarization ensures that the estimate bears values of a strip footing. An analysis of the rock types in sample locations is also undertaken through research to identify the best excavation point. The easiness in excavating the soil is the soil/rock materials in the sites are assessed using the Pettifer Fookes graphic technique that considers the dimensions of the rock type in concluding the type of soil (Hoek, 2000).

Lithology of the drill holes sites.

The top layers in the slopes proposed constitutes of rocks such as the cap rock, Crystalline limestone, sand and both hard and soft limestone. These types of rocks present on the site are important for considerations as they form the basis on which the field engineer chooses the right excavation method and machine.

Cap rock

Cap rock is a type of rock which is harder than its presiding sedimentary rocks and usually, it comprises of both sandstone and mafic rock types. The understanding of the cap rock draws the attention of the rock being in comparison to a wedding cake which contains a hard crust at the top while the presiding layers are softer compared to the outer layer. Cap rocks are mostly located at mesas, escarpments and salt domes. At some points where cap rocks exist, they are sometimes weathered through leaking hence leaving the internal layers exposed to erosion. On the three proposed sites, cap rock layer forms the outer most layers of the sites that appear to be the thinnest of all layers.

Sand

Sand occurs mainly on low lands after erosion of particles emanating from the upper parts of a landscape. The definition of sand emanates from its size, and it is described to be finer than gravel and coarser than silt in its size (Roza, 2006). The type of sand present at a particular place is determined by the predominant rock type as the particles forming the sand originate from erosion of these rocks. Silica, however, is the most common type of sand that is dominant in most inland landscapes followed by calcium carbonate. Sand is very imported in building and construction industry as it is used for concrete production.

Crystalline limestone

Crystalline limestone belongs to a category of sedimentary rocks that are carbonate in nature. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the process of cementation. Cementation of aquatic dead life over the years hardens, hence, forming the sedimentary rocks (Assaad et al, 2004). The same ocean life particles constitute to the formation of petroleum, nevertheless, this takes place under a different amount of pressure. Crystalline limestone is amongst the most versatile rock to ever exist. It is used for various purposes, one of its significant use being, its use as a mixing agent in concrete. The rock is also crushed to form road base used during the road lying. Finally, it is used as ballast in railroad construction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Escavatibility

The average strength description was converted using the AS1726 conversion table. The table provides a conversion system for all the three sites. The strengths of the sites are assigned a number code. On the excel data, the label for crystalline lime is averaged to be high (H). AS1726 gives the code for the rock layer as any number greater than 1 and equal or less than three (Palmstrom & Stille, 2010). Number two was therefore picked as the code for the rock layer as it lies between the lower limit and the upper limit. Average code for site DH73 is a medium which is represented by letter M, and finally, the code average for site DH74 is very high (VH). The number code for site DH74 is assigned as any number higher than 0.3 but less than 1.0.  The code for the last site which is site DH75 is any number higher than three but less than 10

Site descriptions

DH73

The description for the first site has been identified to contain rock material of dimensions 150mm by 50mm in diameter. The rock layer is partly hard in nature since it would be hard to break by hand, but possible to break under a firm blow (Palmstrom & Stille, 2010). This means that the layer will not require sophisticated instruments to excavate as it can be broken using human labor.  The site requires some degree of footing that will help in anchoring the pipeline channel structure in place. This site also requires footing as the site material is not strong enough to hold the pipeline channel.

DH74

The layer has the same diameter thickness as that of the DH73 site. The layer that is predominant in the DH74 site has a strength that can be broken down by human labor although with slight difficulty (Palmstrom & Stille, 2010). This means that the rock layer that is predominant at the site will not require strong machinery to excavate. The site can, therefore, be excavated using a buckle machine. This is the case as the site will not require cracking of rocks through blasting and other procedures.

DH75

The rock underlying this site is hard compared to the other two sites. The rock found on this site can be broken by a prick of more than one blow (Hoek, 2000). The site is more robust to excavate and requires sophisticated machinery. Due to the strength of the material that constitutes this site; massive footing will not be required when preparing the pipeline channel. The code for the site was identified as EH which means that the site requires heavy blasting of the rock materials.

My rock type choice

Sand is a type of soil which emanates from corroded rocky materials. Massive rocks are as well reduced in size by other physical means such as stamping by animals (Miall, 2013). After particles have loosened from the parent rock, they are carried to the lower regions by rainwater, during the rainy season and at times via wind.

Layer details

The layer appears on the entire proposed sites but with varying depths. The layer is in the category of extremely low as it is simple to excavate and does not require sophisticated tools. The layer can be removed by simple scoping using a spade. Sandy site is complex to lay structures on as they are very loose.

Foundations and stability

Excavations of the three sites were analyzed using the Kulhaway and Goodman method to identify the challenges that would be encountered in the three sites. The challenges encountered in the three sites are determined by the type of rocks present on the three sites. Sites sizes of the layers are also a determinant factor as they determine the number of resources that will be spent on each of the sites (Zhang, 2010).On the right-hand side of the slope, the cap rock layer is more extensive than any other place on the site. The right-hand side slope will, therefore, require more resources as compared to the slope on the left-hand side. The next layer that is encountered is the crystalline limestone layer that was identified to contain high strength. The layer requires machines with some levels of sophistication. This may mean some amount of time will be spent excavating the site (Zhang, 2010). The presiding layer contains hard limestone. Hard limestone is the third widest layer on the site. This means that machines for heavy drilling may be required and some bursting of the site materials is also necessary to loosen the rock material.

The last layer in the excavation is the crystalline layer which as mentioned earlier it also requires machines for its excavation. The general perspective of the site is that the site is comprised of relatively hard materials. Due to the hardness of the materials, the site may not require exaggerated footing for the construction of the slopes (Miall, 2013). The strength of the material that pre-dominates the site does not necessarily require the two proposed site because the material present has some physical strength.

The type of rock that would be exposed after a 1:1 excavation is the crystalline limestone. On a 2:1 ratio, the rock layer that would be exposed is the hard limestone. At 5m towards the sea level, the exposed layer is the crystalline limestone layer as it appears twice on the site.

Construction materials

The construction materials present at the site come from the dominant rocks at the site. The capability of a rock to be used as the construction material is determined by the amount of percentage the rock material can be converted into an armor stone. Capstone yields a percentage value of 25% while the other two layers yield an amour of 90% the percentages of the sites means that the crystalline limestone and hard limestone are all materials that are important for the construction process (Bieniawski, 1989). The figure below shows the areas that can yield construction materials.

Conclusion

To be able to undertake the activity of laying a pipeline, it is required that the geology of the area is well understood. The proposed site shows that a considerable amount of time will be required for the excavation of the pipeline slopes. The materials present on site allows for the excavation of a slope of one side because the materials on the site are naturally strong and can withstand heavy natural occurrences such as mild earthquakes. The rocks found at the site can as well be converted to elements that are usable for the construction of structures. Therefore, the site is self-sustaining since a vast area around the site is occupied by materials that are easily convertible to usable construction materials.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Assaad, F. A., & LaMoreaux, P. E. (2004). Field methods for geologists and hydrogeologists.        Berlin: Springer.

 

Wyllie, D. C., & Mah, C. (2004). Rock slope engineering. CRC Press.

Hoek, E., Kaiser, P. K., & Bawden, W. F. (2000). Support of underground excavations in hard rock. CRC Press.).

Roza, G. (2006). Rocks, sand, and soil. New York, NY: Rosen Pub Group.

Sauter, D. (2010). Landscape construction. Australia: Delmar Cengage Learning.

Palmstrom, A., & Stille, H. (2010). Rock engineering.

Miall, A. (2013). The geology of fluvial deposits: sedimentary facies, basin analysis, and     petroleum geology. Springer.

Zhang, L. (2010). Estimating the strength of jointed rock masses. Rock mechanics and rock          engineering43(4), 391-402.

 

GoPro use and Effect on our Relationship

October 22, 2017

Introduction

The today’s world has been associated with the development of various technological platforms that facilitate communication between individuals. Unlike in the past, people in today’s world can develop social ties with people from different parts of the world by just joining various communities of individuals with similar interests. While this might give the illusion that people are developing broader social circles, the reality is that social media and technology have developed a platform where individuals no longer have close friends. The reason is that online socialization does not facilitate the traditional experiences that enhance the depth of relationships between individuals. Online friendships are passive and quite harmful at times because they give individuals the notion that they have many friends, yet the reality is that people lose every close and real friend if they maintain their friendships through social media platforms. While social media and technology have effectively influenced the development of easy communication channels, the platforms have eroded the quality of relationships with people who have developed a high reliance on them.

Effects of Technology on Socialization

Studies conducted by Robin Dunbar revealed that human beings require various levels of social circles. Every human needs a close social group, primarily comprising of best friends and close family members. The circle that takes up most of the time for an individual because the associated friends and family are integral to their emotional growth and wellness. The second level of social circle comprises of the regular friends with whom one might share some interests. One has to maintain this circle by giving its members some time together, but if anyone in the circle exits from the friendship, it does not have a significant impact on the individual’s emotional wellbeing. Based on the studies, Dunbar claimed that an individual could only retain a social circle with an upper limit of 150 individuals. However, today’s social media platforms have presented a situation where individuals have social circles with more than 150 members (Barrios, 2015).

While technology has made it relatively easy to maintain contact with members of a large social circle, it is apparent that individuals with significant passive social circles have difficulties keeping the smaller and most important social group.  The fact that using social media to communicate with close family members does not provide the same emotional effect that face-to-face contact yields demonstrates this clearly. Some of the aspects eliminated from the communication process when individuals engage in online conversations are the verbal and non-verbal indications. These cues usually give hints of worry and other emotions and feelings to which an individual should react to when engaging in an intimate communication process. It is quite hard to maintain a close social circle through social media platforms. Studies have revealed that Dunbar’s estimated number of the size of social circles is still accurate because individuals might have a following of more than three hundred people. However, they can only claim to have reasonable relations with roughly the upper limit of the estimated range (Barrios, 2015).

With this in mind, it is clear that social media should not be viewed as platforms for individuals to enhance their social circles. The platforms are mainly feasible for developing acquaintances and maintaining contact with individuals who fall out of the initial social circle. Social media are just tools or platforms to facilitate easy communicate with some close friends and bridge the distance barrier in the wake of a globalized world (Giddens, Duneier, Appelbaum, & Carr, 2016). It is relatively easy to communicate with relatives in different parts of the world using platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, but this form of communication does not cultivate bonds as strong as having physical contact with the individuals (Wagner, Vollmar, & Wagner, 2014). The implications are that it is necessary to balance the use of social media in the quest of maintaining relationships. The best alternative is to keep close relatives and friends in regular physical contact so as not to lose the bond that holds the relationships together.

Growth in technology has facilitated the capabilities to capture life experience and relive them afterwards by watching them on computers and other gadgets. The GoPro Camera is one of the groundbreaking technological developments that the modern society has seen (Evers, 2015). Just like the social media platforms that have transformed communication processes, the GoPro Camera technology, and its likes have fostered the development of the culture of capturing important moments in individual’s lives (Barrios, 2015). Having a camera rolling as one engages in various activities, including sports with family and friends is quite an intriguing experience, especially when one gets to view the videos and photos later. In the past, the only way to capture memories was through photographs taken occasionally. However, with the current technology, it is easy to archive entire experiences, an even share the videos on social media platforms for family and friends in different parts of the world to view them and get the feeling of being in the setting. Live streaming of such experiences makes it even more intriguing for other people to share the experiences virtually. However, while the current developments are plausible, there is a worry that technology will eliminate the authenticity of experiences.

People are too engrossed in creating the best videos out of an experience that they even forget to enjoy the small thrills associated with the experiences. Just as revealed by Dunbar, technology is eliminating the value of sharing experiences with the people within the smaller and closest social circles. The fact that it is currently possible to monetize filmed experiences if they get the attention of a big following makes it plausible for individuals to focus on creating videos capturing failed moments. The GoPro Camera is an example of a gadget that has been overly purchased by youth across the world, with the hope of creating a video that will go viral on social media platforms or get the attention of commercials developers (Barrios, 2015). Life experiences have been translated into business opportunities, and the quest for perfection in experiences has ruined social experiences for those who do not care about recording the experiences or trying to make money out of the resultant video files.

Conclusion

Social media and technology have led to the development of easier lifestyles, whereby communication is relatively easy and fast. However, there is a clear indication that social media erodes the bond that individuals have with their close friends and family. Technology has changed the essence of various experiences as individuals are only looking to monetize everything that they do. While this is a good opportunity for many people, it is killing the value of social experiences. It is, therefore, imperative for the society to be cautious about the effects of social media and technology on their social circles and quality of life.

 

 

References

Barrios, B. (2015). Emerging: Contemporary Readings for Writers, 3rd edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Evers, C. (2015). Researching action sport with a GoPro TM camera: An embodied and emotional mobile video tale of the sea, masculinity and men-who-surf. Researching embodied sport: Exploring Movement Cultures, 145-162.

Giddens, A., Duneier, M., Appelbaum, R. P., & Carr, D. S. (2016). Introduction to sociology. New York, NY: WW Norton.

Wagner, D., Vollmar, G., & Wagner, H. T. (2014). The impact of information technology on knowledge creation: An affordance approach to social media. Journal of Enterprise Information Management27(1), 31-44.

Differential Diagnosis

October 18, 2017

Human emotions and psychological behaviors are regarded to be complex to comprehend, but through attributes such as dysfunction, personal distresses, violation of social norms and disabilities, abnormal mental behaviors that characterize disorders can be depicted. Diagnosis of these problems is undertaken as per the DSM -5 criteria that help in the characterization of the problem (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016).

In reference to the DSM-5 criteria for Personality Disorders and Henry case study information, the primary diagnosis for Henry would be Avoidant Personality Disorder. Patients diagnosed with APD exhibit significant patterns of social inhibitions, hypersensitivity to criticism, and feelings of inadequacy (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016). The DSM-5 criteria indicate that patients with APD exhibit avoidance of occupational activities involving much interpersonal contact due to fears of criticism and disapproval, symptoms well presented by Henry. Henry experiences feelings of intense anxiety at every thought of leaving his apartment, and he is terrified of the idea of interacting with crowds to an extent he shops late at night when there are fewer people on the streets. Consequently, he can no longer tolerate activities having large groups of people such as public means of transport, a reason for breaking up with his girlfriend and failure to apply for internships (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016). The fear is aggravated by the thoughts of not receiving help if he needed it. These behaviors satisfy DSM-D indicator of isolation and unwillingness to get involved with people and feelings of inadequacy. Henry panics, sweat profusely, experiences impound chest and feels nauseous hence reluctant to venture into new activities. He perceives himself as socially inept.

The first alternative to Henry’s case would be Schizoid Personality Disorder characterized by experiences of preference of solitude, lack of the desire for close relationships, emotional detachment, and minimal to none participation in pleasurable activities  (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016). Henry is noted to prefer isolation by the virtue he rarely leaves his apartment, and his fear of disapproval makes him emotionally detached as he cannot actively take part in his friends’ activities. While others enjoy the activities, Henry on the other hand overwhelmingly panics hence keeping a small pool of friends and detaches himself from taking part in pleasurable activities. Nonetheless, little interest in sex is an attribute for Schizoid Personality Disorder which is not exhibited by Henry (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016). He had a girlfriend whom they broke up because of his inactiveness and inability to actively take part in activities she was involved in due to his phobia to large groups. Also, the condition ensues from early age proceeding to adulthood but for Henry, it began at age 20, and this is his third year Henry is experiencing the condition.

Similarly, Henry’s extreme fear and panic on the thoughts of crowd interactions exhibit a social anxiety disorder classified under a type of anxiety disorder. This shall be the second alternative diagnosis for Henry. Patients diagnosed with this kind of disorder experience extreme fear leading to disconnection due to the potential of social scrutiny. The patients typically dread the thought of being evaluated negatively and are terrified of being rejected (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016). This leads to automatic seclusions and a feeling of inferiority. SAD patients also exhibit intense anxiety depicted by Henry who frequently becomes terrifieed to crowds of people. People with this condition typically feel they are watched and scrutinized to every detail hence spend much of their time worrying what could go wrong. Unlike avoidant personality disorders aligned to occupation activities, SAD is more attributed to the fear of social scrutiny (Kring, Sheri, Gerald, & John, 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kring, A. M., Sheri, L. J., Gerald, C. D., and John, M. N. (2016). Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders. 13th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley

Pro Choice

October 16, 2017

According to research, 86% of abortions take part in the developing world where abortion is highly restricted (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Additionally, 98% of all abortions worldwide are unsafe. Unsafe abortion has led to high mortality rate among women of the reproductive age. In the history of America, abortion was regarded a state matter rather than an individual issue. Abortion can result from the inability to access contraceptives, unwanted pregnancy, unpreparedness for responsibility, cases of rape and incest. The point of abortion has been controversial, and there is a debate in the USA on whether to legalize abortion or not. Pro-choice is the process of advocating for legalized abortion whereas pro-life is the process of restricting abortion. Furthermore, pro-choice means an individual makes her own choices regarding their reproduction. Pro-choice perceives a woman as an autonomous being who can make her personal decision. Pro-choice discourages unsafe abortion, and lastly pro-choice regards of pregnancy and childbirth as a massive financial undertaking. Unsafe abortion is leading to high mortality rate, and Pro-choice will be an excellent solution to this problem.

Pro-choice reduces instances of unsafe abortion. Every year, at least 68000 women die as a result of unsafe abortion, and therefore it is the leading cause of maternal mortality (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Abortion is regarded immoral and unreligious by the society and women, health providers who perform abortion are labeled and stigmatized. Abortion is also stigmatized because the pro-life community has identified to be the best technique of discouraging abortion. The society believes that abortion destroys sex purity and nurturing motherhood. Additionally, women end up conducting the abortion in quack doctors leading to the death of many pregnant women. Recent research shows that abortion not only affects the women who perform it but it affects the whole society at large (Jacob, 2006). Health care workers are also sources of stigmatization to women who seek the services from them. Research shows that stigmatization by health care workers have made many women travel away from the facilities next to them when seeking abortion services. From the above illustrations, discrimination creates fear, secrecy and trauma and women would instead go to unqualified personnel for the services rather than experiencing discrimination from health care workers and the society at large. Pro-choice gives women the power to decide what they have to do with their reproductive health and when the pro-choice law is passed, women will be willing to come out and seek safe abortion from qualified health workers without intimidation and stigmatization. Therefore, advocating for legal abortion would reduce the fear and discrimination on abortion and women will be free in seeking a safe abortion.

Pro-choice perceives childbirth and pregnancy as a massive financial undertaking. Every mother wishes to provide the best for her children. Parents want to take their children to the best schools, buy them fashionable clothing and feed them with nutritious food. All these wishes cannot be realized when a mother is financially unstable. Financial instability put both the mother and the baby at risk of health complications and death. Furthermore, the cost of pregnancy is also expensive especially to the women who lack health insurance. For instance, those who do not have medical cover spend about $2000 in the prenatal care services, and the cost of delivery and pregnancy can range from $3000 to $71000. By 2008, around 33% of women who performed abortion did it due to lack of health insurance (“WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion,” n.d.). Also, pregnancy happens as a result of two people that are a man and a woman. Some men deny their pregnancies hence leaving the women frustrated and depressed. The women become depressed either because they are not financially stable or because their children will be labeled bastards by the society. According to The Independent, there is a story of a girl who decides to go for an abortion because of his irresponsible boyfriend. To prevent such frustrations, a woman may opt for abortion. Pro-choice perceives that women should not face all the consequences for something they did with a man. Pro-choice gives the woman to choose whether she would raise the child alone or perform an abortion as a result of depression and financial instability. Sex has been considered a sacred topic and people shy away when an issue on sex emerges. Research shows that teenagers who are educated efficiently about sex have a lower chance of getting pregnant (Page, 2006). Most states are not offering adequate reproductive health education, and this is the reason for increased rate of unwanted pregnancies that lead to abortion. When teens get pregnant, they usually lack the finance to take care of the pregnancy and childbirth cost and such instances can lead to unsafe abortion or even suicide. Pro-choice gives women the power to decide whether or not to keep the pregnancy when she is financially unstable hence reducing the risk of complication of either the mother or the unborn baby.

Pro-choice also regards women as autonomous hence they can make the decisions regarding their body (Weitz, 2013). There is a saying that goes; one man’s meat is another man’s poison. The saying only means that what someone may view to be right may be seen by another person to be wrong.  Each has a different background, religion, belief and way of doing things. This does not mean that people should stereotype other people’s opinions. When your actions do not interfere with the life of other people, then you have the right to do it. The pro-life activists are forcing their belief onto others while the pro-life is just empowering women to make their decisions regarding what they want. When the woman who has an unintended pregnancy decides to give birth and offer the kid to adoption, or whether the woman wants to terminate the abortion the pro-choice will support her decision (Page, 2006). It has been noted that in states with less restrictive laws on abortion have a lower number of unsafe abortion cases compared to the states with restrictive laws regarding abortion.  Unintended pregnancies are not planned for, and they happen as a result of accidents, unavailability and even wrong use of contraceptives. According to a recent study, almost half of the unintended pregnancies result from incorrect use of contraceptives and non-use of contraceptives. In this case, who should be blamed? Is it the laxity of the government health sector to provide affordable and accessible contraceptives? Before accusing and forcing women with unintended pregnancy to give birth, the government must ask themselves what strategies they are putting in place to avoid unwanted pregnancies that often lead to abortion. The sad part is that the government usually offers fake promises to pregnant women telling them to give birth because the babies will be accommodated at various children homes. Such instances have only resulted in the neglect of about 102,000 kids in the foster care system. A mother is the best person a child or baby will need, and if the mother is not ready to take up the motherhood responsibility, then she decides to terminate the pregnancy instead of bringing the baby to suffer in the face of this unpredictable world where empathy and generosity have been forsaken. Therefore, pro-life respects the independent decision of a woman regarding reproductive issues.

In conclusion, pro-life empowers women in making their own decisions, reduces the number of unsafe abortion and perceives pregnancy and childbirth as an aspect that requires financial stability. Unsafe abortions should be the last issue women should think of because it leads to increased maternal mortality deaths.  The state should ensure they make contraceptives available to all people so that they are reduced cases of unwanted pregnancies. When the government provides contraceptives, but they do not educate women on their correct usage, then that is a waste of time. They should, therefore, offer education on the use of contraceptives and reproductive health. Additionally, the government should formulate a law that ensures fathers support their kids emotionally and financially. Finally, they should pass the pro-choice law since everyone has the right to make their own decisions regarding their anatomy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Jacob, K. (2006). Abortion under attack: Women on the challenges facing choice. Emeryville, CA: Seal Press.

Page, C. (2006). How the Pro-Choice Movement Saved America: Freedom, Politics, and the War on Sex. Basic Books (AZ).

Weitz, T. A. (2013). Pro-Choice and Pro-Life Movements. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. doi:10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosp101.pub2

WHO | Preventing unsafe abortion. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs388/en/

Woman who aborted baby of irresponsible boyfriend earns internet’s sympathy | The Independent. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.theindependent.sg/woman-who-aborted-baby-of-irresponsible-boyfriend-earns-internets-sympathy/

 

 

Whistleblowing

October 13, 2017

Whistleblowing refers to the disclosure by an employee in a government or public workplace of the wrong doings that they may have observed, witnessed or heard about, how previous violations and practices have shaped current legal and business ethics policies and procedures (Johnson, 2003). What are the acts that can be reported by a whistle blower about a company? What is the right procedure in whistle blowing? How does whistle blowing affect an employee at the work place? Is it possible to conclude on the whistleblowing by focusing on the intent of the whistle blower? What aspects are related to retaliation against whistle blowing? These are some of the questions that when answered might help in understand the law, policies, procedures and effect of whistle blowing in business.

Usually the issue of whistle blowing involves the protection of the public interest and safety and cases that are reported do not involve personal grievances such as bullying. Cases that can be reported include cases of corruption, miscarriage of authority, possible pollution to the environment, crime cover up, use of illegal insurance terms or procedures and the carrying out of illegal activities at the work place among others. The topic of whistle blowing is one that is recognized by the law and hence there several laws that govern whistleblowers on the right and wrong procedures of exposing workplace wrong doings (Bower, 2012).

The incidence of organization’s being accused of wrong doing is increasing rapidly every day. Cases of fraud, corruption, illegal business transactions, use of drug money to fund operations and pollution cases by companies are always making headlines in the news today. Such news often bring up the need to congratulate the reporter who exposed the news but often, people forget about the people inside the organization that helped in exposing these malpractices. By exposing these wrong doings, these whistle blowers risk their employment status, their personal relations with their fellow employees and retaliation from the company management and workers.

Whistleblowers can either be actual or intended whistleblowers. Actual whistleblowers are the once that observe a wrong doing, make a decision to report it and eventually make a claim on the issue. Intended whistleblowers on the other hand are the ones who are given information about a wrong doing and have given information on whether they are going to file the claim or not. Unlike the actual whistle blower, an intended whistle blower has not exactly reported the matter to the rightful authorities(Bower, 2012). Researchers justify the use of data that is provided by the intended whistle blower as opposed to that provided by the actual blower. This is because actual whistle blowers often filter the information that they provide in the thought that the information from the actual organization will not conceal their identity. Actual whistleblowers often fear that giving some information may sell out their identity and cause retaliation from the organization. Another reason why intended whistle blowers are preferred is that it is difficult to locate an actual whistleblower for questions.

Correct whistleblowing procedure must be followed for a claim to stand. The first step- in the procedure is raising a concern on the wrong doing. This can be done through a trade union representative or the public concern at work. Once the claim has been raise, the next step involves internal evaluation where the issue is reviewed and investigated internally and a person is selected to handle the matter. If the claim is complex, a formal investigation in the matter is launched and a decision made after the investigation. In a situation where the whistleblower report matters to the outside bodies such as the police, then they are advised to seek professional help in order to understand the law involving the whistleblowing process (Johnson, 2003).

Whistleblowing statutes are set in order to protect an employee who has raised concerns of the employers’ misconduct from discharge or discrimination (Miceli & Near, 1992).  In the United States, in accordance to the federal civil service, it is illegal for the government to take legal action on an employee who discloses information that she/ he believes is a violation of the law. Any federal employee who is making a claim must show that there was a disclosure of protection and that the accused knew of the disclosure and retaliation was made to the effect of it(Bower, 2012).

An employer who retaliates against a whistleblower who exposed information in good faith is subject to disciplining up or even dismissal from the work place. Any person who raises a concern must act in good faith and must have reasonable grounds for bringing up the matter for investigation (Miceli & Near, 1992). As much as whistleblowing is meant for dealing with workplace misconduct, corruption and fraud cases, sometimes the information may not be genuine and the person may not be acting in good faith. This is why there are procedures and rules that are set aside to govern these whistleblowing processes and also ensure that the right of a whistleblower is protected.

There are many people who might have information about wrong doings at their workplace and out of fear, never come out to report them for action to be taken. This is sometimes as a result of fears or the lack of knowledge on how to go about it. To solve this problem, more governments should set up more channels to advocate for whistleblowers and by so doing, they will help in achieving collective law enforcement globally.

 

 

References

Johnson, R. A. (2003). Whistleblowing: When it works and why. Boulder [u.a.: Rienner.

Bowers, J., Fodder, M., & Lewis, J. (2012). Whistleblowing: Law and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miceli, M. P., & Near, J. P. (1992). Blowing the whistle: The organizational and legal implications for companies and employees. New York: Lexington Books.

 

 

Aerobic Training

October 13, 2017

In this information age, weight loss, muscle building, and body fitness in general has received a lot of attention from social media and lifestyle magazines. Aerobic training is one of the training routines that have received much of this attention. It has been touted as the best way to shed off a lot of body fats. Well, these are some of the true facts about aerobic training. Aerobic training is essential in creating the fat-burning zone. Second, it increases body efficiency in burning excess fats. However, some of these facts are often misrepresented in the popular lifestyle platforms.

First, while aerobic training creates the fat-burning zone, it is a fact that more body fat is burnt at low-intensity aerobic training than at high intensity aerobic training. Most explanations assert that for the body to lose fats, one has to engage in high intensity aerobic exercises (Patel, 2016). Second, although aerobic training makes the body an efficient fat-burning machine, it is ineffective in burning fats, at least in terms of creating and maintaining the tools used in the body. In other words, it does not demand more muscle action than other more effective muscle burning tools (Dulhunty, 2017). It is also important to underline that when aerobic training is used to burn calories, the body slows metabolism leading to higher accumulation of fat (Patel, 2016).

Aerobic training can help in burning fat, but it is not the most effective. A combination of weight training and cardio or aerobics can help in burning calories and fat while also giving the body the balance to lose fats and maintain the fat losing mechanism (Patel, 2016). It has also been argued that taking a walk or taking part in a leisurely swim would help burn more fat than high intensity aerobic training (Dulhunty, 2017).

Going into the future, this knowledge will help me to balance my training regime in terms of losing fat and calories as well as building and maintaining body muscles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dulhunty, B. (2017, April 5). Cardio exercises – low or high intensity exercise burn body fat       faster? Fitness Revelation. Retrieved from http://corporate.fitnessrevelation.com/cardio-    exercises-low-or-high-intensity-exercise-burn-body-fat-faster

Patel, C. (2016, April 4). An effective exercise routine for beginners. Retrieved form             http://www.fitandhealthyexercise.com/an-effective-exercise-routine-for-beginners.html

Doctoral Study Document Analysis

October 13, 2017

Rubric: 5. the problem statement, purpose, research questions, and/or hypotheses, design, and methodology are consistent with the state of knowledge development in the discipline described in the literature review.

The doctoral document has done exceptionally well. This part if of exceptional quality and that is why the reviews approved the document for doctoral study. Steve Gardiner has started by defining the problem that he has set up to solve in the study that he was conducting. He started by identifying the previous studies that had been done on the area of the students’ motivation and engagement. He acknowledged that the previous studies that had been conducted by the scholars acted as the basis by which many professors developed programs to engage students and motivate them. He goes and identify that there are problems that arises from the parents and educators that make policies that do not favour extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

In stating the problem, he provided the evidence of the problem at local level and from the literature that he reviewed (Holloway & Brown, 2016). The research question is direct and easy to guide the researcher on collecting data to the answer the question. The research question is direct and relates to the topic under the study. The hypothesis that was developed tend to provide answer to the research problem Gardiner also acknowledged that the research was not all about proving the hypothesis but finding evidence that either supports or are against the hypothesis.

The method that was used in this doctoral study is historical methodology and analysis. The study in itself is qualitative and thus this method is relevant to the topic and to the study design. The Historical analysis helped Gardiner to analyse the relationship between the policies and intrinsic motivation among students in Billings Public Schools in Billings, Montana.

Historical method is appropriate in this research since it did not require much of primary data. It required the researcher to observe the past activities and also to review various secondary sources so as to collect concrete information to solve the identified problem (McDowell, 2002). Methodology used in this doctoral study was of acceptable quality since it is appropriate in the qualitative study. The historical analysis was also appropriate in ensuring that Gardiner came to the right conclusion so that he can make the right recommendations.

Rubric: 4. the literature review is exhaustive and reflects mastery of the current state of knowledge in the discipline related to the area of research.

The quality of the literature review in this doctoral study is exceptional. Gardiner has used more than relevant sources in the research. He has arranged the reviews of literature in different chapters and different aspect so as to make them easy to understand and apply. The review of literature at the statement and explaining the significant of the problem is relevant since it makes it easy to understand the various gaps in the previous researches that have been done. Understanding the gaps in the previous researches is important in knowing the relevant of the doctoral study and why the research was approved in the first place.

At the part of methodology, most of the information that is being analysed is gathered through the secondary sources and thus the relevance if the literature reviews at this juncture. Gardiner has presented all the relevant information and has used the best articles, proceedings and books that are relevant for the research topic. He has managed to exhaust most of the sources that he decided to use in the doctoral article.

According to Tony Lynch (2014) in a doctoral writing it is important to understand your sources and mostly how to get your sources. Gardiner has showed how he was able to acquire the relevant sources that he used in the doctoral document. Showing other people how he got the sources that he used in the paper showed that the sources are reliable and can easily be accessed by other scholars.

From the way the literature has been presented, it shows that Gardiner has the mastery of the content that he is presenting. He has presented the reviews of literature in different chapters and different sections so that they are easy to understand and does not become confusing for other readers. It is common to find other writers making one section of literature review and presenting all the reviews of the literature. However, I believe that at a doctoral writing level, it is better to review the sources differently so that confusion does not arise.

Conclusion

The doctoral study by Steve Gardiner is of exceptional quality regarding rubric 4 and 5. Gardiner has done well when starting the research problem and research question. He identified what other researchers had done before regarding student motivation before identifying the problem that the study intends to cover. He then developed a research question help him through the research and writing of the study. He also recognized that the investigation was designed to look for evidence either to support the hypothesis or not. The research was not geared towards proving the hypothesis. The literature review was done both intensive and extensive. Gardiner even provided information on how he went about finding the best sources to use for the doctoral work.

 

 

 

Reference

Holloway I. & Brown L. (2016). Essential of Qualitative Doctorate. Routledge.

Lynch T. (2014. Writing up your PhD (Qualitative Research). University of Edinburgh.

McDowell, W. (2002). Historical research: A guide.  Harlow, England: Pearson

Education.

 

Resistance Training

October 13, 2017

Introduction

A healthy lifestyle is the sum of one’s nutritional diet and physical activity; therefore, one’s longevity is subject to the exercises one engages in. It is apparent that the current generation has shunned outdoor activities for the indoor comforts. However, there is a section of the society that is still pro-exercise, and this has led to the controversial topic of resistance training for children.

Resistance training has its proponents and opponents however it is clear that this form of exercise is beneficial to young athletes as it puts them on a progressive path. The aspect of early sports specializations brings recognizes the need for coaches to have their athletes compete in a  broad spectrum activities that ensure that these athletes are all rounded concerning a particular sports event. Hence, strength training provides an athlete with a stable foundation that expands his sporting options (Falk, 2015).

Resistance training prepares these young athletes for their future through the process of long-term athletic development. It is achieved through the holistic view that ensures this young athletes deeps his toe in various beneficial physical activities. It ensures that this athlete becomes more coordinated and robust as they advance in their athletic careers. Strength training also reduces the risk of injury as this individual becomes more resistant to injury. His development will ensure that he has a higher level of motor skills and a better knowledge on how his body mover. Hence, he reduces his risk of injury by taking more control over his body (Haff, Gregory, Triplett, Travis 2015).

 

 

Conclusion

Resistance training helps one stabilize the core and distributing his bodyweight. It also reduces the occurrences of burnouts or overspecialization. Hence, optimal specialization should be held off until the young adult has a clear input in deciding their future. Therefore, this athlete should have a taste of all the various sports that promote his skills. Therefore, parents and coaches should ensure that their young athletes are proficient in all planes and this will develop their adaptability both in and outside the field. Hence, all children should be exposed to various modes of physical activities if they wish to benefit from resistance training (Hoffman, 2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Falk, B. (2015). Resistance Training in Children, Pediatric Exercise Science, 27(1), 13-17. doi:10.1123/pes.2015-0028

Haff, G. Gregory, Triplett, N. Travis (2015) Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 4th Edition, Human Kinetics

Hoffman, J. (2014). Physiological aspects of sport training and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.