Planet Ocean

Video play & Audio

            A critical review of the film Plante Ocean reveals that the producers embraced one of the most breathtaking cinematography experiences for the audience. The film provides an experience that is quite unique for the audience, in terms of the nature of the use of the camera. There are many stunning scenes and sound effects that utilize the aerial view of the ocean and some of the wildlife in focus. The main factor that makes this experience quite overwhelming is that the views are from different coastlines across the world, including the North Pole, Lagos, and even parts of Asia (Arthus-Bertrand & Pitiot, 2012). The video orientation elements of the film are quite perfectly executed to give the audience an experience that makes them want to be involved in exploring the ocean. The video is presented in the 1.77:1 aspect ratio and at 1080p to provide a very impressive video play, which is enhanced with digital sound.

Setting

            The film is designed to be an informative experience for the audience, and this is executed through the development of a clear picture of the underwater life. The film reveals the presence of fish and algae and other forms of life in the underwater environment that makes it seem like a fantasy. There are many forms of life that have been attributed to supporting human life by producing air and food for humans. The film is entertaining as the audience is taken through an exploration of the bottom of the ocean, but the main purpose of the process is to reveal to man that the ocean is one of the most important natural resources. The audience is provoked to look into the functions of the ocean, in terms of supporting the life of humans and other living things, and this is meant to make people think about their approaches in exploiting the oceans beyond its level of capability to sustain the demand for the associated resources (Arthus-Bertrand & Pitiot, 2012). For instance, there is an indication that there has been an increase in the fishing activities in the oceans across the world. The quest for the acquisition of food for the growing population has seen fishermen using sophisticated technology for fishing, and this is quite unfortunate because it has led to overfishing.  

Cinematography

            The cinematography and the scenes associated with this film are quite outstanding because the directors provided images that are quite breathtaking and impressive to the viewers. However, as the film progresses, there is a feeling of guilt that develops in the viewers as they discover that they are part of the problem that has led to the disruption of the beauty of the ocean. The growth in technology in film production has led to the ability to develop elements of art that enhance the quality of the scenes, including the angles of the video, the lighting, and editing of the scenes to include slow-motion and other creative elements that improve the visual effect on the audience.

Final Thoughts

            The film reveals that the rate of exploitation of the resources in the oceans has surpassed the capability of the oceans to replace the resources. Fishing has particularly been associated with eliminating the ability of the oceanic regions to replenish the fish and other resources that are being actively consumed across continents. It is also apparent that there are instances where the process of retrieving some of the resources from the floor of the ocean lead to the destruction of ecosystems and the dismantling of species that are currently endangered. The film reveals the level of selfishness that man has embraced in the quest for partisan interests relating to the marine environment (Arthus-Bertrand & Pitiot, 2012).

Reference

Arthus-Bertrand, Y. & Pitiot, M. (2012). Planet Ocean.

Empirical Research and Analytics

Empirical Research and Analytics

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Objectives

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the British Undergraduate University majors on the level of conspiracy. Also, this objective may be broken down into the following specific motivations of the study.

  1. To investigate whether science majors do have lower GCB score than non-science majors.
  2. To investigate whether science majors do have lower GCB score than humanity majors.
  3. To investigate whether science majors do have lower GCB score than other majors.

1.2 Research questions

In the context of this study, my main research question was: how does British undergraduate majors influence the level of conspiracy among students? Further to this, the specific research questions are as outlined below.

  1. Do science majors yield lower GCB scores than non-science majors?
  2. Do science majors yield lower GCB scores than humanity majors?
  3. Do science majors yield lower GCB scores than other majors?

1.3 Hypothesis statement

To develop the study empirically, I formulated hypothesis for each and every objective stated above. This was done in a way that includes both the null and the alternative hypotheses. These hypotheses are specified as follows.

  1. Null hypothesis: Science majors do not yield lower GCB scores than non-science majors.

Alternative hypothesis: Science majors do yield lower GCB scores than non-science majors.

  1. Null hypothesis: Science majors do not yield lower GCB scores than humanity majors.

Alternative hypothesis: Science majors do yield lower GCB scores than humanity majors.

  1. Null hypothesis: Science majors do not yield lower GCB scores than other majors.

Alternative hypothesis: Science majors do yield lower GCB scores than other majors.

The hypotheses stated above were tested at 5% significance level, which means that the alpha level is 0.05. Therefore, probability values lower than this threshold leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis, otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

2.0 Methods

2.1 Participants

I hired a total of 1,014 participants to conduct this study using an online channel know as Prolific. In terms of demography, the youngest participant was aged 18 years while the oldest was 75 years old. In addition, the average age in this online survey 31.1 years, with a standard deviation of 13.4 years. In terms gender, 533 respondents were male while another 446 respondents indicated that they belonged to the female gender. The remaining 35 indicated that they belonged to “other” gender which is neither male nor female.

2.2 Materials

            The level of conspiracy was measured using the GCB (Generic Conspiracy Belief) score which measures the level of degree beliefs in an individual. This method uses a 15 point scale to determine the magnitude of the variable or score.

2.3 Procedure

The participants were requested to indicate their ages and gender with various options available to cover all possible categories accommodated. Apart from this, the researcher through the online questionnaire, requested respondents to indicate their opinions regarding their perception on conspiracy.

2.4 Study design

A research design enables the research to specify the structure of their study, based on the type of variables they are interested in investigating. In this study, I used the quasi-experiment, between subjects design. Such a design is used to compare individuals in pre-existing groups of the variable. The independent variable was the university major with three categories namely science major, humanity major, and other majors. The dependent variable was the GCB score of the participants.

3.0 Results

3.1 Descriptive statistics

3.2 Inferential statistics

4.0 Discussion

4.1 Summary of results

4.2 Alignment with Previous Literature.

4.3 Study strengths and Limitations

4.4 Recommendations for the future

4.5 Implications of Findings

Reflective essay about Anna Duong

Anna Duong is a 21-year-old female and is a single parent to a one-year-old girl who has been suffering from anxiety problems after a burglary. She was recommended to me by her doctor, Dr. Marvel (Edward Street Medical Practice).

Part A Strengths

 During our first meeting, she responded warmly to my salutation after which I began to explain the importance of the session and what steps I would have to take to lower her anxiety and boost her self-esteem. Her initial warm nature was due to her optimism that she will find help for her anxiety problems. The warm and professional greeting between me and Anna were natural and genuine. They served as some sort of ice breaker to allow the client to feel comfortable enough to speak freely about her experience. The use of appropriate language was aimed at avoiding confusing the client with jargonistic language while ensuring a warm and calm environment was maintained throughout the session. My demonstration of respect, genuineness, and empathy was aimed at ensuring that client was relaxed and to allow a good rapport was built. Showing genuine emotion was aimed at showing the client that I cared and this made her open up even more. The use of minimal encouragers throughout the session was aimed at encouraging Anna to express herself more.  I also made minimal distracting movements while maintaining appropriate eye contact, body language, and posture. The client seemed to be a little bit hypervigilant despite the client reporting that she was jittery. I tried to use thee encouragers randomly to prevent me from sounding generic and repetitive. The good body language was aimed at ensuring that I maintained a connection with the clients. It made the client more focused since there were fewer distractions. The client was already suffering from anxiety problems and any unnecessary problems might have caused her to feel uncomfortable.

During the counseling session, I discovered my empathy towards the client was one of my main strengths. Empathy allowed me to correctly paraphrase and identify Anna’s emotions. According to a 2017 study conducted on Child-Centered Play Therapy, indicated that empathy was integral for a counselor to build both a personal and professional relationship with a client (Selva, 2020). In a similar study aimed at demonstrating the impact of empathy on alcoholic patients showed that therapists and counselors who demonstrated less empathy in their sessions led to clients being more likely to continue drinking (Selva, 2020). The use of empathy is an important factor in connecting to a client and I believe by showing Anna empathy she is more likely to gain a lot from our sessions.

My questioning and clarification skills were good as I made sure to clarify points that seemed too general and questioned what her thoughts were on the thought of others were on her action. I appropriately used open and closed-ended questions to ensure that Anna was able to fully express herself. Some of the closed-ended questions could have been made open to prevent leading the client. I also used paraphrasing and summery as a means of clarifying information as well as pauses and silence appropriately. My questioning skills were aimed at probing her story to better understand what happened and her stressors. The appropriate use of closed and open-ended questions was aimed at giving Anna more flexibility to open up about her situation to allow me to give to get a clear idea of her situation as well as make me more empathic about her situation. Anna had just experienced a traumatic situation and she needed to leeway to better express her thoughts and her feelings to allow me to properly help her. Paraphrasing and summarizing was aimed at confirming the client’ thought and feelings throughout the session. This allowed me to reflect on the main points spoken by the client as well as have a better sense of direction on what future sessions with the client might entail. It is important to avoid any sense of confusion when understanding what the client is experiences and problems. Anna was likely to miss some details of her encounter that might be crucial in helping her recover.

Part B Weaknesses

One of my weaknesses during the session was listening barriers. This was affected by how I questioned Anna as well as how the session was steered (Selva, 2020). The main reason for this was my nervousness throughout the session as well as the inadequate planning on what needs to be said and the questions that need to be asked. During the session, there was an appropriate use of language. The language I used was friendly and professional. I checked the client to ensure that she did not have any hearing disability. Throughout the session, I demonstrated respect, empathy, and genuineness to the client. There were times that I felt nervous and I laughed a few times in times that could be described as inappropriate.

I would have hoped to become more friendly and warm towards the client since it would have made the client feel like she is in a safe space. The majority of people that experience traumatic situations usually try to retreat from society due to the fear they have. Anna had an anxiety issue that made her nervous in public. A warmer reception would be advantageous in calming her so that she can fully express herself in the session. The downside of trying to be too friendly is that I would seem to be pretentious and she would have retreated even more from opening herself from me. I would have used less professional and more friendly language as a way of getting her to open up more. This would have made Anna more likely to open up more about her situation. The downside to this is that Anna might have not taken the session seriously further damaging her chances of recovering from her anxiety problem. I would have used to have also reduced the number of hand gestures as a means of preventing the client from being distracted. The client is suffering from anxiety and this would have made it easier for her to focus on what is being said. The downside to this approach is that it would have made it harder to encourage the client to tell me their story since she is unsure if I am following what she is saying. Based on my reflection I would have I plan to balance my use of both verbal and non-verbal cues. This will allow me to create a better connection with Anna to help her in recovering from her anxiety issues.

Reference

Selva, J. (2020). Understanding Empathy: What is it and Why is it Important in Counseling. PositivePsychology.com. Retrieved 20 September 2020, from https://positivepsychology.com/empathy/#:~:text=Why%20is%20Empathy%20Important%20in%20Counseling,-One%20study%20found&text=Some%20of%20the%20specific%20benefits,of%20feeling%20happy%20and%20secure.

Article Critique Solution

In the medical field, the issue of interruption has grown to be topical due to the impact it has on the medication preparation as well as during the double-checking process where there is a need to make sure that medical processes have been done properly and are free from error (Huckels-Baumgart et al., 2016). This paper will seek to analyze two academic articles that are centered on the topic of medical interruptions and their impact on the effectiveness of nurses and how this can be averted. This will be followed by a general comparison of the two articles to establish any meeting or diversion of the minds on the topic and the impact it has on the medical field. 

This prompted empirical research that was done by a team of five medical researchers entitled, “A combined intervention to reduce interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking: a pilot-study evaluating the impact of staff training and safety vests.” (the first article). This study was based on the appreciation of the challenging the nursing job is stemming from the numerous steps that a nurse has to follow in the duties and acknowledging that any interruptions to the nurse processes and procedures may have severe effects on the patients and the system should they lose their focus on their job (Huckels-Baumgart et al., 2017). An interruption here is defined as any circumstances whereby the nurse stops preparing or checking medication to pay attention to an external stimulus that may emanate from the nurse herself, colleagues, or the environment. Distractions are also considered as a form of interruption. The study, therefore, sought to establish if training and safety vests may have a positive impact on the reduction of interruptions during medication preparation and double checking which key procedures in medicine considering the negative impact that the interruptions have on the processes of clinicians (KIM et al., 2011).   

To spearhead this study, the researchers depended on the PubMed and Embase databases for accessing literature on the topic using keywords that include medication safety, safety vests, interruptions, medication/drug preparation, drug administration, interventions, distraction, and medication among others. However, this was a pilot study hence there was not much information that was found in the databases. From the literature amassed from the PubMed and Embase databases, there was an appreciation that even though there has not been any physical evidence that training and safety vests do help in minimizing interruption during medication preparation, although safety vest has been used with a positive impact in fields such as construction, aviation, and road traffic industry where they are used in areas of maximum concentration (Anthony et al., 2010).  As such a study was carried out in the clinical setting to establish whether lack of interruption and wearing of brightly colored safety vests will help alleviate the problem.

The pilot study was therefore done in a medical ward which had 20-beds allotted to 12 patient rooms manned by a total of 28 nurses who were rotating through four shifts. The medical preparation was to be done by one nurse before being checked by another nurse throughout the day. All nurses who participated in the study were qualified and participation was consensual (Relihan et al., 2010). The interventions that were on the table were staff training and safety vests. Regarding the safety vests, all nurses who were ceased with critical tasks were asked to wear safety vests that were labeled ‘Do Not Disturb’. The data collection was done before the training and implementation of the safety vests and comparison data was collected after training and the implementation of safety vests. The pilot study was done over a period of 3 months.

Results from the pilot study indicated that mean interruption rates were reduced from 36.8 pre-intervention to 32.1 interruptions per hour during medication preparation post-intervention 1. The interruption rates also reduced to 28.3 interruptions per hour due to post-intervention 2. This produced an overall decrease in interruptions by 23.1%. Observation before the interventions, nearly half of the interruptions were caused by the nursing colleagues whereas post the intervention, 32% of the interruptions were self-initiated with now only 23% now being due to colleagues. Other interruptions were also found to be caused by the missing records  (Bower et al., 2015). 

The research, therefore, concluded that the interruptions were first being caused by nursing staff mostly and after the implementation of the safety vests and training, there was a significant decrease in interruptions.

Regarding the validity of the study, it pertains to how much we can be confident with the results of the study. Given that the pilot study was taken over a reasonable period and in a medical setup with all participants being professional nurses, the findings can be trusted (Anthony et al., 2010). Also, there are fewer chances of confounding. 

It is also important to note that the participating nurses were chosen randomly from a population of 90 and that there was a study protocol that outlined how to administer the study all of which increase internal validity. Concerning external validity, this is where there is the consideration of how well the results of the study may be used in other settings. From the project, it appears that these results may be generalized to the real world as the issue of safety vests is already being used in other industries such as construction and aviation in areas that are of intensive concentration (TOMIETTO et al., 2012). 

The second article is entitled, “Nurses’ experiences with newly acquired knowledge about medication management: A qualitative study” that was carried out by a team of four medical academics. This was a qualitative study that sought to ascertain how nurses can apply new knowledge in their practices that would have been acquired through initiatives such as the Medication Management Programme (MMP). This was motivated by the appreciation that lack of knowledge has affected the delivery of service by nurses which has caused avoidable mistakes and errors in the past (Høghaug et al., 2019). The study acknowledges that the most errors that occur in the health setup occur during the medication preparation and administration stages. 

The MMP program is a qualification that combines e‐learning and classroom teachings that are focused on pharmaceutical preparation and distribution. The participants were allowed to take tests immediately after the program and after the subsequent three months. This study involved the interviewing of participants openly after they had taken their tests allowing them to speak openly about their experiences. The data was collected from 10 female respondents who were between the age of 24 and 34 years with a range of experience that spanned between 3 months and 11 years.

The analysis of data was done through thematic coding following verbatim transcribing of the interviews soon after the interviews had taken place. Upon transcribing, phrases in the text were reduced and organized into various common headings, which allowed the identification of themes (TOMIETTO et al., 2012). From this study, two themes were ascertained as follows:

  • There was an appreciated awareness of one’s knowledge and the confidence to use and share that knowledge,  
  • There were also barriers to safe practice that included time pressure as well as the  divergence between MMP‐based knowledge and clinical practice

This study, however, concluded that the nursing workforce is appreciative of the impact that programs such as the MMP can have in their capacities and capabilities and hence there is a general understanding that the MMP should be administered to all health institutions and regularly as opposed to providing it to new nurses alone. According to the interviews, all nurses who partook acknowledged that the MMP program had improved their knowledge which enabled them to share it through professional discussions thereby revealing any errors that they may have been practicing (Høghaug et al., 2019). 

 Also, the interviews revealed that there is great importance for a good working environment as it helps them to practice safe medicine and also allows them to work with an open mind. This creates an atmosphere of teamwork which makes it comfortable for a person to ask questions whenever they need support and help. A good working environment also assists in boosting professionalism (Prakash et al., 2014).

 However, despite having established that the training programs such as the PMM have an impact on the performance of the nurses, there was also a revelation from the thematic analysis that there are also factors that deter good practice in medicine which may also need to be attended to (Smeulers et al., 2013). This is also supported by previous studies that found out that important tasks are often omitted when nursing shifts are characterized by time pressures, lack of resources, and high workloads.

  Also, the nurses highlighted that medication management is considered a high-risk area and hence it is generally tressing as one would want to avoid errors or mistakes but inevitably increasing the risk of the same errors. However, the general findings of this study revealed that there is a general divergence between the MMP acquired knowledge and the clinical practice with regards to switching medicines with the same effect when double-checking as well during hygiene procedures.

However, the validity of the study may face some challenges in that most of their participants had less than 1-year experience as nurses which has a high chance of affecting the findings. Also, the aspect of conducting a study based only on interviewing the participants may have less strength rather than conducting a study of evaluating the impact of the PMM program through the use of on the job observations (Huckels-Baumgart et al., 2016).

From the examination of the two articles, it is sufficient to say that knowledge is important in improving the performance of nurses during medical preparation and double-checking the medicines. Also, interruptions may be managed through training and the adoption of safety vests as well as a full acknowledgment by the staff that they exist and need to be managed. The two articles also agree to the fact that the level of interruptions will be reduced significantly when training is administered to the clinical staff.

Word count: 1680

References

Anthony, K., Wiencek, C., Bauer, C., Daly, B., & Anthony, M. (2010). No Interruptions Please: Impact of a No Interruption Zone on Medication Safety in Intensive Care Units. Critical Care Nurse30(3), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.4037/ccn2010473

Bower, R., Jackson, C., & Manning, J. (2015). Interruptions and medication administration in critical care. Nursing In Critical Care20(4), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/nicc.12185

Høghaug, G., Skår, R., Tran, T., & Schou-Bredal, I. (2019). Nurses’ experiences with newly acquired knowledge about medication management: A qualitative study. Journal Of Nursing Management27(8), 1731-1737. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12864

Huckels-Baumgart, S., Baumgart, A., Buschmann, U., Schüpfer, G., & Manser, T. (2016). Separate Medication Preparation Rooms Reduce Interruptions and Medication Errors in the Hospital Setting. Journal Of Patient SafetyPublish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1097/pts.0000000000000335

Huckels-Baumgart, S., Niederberger, M., Manser, T., Meier, C., & Meyer-Massetti, C. (2017). A combined intervention to reduce interruptions during medication preparation and double-checking: a pilot-study evaluating the impact of staff training and safety vests. Journal Of Nursing Management25(7), 539-548. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12491

KIM, K., KWON, S., KIM, J., & CHO, S. (2011). Nurses’ perceptions of medication errors and their contributing factors in South Korea. Journal Of Nursing Management19(3), 346-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01249.x

Leon, A., Davis, L., & Kraemer, H. (2011). The role and interpretation of pilot studies in clinical research. Journal Of Psychiatric Research45(5), 626-629. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.10.008

Prakash, V., Koczmara, C., Savage, P., Trip, K., Stewart, J., & McCurdie, T. et al. (2014). Mitigating errors caused by interruptions during medication verification and administration: interventions in a simulated ambulatory chemotherapy setting. BMJ Quality & Safety23(11), 884-892. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2013-002484

Relihan, E., O’Brien, V., O’Hara, S., & Silke, B. (2010). The impact of a set of interventions to reduce interruptions and distractions to nurses during medication administration. BMJ Quality & Safety19(5), e52-e52. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2009.036871

Smeulers, M., Hoekstra, M., Van Dijk, E., Overkamp, F., & Vermeulen, H. (2013). Interruptions during hospital nurses’ medication administration rounds. Nursing Reports3(1), 4. https://doi.org/10.4081/nursrep.2013.e4

TOMIETTO, M., SARTOR, A., MAZZOCOLI, E., & PALESE, A. (2012). Paradoxical effects of a hospital-based, multi-intervention programme aimed at reducing medication round interruptions. Journal Of Nursing Management20(3), 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01329.x

Global Diasporas

Global Diasporas

Student’s Name

Institution of Affiliation

The Chinese have been deemed to be some of the earliest explorers, according to scholars such as Cohen. Scholars such as Cohen trace the history of the Chinese as trade diasporas. As the paper will discuss in detail later, the term trade Diasporas has several elements and connotations that define those falling within the class. The presence of the Chinese in our neighbourhood inspires this study to question several elements of Diasporas. The study relied on a group Chinese in the neighbourhood in an attempt to establish whether some of the underlying concepts on Chinese migration still hold. In its analysis, the study will examine how the neighbours live at their home, their relationship with their wider families, whether they are involved in any trade, whether there are differences between Chinese settlers in the neighbourhood and themselves, as well as how the three neighbours have adapted to the American culture. Through the study, the three participants establish several theories about Chinese Diasporas. One of the, most evident theories is the fact that the Chinese primarily migrated in the 1910s due to political, and economic factors. Secondly, the study notes through Mr Wang that the Chinese have different identities and social constructs that differ from each other. The study further establishes a decline in native culture. The decay in migration not only led to a reunification of families but has also led to the reorganization of family businesses. 

One of the main differentiating aspects between the Chinese and the rest of the population in our neighbourhood is the dialect. Whereas most of us perceive the Chinese to speak in a similar language and have a similar culture, the subjects of this study appear to disagree with our assumptions of the singularity of the Chinese culture. According to the subjects of this study, there exists a different identity that aids them in distinguishing the rest of the Chinese, an assertion that is fortified by McKeown. According to McKeown, the idea of a distinct entity called the “Chinese diaspora” is contentious since the Chinese have developed unique histories and identities in the societies where they live. McKeown further agrees with the assertions forwarded by the three Chinese that they have a distinct dialect. McKeown argues that the dissimilarities are evidenced in class, region, dialect, type of migration, as well as the nationality of origin (McKeown, 1991). 

Lisa Lowe, further points out that there is a possibility of a loss of the identity amongst the Chinese. Lowe contends that literature suggests that there has been a loss of “original” culture between the Chinese-born first generation and the American-born second generation (Lowe, 1991). It is, nonetheless, useful to note that Lisa’s contention is based on examining literature. In the particular case, the study attempted to establish the correctness or the absence thereof of the assertion by use of an elderly individual. In this particular case, Mr Wang, who is in his 70s narrates that most of the youth in their twenties are no longer interested in the culture and ways of the Chinese. Mr Wang, for instance, notes that most of the youth can barely communicate through Mandarin. Wei, a grandson to Mr Wang, who indicates there is a growing need for the youth to be ‘cool’, fortifies the contention by Mr Wang. Mr Wei narrates that one of the ways that Chinese children attempt to fit in the wider society is by learning and keeping up to date with popular culture, which involves immersing themselves into learning slangs as well as dressing in a particular way. Wei would thus fall into the category Lowe refers to as “American-born second generation.” The discussion by Wei is augmented by Lowe who contends that there is in existence a generational conflict between the likes of Mr Wang and Wei, which Lowe points out are differences between “native” Chinese values and the “| westernized-culture” of Chinese-Americans (Lowe, 1991). In essence, Mr Wang views himself more of a Chinese compared to Wei. Since this study has not attempted to examine the generational conflict in the wider Chinese literature, the study limits its assertions from conversations. 

With Mr Wang’s dialect being Mandarin, studies indicate that Cantonese, Hokkien is used by those from Taiwanese, and Hakka by those in South East Asia. These differences are challenging to establish for outsiders. The study did not delve into the differences between the languages used by different classes falling within the Chinese Diaspora classification. Nonetheless, Mr Wang informed us that they could easily differentiate the dialect as well as the culture one is from through the use of official language. Yet, Cohen argues that the limitations by the second-generation Chinese have not deterred them from cashing in on the Chinese tourism in Chinatowns. According to Cohen, Chinatowns have radically shifted their primary aim. Cohen, citing Kwong, argues that the migration of the rich to China has seen the rich opt to use banks that avoid strict regulations (Cohen, 2008). Apart from the introduction of bank systems, Kwong, as cited by Cohen, notes that the authentic versions put forward by the Chinese to the outsiders may be a facade. The observation by Kwong leads to the conclusion that the absence of knowledge by the outsiders on the Chinese culture can easily lead to the general population being duped.

The study further sought to establish the kinship system amongst the Chinese. To this end, the study asked the limited group of participants whether their relatives were born in the United States and whether they can trace their family tree. Mr Wang, who was more knowledgeable on the topic narrated that he was born in the United States and his parents had come into the United States in the 1910s. 

According to Robin Cohen, during the 1910s, the 1911 revolution may have precipitated migration. Cohen notes that the period witnessed a period where most of the Chinese worked abroad but maintained a close political, social and cultural relationship with Hsiang. Cohen further notes that the Chinese during the period served odd jobs such as laying railways across the United States and working on tropical plantations (Cohen, 2008). Mr Wang recollects that his grandparents had come with the hope of a better life and in search of greener pastures, a claim that Cohen agrees with. According to Cohen, the Chinese had the option of either starving at home or working hard abroad. Cohen notes that the subject has not found prominence within the Chinese literally community since it signifies a period where the Chinese surrendered on the face of an imperialist. The reason for migration by Mr Wang’s parents would thus fall within political, and, economic factors that made most of the Chinese to migrate. 

However, most of the family members such as Uncles and Aunts, came to the United States later on in the 1970s. Mr Wang gives a first-hand account of the limitation of Chinese during World War II. Mr Wang warns that most of his recollection is primarily hearsay and is based on his father’s recollection on policies passed that denied his brother from coming to the United States. Mr Wang nonetheless notes that the sons and a daughter of his father’s brother who was denied entry to the United States have occasionally joined them to the United States and live with them. McKeown, in his discussion, is of the view that migration occasioned after 1978 has largely contributed to the reunification of families (McKeown, 2005).

McKeown explains Mr Wang’s family business. Whereas Mr Wang contends that the family business has nothing to do with culture and is just a way of the family finding sustenance, McKeown is of the view that Chinese family businesses can be linked directly to the decay of migrant networks. According to McKeown, after World War 2, the Chinese restructured their businesses to include their spouses and children. The study notes that women run the shop. According to McKeown, traditionally, the family business was a reserve of the Male and a few best friends (McKeown, 2005).

The location of Mr Wang’s family business and their choice of settlement highlights several issues that define and are characteristic with Chinese Diasporas. According to Cohen, the Chinese primarily rely on Chinatowns as their unique institutional vehicles for them to conduct business, albeit, not settling in them. With the family business located at the heart of Chinatown, the family has opted to find settlement in our neighbourhood. Kwong, as cited by Cohen further, observes that a new wave of migration occasioned by wealthy Chinese has led the Chinatown and the composition of the Chinese migrants becoming fundamentally different. Whereas Mr Wang does not indicate any profound changes, Mr Wang notes that there is an increasing pressure to sell their businesses to wealthy Chinese who are desirous of modernizing Chinatown. Kwong, as cited by Cohen, further indicates that these wealthy Chinese have established dual citizenship and often have families in different places (Cohen, 2008).

Conclusion

Whereas to most of us, the Chinese are similar and perceived to lack distinct categories that differentiate them, and the Chinese have different classes, identity and social constructs. The dissimilarity amongst the Chinese Diasporas can be evidenced by not only their dialect but also by the region that the Chinese Diasporas come from. Through Mr Wang and his family, it is evident that the Chinese as Diasporas present some characteristics. Whereas Mr Wang is a trader, we can argue that the primary reason that his parents migrated to the United States as a result of economic and political factors. In contrast, his relatives arrived in the country after the lift of restrictions on migrants to visit; leading to an alteration of the conventional model business was done. Apart from the different reasons for migration, it is also evident that the Chinese identity may be transmitted through a generational gap. Based on the narrations by Wei, Chinese Diasporas continue to take up an approach that is Westernized to fit within the culture. The Westernization by the likes of Wei has led to a generational conflict between those such as Mr Wang and Wei.

References

Cohen, R. (2008). Global diasporas: An introduction. Routledge.

Lowe, L. (1991). Heterogeneity, hybridity, multiplicity: marking Asian American differences. Asian American Studies1, 254.

McKeown, A. (2005). Chinese diaspora. In Encyclopedia of Diasporas.

Global Diasporas

Global Diasporas Outline

Introduction

  • Thesis statement:  The Arab American community faces adverse negative stereotypes in the American culture that ascribe an essentialized otherness in the Arab-Muslim community; therefore, they should join forces with other minority groups to make effective reforms.
  • Diaspora of interest: Arab Americans
  • Rationale: Arab Americnas have to face numerous challenges politically, legally and economically especially the past two decades leading to the rise of the new radical right.
  • Main Topic: experience of Arab Americans with discrimination and negative stereotypes.
  • Supporting  Evidence:

History of Political Identity

  • Arab Americans went through two main historical stages in the formation of their political identity.

Issues facing  Arab Americans

  • The Arab American community faces issues such as lack of financial resources creating a great dissonance with the fundamentals of the United States policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
  • The many problems have necessitated cogent progress in the political realm to make the community more visible to the American society.
  • Discrimination Against Arab Americans: Arabs in the American Diaspora continually face discrimination due to their descent and background.

Formation of Ethnic Institutions

  • Their political ethos and praxis emerged with the formation of various ethnic institutions.

Conclusion

Despite the repeated frustrations of the Arab community in the United States, there is potential for a better future inside as well as outside America to regain their sovereignty and have the opportunity to live a more decent life and establish their position in the American polity.


GLOBAL DIASPORAS

Global Diasporas Outline

Introduction

  • Thesis statement:  The Arab American community faces adverse negative stereotypes in the American culture that ascribe an essentialized otherness in the Arab-Muslim community; therefore, they should join forces with other minority groups to make effective reforms.

History of Political Identity

  • Arab Americans went through two main historical stages in the formation of their political identity.

Issues facing  Arab Americans

  • The Arab American community faces issues such as lack of financial resources creating a great dissonance with the fundamentals of the United States policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.
  • The many problems have necessitated cogent progress in the political realm to make the community more visible to the American society.
  • Discrimination Against Arab Americans: Arabs in the American Diaspora continually face discrimination due to their descent and background.

Formation of Ethnic Institutions

  • Their political ethos and praxis emerged with the formation of various ethnic institutions.

Conclusion

Linguistic relativity (Language and Culture, it is a language and culture course))

 

 

 

 

 

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Linguistic Relativity; Critical Analysis

Scholars throughout history have considerably looked at the issue of linguistic relativity, in an attempt to assess the real influence of language to individual thoughts. Most scholars agree that indeed language influences thought and decision making but the extent and specific elements affected vary substantially. Phillip Wolff and Kevin Holmes have also partaken in the discussion, through their article titled “Linguistic relativity”. The article mainly suggests that language impacts on certain forms of thinking and could also make some distinctions challenging to avoid. The authors also note that language is capable of inducing a relatively schematic form of thinking, and negates the presumptions that language determines the primary sets of thoughts or that it overwrites conventional conceptual distinctions. The article effectively communicates to readers of the evidenced influence of language, and this paper highlights elements attributed to the success.

Firstly, the authors’ credibility appeals to the ethos if the readers. Kevin J Holmes has a bachelors in Human Biology, a masters in psychology and a doctorate in Psychology; cognition and Development, and is currently an Associate Professor of Psychology at Reed College. He has partaken in numerous research project in the area of cognition which affirms his authority in this area. Phillip M. Wolff is also a cognitive scientist with intense command in the field as he has engaged in numerous research and publications on the same. Readers can easily trust the information presented in the article easily, seeing that it comes from people with credible authority on the subject matter.

 

The authors also appeal to the logos of readers by providing realistic examples when extending their conventions. For instance, the work cites the differences between English speakers and Japanese speakers in light of spatial relations by citing a straightforward example. English speakers are cited as more inclined to differentiate objects based on shape, whereas Japanese and Yucatec Maya population tend to choose based on material. This connects readers to a real encounter. This then allows the authors to express their contention that even though there’s a difference based on language, it doesn’t rigidly hinder individuals from cogitating elements of encounter not encrypted in their language (Wolff & Holmes 2011).

The texts effectiveness is also accentuated by the fact that it draws heavily from the works of other researchers. Throughout the text, the authors provide significant findings by other researchers which adds into their conventions. Drawing data from other scholars, and employing it to affirm or negate an ideology gives the work more weight. This is because readers can attain a concise comprehension of the matter. For instance, the differential in spatial relations between Japanese and English speakers is drawn from research by Imai et.al. McDonough et al. provide data on the differences between the above groups regarding the distinction between loose and tight, which affirms that there is a difference (Wolff & Holmes 2011). The integration of notions held by different scholars thus allowed the readers to be more engaged in the subject matter, thus understanding the authors’ convictions. Readers are made to understand that there’s indeed a difference but it not sufficient to alter an individual from considering a viewpoint different from that encoded in their language.

To wrap it up, the article is effective in its delivery, subject to several factors which include appeal to ethos, appeal to logos and integration of numerous credible sources. These factors jointly make the text enjoyable while appealing to the reader’s attention. They allow the authors to express their conventions to readers deeming them successful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Wolff, P., & Holmes, K. J. (2011). Linguistic relativity. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science2(3), 253-265.

 

Linguistic relativity (Language and Culture, it is a language and culture course))

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

            Intellectual disability refers to the presence of the inability or limitations to the cognitive process that facilitate functional learning in individuals (Patel, Apple, Kanungo, & Akkal, 2018). There are different factors that influence this limitation, and while some of the challenges can be eliminated through the provision of various interventions to facilitate learning, others are not rectifiable. Intellectual disability is a form of mental health issue that could have an impact on the behavioral aspects of the individual; hence, in most cases, an attempt to enhance intellectual capabilities is geared toward ensuring that the victims of the disability can become independent adults (Lakhan, 2015). Just like many other mental health issues, intellectual disability can be controlled effectively if there is an early diagnosis. For instance, if the supportive interventions are applied in the early childhood learning stage, it is possible to significantly improve the learning capabilities of the individual in their adulthood. The impairments that influence intellectual disability have to be identified at an early age so that therapeutic approaches can be applied to help the individual to boost their cognition (McGill, et al., 2018). Intellectual disability may also be caused by underlying mental health conditions that are treatable; hence, early diagnosis should be targeted. The World Health Organization (WHO) is among the entities that have actively called for nations to focus on the enhancement of mental health outcomes, including intellectual disabilities.

Diagnosis/Causes

            Intellectual disability is diagnosed through the positive identification of the inability to engage in cognitive functions normally, having deficits in adaptive functions and having difficulties in achieving the learning milestones associated with the development process (Pennington, McGrath, & Peterson, 2019). Normal cognitive skills are developed cumulatively, and people with a normal cognitive function are able to develop short term and long-term memory, which comes in handy in solving the normal challenges. If an individual portrays the lack of such ability, it is apparent that their cognition is challenged. For instance, if an individual has difficulty learning their first language, learning in school, and engaging in activities that require active reasoning, they are positively diagnosed with intellectual disability (Gopalan, 2016). Adaptive functions like language, memory and knowledge have to be continuously enhanced, but if this is not achieved, the individual should be taken through active diagnosis of their intellectual disability. The social processes also highlight the ability to learn. Some of the causes of intellectual disability include genetic abnormalities that cause underdevelopment to some parts of the brain, environmental factors in the early learning stages, and exposure to harmful elements that alter the neurocognitive development processes (Britt, Davies, & Daffue, 2018). Physical injuries to the brain, infections, and malignancy may also have an impact on the cognitive processes of the victim.

Intellectual Disability in Non-English Speakers

            The non-English speakers in the nation are mostly refugees and asylum seekers from different parts of the world. Since the diagnosis process of the intellectual disabilities is a function of evaluating the individuals through observation and interaction with them, it is relatively difficult to identify such conditions where language barriers exist. For this reason, it is imperative to look into ways of bridging the language gap. This can be done through the engagement with translators as applied in other mental health areas. Whenever there is a client who cannot speak English, the professionals introduce translators to facilitate effective communication and to enable the assessments that require the observation of the clients during the interactions. With the non-English speaking victims, intellectual disabilities can only be identified if there is a critical focus on eliminating the language barrier. Most refugees, especially children, are exposed to environments where their mental wellness is jeopardized, and they may require various forms of therapy to help them to achieve normal cognitive development (Mimi, Kwan, & Lau, 2018). There should be a proactive approach by the mental health providers to provide culturally safe environments for non-English speakers facing intellectual disabilities. This should also be extended to the education system, whereby the models of learning should accommodate such victims of intellectual disability.

Challenges in Screening

            When screening for intellectual disability, the most effective way of identifying the level of severity in the condition is through observation, interviewing, and assessing their performance in handling various tasks. This implies that there is a need for the presence of a common language of interaction between the professionals and the clients. However, when dealing with individuals who are not able to use English, the language barrier makes it relatively difficult to collect information from the clients. It is important to ensure that there is a language bridge between the client and the providers so that the extent of the condition, as well as the causes can be established. There are many clients who require translators to help the professionals to identify the best interventions to enhance the learning capabilities of the clients (Mimi, Kwan, & Lau, 2018). However, in cases where the victims are refugees who can only converse in their local dialects, getting a translator is quite difficult. This implies that the standard screening approaches may not always work with these clients. The standard assessment tools are associated with surveys, questionnaires, and interviews, as well as self-assessments that provide a clear picture of the mental wellness of the clients. However, without a common language and the inability to translate the clients’ language, the screening process has to be dependent on unconventional approaches. These approaches may not always be accurate because the professionals have to rely entirely on observations and they can only assess skillsets, with limited accuracy.

Previous Research on ID Prevalence in non-English Speakers

            According to Dickerson & Dickerson (2020), there is a significantly larger number of children in non-English speaking communities that have Autism than children from English speaking families. The researchers conducted a study in Texas, where they revealed that there are many families with autistic children, but the identification of the condition is challenged because of the lack of communication channels that are effective between the victims and the providers. Most of the children are confined to their homes without any hope in getting the required mental health attention to enhance their cognitive capabilities through therapeutic approaches. Milne et al. (2017) conducted a study that revealed that children in non-English speaking families are more likely to miss out on accessing services that enhance their learning capabilities because of the lack of efforts to accommodate their unique needs. There is a clear indication that most of the interventions and assessments are designed to serve children who can communicate effectively in English, and the lack of platforms that focus on the needs of other children with language barriers implies that the outcomes of mental wellness among the victims will keep deteriorating.

Karvonen & Clark (2019) looked into the complex needs of students with intellectual disability and in the process of learning English. The students attempting to learn English as a second language, but have intellectual disabilities have unique needs in the instructional process, and they are likely to face major challenges in the learning process. This challenge is extended to all non-English children with intellectual disability because they have to learn the language so that they can access some of the interventions that have been proved to be highly effective in imparting learning. Mead & Schools (2018) provided information relating to the emotional impact of having intellectual disability in a society that uses a specific language to which the victims are not familiar. Non-English speakers are likely to be frustrated when they are exposed to learning environments where they have to first learn the official language. It is quite difficult for the current system to adapt to the needs of non-English speakers with learning challenges, but there should be efforts toward solving the issue.

 

 

Aims of the Review

            This review aims to explore the prevalence rate of intellectual disability among non-English speakers. There is a clear indication that a very low number of these individuals have been identified, and it is necessary to look into the actual number of the affected members of the community. This is meant to prompt the relevant authorities to look into adopting programs that reach out to the non-English speakers in the society to boost their mental health outcomes. Additionally, the review aims at facilitating ideas for the adoption of assessment tools for intellectual disability that are effective for screening and diagnosing the conditions among non-English speakers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Method

Literature Search Strategy

Computerized searches of the Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Global Health databases were conducted from inception of each database to 12 August 2020 using the Ovid SP interface. The predefined search terms together with the Boolean operators OR and AND entered into the Title field for the three searches are detailed below.

Search 1

“Non-English” OR “refug*” OR “migrant*” OR “foreign national” OR “asylum seeker” OR “emigrant” OR “immigrant” OR “foreigner” OR “displaced person”, AND

Search 2

“Prevalence” OR “pervasiveness” OR “incidence” OR “assess*” OR “screen*” OR “detect*” OR “identif*” OR “diagnos*”, AND

Search 3

“Intellectual disabilit*” OR “learning disabilit*” OR “developmental disabilit*” OR “learning difficult*” OR “intellectual difficult*” OR “developmental difficult*” OR “learning impair*” OR “intellectual impair*” OR “developmental impair*” OR “mental retardation” OR “mental handicap”

Mental retardation was included as a search term in search 3 to allow for inclusion of older studies that may have explored prevalence or assessment tools as the definition and diagnosis of ID has changed significantly over recent years. Before the intellectual disabilities were known as intellectual disabilities, they used to be referred to as mental retardation. However, for a number of reasons, it was agreed that the term to refer to these conditions should change as the term retardation was found not to communicate dignity or respect as well as, in fact, frequently resulted in the devaluation of such persons. Reasons for adoption of intellectual disability were that the dame reflected the changed construct of disability described by the WHO and AAIDD, it aligned better with current professional practices that focus on functional behaviors and contextual factors, it is less offensive to individuals with the disability, and it is consistent with international terminology (Schalock, et al., 2007). As a result, the inclusion of mental retardation in the search ensured that all the resources that could have been published befoe there was a change of name were captured to inform the literature.

The inclusion criteria were: i) peer-reviewed journal articles in English; ii) quantitative study design; iii) non-English speaking adults diagnosed with a ID using a validated screening tool; iv) studies examining ID prevalence in non-English speaking adults; and v) studies examining assessment tools for ID in non-English speaking adults.

The exclusion criteria were: i) grey literature; ii) articles that related to ID treatment or intervention; iii) studies published before 1994; and iv) abstracts without corresponding full-length journal articles.

Learning disabilities, as intellectual disabilities used to be known, were only introduced into the DSM in 1994. The DSM introduced significant distinction between learning disabilities and the intellectual disabilities. While learning disabilities denote weaknesses in certain academic skills with reading, writing, and math being the main ones; intellectual is used to describe below-average IQ as well as lack of skills that are needed for daily living (Boat & Wu, 2015). The DSM diagnostic criteria for the two also differ. For learning disabilities, there must be persistent difficulties in reading, writing, and mathematic reasoning during formal school years, academic skills that are below the average range of scores in culturally and linguistically appropriate tests, learning difficulties, as well as individual difficulties that cannot be explained by developmental, neurological, sensory, or motor disorders. On the other hand, the DSM require for intellectual disabilities to have deficits in intellectual functioning, deficits in adaptive functioning that bar conforming to developmental and sociocultural standards, as well as the onset of these deficits during childhood (Regier, Kuhl, & Kupfer, 2013). As a result, since 1994, there have been a clear distinction between learning disorders and intellectual disabilities and thus this informed the exclusion of learning disabilities in the search criteria.

Study Identification and Selection

The PRISMA diagram (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & Group, 2009) details the process of appropriate study identification and selection (Fig 1.)

Characteristics of Included Studies

Table 1 describes the individual characteristics of the 4 studies examining prevalence of ID in non-English speakers. Table 2 describes the individual characteristics of the 3 studies examining screening tools for ID in non-English speakers.

 

 

Table 1: Study characteristics for studies looking at screening tools

 

First author and publication date Country Diagnostic tool Population incl. healthcare setting Sample size Results incl. prevalence Strengths Limitations
Vecchi et al., (2001)   The Knox Cube Imitation Test (Knox, 1913) and Corsi Blocks Test The setting of the population is not provided adequately. 20 adults (aged 18-42) with mean age 26.9. The two diagnostic tools cannot be reliably used to measure visuospatial processing. There is high reliability and the validity of the study from provided description. (1)  Small sample size
Trani et al., (2015) India and Nepal The Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) (modified DSQ-27) The setting was general including the participants’ families In India:

649 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia

647 of non-psychiatrically ill participants

53 women were recruited in Nepal

DSQ-34 showed strong psychometric properties that indicate that it effectively discriminates between persons with and without disabilities. (1)   Large sample size

(2)   high reliability and the validity

 

(1)The findings can only be generalized for the two studies under investigation
Bousman et al., (2011) Mexico The Animal Fluency Test, Figure Memory Test, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (Spanish adaptation of HVLT-R), Grooved Pegboard Test, Color Trails Tests 1 and 2, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spatial Span, Academic Skills Assessment (9 question interview rated on a 4-point Likert format) Residents in a migrant farm working colonia (neighbourhood). 21 adults (aged 17-57) with mean age 32. All tool other than figure learning were feasible and appropriate to administer to the population on immigrants in the region. (1)   Used Spanish adapted forms of the assessments

(2)   Used both non-verbal and verbal assessments

(1)  Small sample size

(2)  Used tools to measure functional limitations in daily activities, not ID specifically

 

 

 

First author and publication date Country Diagnostic tool Population incl. healthcare setting Sample size Results incl. prevalence Strengths Limitations
McGrother et al., (2002) UK  

Disability Assessment Schedule (Holmes et al., 1982)

The Leicestershire Learning Disability Register 206 South Asian and 2334 white adults 3.20 per 1000 in South Asian population, 3.62 per 1000 in white population (1) Large sample size

 

(2)  The study used only one group of immigrants
Durbin et al., (2019) Ontario, Canada Population-based retrospective cohort study Health and social services administrative data 1,649,633 newcomers

6,880,196 non-newcomers

Prevalence of IDD was lower in newcomers than non-newcomers (3)   Large population size

(4)   High validity and reliability

(1)The study did not specify the identity of the newcomers
Cabieses et al., (2012) Chile Chilean Popualtion-Based Survey (CASEN-2006) Secondary Data Analysis 268,873 participants Immigrants have significantly lower prevalence of any disability (1)A large sample size

Immigrants are expansive.

 

(1)Types of disabilities were not specified
De Souza et al., (2013) United States American Community Survey (2016) Secondary Data Analysis 5,191 (2,113 males; 3,078 females) Filipinos who were citizen by birth had higher odds of disability  that the Filipino non-citizens (3)   A large sample size (3)  Concentrated on only one group of immigrants

Table 2: Study characteristics for studies looking at prevalence

 

Descriptive Characteristics of the Included Studies

The three studies that were used to provide the literature on screening tools had a total sample size of 690 participants. The settings for the three article varied from Mexico, India, Nepal, and one where the setting was not specified. All the studies were experimental in nature where the different screening tools were used among the participants who took part in the study. They all assessed the effectiveness of different tools used to screen for intellectual disabilities.

The articles that were used to provide literature on prevalence of intellectual disabilities among the immigrants had a total sample size in excess of 1,600,000. The settings of the studies varied from the United Kingdom, Canada, Chile, and the United States. The majority of these studies made use of secondary data on the population-based databases in the respective countries. The methods that were used for data analysis included secondary data analysis. The participants’ characteristic for the studies varied from a single racial/ethnic, or nationality to multiple racial/ethnic or nationalities as the immigrants in the different countries that were studied in the studies.

Quality Appraisal

The Joanna-Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool (cite) and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (cite) were used to evaluate the quality of the papers. Two tools were used to provide a more detailed quality appraisal of the included studies. The Joanna-Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool is a detailed checklist that appraises methodology and analysis, whereas the Newcastle-Ottawa scale has a focus on sample selection and uses a “star system”. The Joanna-Briggs Institute checklist for prevalence studies was used for the 4 studies examining prevalence of ID, and the Joanna-Briggs Institute checklist for cohort studies was used for the 3 studies examining screening tools for ID. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used across all 7 papers.

 

Results

Screening Tools

The review identified the Knox Cube Imitation Test (cite), the Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) (cite) and a number of neuropsychological performance measures (the Animal Fluency Test, the Figure Memory Test, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, the Grooved Pegboard Test, Color Trails Tests 1 and 2, the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spartial Span and an Academic Skills Assessment) (cite) as appropriate screening tools for ID in non-English speakers. Further details about the studies, including strengths and limitations are provided in Appendix.

The Knox Cube Imitation Test was developed to diagnose mental retardation in potential immigrants to the United States. Corsi Blocks Test was developed to be used in neuropsychological practice. The study showed that the two tools cannot be reliably used to purely measure the visuospatial processing and it was important to consider the architecture of working memory in order to suggest a more integrated functioning of the system. The concurrent tasks included articulatory suppression, spatial tapping, as well as random generation that tap the various components of working memory.

The Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) is a strong that showed that it could be used as it had strong psychometric properties that indicated that it could effectively discriminate between people with and without disabilities including intellectual disabilities (Trani, Babulal, & Bakhshi, 2015). In the study, the tools could distinguish between the patients suffering from schizophrenia and comparative participants with no psychiatric condition in the two settings.

Tools to measure neuropsychological performance including Animal Fluency Test, Figure Memory Test, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (Spanish adaptation of HVLT-R), Grooved Pegboard Test, Color Trails Tests 1 and 2, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spatial Span, Academic Skills Assessment (9 question interview rated on a 4-point Likert format could also be feasibility be used to screen for intellectual disability amongst the immigrants. These tools are also appropriate to administer in populations of different settings (Bousman, Salgado, Hendrix, Fraga, & Cherner, 2011). However, figure leaning did not show significant feasibility in screening neuropsychological performance deficiency among individuals.

Prevalence of ID in Non-English Speakers

The study on the prevalence of the intellectual disability among the non-English speaking immigrants, the study revealed that the prevalence is not quite high as compared to the native populations. McGrother et al.., (2002) showed that the prevalence of intellectual disability among South Asians was 3.20 per 1000 people compared to 3.62 in 1000 people among the white population. Durbin et al., (2019) showed that the prevalence of IDD was lower amongst the newcomers in Ontario Canada compared to the non-newcomers in the same population (Durbin, et al., 2019). Cabieses et al., (2012) in the study revealed that the immigrants had significantly lower prevalence of any disability compared to the citizens (Cabieses, Pickett, & Tunstall, 2012). De Souza et al., (2013) found that among the Filipinos who were living in the United States had higher odds of disability compared to Filipino non-citizens.

Discussion

Summary of Main Findings

The prevalence of intellectual disability among non-English speakers is higher than that of the English speakers. The non-English speakers in the country comprises mostly of the refugees and asylum seekers from across the globe. There have been numerous challenges in screening for the intellectual disabilities among the non-English speakers that may include among others the language barriers and lack of access to health care services (De Souza & Fuller -Thomson, 2013). There are numerous factors that may predispose the refugees and asylum seekers to mental health challenges like stress and socioeconomic challenges that limit their care access as well as their legal status that may imply that it is difficult for them to receive care in every country. As a result, it may be expected that the cases of intellectual disabilities will be higher amongst the non-English speakers compared to English speakers who have citizenship advantage (McGrother, Bhaumik, Thorp, Watson, & Taub, 2002). However, different studies that have been conducted to investigate the prevalence of intellectual disabilities among the non-English speakers have found that their prevalence for intellectual disabilities are lower compared to those of the English speakers. South Asians immigrants in the United Kingdom report lower prevalence rate (3.2 per 1,000) compared to that of white population in the country (3.62 per 1,000). Further, the prevalence of the intellectual and development disabilities is also lower among the newcomers in Ontario compared to the non-newcomers in the same region. Immigrants in Chile have significantly lower prevalence for intellectual disabilities compared to non-immigrants. Further, Filipinos staying in the United States as immigrants have lower prevalence for intellectual disabilities compared to the Filipinos who are citizens.

There are numerous assessment tools that can be used to screen for intellectual disabilities among the non-English speakers comprising of refuges and asylum seekers. Some of the tools that can be used for this purpose include the Knox Cube Imitation Test (1913), Corsi Blocks Test (2013), the Disability Screening Questionnaires (DSQ-34), The Animal Fluency Test, Figure Memory Test, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (Spanish adaptation of HVLT-R), Grooved Pegboard Test, Color Trails Tests 1 and 2, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Spatial Span, Academic Skills Assessment (9 question interview rated on a 4-point Likert format). These assessment tools differ in the way they are applied as well as in the cognitive functional area that they seek to assess. The Disability Screening Questionnaires (DSQ-34), showed to have strong psychometric properties that can effectively discriminate between individuals with and without intellectual disabilities (Vecchi & Richradson, 2001). The variety of tools that were studied were found to be feasible and appropriate to the population of immigrants in assessing the intellectual disabilities. However, special observations were made with the Knox Cube Imitation Test (1913), Corsi Blocks Test (2013) that were found not to be very reliable as measures of visuospatial processing.

Implications for Research, Policy Makers and Clinicians

This research is very helpful to inform interventions that are geared towards helping the vulnerable populations like refugees and asylum seekers. These populations have many stressors that predispose them to mental health challenges. However, the study showed the prevalence of intellectual disabilities among these vulnerable populations are lower than those of the resident populations who are non-immigrant. However, this study did not explore the reason that the prevalence rates for intellectual disabilities are lower among these populations. As a result, the future research should seek to provide an explanation for the lower prevalence rates among the non-English speakers compared to the English speakers because these populations have stressors that should explain high cases of mental disabilities.

In practice, this study has provided understanding for the assessment tools that can be used effectively screen the non-English speakers for intellectual disabilities. There are numerous interventions that are aimed at helping the intellectual disabled people in the society. However, the interventions cannot be successful unless there is adequate screening to determine the nature and intensity of the intellectual disability. The findings of this study can be used to inform of the screening tools that can be used to screen these populations. Programs can make use of these assessment tools to understand the cognitive functional areas that the interventions should target.

Strengths and Limitations

This paper has provided update of literature. Previously there were few reviews of literature regarding the prevalence of intellectual disabilities among the non-English speakers. The study also provides a detailed analysis of intellectual disabilities screening tools that can be used to screen for intellectual disabilities among non-English speakers. The major limitation of this study is that it made use of secondary data for the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The validity and reliability of secondary data is imported to the current study and thus impacting the reliability and validity of the current study. The intellectual disability studied in the current study is also defined in broader times and thus the screening tools that were used did not specify the cognitive functional areas that they should target.

Summary

The Non-English speaking populations have numerous challenges that impact their health outcomes like language barrier and lack of access to health care. One of the areas that they are expected to have poor health outcomes in the intellectual disabilities. The current study found that the non-English speaking populations comprising of refuges and asylum seekers do not have higher prevalence of intellectual disabilities. Various tools can also be used to screen for intellectual disabilities among the non-English speakers. The Disability Screening Questionnaires (DSQ-34), is efficient tool that can be used to tell the people with intellectual disabilities and those without.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Boat, T. F., & Wu, J. T. (2015). Committee to Evaluate the Supplemental Security Income Disability Program for Children with Mental Disorders; Board on the Health of Select Populations. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).

Bousman, C. A., Salgado, H., Hendrix, T., Fraga, M., & Cherner, M. (2011). Assessing Neuropsychological Performance in a Migrant Farm Working Colonia in Baja California, Mexico: A Feasibility Study. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 742-747.

Cabieses, B., Pickett, K. E., & Tunstall, H. (2012). Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell? Int J Environ Res Public Health, 4403-4432.

De Souza, L. R., & Fuller -Thomson, E. (2013). Acculturation and Disability Rates Among Filipino-Americans. Journal of Immigrant Minority health, 462-471.

Durbin, A., Jung, J. K., Chung, H., Lin, E., Balogh, R., & Lunsky, Y. (2019). Prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities among first generation adult newcomers, and the health and health service use of this group: A retrospective cohort study. PlosOne.

Lakhan, R. (2015). Profile of Social, Environmental and Biological Correlates in Intellectual Disability in A Resource-Poor Setting in India. Indian journal of Psychological Medicine, 311-316.

McGill, P., Vanono, L., Clover, W., Smyth, E., Cooper, V., Hopkins, L., . . . Deveau, R. (2018). Reducing challenging behaviour of adults with intellectual disabilities in supported accommodation: A cluster randomized controlled trial of setting-wide positive behaviour support. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 143-154.

McGrother, C. W., Bhaumik, S., Thorp, C. F., Watson, J. M., & Taub, N. A. (2002). Prevalence, morbidity and service need among South Asian and white adults with intellectual disability in Leicestershire, UK. J Intellect Disabil Res, 299-309.

Patel, D. R., Apple, R., Kanungo, S., & Akkal, A. (2018). Intellectual disability: definitions, evaluation and principles of treatment. Pediatric Medicine.

Regier, D. A., Kuhl, E. A., & Kupfer, D. J. (2013). The DSM-5: Classification and criteria changes. World Psychiatry, 92-98.

Schalock, R. L., Luckasson, R. A., Shogren, K. A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V. J., Buntinx, W., . . . Yeager, M. H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and developmental disabilities, 116-24.

Trani, j.-F., Babulal, G. M., & Bakhshi, P. (2015). Development and Validation of the 34-Item Disability Screening Questionnaire (DSQ-34) for Use in Low and Middle Income Countries Epidemiological and Development Surveys. PlosOne.

Vecchi, T., & Richradson, J. T. (2001). Measures of visuospatial short-term memory: The knox cube imitation test and the corsi blocks test compared. Brain and Cognition, 291-295.

 

 

Linguistic relativity (Language and Culture, it is a language and culture course))

 

 

 

 

 

Linguistic Relativity

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Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Linguistic Relativity

Introduction

As much as Wolff & Holmes (2011) present realistic and well-contented arguments regarding the relationship between language and cognition, there are many contradictory views on this hypothesis. Wolff & Holmes (2011) cite the Whorfian theory that indicates that people who speak different languages think differently. From another perspective, there are many counterarguments against the theory that have some logic on the grounds that they claim show that even people speaking the same language cannot have the same thinking processes or capabilities. However, research from the field of psychology demonstrates that language influences thinking process in light of the fact that different languages have different semantics that create divergent mental images. This paper explores the Whorfian hypothesis in relation to language and disparities in thinking process in order to determine the believability of arguments presented by Wolff & Holmes (2011).

Analysis of Linguistic Relativity

Many researchers in the field of human psychology demonstrate that language has effects on domains such as color, motion, and spatial relations. Then again, these domains have affect how people think or perceive objects and situations. For this reason, it can be contended that language has direct and indirect implications on human thinking process. Usually, different languages have certain impact on mental visualizations of color and motion. It could be argued that the descriptive characteristics of a language create cognitive perceptions that influence how people think. Wolff & Holmes (2011) cite a past research that claims that people speaking different languages have different eye movements. From a critical point of view, this does not necessarily imply that eye movements have a direct connection to how people think. For this reason, most of the arguments that are pro-Whorfian theory can be considered to be relatively biased to one school of thought.

In the article by Wolff & Holmes (2011), there is a lot of focus on the connection between language and thinking process without considering other factors that may affect the thinking process. For example, it is highly likely that people who speak the same language and particularly with a similar accent have been grown up in the same geographical region. From that point of view, these people have been subjected to the same cultural practices that not only impact their language but also their thinking process (Pecher & Zwaan, 2005). This is based on the influence of adaptive skills rather than cognitive abilities. Therefore, Wolff & Holmes (2011) failed to focus their attention on the possibility of other factors that may have implications on how people speaking the different languages think differently. What is more, it is evident that the authors focused on the meddling influence of language in terms of color, motion, augmentation, number, special relations, category learning, and false belief understanding. However, it is debatable all other factors could also have an influence on the meddling effect.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there is high credibility in terms of how the article presents arguments that supporting the Whorfian hypothesis that people who speak the same language have a similar way of thinking. However, there are many questions regarding the believability of this hypothesis because the research does not consider other factors that that influence the human thinking system. Therefore, it is evident that there is need for deeper and wider researcher on the extent to which language and thing are correlated.

References

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Pecher, D., & Zwaan, R. A. (2005). Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Wolff, P., & Holmes, K. J. (May 01, 2011). Linguistic relativity. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 2, 3, 253-265.

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