March 16, 2018


There is quite a dizzying number of lifestyle and fitness blogs out there and it becomes very difficult to know which one should be relied on to offer reliable information. Consumers demand to access blogs which offer information that is pinnable, informative, entertaining and truly trustworthy. I have therefore gone ahead to scour the blog sphere and narrow down to the blogs which hold these hallmarks. The identified blogs use science to back up their claims, staying always inspiring and positive, and above all, they deliver content that consumers may stop reading while also sharing with people in their respective networks. This top two lifestyle and fitness blogs are the Fit Bottomed Girls Blog and BodyRock.TV Blog.


Analysis of the blogs using AIO approach

  1. Fit Bottomed Girls

Fit Bottomed Girls is powered by 3 women who are not afraid of telling it the way it is. In this blog, one will find workout ideas (such as shoulder workout circuit), fitness tips and reviews (Fit Bottomed Girls, 2018). On the way, one will find an inside out of how the blog’s authors maintain healthy lifestyles in their real lives. Most readers get motivated with the author’s workout playlist giveaways and suggestions.

  1. Activities

The daily activities of these bloggers rotate around the lifestyle and fitness initiatives. They engage in daily workouts and the results obtained from the workouts contributes significantly to the content of their blogs. During the daily workouts, videos are recorded and posted on the blogs website so that its readers can access them and also practice the workouts in their respective places of convenience. The professionally produced videos are aimed towards ensuring that consumers are able to burn, build and also sculpt.

The three authors also engage in a lot of writing as a daily routine. These writings are in form of daily workout plans which consumers can print them out from the blogs website and share them with other interested people.

Finally, they also offer information and bits of advice to their followers on a real-time basis by reacting to their queries in the comments sections. The information offered is informed on life, recipes, nutrition and fitness. Samples of recipes and meal plans are also offered and this can be used by the blog’s followers to enhance their diet and feeding cultures.

All these activities are done repeatedly on a daily basis only that the content of what is covered keeps on changing because the authors access new information on a daily bases.

  1. Interests

The interests of the 3 authors who power this blog are the determination to see women freed from lies and also destructive lifestyles which are currently plaguing them. Their objective is that all the women in the world can go beyond whatever they thought was their capability, lead healthy lifestyles and ultimately discover true bliss in their bodies.

  1. Opinions

This blog is doing an awesome job with regards to ensuring that people lead healthy and happy lifestyles. The activities performed on a daily basis are useful to the followers of this blog and I have no question as to why this blog has been rated as among the best fitness and lifestyle blogs.

  1. TV

This blog is full of all the things that one requires to know in order to maintain a motivating and effective workout routine. One can join its virtual boot camp or just log in to the site so as to get the daily workouts (BodyRock.TV, 2018). The moves given by this blog are often fun and unique. They demand more than endurance or strength. Users find themselves mentally challenged as they build their agility, balance and coordination.

  1. Activities

The daily routines of the authors of this blog rotate around what the content of there is composed of. These actions include performing workouts and recording videos of these workouts while writing content on health, fitness, weight loss, food, beauty, style, life and work-out plans.

Other activities that are done on a daily basis include body rock, HIIT MAX and YOGA. Workout challenges are done on the last Saturday of every month.

  1. Interests

The authors have the following interests;

  • They are concerned with appearance and health.
  • They want healthy lifestyles and they are ready to dedicate much of their time towards this.

The authors enjoy going online so that they can react to the comments of their followers. These comments are based on health and lifestyle queries and the authors take their time to answer them objectively. One good thing is that the content writers of this blog tend to find a fulfilment in their careers and this has been the driving force behind the quality blogs offered.

  1. Opinions

The authors of this blog hold three key values that have been instrumental in pushing the success of this site. These are honesty, timeliness and confidentiality. Honesty enables them to offer reliable information to their followers, timeliness has enabled them to always be reacting on the queries posted in the comments section in a timely manner and confidentiality has been vital in ensuring that the health status of the blog’s followers is not disclosed to other people.

The authors have an interest in seeing their followers leading a healthy lifestyle as a result of consuming the content of their blog. They also like followers who ask objective questions and those who share their ideas freely with other members. What they dislike is when their ideas fail to apply to the conditions of their followers and also to have followers who are willing to apply the information offered by the blogs but they do not have the resources that are necessary for implementing them.

The blog is performing a commendable job and this can be attributed to the great team that it has on board. The numerous followers that it has on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube is a true testimony of the great help that this blog has continued to offer to the public. Respective government institutions should come on board and support the public in implementing the fitness and lifestyle plans that are being offered by this blog. This is because observing these lifestyles can sometimes become very expensive.


How brands partner up with influencers

Time has really changed and companies are using different marketing approaches to enhance their brands so that they remain competitive in their respective industries. Social media marketing has proved to be an effective online marketing tool in the contemporary society and most companies have embraced it. One of the social media marketing tools is the use of blogs to promote the company’s products and brand for a while. Most people do not understand how blogs can be used to promote brands, therefore, the main objective of this paper will be to demonstrate this.

If the content is regarded as king then the word of mouth is regarded as queen. Having this in mind, it can then be said that bloggers (influencers) are the final online resources in the promotion of brands (Social Media Business Models, 2017). With a trusting and loyal following, the bloggers deliver advice and expertise which can reach a lot of audiences regardless of where they are in the world.

It is imperative to really know what you want to achieve out of a collaboration with any blogger. After you have determined this you can then come up with parameters of measuring the impact of the blogger on your brand’s success. Company’s looking for brand promotion should have a good rapport with their bloggers so that they can deliver their best.

Influencers reign over the kingdom of the internet with passion and panache about the topics which they write about. Due to this, bloggers have increasingly become influential and they connect with their followers on a more informal and personal level. This, therefore, can perform wonders in branding. According to Technorati reports, blogs have been found to be the 3rd most influential information resource when purchases are being made. With this in mind, most of the companies which offer health and lifestyle products have used this platform to promote their products. For instance, when diet plans are being made, the bloggers recommend food from certain companies and this wat the followers will go for these products when making their recommended meals. Such endorsements increase the brands’ strength in the market since the blog followers heed to what their bloggers recommend. This is a mutually beneficial arrangement between the company whose brand is to be enhanced and the blogger himself. The blogger benefits from being paid to enhance the brand reputation and on the other hand the company benefits by having its brand enhanced in the market.

Influencers like the one ones referred to in this paper have a huge internet presence. One can then imagine the magic that they can perform by mentioning a company’s brand. This, therefore, implies that pairing influential bloggers with your company and making them talk about your services or products will translate to a maximum brand exposure (Kreutzer et al, 2018). This also allows the company to enter the online community thus increasing its reach and market share. Using influencers is vital for the company’s online presence, public relations and creating a buzz whenever there are new product launches.

When identifying potential influencers, it is imperative to choose bloggers who have audiences having equal demographic characteristics as those of your company. This implies that the followers of these influencers will more likely become interested in the company’s brand and bloggers will also be more likely wish to work with the company. This will be a case of passion meeting success; therefore enhancing the brand’s success in the market.

There are approximately 181,000,000 blogs globally and choosing the most effective ones is key towards ensuring that your brand promise is achieved (Social Media Business Models, 2016). You must choose bloggers who have a great deal of influence in the society. This can be determined by ascertaining the number of followers that they have in the various social media platforms and the domain authority that they have been given. You must also consider the level of engagement that these bloggers have with their readership.

Influencers should ensure that they get personal with their readerships rather than posting spammy and generic content and expect to create an impact. They must ensure that what they are talking about is relevant to their readership. Having a brand promotion deal with 3 or 4 effective bloggers is better than going for thousands of them hoping that they will have a greater impact.

Companies should get the bloggers involved with things which offer value and are interesting to the target audience. For instance, a competition which integrates both the company’s and the blogger’s website can be created by offering the followers’ insider information or vouchers. Influencers must ensure that the brand promotion campaigns are kept interesting and fun so that maximum engagement can be achieved.


To sum this up, bloggers are very influential figures and they have an ever-increasing readership base. Through collaboration with these influencers and also getting them to mention your service or product, one is able to expand his brand exposure, give trustworthy and reliable insight, access high-end links to your website, get relevant and fresh content and also enhance your online presence. During the process of searching for a blogger to promote your brand, you must ensure that what you offer is mutually beneficial, personal and unique. One must also have a good rapport with the bloggers having followers with same demographic features as those of the company. This way the readership will have a great interest in the brand being advertised.


























BodyRock.TV. Retrieved from; On 02/03/2018.


Fit Bottomed Girls. Retrieved from; On 02/03/2018.

Kreutzer, R. T. (2018). Social Media und Social-Media-Marketing. Social-Media-Marketing kompakt, 1-19. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-21147-9_1

Lisa E. Bolton, Americus Reed, Kevin G. Volpp, Katrina Armstrong. (2008). How Does Drug and Supplement Marketing Affect a Healthy Lifestyle? Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 34, Issue 5, Pages 713– 726,

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Wenbo Wang, Hean Tat Keh, Lisa E. Bolton. (2010). Lay Theories of Medicine and a Healthy Lifestyle, Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 80–97.




March 13, 2018


Technology and innovation have been integrated into the tourism industry. Among the upcoming and effective innovation made in this industry is the utilization of the quick response (QR) codes. The TLE businesses have embraced this technology due to its effectiveness in enhancing the customer service and marketing. QR codes have promoted the destination marketing of this industry as well as preventing the industry’s failure in future. The prominence of this technology is the way it facilitates the process of collecting an organization’s information from its brochure. The TLE businesses have developed creative Ads and apps that utilize this aspect in quest of promoting their businesses and improving customer services.

Innovation and Technology in TLE

  1. Introduction

Leisure has been broadly defined to be the quality of experience of traveling. People are interested in spending their leisure time in luxurious and attractive locations. The experience of leisure emphasizes the dimension of perceived freedom and choice. The tourism industry has been having several challenges in attracting more customers to spend their leisure time at their place. The QR code is the best innovation which when implemented for their services as well as advertisements it will collect knowledge concerning attractive tour packages as well as upcoming events on the organization (See Appendix A for more information).

  1. QR code innovation system

2.1. Challenges faced by TLE businesses

It is important for businesses to come up with ways of overcoming the challenges and make the best out of opportunities. TLE businesses face specific challenges, innovation and technology help in overcoming such challenges by avoiding losses or closure of businesses (De Moor et al. 2010). The following are some of the challenges faced by TLE businesses.

Marketing and customer service is a challenge TLE businesses face. However, by using QR codes, hotels have been able to market and offer excellent customer service to their clients. QR codes have been used to improve guest service experience. They have been used on cards in hotel rooms and elevator notices, which engage clients with several tips on the best places to dine or what activities to take part in during their stay at the hotels.

Destination marketing is a challenge faced by TLE businesses. Technology keeps changing every day. Without innovation businesses can be left behind in the market. QR codes will revolutionize what markets can do to reach many customers. However, they must be used at the point of consumption or in situations close to the end of a travel buying cycle. Adaptation of QR codes as innovations have resulted in an easy visiting of popular destinations just because most of the London attractions available to customers at the touch of their smartphones.

Another challenge facing the TLE is the uncertainty about the future of the business. TLE businesses face this challenge in having to predict market trends and customer trends that are quite essential to the constantly changing economic climate. However, innovations and technology help in reading and predicting all the important market and customer trends thus bringing a great difference between a bright future and poor one (Hoetker 2015). Financial management is yet another challenge TLE businesses face. An effective technology put in place will take care of things like profit margins, cash flow, financing and reducing costs.

2.2. Role of QR code innovation in achieving a competitive advantage

QR codes are an automated processes that can detect a link of a webpage. Consumers only scan the link which directly takes them the webpage they desired instead of putting the entire web address of a page to search information about the organization. The organization provides a link to their advertisements like brochures and billboards (Rukzio et al. 2007). Tourists never show a lot of interest to search links just to get detailed information regarding the information about what they prefer to have during their leisure time experiences from the tourism, leisure, and event management. The QR code is interesting. Customers and tourists easily get attracted as they get an instant opportunity to collect detailed information concerning the tour packages and events offered by the organization.

  1. Focal innovation

3.1. QR code innovation in TLE

QR codes are the latest technology used by organizations for advertisements purposes in brochures and packages. QR codes allow smartphone users to scan through the codes and get access to detailed knowledge. They have an advantage for TLE businesses, tourists do not have to type an entire URL address in a brochure or leaflet to get the information they desire (Lou, Tian, & Koh 2017). Tourists of the organization only need to scan an advertisement brochure and instantly get access to the organization’s website so that they can see and have information concerning the product and specification of the services provided.

3.2 History of QR code innovation

QR codes were created for the first time in the year 1994. Denso, which is a Toyota subsidiary created the code to help in manufacturing processes and tracking of vehicle and vehicle parts. The codes were initially created to permit high decoding speeds; thus the name Quick Response codes. These codes’ source is linked to the establishment of barcodes. With increased popularity and also their proper recognition of the convenience that is linked with barcodes, there was an increase in the demand for barcodes that were capable of storing more information, take up a small printing space and more variation (Chu et al. 2013; Varallyai 2012). This lead to increase and improve the technology of barcodes and the amount of information they could store. Digits in the codes were increased, the layout was improved so that multiple codes could be included (Cata, Patel, & Sakaguchi 2013).

3.3 Application of the QR code innovation in TLE

QR code technology is indeed applicable in the TLE businesses. QR codes are picking up steam in the growing smartphones browsing world (Seino et al. 2014). Marketers are using the QR codes in developing creative Ads and Apps.

3.4 Advantages and disadvantages of using the QR code innovation in TLE

The use of QR in the TLE businesses has numerous advantages and disadvantages as shown in Appendix B.

  1. Outline of the type, amount and estimated cost of the resources needed

Implementation of software development services is necessary to enable the organization to provide smarter alternatives and solutions to their tourists and customers. The organization will have to create and run a website (Kolberg & Zühlke 2015). In this website, they will put in the required information and knowledge regarding the events as well as the tour packages they will be offering. Graphical and creative services will have to be developed to establish an annual performance of the organization. An online marketing strategy will also have to be implemented as well as establish office IT services. Through this, QR codes are going to successfully help popularize the organization.

  1. Conclusion

Implementing QR codes in the tourism and travel industry has opportunities which go way beyond just the addition of the QR codes to the back packages of companies’ brochures which link to the organization’s website. QR codes have been used for both product and destination marketing. Hotels today are constantly using QR codes for both marketing and consumer services. QR codes have become increasingly popular in the marketing department of the tourism industry. QR codes have provided an exceptional connection between the physical world in TLE industry and an infinite digital content. QR codes will help organizations to learn to connect as well as respond to guests in a better way. QR codes have been used to enhance guest interaction and revenue. QR codes bring an immense change in the TLE industry.

  1. Reference List

Ashford, R., 2010. QR codes and academic libraries: Reaching mobile users. College & Research Libraries News, 71(10), pp.526-530.

Baik, S., 2012. Rethinking QR code: analog portal to digital world. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 58(2), pp.427-434.

Barrera, J.F., Mira, A. and Torroba, R., 2013. Optical encryption and QR codes: secure and noise-free information retrieval. Optics Express, 21(5), pp.5373-5378.

Bonifacio, V.D., 2012. QR-coded audio periodic table of the elements: A mobile-learning tool. Journal of Chemical Education, 89(4), pp.552-554

Cata, T., Patel, P.S. and Sakaguchi, T., 2013. QR code: a new opportunity for effective mobile marketing. Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, 2013, p.1.

Chu, H.K., Chang, C.S., Lee, R.R. and Mitra, N.J., 2013. Halftone QR codes. ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG), 32(6), p.217.

De Moor, K., Berte, K., De Marez, L., Joseph, W., Deryckere, T. and Martens, L., 2010. User-driven innovation? Challenges of user involvement in future technology analysis. Science and Public Policy, 37(1), pp.51-61.

Gaede, J. and Schaefer, G., 2012. Provision of ATLErnate Content in Response to QR Code. U.S. Patent Application 12/960,285

Hoetker, G., 2015. How much you know versus how well I know you: selecting a supplier for a technically innovative component. Strategic Management Journal, 26(1), pp.75-96.

Jinghua, C. and Jie, W., 2010. Discussion on the Development and Applications of Mobile Phone Two-Dimensional Barcode in Internet of Things [J]. Telecommunications Science, 4, p.009.

Kolberg, D. and Zühlke, D., 2015. Lean automation enabled by industry 4.0 technologies. IFAC-Papers OnLine, 48(3), pp.1870-1875.

Lou, L., Tian, Z., and Koh, J. 2017. Tourist satisfaction enhancement using mobile QR code payment: An empirical investigation. Sustainability, 9, pp. 1-14.

Rukzio, E., Broll, G., Leichtenstern, K. and Schmidt, A., 2017, November. Mobile interaction with the real world: An evaluation and comparison of physical mobile interaction techniques. In European Conference on Ambient Intelligence (pp. 1-18). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Davenport, T. H. (2013). Process innovation: reengineering work through information technology. Harvard Business Press.

Seino, K., Kuwabara, S., Mikami, S., Takahashi, Y., Yoshikawa, M., Narumi, H., Koganezaki, K., Wakabayashi, T. and Nagano, A., 2014, November. Development of the traceability system which secures the safety of fishery products using the QR code and a digital signature. In OCEANS’04. MTTS/IEEE TECHNO-OCEAN’04 (Vol. 1, pp. 476-481). IEEE.

Varallyai, L. 2012. From barcode to QR code applications. Agricultural Informatics, 3(2), pp. 9-17.

Bhaskaran, S. (2016). Incremental innovation and business performance: small and medium‐size food enterprises in a concentrated industry environment. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(1), 64-80.


Appendix A. Definition of Innovation

Innovation is the process of translating ideas or innovations to good and useful services which will create value or in other situations for which customers will pay for. Innovation comprises of deliberately applying imagination, information as well as the initiative to bring out better and different values from resources (Bhaskaran, 2016). In the business world, innovation comes about when ideas by an organization are applied with the aim of furthering the satisfaction of needs and expectations of the organization’s customers. Innovation will help in providing training opportunities for those with the interest in working in the commercial/industry sector or those who wish to start up their own organizations and companies with the most high-end technologies and innovations.

Appendix B: Advantages and Disadvantages of QR to the TLE Businesses



1. Ease of use. QR codes can be added to almost everywhere one can think of, from brochures, cereal packets, leaflets, and to advertisements on the underground.

1. Alternatives abound. There are so many other alternatives to QR codes such as Blipper. These alternatives are said to provide a better level of user experience.

2. The range of uses. QR codes in TLE businesses can be used in so many different ways. Examples include; providing better experiences for tourists in restaurants (Bonifacio 2012).

2. QR codes must have a reader. This is the greatest problem for mobile users, for instance, need to download a reader before they are able to scan. This limits the number of users who want to access the codes.

3. Sending mobile users to promote content. When QR codes are used in the right way with other mobile optimization strategies, the codes can trigger user’s attention at the exact moment when they show interest in specific advertisements or videos (Ashford 2010). This later translates to a higher conversation and opt-in-rates which attract users make subscriptions to email lists so that they can automatically receive promotional messages made in the future (Baik 2012).

3. Scanning may take longer periods of time. Scanning can be tedious and consumes a lot of time. For instance, mobile phone users will have to take out their phones, then launch the QR reader, scan the QR code and wait for some time for it to get them to the landing page (Barrera, Mira, & Torroba 2013). However, users with a fast and reliable internet connection will not have such problems.

4. QR codes are extremely cost-effective. They seem to be complicated, however, they never put a dent in an organization’s marketing budget.

4. Lack of awareness. So many TLE businesses today use the QR codes but it is only a small fraction of the population that utilizes them.

Leadership challenges in Toyota that led to the 2009 recall crisis

March 12, 2018

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

1.1. Context

This study seeks to analyse how leadership failed in controlling quality that led to the recall crisis that led to holding of production and sales. Toyota is company one of the global manufacturer of vehicles was chosen for the study.

1.2 Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study is to understand the role of leadership in an organization and how its failure can lead to organizational problems like failure of business strategies thus leading to business challenges. This is through studying the organizational structure, leadership and business strategies to determine how they relate to business effectiveness.

1.3 Objective of Assignment

The objective of this assignment is to analyse the role of leadership in meeting organizational processes and how its failure can affect overall business effectiveness.


This study used the case study approach to evaluate leadership challenges that led to quality issues and recall crisis in Toyota Company.


3.1 Description of the Company

Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese automotive manufacture with a corporate structure of over 300,000 employees. It was the first automotive dealer to produce over ten million vehicles per year due to its intensive growth and generic business strategies. The dramatic crisis witnessed in Toyota at the end of 2009 were caused by rapid expansion of the business activities without putting proper leadership strategies in place.

3.2 Problem Specification

In 2009 Toyota was hit by a dramatic crisis due to its burgeoning quality in its products. This decline in quality led to recall of over 4.3 million vehicles in the market. This led to suspension of vehicle sales and ceasing production of the affected models as leaders sought to find solutions to the problems affecting the company (Camuffo & Wilhelm, 2016, P. 7). One element that escalated the issue was the slow response in public relations to justify the problems that the company was going through. Consumers believed that the company had something that was being hidden or was working on reverse engineering to cover its track. Failure by Akio Toyota the CEO of the company to make a crisis statement was criticized as a measure of poor leadership qualities from the CEO and the entire Toyota company leadership (Camuffo & Wilhelm, 2016, p. 6). Therefore, the challenge faced in the company was a leadership problem caused by lack of clear strategies to meet the changing needs. This report analyses leadership failures in Toyota that led to the crisis and during the crisis by highlighting major areas that indicate low leadership styles in the organization. The report will also recommend possible strategies that can be put in place to mitigate such situations in future.

4.0 Literature Review

4.1 Leadership and organizational structure

Leadership is the ability to guide individuals and teams to achieve organizational goals. Such individuals possess higher abilities that allow them to control others to achieve the desired results. Through providing direction, implementing plans and motivating others, the leader achieves followership behaviour that leads to organizational success. Different leadership and management styles have been proposed to offer principles that form the strategy (Ebert & Ricky 2010, p. 135). Leadership theorists have proposed different leadership styles that may be used to achieve results. It has been argued that there is no best style that perfectly meets the needs of an organization but rather may encompasses a mixture of several elements gathered from a variety of styles to achieve a mix that serves the needs of the company. The structure of the organization determines the style that may be used (Nan jundeswaraswamy & Swamy 2014, p. 59). This distributes powers and authority while establishing lines of reporting that define the hierarchy which needs to be observed when carrying out processes. The company uses a divisional hierarchical structure to manage different geographical and regional operations.

The divisional organization structure with varied business operations around the globe. The structure is used to support goals and set strategic direction for achieving the needs of the organization. The company uses a traditional Japanese structure to maximize efficiency and capacity. According to De Menezes, et al. (2010, p. 8) this system is strongly centralized and hierarchical to meet the needs of the company. The company is managed on a global hierarchy where management is highly hierarchical with decisions coming from above to the bottom. Here top management makes all the decisions while lower level employees report to those above them. Periodical reporting is used to keep management aware of all the processes taking place in the company. Geographical divisions are used to break down the company’s structure into regional blocks for easy managing. This allows each region to govern itself and report to the rest of the organization. Product based divisions are used to break down the company into different functional areas (Dyer & Nobeoka, 2000, p. 351). These are Lexus, Toyota number one in America, Europe and Japan, Toyota number two for operations in all other regions, and unit centre for design of engines. Each of these divisions plays a different role that leads to the success of the whole organization.

Toyota uses intensive growth and generic strategies to achieve its entrepreneurial needs. The generic strategy focusses on a combination of cost leadership and broad differentiation styles to develop competitiveness (Liker, 2004, p. 15). Cost leadership entails minimizing operational costs and reducing selling prices to attract customers. Broad differentiation on the other hand requires development of different unique products to satisfy different customer segments. A combination of these two leadership styles forms an organizational culture that stresses continual improvement and the role of leadership in modelling employee behaviour. The Toyota way operates on a lean managements system which seeks to minimize waste of resources without sacrificing productivity.

4.2 Leaderhip Model in Toyota

There are several leadership models that have been proposed by scholars in the field of management. One such style is the classic model which suggests that a good manager directs and controls all aspects of the organization through a hierarchy of management and a well-defined structure. The diverseness of leadership traits allows the leader to use several leadership. Leadership styles need to motivate, inspire and engage employees in the company (Teich & Faddoul, 2013, p. 7). This style entails taking risks that seek to grow the organization in the right direction. For example Toyota uses intensive growth and generic strategies to achieve its entrepreneurial needs. The generic strategy focusses on a combination of cost leadership and broad differentiation styles to develop competitiveness (Liker, 2004, p. 15). Cost leadership entails minimizing operational costs and reducing selling prices to attract customers. Broad differentiation on the other hand requires development of different unique products to satisfy different customer segments. A combination of these two leadership styles forms an organizational culture that stresses continual improvement and the role of leadership in modelling employee behaviour. The Toyota way operates on a lean managements system which seeks to minimize waste of resources without sacrificing productivity.

5.0 Analysis

5.1 Leadership Style in Toyota

Toyota is established on a leadership style that has been described as the “Toyota way” since the style is inspirational and recognizes the needs of employees and the organization thus trying to balance between the two. Akio Toyoda blends different leadership styles to lead and manage the company. Through transformation leadership, the company seeks to motivate employees through synchronizing leadership style with the employees to develop teams that work together. This style is based on personal characteristics of the leader and the relationship developed with followers. This allows crafting common vision and putting in place coherent goals that make employees develop dependable behaviour with desired outcomes (Avolio, et al., 2004, p. 959). Employees within such leadership motivated through sharing organizational goals with management. The leader motivates employees to perform better by meeting their needs through incentives that make them part of the organization (Luthans & Kreitner, 2005, p. 12). Charisma, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation is used to bring and manage changes within the organization. This is a shift from the revolutionary that was used by earlier leadership.

5.2 Organizational Culture

The company has an established organizational culture based on Japanese corporate culture that entails living and working philosophies like total quality management, just in time and Kaizen. Management Japanese way is based on “hourensou” or frequent reporting and touching base which ensures that there is collaboration and flow of information within the system (Rother, 2008, p. 17). The leadership model used in the company is based on teamwork, collaboration and consensus. Therefore success of the company is dependent on all employees (Liker & Convis, 2011, p. 15).

5.3 Business Strategies

When Toyota Company was established, it started embarking on an intensive growth strategies to improve the company. This entailed increasing market size by penetrating and exploring new markets (Camuffo & Wilhelm, 2016, p. 7). This led to the need to develop more products and at the same time manufacture more vehicles to meet the needs of the market. Internationalization speed increased business process which led to opening of eighteen new plants around the globe making it the biggest producer.

The lean management system has been described as the best style that has been emulated by other companies. To Toyota, lean management is an organization configuration that is causally linked to performance. This is through built in quality that exists in all business processes (Monden, 2010, 11). The Toyota way best describes this a process where line managers establish quality measures that identify errors in the system and seeks ways to correct them. The style focusses on efficient methods of carrying out tasks that seek to reduce overall costs. Lean management is part of the Toyota philosophy that the company has used to survive global competition.

5.4 Leadership Challenges that Led to the Recall Crisis

In 2009 Toyota was hit by a dramatic crisis due to its burgeoning quality in its products. This led to suspension of vehicle sales and ceasing production of the affected models as leaders sought to find solutions to the problems affecting the company (Camuffo & Wilhelm, 2016, P. 7). One element that escalated the issue was the slow response in public relations to justify the problems that the company was going through. The company took long to realize a problem in its production system of the corporate culture in place. The corporate style gives managers more autonomy at work making it difficult for subordinates to report issues that the organization may be facing due to its management system.

The Toyota way system is highly tacit requiring continuous on the job training that started slowly failing due to high turnover experienced during the time. Plants were geographically separated from each other making it difficult for top management to monitor quality issues in production. As these challenges continued, some global factories were reluctant in managing quality issues like giving workers the power to stop factory lines when they detect errors in the system. Further, expansion led to an increased number of employees that made it difficult to manage and satisfy the needs of such employees. Internally developed middle-level managers were not fully consistent with the Toyota’s philosophy and corporate culture.

In addition to that, challenges were witnessed in hiring of temporary workers who were not integrated into the system. Management filed to integrate employees into the corporate culture of the company which in turn compromised some production lines that led to problems in vehicles in 2009. Leadership failed to maintain the organizational culture that had held the company since its inception. The people management system that allows focusing on fundamental needs of the company, and driving energies on long-term issues that shape the future of the organization was forsaken for an intensive growth strategy. This made part of the organization to succeed while the critical element failed. To Toyota, quality was the key driver of its success in the market since it ensures standards in all its production systems. The leadership issues greatly affected the company giving other competing companies market advantage.

  1. Conclusion and Recommendation

The failures of the company are attributed to management and organizational challenges which can be easily addressed. Management needs to address leadership issues that led to failure of the whole system. The company has survived on a quality management strategy that was based on lean management and the Toyota philosophy. Further, there is need to balance between intensive growth and internal capabilities to address any issues that may affect production. There is need to go back to basic principle of “genchi genbutsu” which entails going to the place of work. This strategy makes management responsible for activities that take place rather than waiting for reports. Employees need to be empowered to understand the division and philosophy of the company. The organizational structure needs to be restructured since the current works well in quality management but fails to put in place strategies for responding to organizational challenges during crisis (Luthans & Kreitner, 2005, p. 22). Since business operations are controlled by lower level line managers they need to be highly empowered to maintain quality and respond to crisis issues before they can report to higher management. This may also include allowing departments head to report directly to the executive thus reducing bureaucratic process that hinders decision making during crisis as way of managing challenges associated with aggressive growth. Therefore the company needs to address its leadership and management challenges to address the current problem and avoid future challenges.


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Teich, S. T. & Faddoul, F. F., 2013. Lean Management—The Journey from Toyota to Healthcare. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, 4(2).

Laws and Power

March 12, 2018

Laws and Power

Different theorists have different perspectives about the nature and importance of laws in the society. However, majority theorists support that laws are essential in promoting the overall good of the society. Thomas Aquinas and John Austin, for instance, supports the view that laws help govern the society by promoting social order and stability. This paper will focus on the two theorist’s perspectives. The paper will first present a critical argument about how Aquinas and Austin’s theories account for the existence of international law. The paper will then present an analysis of the relationship between law and power.

Aquinas and Austin Theories and existence of international Law

Both Aquinas an Austin maintain divergent views with regard to the jurisprudence of international law. Aquinas subscribes to the doctrine of natural law which inscribes his understanding of God as well as his relation to his creations. Aquinas recognizes four types of laws namely: Natural, Human, Devine an eternal law.[1] Aquinas bases his suppositions about the jurisprudence of law on these types of laws. Austin, on the other hand, subscribes to the Legal positivism doctrine. In this doctrine, Austin builds his case that law is a social fact that reflects the relationships between power and obedience. Overall, though both Aquinas and Austin hold divergent views about law, their propositions about law account for the existence of international law.

Aquinas validates the existence of international law through his supposition that law is presumably directed by its nature to the good, and particularly to the common good. In this supposition, Aquinas believes that law is not necessarily addressed to private persons but to the whole people meeting in common or to individuals who are in charge of the community as a whole. In simple terms, Aquinas means that laws are not enacted for private profit, but for the common benefit of the community. In this sense, the purpose of the law is to enhance the wellbeing of the community and protect its interests[2]. This supposition supports the existence/importance of the international law. The purpose of international law is to enhance the wellbeing of the world community by ensuring that humanity’s fundamental goals of maintaining peaceful coexistence, prosperity, human rights as well as environmental protection are adequately met[3]. This assertion connotes that the primary aim of the law is to enhance the wellbeing of the world community. This point of view is in line with Aquinas concept that the purpose of the law is to enhance the wellbeing of the community.

Aquinas supposition that the existence of law requires a rational discourse and agreement about certain fundamental things sets basis for the existence of international law. Aquinas gives an example that if there exist no reasonable and agreed rules among different people from different nations in a market, then no trade can take place. The implication of this remark is that there should be laws that bind reasonable people together. This viewpoint proposes the idea that there should be reasonable and agreeable rules to govern the undertakings of different people from different nations to enhance their wellbeing and their overall interconnectedness. This ideology is reflected in International law. Particularly, the international law comprises of rules that are generally agreed-upon and accepted by nations, to guide their relations with each other. In this regard, it is arguable that Aquinas proposition validates the existence of international law.

Austin theory of law also accounts for the existence of international law. In particular, Austin’s theory on law argues that laws are a type of command issued by a sovereign to the members of a society, and are usually backed up by threats of punishments or sanctions in the event of non-compliance. The sovereign, according to Austin may include a person, a group of individuals, who are obeyed by the population. A Command, on the other hand, includes a declared wish by a sovereign. This wish is expected to be followed by the bulk population. The wishes are often accompanied by threats if not adhered to.

Austin identifies two types of laws: ‘Laws properly so called’ and ‘laws improperly so called’. Austin argued that the former laws are created by political sovereigns or political superiors to relevant subordinates as well as laws set by private citizens in their quest for their rights. Laws improperly so called include laws that are not directly or not indirectly set by a political superior an often include international laws, the law of fashion among others[4]. International law specifically confers to Austin’s doctrine of Law improperly so called. In international laws, all states are sovereign an equal. These sovereign states, on a voluntary basis, formulate, maintain and enforce relevant laws. The states often agree and accept the rules as binding. However, although a member state is not obliged to abide by the international law, the state is required to obey the laws if it has consented to a certain code of conduct. Abiding by such laws guarantee peace in the world community.

Law and Power

Austin’s argument about the relationship between law and power is persuasive and convincing. Specifically, Austin’s argument about Positive law clearly defines the relationship between the law and power. Positive law, according to Austin, includes three critical constituents: Political sovereign, command, and sanction. Positive law signifies the command from a political superior. The command itself includes the expressed desire of the superior to another person who is inferior. The command often specifies that the inferior should act or refrain from doing certain things. In essence, the desire of the sovereign is often backed up by a threat of force, sanction or coercion. The sanction, threat of punishment or use of force is what distinguishes a sovereign command from other forms of authority. It is because of the threat that the person to whom the command is given is supposed to obey[5]. The ability of the sovereign to command the inferior is what symbolizes power.

The feature of the law as a command, as per Austin’s argument, is what dictates power. In this view, Austin supposes that laws are based on superiority as well as sovereignty; something that implies the might and power of the superior to inflict pain on the individual of the inferior status. By forcing the inferior person to comply with the commands given either by the threat of punishment or the threat of fear, the superior or the sovereign is able to exercise power over the subject. Without such power, it would become impossible for the subjects to obey orders.

Aquinas also builds a relatively persuasive case about the relationship between law and power. In one way or another, Aquinas also recognizes the aspect of positive law that embeds the virtue of power. Aquinas argument on human law fits what is today referred to as positive law, that is, the laws that are put in force in the human community. In fact, Aquinas argument on human law perfectly describes the so-called positive laws, as described by Austin. In this definition, Aquinas brings the argument that human laws, particularly, the so-called positive laws are promulgated and enacted by various jurisdictions in the society. By recognizing the aspect of positive law, particularly, the so-called positive laws, Thomas inherently or unconsciously recognizes the virtue an essence of power in laws. In particular, Thomas notices that the so-called positive laws help govern human behavior through power ordained by the superiors in the society. The latter accepts Aristotle’s notion that most individuals are kept away from crime by the fear of the law, particularly, the punishments and sanctions that result in breaking the law. But where do these punishments come from? Again, these punishments and sanctions are inherently inscribed in virtue of power, whereby, the superiors dictate a command and issues threats and punishments to the subordinates in case they transgress against the commands. In this perspective, Aquinas recognizes that power is a critical aspect of enforcing human law.

Aquinas also notices the essentiality of state power in enforcing laws to promote the overall good of the society. In particular, Aquinas notices that state power helps regulate the external and internal actions that distort social stability by breaking the laws set in the society[6]. In this supposition, Aquinas believes that the existence of the state and its capacity (power) to enforce the so-called laws helps promote the overall good.  By setting clear rules, rights and through power, the state helps create a context in which individuals in the society can flourish and without fearing the risks of violence an instability. In this point of view, Aquinas makes a point that the general welfare of everyone is dependent on the power of the state to enforce laws.

In summary, both Aquinas and Austin maintain divergent views about the law; however, their theories account for the existence of international law. Aquinas maintains the idea that laws aim at promoting the overall common good. Given that the international law aims at enhancing the wellbeing of the world community by promoting peaceful co-existence among people, promoting human rights and enhancing environmental protection, then Aquinas theory supports the existence of international law. Austin’s theory also accounts for the existence of international law by noting that it aims at enhancing the peaceful co-existence between nations. Overall, both Austin and Aquinas note the critical relationship between law an power. In particular, both theorists agree that power is essential in enforcing laws. The theorists note the importance of sovereign power to set an enforce laws in the society, to bring social order and social stability.














Austin, John Langshaw. “Philosophical papers.” (1961).

Birnie, Patricia W., and Alan E. Boyle. International law and the environment. 1994.

Finnis, John. “Aquinas: moral, political, and legal theory.” (1998).

George, Robert P. “Kelsen and Aquinas on the Natural-law Doctrine.” Notre Dame L. Rev. 75 (1999): 1625.

Lisska, Anthony J. “Aquinas’s theory of natural law: An analytic reconstrution.” (1996).

Schauer, Frederick. “Was Austin right after all? On the role of sanctions in a theory of law.” Ratio Juris 23, no. 1 (2010): 1-21.


[1] Lisska, Anthony J. “Aquinas’s theory of natural law: An analytic reconstrution.” (1996).

[2] Finnis, John. “Aquinas: moral, political, and legal theory.” (1998).

[3] Birnie, Patricia W., and Alan E. Boyle. International law and the environment. 1994.


[4] Schauer, Frederick. “Was Austin right after all? On the role of sanctions in a theory of law.” Ratio Juris 23, no. 1 (2010): 1-21.

[5] Austin, John Langshaw. “Philosophical papers.” (1961).

[6] George, Robert P. “Kelsen and Aquinas on the Natural-law Doctrine.” Notre Dame L. Rev. 75 (1999): 1625.

Positive Interaction of Adults and Effects on Children’s Self-Concept

March 6, 2018


The most rapid period of incredible growth and development in human life is the Early Childhood Phase. Despite the fact that children develop at their individual paces, all kids do progress through a path of emotional, cognitive and physical growth. This growth and development may be best supported by a consistently favorable parenting style. While some adults may not be aware of this, it is indeed true that their day-to-day behaviors and interactions with the toddlers affects the growth and development of these young children. Children learn the behaviors and skills necessary to interact in the everyday lives from seeing adults’ behaviors, using the tone of adults’ voices, etc. As one American abolitionist Frederick Douglass said, “It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men,” the need to bring up all-round healthy children can never be underestimated [ CITATION Ste101 \l 1033 ]. Children too have emotions, and a self-concept. Self-concept refers to the subconscious perception of self and is present in children right from birth. The development of this self-concept is influenced by the experiences of the child in the social environment. These social environments include the child’s physical surroundings and the social relationships as well as the community resources. The social relationships primarily accommodates human interactions between the infants/toddlers and adults or with their peers. Of most importance is the interaction with adults. Adults interacting with children in their early years have a great role to play in shaping the self-concept of these children.

Just to mention, the adults who spend most time with children in early childhood are primarily the parents, the caregivers or the preschool teachers. Focusing on parents, they are counted as the first teacher to their children owing to the fact that the children learn the knowledge and skills of basic survival from their parents through direct instructions. In a broader perspective, parents, preschool teachers, caregivers and all other adults who interact with the young children all have an unintentional influence through their actions since it is a general fact that children are very fond of imitating the actions of their adults. This paper provides an analysis of how positive interaction of adults affects the self-concept of these children and more specifically the self-esteem and emotional well-being of these children. The discussion will include an analysis of two primary research studies on the topic as well as a review of the current literature on the topic. The paper concludes with a summary and recommendations based on the points learnt from the entire analysis.

Main Body/Discussion

Definition of Terms

One of the aspects of importance in this study is self-esteem. By definition, self-esteem is the confidence in one’s ability or worth; it is self-respect’ it is a reflection of an individual’s evaluation of his/her worth. When any individual has a healthy self-esteem, they are psychologically stable and hence have positive social activities. Focusing on infants and toddlers, researchers suggest that a high level of self-esteem and positive moods (such as interest and joy) point to a flourishing mental health among children. Apparently, children develop a sense of self right from birth but this is a gradual process that goes into adulthood.

A child’s emotional development is another factor of concern in this discussion. By definition, emotional development refers to the experience, expression, and management of emotions and involves understanding how feelings and emotions happen, recognizing one’s feelings and emotions as well as developing effective ways of managing them. As children grow, the exposure to different situations facilitates the development of the complexity their emotions. Parents play a significant role in this process of emotional development.

Primary Case Studies

One of the relevant primary research studies is Blandon, Calkins & Keane (2010) in their research “Predicting Emotional and Social Competence during Early Childhood from Toddler Risk and Maternal Behavior.” These researchers examined the longitudinal associations between a mother’s parenting style and the toddler risk with respect to children’s social and emotional competence using a sample of 253 children in a series of hierarchical regression models. Predictors of toddler risk were taken as early externalizing behavior and poor abilities and skills of a toddler to regulate their emotions. The measures of emotional and social competence were taken as emotional regulation, toddler’s negativity, social skills and problem behavior in pre-school playgroup. The strengths of their peer relationship skills were measured using peer acceptance, aggression scores and peer social inclination. Since the researchers were engrossed in finding out the multiple pathways that may result in social and emotional competence, they evaluated the interactions of mother’s behavior and parenting style and the toddler’s risk. From the results, it was evident that although there were significant interactions between a mother’s parenting behavior and both social and emotional competence of their children, there lacks consistency across all competence outcomes. The maternal parenting behavior was not found to be directly associated with toddler’s emotional and social development. In some cases, maternal behavior was found to have differential implications on the children’s emotional and social competence depending on the toddler’s level of early risk as well as positive maternal parenting behaviors. More precisely, the researchers found that maternal control was more detrimental on the toddler’s emotional competence. Perhaps this may be explained by the fact that excessive and more controlling parenting behaviors/styles most likely contribute to children with more aggressive, negative and emotionally oppressive children. Conclusively, higher levels of toddler risk evident in more externalizing behaviors and poor regulation of emotions are related to the poor social and emotional development of toddlers. Specifically, toddlers with a higher risk have a higher probability of greater negativity and poorer emotional regulation. Blandon, Calkins & Keane (2010) also found that an increase in the early year’s maternal control score also increased negativity in conditions of high toddler risk. On the other hand, lower maternal control at lower levels of toddler risk was seen to correspond with lower negativity levels and subsequently better emotional development of the child [ CITATION Bla10 \l 1033 ].

Another relevant primary case study is Brown et al, (2009) in their research “Young Children’s Self-Concepts: Association with Child Temperament, Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting, and Triadic Family Interaction”. This study examined how children’s self-concept was related to the child’s temperament, triadic family interaction, and dyadic parenting behaviors. At the age of three, child temperaments, parenting behaviors of father and mother, and mother, father and child also known as triadic interaction observation took place in fifty homes. Children’s self-view questionnaires were used to assess the children at the age of four. In general, the research found that children’s self-concept is connected with their emotional characteristic and also the family dynamics. The study also determined that triadic family interactions, dyadic parenting and child’s temperament were relevant and important aspects for self-concept. The research found that family interactions and temperament-proneness to distress were independent and direct predictors of child self-concept. Children who were seen to be more prone to distress at age of three were confirmed to be less agreeable and timid than those children who were low on proneness to distress. Therefore, this is clear evidence that the early children’s emotional tendencies can affect one’s sense of self at the early stages of child development. Children who were prone to distress were seen to have difficulties controlling their emotion and hence low peer competence and high social withdrawals. Children experience difficulties in forming new and close interactions if in early stages had the tendency to exhibit negative emotions. The study also confirmed that families which possessed positive and harmonious interactions had their children as more bold and adventurous. On the other hand, families which were characterized by high level of discord had their children see themselves as less agreeable and more fearful and hence had a lower sense of self. In the analysis to determine child temperament in relation to dyadic parenting behavior. The study result showed that child self-concept was affected by temperament and parenting in that parenting behavior moderated relationship between temperament and self-concept. When members of the family show support and positivity to children, the children possess a bold temperament and also saw themselves as adventurous. When parents and other adults in the family were more hostile and less positive, both shy and bold children saw themselves as timid. From the results in general, temperament and boldness is more likely to be impacted by some conditions such as positive engagement from child’s parent and other members of the family as a whole (Brown et al., 2009).

Review of Current Literature

Understanding human feelings is one of the key features of accepting the probable influence on adults’ relations on children’s lives. Children have been termed as the best learning machines in the world; they start from a simple beginning to an endless form of development, maturity and growth. Development being a continuing formation of complex forms comprise cognitive processes, social processes, and biological developments which are part and parcel of the child’s development process. The most significant part of the primitive brain is the brain stem which is placed around the top section of the spinal cord and has the role of regulating basic life functions [ CITATION Sch15 \l 1033 ]. From such primitive roots emerges the center of emotions. During the evolution of these emotional areas, the thinking part of the brain also undergoes some revolution. Norton (2010) reveals that this shows much concerning the correlation between thoughts and feelings. How children feel affects their cognitive capabilities, and it is critical to take note of this when relating to the children. As pointed out by Vaillant (2011), the emotional part of the brain plays neural architecture and emotion centers are tangled via numerous connecting circuits to all organs of the neocortex (Vaillant, 2011). Apparently, feelings are necessary for rational thoughts [ CITATION Oos12 \l 1033 ]. This accords the emotion center great capability to affect the way all other brain part functions. Most of the time when a human being is angry, he/she struggles to think straight. Subsequently, a child’s feeling and anxiety have impacts on knowledge acquiring capabilities yet most tutors concentrate on the single area of the experience, i.e. the rational computing intelligence [ CITATION The10 \l 1033 ].

Bowlby (2008) demonstrates the way probable adult-child relationship supports the improvement of a “secure emotional base”, vital to children process of growth. Bowlby urged that the foundation of human personality rests in the initial interactions that shape the growth of a child. How an adult intermingles with children has an impact on the way the child conducts him/herself in the relationships with fellow peers. Bowlby continues to advance his theory of affection where the toddler creates and experiences a model of interactions, which is thought in the unconscious memory, developing the pattern for future associations [ CITATION Bow08 \l 1033 ]. Norton (2010) also studied early attachment among infants and toddlers. It is confirmed that these early attachments/relationship occurs the same period as important developments in the brain are taking place. Child-adult interactions affects not only child’s emotional advancement but may also alter the brain structure [ CITATION The10 \l 1033 ]. Various studies have confirmed that this relationship has some influence on the advancement of structural right brain neurology which affects self-regulation, processing of emotions, and stress modulations [ CITATION Sch15 \l 1033 ]. According to Schore (2015), this is the “core of human nervous system” of the human unconscious and asserts that an initial developing right brain enhances a nonstop comprehensible, unified sense of self, very critical to flexibility in later life [ CITATION Sch15 \l 1033 ].

Self-regulation emotions which develop over time were once being regulated by others (parents and adults) in early stages. Early arousal and impulses are confined and controlled by the external setting. Collaborative psychological regulations are greatly influenced by the non-conscious attachments dynamics. Relations can be affected by this non-conscious dynamics-on either the adult’s or the child’s part. Close interactions provide a sense of safety and also rapidly generates the development of the brain through enhancement of synaptic relations in the mind [ CITATION Fon15 \l 1033 ] .

Research has also shown that depressed caregivers have an adverse effect on the children when it comes to emotional development. It is crucial for a caregiver to be emotionally ‘warm’, especially when dealing with children in their early years (infants and toddlers). For example, a study conducted to investigate the impact of a depressed mother on the emotions of a child found that depressed mothers have inadequate thoughts, behaviors, and attitude and such attributes together with being in stressful surroundings with the mother, expose the child to the risk of developing emotional problems. A depressed mother in most cases is in an indifference situation with their children which leads to them being in a less social mood. This leads to less positive stimulation towards their children which in turn renders disadvantages for the children to achieve healthy emotional development [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ].

Apparently, the adults in a child’s environment, more specifically the parents and caregivers of infants and toddlers provide the feeling of safety and security among children during the early years of development of children when they can still survey their surroundings. The caregiver needs to practice sensitivity particularly when assessing the child and also ensure to offer an attachment whereas, on the other hand, insensitivity, as a result of neglect or intrusive behavior can promote an enclosure which does not guarantee security to the child. The Attachment Theory acknowledges the relevance of the caregiver taking note of the children’s emotions and practicing empathy to enable a child to comprehend and control their emotions [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ].

The capability to regulate emotional feelings so that one is not carried away by them is known as ‘containment’. Frequent contact with empathic people enables a child to hold the articulate, unmanageable, and first feelings. The child understands how to be themselves and attain better skills of emotional containment [ CITATION The10 \l 1033 ]. Where the support is not sufficient, child’s understanding of emotional experience is disorganized, and hence a problem in development may occur. Kurowski (2009) cautions that a child who developed the attitude of ‘not mind’ their mental pain and suffers passively, are at risk of converting such passive sufferings into ‘active cruelty’. Therefore, the process in which one uses in forming the potential positive relationship, in early years, can affect the child in future. This impact of adults on the young child has huge implications for the manner in which they conduct their interaction with the child. This means that for early stages of childhood development, parents and adults/caregivers should possess the skills for empathy or be able to and ready to prepare and develop them throughout their parenting journey [ CITATION Kur09 \l 1033 ]. Anything short of this means that the child’s ability to form a relationship with others, a skill that will influence the whole of his life, is at stake. Theoretical insight into containment and attachment enables one to comprehend the potential effects of a parent’s responsiveness on the young child’s development and the significance and importance of such theories on practice, especially in areas of adult-child relationships.

The role of self-esteem in the emotional development of a child can never be understated. Abraham Maslow classified self-esteem as one of the primary human motivators. In Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, self- esteem appears nearly at the top. At the bottom of the hierarchy, first, is the physical needs of the person which include shelter, clothing and food. Going up, the safety and security needs appear which are then followed by the individual’s social needs. Social needs point to affection and love from other people. These are trailed by an individual’s self-esteem which fosters a reflection of one’s worth and accomplishment. Self-esteem is only superseded by self-actualization [ CITATION Sau17 \l 1033 ]. This highlights the importance of a person’s esteem. Based on this hierarchy, it is clear that a child’s self-esteem is a great determinant of the interaction of the child with the adults in his/her early childhood years. Importantly, as noted by Hosogi et al. (2012), the environment in which a child is raised in early childhood greatly contributes to the development of self-esteem (Hosogi, et al., 2012).

When addressing the issue of self-esteem and the emotional development in early childhood, one of the important aspect to consider is the ‘difficult child.’ In his book ‘Transforming the Difficult Child’, Howard Glasser, the Executive Director of the Children’s Success Foundation proposes the ‘Nurtured Heart Approach’ to effective teaching and parenting of a challenging child. Howard is of the view that normal parenting methods are designed for the average child, and can often times make it more difficult to handle/parent the ‘difficult child.’ By definition, the difficult child refers to those children whose behavior deviates from the norm and who, subsequently, stand out from the rest of the children. These children exhibit anger, disrespect, self-control problems, they overreact, and are constantly anxious or depressed. Apparently, the Nurtured Heart Approach is a relationship-focused methodology strategically founded on three primary concepts, namely: (a) super-energizing success experiences; (b) turning down the practice of energizing or accidentally rewarding negativity and: (c) providing a perfect level of set limits and consequences of actions. Howard notes that providing negative attention to a difficult child is like consuming junk food; it has no nutritional value. Despite the fact that a parent/caregiver/teacher may not intend to promote the weaker side of their children, providing negative attention portrays this purpose and is thus not advocated. In place of this, the psychologist proposes that the teacher/caregiver/parent/therapist should create more experiences of success and recognize as well as appreciate when the set rules are not being broken. He proposes that parents, caregivers and teachers of difficult children should develop a credit system to monitor the behaviors of their children. In the credit system, the adult should highlight the rules, the bonuses to be given for positive behaviors and the responsibilities of the child. The child earns points by abiding by the rules and fulfilling their responsibilities and adopting and maintaining positive behaviors. The earned points can then be spent in, for example, ice cream, soda, access to TV, computer game time and other things that most children like [ CITATION Gla17 \l 1033 ].

Angela Oswalt notes that children start to develop self-concept such as attitudes and values in the early childhood stage, especially when they are toddlers. Between 18-30 months, children develop their Categorical Self, a way of perceiving themselves in term of age, gender and physical attributes such as height and skin color. Children develop long term memory where they remember most of the events that happened in their lives and also attain the remembered self. This memory is also known as the Autobiography Memory which forms personal stories among the children. Additionally, children develops an inner self, feeling, private thought and desires which are only known to them unless they share them with someone else. Because of the better ways of upbringing where the children are encouraged by the adults, they develop a high self-esteem. Young children are also optimistic that they will learn new skills and succeed in tasks if they keep trying. This is a belief called “achievement-related attributions” or self-efficacy which is important in the emotional development of a child. Self-esteem can sometimes come from the athletic ability, friendships, school ability, relations with care givers and help from other mates as well as playing tasks. Oswalt goes on to assert that external and internal development can affect children self-concept. For example, children with simple temperaments are more willing to follow their dreams and to keep trying all the time than children with complicated temperaments. Children with simple temperament also have better skills of anger management and are willing to try things repeatedly than those with complicated temperament who also have poor anger management skills. Children with simple temperament can better cope with frustrations and therefore believes in themselves as successful, good and valuable people who can make it in life and consequently have high self-esteem. Children with complicated temperament don’t know how to deal with anger and also gives up very quickly on something and cannot complete a task without assistance. These children develop low self-esteem if they start to believe that they can’t succeed on doing anything without any help. Other external factors such as messages from other people contribute towards building self-esteem. Young children with parents who give positive feedback on their ability and attempt to succeed usually have high self-esteem. On the other hand, children who are discouraged are often frustrated, quit more frequently and their morale is killed and hence cannot complete a task without being helped. When parents and caregivers become fond of being negative and punitive, the children’s ability to success is greatly affected hence poor self-image leading to poor self-esteem [ CITATION Ang17 \l 1033 ].

Parenting as the Primary Adult-Child Interaction in Early Childhood

When analyzing parenting as an adult-child interaction, it is important to understand which styles parents apply in parenting and the different parenting styles. By definition, a parenting style refers to the psychological construct that represents the standard approaches that parents use in bringing up their children. Based on her research with children, psychologist Diana Baumrind proposes three parenting styles, namely: permissive, authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles. The permissive parent behaves in a non-punitive, acceptant and affirmative manner which results in children with poor emotion regulations, antisocial behaviors, rebellious and defiant children who have little tolerance to challenges. On the other hand, the authoritarian parent tries to shape/control and evaluate their children’s behaviors based on a set absolute code of conduct which results in children’s anxiety, withdrawal and unhappiness but unlikelihood of engagement in antisocial activities. Conversely, the authoritative parent directs the activities of their children in a rational-issue-based manner where autonomous self-will and conformity to discipline at the individual level is prioritized. This results in children with lively and happy dispositions, well-developed social skills and high self- esteem. It is widely viewed as the most effective and beneficial for the normal child. Lately, researchers have added another parenting style: the neglectful parenting. The neglectful parent is completely irresponsive of the needs of his/her child, make very few or even no demands and subsequently raise children with impulsive and anti-social behaviors, delinquency, drug and alcohol addicts and those who commit suicide eventually [ CITATION Hug13 \l 1033 ].

When it comes to parenting, many people have the picture of changing diapers, messy houses, chasing toddlers up and down, bathing a tiny human creature, and running after a screaming toddler throwing tantrums in a supermarket/mall among other things, but, in the real sense, parenting involves much more. As much as parenting involves all these, it goes over and above the responsibility to meet the basic needs of the child and into influencing the development of one’s children in an extremely significant way. Parents greatly influence what their children turn out to be, the personalities they acquire, their emotional development and behaviors among other factors. Parenting involves going an extra mile to meeting not only the basic needs but also providing emotional support to the children [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ]. As a parent, being physically present and absent emotionally is not enough for the child. The parents who are not emotionally connected with their children bring up distressed and less engaged children. Some studies investigating the connection between adults and children have suggested that emotional involvement from the parent matters a lot and has an enormous impact on the child’s control/management of emotions. Therefore, every parent should put this in mind when considering the amount and quality of time they spend with their children. If adults and more specifically parents don’t invest enough time to pour emotional guidance on their children, the children will struggle to regulate their emotion and also interacting with others appropriately [ CITATION Hug13 \l 1033 ].

Previous research in self-esteem and early childhood development points to the fact that the specific qualities of a parent can be responsible for higher levels of self-esteem in children. One important quality is supportiveness. In a study conducted by Antonopoulou, Alexopoulos & Maridaki-Kassotaki (2012), the researchers found that the more supportive a parent is, the higher the level of implicit self-esteem for the child. This can be interpreted to mean that children of neglectful parents have a high probability of having a lower self-esteem. The researchers also found that authoritative and permissive parents (they are viewed as more nurturing) have a positive effect on the self-esteem of their children. On the other hand, authoritarian (overprotective) have a negative effect on the self-esteem of their children from early childhood [ CITATION Ant12 \l 1033 ]. According to Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009), inconsistency in parenting has also been found to have rebellious and aggressive effects among children, irrespective of age, whether adolescents or toddlers. More studies have pointed to the fact that a parent’s bonding, responsiveness and sensitivity abilities play a significant role in a successful emotional development of the child and subsequent high self-esteem [ CITATION Lig09 \l 1033 ].

A study on the outcomes of the Ainsworth’s Strange Situation experiments carried out by one ‘Sroufe’ revealed that initial relational attachment between the parent and the child is a predictor of the emotional development of the child in the future. From the study “Strange Situation experiment”, emotional development are not genetically related. This is a clear indication that emotional relationship skills are not born with the child but rather are ‘driven’ into the child by the parent depending on the relationship between the two. Other studies show that toddlers and children with anxious attachment have had a disturbed emotional connection in the past. Such children have low self-esteem and are quick to get angry and can turn the situation into a violent action. Therefore, if the emotional attachment is a long-term affair, then parents need to invest enough time to work on their children emotional drive to achieve stable emotional conduct in future [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ].

A critical element in emotional development for children is to learn how to control their emotions. Adults being around the children are not only expected to guide the children on their feelings but also be on the look-out on how they are conducting themselves as parents or adults especially when interacting with other people in front of the children. This is because children are quick to imitate what they see adults do to regulate emotions. The nature of children can influence how emotional problems impact them. For example, children who are prone to anger situations and negative emotions from their parents are more affected by neglectful parenting which even leads to more behavioral problems. Children who have a complicated character or temperaments can turn to be a challenge even to the parents which results in more negative behaviors to the children. Therefore, parents should not only focus on the parenting style and the emotion part of the situation, but they should also assess how children’s tempers are affecting them because if one is not cautious, this could lead to a spiral of ineffective and poor parenting which in turn contributes to negative behavior from the children and an overall poor emotional management and development of their child [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ].

Parents should also focus on guiding children to be able to express their own emotions and even in the society, children should be able to read the emotions of other people surrounding them. Every parent should teach their child to comfort someone who may be crying and smiling back when somebody smiles at them. But parent behavior has to impact how a child learns how to understand the emotions of other children or people around. Studies have shown that parents’ interactions contribute a lot to children’s emotional and social development. The marital conflict is a factor that leads to even more problems regarding such development. If a child experiences a marital strife such a fight between both parents, the child emotional development is significantly affected and this has been a leading factor causing unhealthy emotional development of children in the current society [ CITATION Mur141 \l 1033 ]. Marital fight and quarrels may not be directly directed to the child, but such issues have a negative impact on emotional security and regulation. Research has confirmed that children who come from divorced families experience emotional problems [ CITATION Car11 \l 1033 ]. Therefore, parents and adults in general have an important role in keeping their differences from their children and also handling them amicably and calmly.

Lisa Firestone, a Ph.D. holder psychologist asserts that the self-esteem of a child, right from when the child is an infant or a toddler, starts with the parent. She notes that a parent’s reaction to their infant or toddler cry or show of emotions is always vital. Should the parent feel agitated or stressed by the cry, the child is most likely going to have trouble relaxing. On the other hand, if the parent is calm and composed, the child is most likely going to feel secure and trusting. The more calm and compassionate a parent is when reacting to their children the more resilient these children become in handling their emotions. Firestone goes on to mention a research carried out by Dr. Ed Tronick, an Associate professor of Pediatrics at Harvard University and child development expert. In the research, Tronick found that even those parents who are considered as ‘perfect epitomes’ of parenting are only attuned to their children for 30% of the time. This means that the remaining 70% of the time, these ‘best’ parents are off from their children’s needs. This lack of ability for continuous attunement paints a scenario in which parents are more likely to respond unsuitably or inadequately to their children’s needs. This is despite the fact that children are almost always attuned to their parent. For this reason, it is clear that improving parenting skills means gaining a better understanding of one’s own self as a parent. Undeniably, all parents have both love and hate feelings for themselves at one point or another. These feelings are both extended to the children through the reactions of parents. When the love a parent feels for themselves is extended to their child, this amounts to parental nurturance, a factor that positively impacts the self-image of their children and the better self-perception amounts to a healthy self-esteem [ CITATION Fir11 \l 1033 ].

On the opposite side of this spectrum lies the feelings of hate (negativity) that parents hold against themselves. Just like the feelings of love (positive), it is equally easy for parents to extend feelings of hate to their children. When a parent holds negative thoughts on their self, or in other words when a parent has a negative self-concept, these feelings contribute to parental neglect, rejection and hostility. This serves as an example to their children besides the fact that these parents become more critical of their children just in the same ways they disapprove themselves. For example, when a child hears their mother criticizing herself for being fat, this child is most likely going to feel bad if they themselves gain weight. Therefore, these negative feelings create a negative ripple effect in the child’s self-esteem [ CITATION Fir11 \l 1033 ].


From the above discussion, a couple of highlights can be made. First, it has been learnt that adult interactions with children in their early childhood years plays a critical role in shaping the self-concept of the young children in terms of their emotional development and self-esteem. It was evident that toddlers too, just like adults, have a self-esteem which develops right from the time they acquire a self-concept, at the time of birth. The self-esteem of toddlers is based on or comes from knowing that they are loved and cared for by the adults around them, these adults being caregivers, parents or teachers. However, based on the fact that parents spend the greatest amount of time with children in the period of early childhood (infants and toddlers), parental interaction is considered to be the most primary adult-child interaction. Further on, four parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, neglectful and permissive) have been identified and analyzed based on their effects on the self-esteem of children and a conclusion arrived at pointing to the fact that there is no such thing as the ‘best’ parenting style since each style had ages where it fits best but was not useful in other ages. Further on, this discussion found that children with a high sense of self (self-esteem) are more emotionally developed compared to those with a lower sense of self. It has also been learnt that children learn to control their emotions by observing how adults in their social environment handle their emotions. From this, it can be recommended that adults interacting with children in their early childhood years should learn to set the right example for these children in aspects of emotional and self-concepts since children have even been rated as the best learning machines around the globe. For parents, a bigger burden is vested on their shoulder, and as many say “children are precious gifts from God”, parents should endeavor to work on healthy parenting skills and maintain positive interactions with their children right from when they are infants or toddlers since this also determines how these children develop into adulthood.












Antonopoulou, K., Alexopoulos, D. A., & Maridaki-Kassotaki, K. (2012). Perceptions of father parenting style, empathy, and self-esteem among Greek preadolescents. Marriage & Family Review, 293-309.

Blandon, A. Y., Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2010). Predicting emotional and social competence during early childhood from toddler risk and maternal behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 119-132.

Bowlby, J. (2008, 1st August). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. Basic Books.

Brown, G. L., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Neff, C., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., & Frosch, C. A. (2009). Young Children’s Self-Concepts: Association with Child Temperament, Mothers’ and Fathers’ Parenting, and Triadic Family Interaction. Merrill-Palmer quarterly, 55(2), 184.

Firestone, L. (2011, June 22). Your Child’s Self Esteem Starts With You. Psychology Today.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2015). Attachment and reflective function: Their role in self-organization. Development and psychopathology, 679-700.

Glasser, H., & Easley, J. (2017). Transforming the difficult child: The nurtured heart approach. Center of the Difficult Child.

Hosogi, M., Okada, A., Fujji, C., Noguchi, K., & Watanabe, K. (2012). Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children. BioPsychoSocial medicine, 9.

Hughes, E. (2013, December 10th). Types of Parenting Styles and How to Identify Yours. Developmental Psychology at Vanderbilt.

Kurowski, A. (2009). Natural professionals in EYE:. Early Years Educator, 10(9).

Lightfoot, C. M., Cole, M., & Cole, S. R. (2009). Social and emotional development in adolescence. The development of children.

McLeod, S. (2017). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Simple Psychology.

Murphy, A. (2014, May 7th). Parental Influence on the Emotional Development of Children. Developmental Psychology at Vanderbilt.

Norton, T. (2010). Development through Interaction During the Ealry Years: The Adult and Child as Co-constructors. Dublin Institute of Technology.

Oosterwijk, S., Lindquist, K. A., Anderson, E., Dautoff, R., Moriguchi, Y., & Barrett , L. F. (2012). States of mind: Emotions, body feelings, and thoughts share distributed neural networks. NeuroImage, 62(3), 2110-2128.

Oswalt, A. (2017). Early Childhood Emotional and Social Development: Identity and Self-Esteem. Gracepoint : The Source for Wellness.

Pickhardt, C. E. (2011). The Impact of Divorce on Young Children and Adolescents. Psychology Today.

Schore, A. N. (2015). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Routledge.

Stepp, G. (2010). Self-Esteem: Helping Children Develop A Positive Sense of Self. VISION.

Vaillant, G. E. (2011`). The neuroendocrine system and stress, emotions, thoughts and feelings. Mens sana monographs, 9(1), 113.













Compounded Tropical Anti-Fungal Medications versus Conventional Therapy

March 4, 2018


Tinea pedis is a dermatophyte fungus infection that affects the foot (Li et al., 2014). According to Li et al. (2014), the infection has increasingly become common due to the changing lifestyle. The infection thrives well in humid and warm conditions in adult men. It is often as a result of the Trichophyton (T.) rubrum. According to Hiroyasu et al. (2012), dermatophytosis is a common infection that is found in the superficial mycoses. The reason for the most unsuccessful use of the antifungal management methods is due to the skin relapse due to the poor adherence to the terms of treatment required in the use of the tropical antifungal medications (Hiroyasu et al., 2012). The treatment of the tinea pedis has received many attempts in terms of the compounded medications and the convention therapies.

Using the compound tropical anti-fungal treatment medications has shown positive results across many patients. Despite the success of each of the method, there are also health side effects of the anti-fungal pills on the body of the patients while treating the tinea pedis. Some of the compounded tropical anti-fungal drugs include the luliconazole, fluconazole, eberconazole, terbinafine and amorolfine (Goldstein and Goldstein, 2017). While treating the tinea pedis fungal disease, the body is equally exposed to health effects such as burning, skin peeling, itching, hyperpigmentation and irritation (Hiroyasu et al., 2012). Other side effects include the body redness, pain, heat sensation, eczema, pruritus and erythema. Hiroyasu et al. (2012) also reported that the use of the compounded drugs such as terbinafine to treat the fungal infections has health effects on the body. Even though the use of the luliconazole has side effects, they cannot prevent or stop administration of the dosage.

            The fact that the use of the conventional therapies has remained ineffective brings a positive light to the use of the compound tropical medications. It, therefore, be hypothesized that the use of the compound tropical antifungal drugs has significant effect in the treatment of the tinea pedis. The application of the conventional therapy to treat the tinea pedis is unreliable since it has high resistance to antifungal therapy when applied solely to therapy (CANDIDIASIS, 2008).

The compound tropical medications offer a lot of benefits like customizable dosages, multiple drug combination, reduced risks of pills abuse and lack of addiction among others (Sahoo and Mahajan, 2016; Branvold and Carvalho, 2014). The choice of anti-fungal treatments depends on the susceptibility of the therapy or the drug being used (Risslegger, Lass-Flörl, Blum and Lackner, 2015). Therefore, the susceptibility of the antifungal tropical is an aspect that needs in-depth consideration during the treatment of the tinea pedis feet infections (Scientific, 2009).

People with diabetes and infections of the onychomycosis can use the compounded medicines such as the terbinafine and the itraconazole to treat the condition. From a study, it was concluded that the use of the compound antifungals in the treatment of patients with tinea pedis is effective than the use of the conventional therapy which is characterized by relapse (Matricciani, Talbot and Jones, 2011). The terbinafine can also be used in combination with other antifungal drugs to improve the effectiveness of the treatment of the tinea pedis (Dolton, Perera, Pont and McLachlan, 2014). Only 1% is enough to show efficacy and effectiveness in the treatment of the fungal foot infection. Finally, the ingredients of the compounded antifungal tropical drugs vary with the target condition. According to Cada and Baker (2014), hormones such as the estrogen can also be used to make the compound antifungals and has shown effectiveness among the menopause age groups. The terbinafine can be prepared from the ethosomes and hydrochloride.  Therefore, this paper puts forward  that compounded tropical anti-fungal medications offer safe treatment of the tinea pedis.





Koga, Hiroyasu et al. “Short-Term Therapy with Luliconazole, a Novel Topical Antifungal Imidazole, in Guinea Pig Models of Tinea Corporis and Tinea Pedis.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56.6 (2012): 3138–3143. PMC. Web. 20 Feb. 2018.

Branvold, A., & Carvalho, M. (2014). Pain management therapy: The benefits of compounded transdermal pain medication. Journal of General Practice.

Risslegger, B., Lass-Flörl, C., Blum, G., & Lackner, M. (2015). Evaluation of a Modified EUCAST Fragmented-Mycelium Inoculum Method for In VitroSusceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes and the Activity of Novel Antifungal Agents. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy59(6), 3675–3682.

Scientific Abstracts. (2009). Journal of General Internal Medicine24(Suppl 1), 1–380.

Sahoo, A. K., & Mahajan, R. (2016). Management of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis: A comprehensive review. Indian dermatology online journal, 7(2), 77.

CANDIDIASIS, M. (2008). Antifungal agents for common paediatric infections. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, 19(1), 15.

Goldstein, A. O., & Goldstein, B. G. (2017). Dermatophyte (tinea) infections. Walthman, MA: UpToDate.

Matricciani, L., Talbot, K., & Jones, S. (2011). Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review. Journal of foot and ankle research, 4(1), 26.

Dolton, M. J., Perera, V., Pont, L. G., & McLachlan, A. J. (2014). Terbinafine in Combination with Other Antifungal Agents for Treatment of Resistant or Refractory Mycoses: Investigating Optimal Dosing Regimens Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy58(1), 48–54.

Li, R. Y., Wang, A. P., Xu, J. H., Xi, L. Y., Fu, M. H., Zhu, M., … Gong, Z. Q. (2014). Efficacy and Safety of 1 % Terbinafine Film-Forming Solution in Chinese Patients with Tinea Pedis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter, Parallel-Group Study. Clinical Drug Investigation34(3), 223–230.

Cada, D. J., & Baker, D. E. (2014). Conjugated Estrogens and Bazedoxifene. Hospital Pharmacy49(3), 273–283.


Public Relations

March 1, 2018

The most significant problem that is outlined in the letter is the issue of governance whereby problems to do with injustices and abuse of human rights is at the centre stage. This is clear as outlined by the author that there is the presence of violent racist terror that have been carried towards the African Americans. Further, the concept of abuse of human rights based on race has widely been viewed. Such issues have led the author to the jail for standing against the torture, victimization as well as the mistreatment of people of the African American group. The concept of bad governance is outlined, as the author is being held for conducting nonviolent movement. These are some of the problems that have been described in the letter (King, 1963).

The Christian movement that is mentioned in the letter can be seen to pose problems. This is because, in the letter, there is an instance whereby the author has openly outlined that he was regarded as an outsider. This can be based on the fact that he stood by the rights of African Americans and that made the author to be seen as a sinner for organizing a nonviolent movement that was meant to address the problems the group of African American was going through (Rieder, 2014).

Concerning the letter, various lessons can be drawn. One of the experiences is the ability to ensure every individual in state or society is given equal rights. Whether black or white, all the members of community should be respected based on their beliefs to prevent any form of conflict that might lead to war or even hatred among the diverse members of different races that exist in any given country (Starr, 2014). This is a good example of different races such as Negros that made the author to find his way to police custody.

From the letter, one of the critical points that are outlined is based on the reasons for the jailing of the author. This is one of the critical points since it serves to show that there is a need to ensure the rights of minority groups in any given state are respected. This will make it easy for the members of the public to have good living relationships that are freed of suspicious or hatred from their counterparts (Rattansi, 2007). The letter is of great importance in the modern day since it enables those in governance to provide a framework that is meant to make sure the entire rights of both minority and majority groups are respected. This ends up having a just society whereby the interests of all groups are defined lawful.

As a social worker, the contents of the letter play important roles. One of the importance of the message to the social worker is it enables any given social worker to have means of arbitrating various racial differences as well as coming up with means that are used to arbitrate diverse groups that exist in the society (Starr, 2014). Besides that, the letter should act as a good basis for helping the social worker is aware of various problems that exist in multicultural societies where some groups seem superiors compared to their counterparts.




King. (1963). Letter From Barmigham Jail. Boston: Sage.

Rattansi, A. (2007). Racism: A Very Short Introduction. Florida: OUP Oxford.

Rieder, J. (2014). Gospel of Freedom: Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and the Struggle That Changed a Nation. Boston: Bloomsbury USA.

Starr, S. (2014). Letter from a Birmingham Jail: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Sage: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.


Impression on Healthcare System

March 1, 2018

Impression on Healthcare System

The exploration of the conflict involving the California county hospital and refugee family reveals high cost likely to emerge in the dichotomy pitting perceived spiritual factors versus scientific factors. The presence of miscommunications between the immigrant family and health practitioners creates animosity as their perception conflicted. It yields an impression of mistrust and misunderstandings that affects the behavioral response. The theme presents a difficult experience for a healthcare system where the practitioners are unable to develop and integrate traditional perceptions in scopes that bridge the cultural beliefs. It implies that the parental refusal to honor the prescriptions was avoidable if the health practitioners engaged Hmong interpreters.  In particular, the misdiagnosis of Lia first seizure and inability to converse in the Hmong language left a worsening health condition.

Reading the book has changed my impression of the healthcare system by placing multi-stakeholder input that bridges the cultural barriers. The book reveals Lia’s condition worsened from insufficient cultural competence to understand Hmong lifestyle. The absence of Hmong interpreters made the health practitioners at Merced Community Medical Center to communicate the misdiagnosis. The book reveals a failure to bridge the Hmong tradition made it difficult to overcome the association of Lia Lee’s state with spiritual giftedness. The revealed case of Lia’s deterioration health, allows the book stimulate more awareness and broader dialogue on bridging cultural competence gap for healthcare practitioners.

Adapting healthcare system to nurture cultural respect

The growing population of Latinos of South-American descent makes the case to overcome the cultural competence to address the high prevalence of acute lifestyle diseases. The solution lies in stimulating a prevention mindset amongst Cubans and Puerto Ricans. The objective involves overcoming the delay witnessed when accessing medical care until the condition worsens. It warrants awareness campaign for a need to seek immediate medical care to replace the belief of pain tolerance without complaint. The situation mandates admitting more Cubans and Puerto Ricans to have a corresponding growth in the healthcare system. The physicians would assist reach to fellow Latinos and overcome the cultural factors holding them. Adjusting the healthcare system to accommodate more Latino physicians would help resolve language barriers in communicating medical terminologies. Lastly, it sends an inclusive platform that leaves Latinos often feeling less listened and understood by physicians. It would overcome the feeling that Latinos have over unfair treatment in the American medical system.

Reasons for non-adherence

Lia’s parents failed to adhere to the prescription citing her state illustrated spiritual giftedness, a reason they would not desire taking it away. Secondly, they believed her critical condition did not warrant the transfer of Lia to Fresno but to suit Dr. Ernst’s vacation plans. They held a belief that American physicians would draw blood from patients (Fadiman, 2012). It contradicted the Hmong belief that individual’s finite and irreplaceable blood amount. They believed the referral of Lia to Fresno exposed her to doctors who would remove her organs and sell. Again, the Hmong belief emphasized that anesthetizing patients would separate themselves from their souls. Hospital treatment would cut the spirit strings, thus disruptive to life-soul bond (Fadiman, 2012). Instead, physicians attending to Lia should embrace patient-doctor interactions to adequately involve them in the treatment. The involvement of Hmong interpreters and physicians of similar origin would yield trust and understanding in the doctor-parent interaction. The rapport would enable the two parties to understand each other and inform the parents of benefits to honor the prescriptions.




Fadiman, A. (2012, April 24). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Straus and Giroux.


cyber crime discussion

February 27, 2018









Cyber Crime Discussion

Name of Student

Name of Instructor




In one of the headlines of an article in 2013, Anonymous Hacks Department of Justice Website had threatened to launch ‘multiple warheads’. According to this article, a hacker by the name Anonymous had been linked with hacking of the United States Sentencing Commission website and managed to get away with sensitive information. In this case, the computer had been used as the main target of crime. According to Maras (2015), such cybercrimes where a computer is used as a main target are classified as category I cybercrimes.

Reports also indicated that the attack on the United States Sentencing Commission website was motivated by an earlier contravention of the 8th Amendment that prohibited against any form of cruel and unusual punishment on a hacker who had been previously arrested having been suspected for similar crime. Upon his arrest, the suspect had been promised to be set free on condition that s/he helped bring his accomplices to book, failure to which s/he was to face a jail term of 35 years. Having feared for the unknown regardless of his/her choice, the suspect resorted to take his own life than live to bear the consequences of either option.

As at the time of accessing the article, the anonymous propaganda was still available and could be accessed by members of the public. It was also revealed that after successfully hacking the system, Anonymous extracted the most sensitive information including the famous ‘warheads’ that are named after the Supreme Court Justices and thereafter threatened to spill it to the general public.

In order to avoid such cyber-attacks and other related crimes, I will take measures such as ejecting the hard drive and files that contain the most sensitive information from the internet server. This is one of the most effective measures especially when the hard drive completely unplugged from the server and in effect allowing only for manual access. I will also work to bar any remote access and add a redundancy to ensure that no form of access is permitted, just as in the case of Mission Impossible movie.





















Maras, M. H. (2015). Computer Forensics. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.



cyber crime discussion

February 27, 2018









Cyber Crime Discussion

Name of Student

Name of Instructor




In one of the headlines of an article in 2013, Anonymous Hacks Department of Justice Website had threatened to launch ‘multiple warheads’. According to this article, a hacker by the name Anonymous had been linked with hacking of the United States Sentencing Commission website and managed to get away with sensitive information. In this case, the computer had been used as the main target of crime. According to Maras (2015), such cybercrimes where a computer is used as a main target are classified as category I cybercrimes.

Reports also indicated that the attack on the United States Sentencing Commission website was motivated by an earlier contravention of the 8th Amendment that prohibited against any form of cruel and unusual punishment on a hacker who had been previously arrested having been suspected for similar crime. Upon his arrest, the suspect had been promised to be set free on condition that s/he helped bring his accomplices to book, failure to which s/he was to face a jail term of 35 years. Having feared for the unknown regardless of his/her choice, the suspect resorted to take his own life than live to bear the consequences of either option.

As at the time of accessing the article, the anonymous propaganda was still available and could be accessed by members of the public. It was also revealed that after successfully hacking the system, Anonymous extracted the most sensitive information including the famous ‘warheads’ that are named after the Supreme Court Justices and thereafter threatened to spill it to the general public.

In order to avoid such cyber-attacks and other related crimes, I will take measures such as ejecting the hard drive and files that contain the most sensitive information from the internet server. This is one of the most effective measures especially when the hard drive completely unplugged from the server and in effect allowing only for manual access. I will also work to bar any remote access and add a redundancy to ensure that no form of access is permitted, just as in the case of Mission Impossible movie.





















Maras, M. H. (2015). Computer Forensics. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.