Western Civilization to modern day


The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the influence of the western civilization on the modern age. It started in the western European nations whose culture changed gradually influencing other nations to follow suit. This civilization is known to be the best because of its imminent inspirations and influence on the modern day life. This paper will only discuss one inspiration of the western civilization; the philosophies of the age of enlightenment.

The age of enlightenment has many influences on modern day life. This was an intellectual movement in Western Europe in the eighteenth century in which people changed their views on the society and the world at large. The age was characterized by imminent changes especially in France and Great Britain. The change in culture and perception of the people in Europe had a lot of influence on the American colonies. People in these colonies were inspired to change their perception about the society and the world. This helped them to think critically about their rights and freedom which led to the American Revolution. Enlighten principles also played a pivotal role in realization of Democracy in America.

In fact, realization of democracy in the USA could not have happened were not for the age of enlightenment. Charles de Secondat and Baron de Montesquieu from France and John Locke from Britain are some of the most influential philosophers on the American democracy. The French philosophers made sharp criticism on the French society and the rulers of the time. They did this without fear as they were susceptible to punishment because of criticizing the king. Their publications and letters helped in ushering the age of enlightenment because people would be able to think of themselves individually.

Western Civilization to modern day

As stated above, the Western Civilization has a lot of influence on the modern day society. This paper is limited to the age of enlightenment philosophies which have a lot of influence of the American democracy.

Democracy is a political government in which the people rule by granting the governing power to some representatives. The American democracy got its cornerstones from the age of enlightenment. For the better time of the eighteenth century, America was a colony. The nation had been divided into many colonies under different colonial powers. American people lived the normal way with their colonizers as the masters. At the time, it was like they did not know of their natural rights or knew very little about it. As America was being colonized, European culture was evolving and changing gradually. This was with the influence and inspiration from philosophers of the eighteenth century. They changed people’s perception on the society and the world in general. The philosophers wrote letters and books which got to America and changed their perceptions on the society especially their rights, science, knowledge and religion.

Americans used to preach sovereignty of all citizens. Though they were inspired by some of the most philosophers of the time, Americans struggled to come up with a democracy basing their ideas on these influential philosophers. Some of Americans were for Plato’s idea against democracy while some were for the idea of democracy and direct rule. The way forward seemed uncertain as they tried to balance between the majority and the less. Constitution experimentation during the two decades of revolution was inevitable as a perfect solution and balance had to be achieved. Influence of Rousseau was seen at this trying moment when the Americans decided to embrace direct rule by the power of the majority (net industries, 2009).

Enlightenment was for sure inspiration to the colonial America. This led to the American Revolution which later formed the foundation of American independence and the constitution. Locke’s principle of natural rights was the most notable inspiration during colonial America. His principles indicated that mankind had natural rights; right to own property, to life and liberty. Basing on these enlightenment principles by Locke, the Americans stood up against oppression from their colonizers. Unfair taxes especially the tax stamp and taxes on tea were seen as unnecessary by these people. They wished they had their own government which would be based on the enlightenment principles. (Nicole, 2009).

One of the core and first step in the realization of democracy in the United States was declaration of independence. This would ensure that all citizens were free to whatever they wanted because their rights were respected. Independence of the nation promised personal freedom for all citizens. A declaration for independence was formed and stated:

  • Government is formed to protect people’s natural rights.
  • Government should have limited power.
  • The type of government should be accepted by all citizens.
  • Rejected absolute monarchy and thereby sides with Parliament against the Stuart Kings.
  • Government has an obligation to those it governs.
  • People have the right to overthrow government if it fails its obligations or takes away natural rights (revolution).

The spirit of the law by Montesquieu influenced many people like Catherine the great and the founding fathers of the American Constitution. This helped the Americans in making their own government as per these laws. According to this letter, the checks and balances of the government should always be balanced. This can only be done by dividing the power among different branches of the government in a bid to protect liberty. The American government is divided in to three branches basing on Montesquieu ideas. Constitution of the United States clearly shows that the power is divided among the legislature, executive and the judiciary branches (Annette, 2001).

Jean-Jacques Rousseau social principles had a great influence on American democracy. He believed that the power of authority lies in the general public. He stated that giving up personal interest was for common good. Rousseau lamented that man was born free and that control by a freely formed government was good. Rousseau’s faith in the majority of the people and the believe that people retain their rights when the government consents from the governed influenced the formation of the constitution in America. His impact is still felt more than two hundred years as a constitution cannot be viable without utilizing Rousseau principles. He advocated for a direct democracy and not a representation form of government. Direct democracy is practiced in the USA as per Rousseau ideas (Annette, 2001).

Other influential philosophies included the reform of the justice system and freedom of speech. Cesare Bonesana Beccaria advocated for a change in the way criminals were treated. He proposed that criminals were humans as well and they had rights like the other people. Cesare believed that governments should seek consent from the majority of the people for the common good and torture of criminals be abolished. He believed that the government did not have power to take lives and that each criminal activity was to have a punishment equitable to it. His principles were embraced in the American constitution as criminals were punished according to the criminal activity they did. This is embraced by the U.S judicial system in the modern era as well (absolute astronomy, 2008).

Voltaire believed that all humans had the right to express themselves through speech. He was inspired by Locke’s, the philosopher from England. He had expressed his feelings about colonialism in America which inspired many Americans in expressing themselves. His philosophies formed the cornerstones for the bill of rights in which people are allowed to express themselves as they wish. Though he might not have influenced America much, his ideas and principles were important in the realization of the U.S constitution after the revolution.

Democracy in America would not have been achieved without the great inspiration for the age of enlightenment philosophies. Philosophers of the time influenced Americans to fight for their natural rights leading to the American Revolution. It was during this period that America got its independence after which a suitable declaration was formed. This declaration was based on enlightenment principles which are embraced more than two hundred years after this era. The big question is, would there be democracy in America without the age of enlightenment?


Nicole, S. The Enlightenment and the Formation of The United States: How Enlightenment Ideals Shaped Policy, Culture, and American Life. 2009. 10 December 2009. http://www.articlemyriad.com/enlightenment_america.htm

Annette, N. Could the American Revolution Have Happened Without the Age of Enlightenment?. 10 December 2009. http://www.three-peaks.net/annette/Enlightment.htm

Democracy: Age of enlightenment and Revolution. 2009. I0 December 2009. http://science.jrank.org/pages/8957/Democracy-Age-Enlightenment-Revolution.html

Cesare Marquis of Beccaria. 2008. 10 December 2009. http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Cesare,_Marquis_of_Beccaria




DECEMBER 14, 2009

American Sign Language Development and Learning in Apes

The scientific community has vastly studied primate evolution. Anthropologists have particularly been interested in the evolution of language in primates and how it applies to human culture. The acquisition of the American Sign Language by primates as a form of communication has been viewed as a catalyst by anthropologists seeking to find out how language originated in the early man. The study of the use of language in primates has focused on orangutans, chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas. Due to the inability of primates to produce vocal sounds, these studies have focused on the use of; computer keyboards, lexigrams, plastic tokens and the American Sign Language.

Scientists have debated on the definition of language and its distinction from speech. While previous definitions of humans were merely based on their unique ability to communicate using language, these definitions has been criticized by the fact that primates have been able to acquire and use language as a means of communication. Charles Hockett maintained that in order for any system of communication to qualify as a language it has to have several properties. These include the ability for; interchangeability, specialization, duality and productiveness. Language must also be displaceable, culturally transmittable and must include the property of arbitrariness[1] .

The studies on the use of language by primates have mainly focused on American Sign Language. Successful use of language has been demonstrated by extensive use of symbols, grammar and the ability to articulate real and new situations using the language[2].

Studies which focused on primates in the wild depicted various methods of communication. These studies have indicated that primates use; olfactory, visual, vocal and tactile communication based on the environmental and the social context[3]. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, who maintains that there is need for more research on primate communication especially in the wild, focused on studying the complexity of chimpanzee communication both in the wild and within controlled settings[4] .

The question of use of language in apes was first highlighted by Samuel Pepys in 1661, who speculated that a primate he had observed in the wild could be taught how to form signs and speak[5]. Although there were no immediate follow up studies, Julien Mettrie published a documentary in 1748 which also focused on the possibility of teaching apes how to speak[6]. The first actual studies on ape language were conducted in the first half of the twentieth century and specifically focused on teaching apes how to speak.

Robert Yerkes who was a pioneer in this field extensively attempted to teach chimpanzees how to speak during the 1920s’. Yerkes concluded that apes could not learn speech because they lacked the ability to imitate sound[7]. This was later attributed to the different vocal habits in primates and the absence of speech organs. Yerkes however suggested teaching primates sign language instead. This recommendation was not followed up until the 1960s’ when Sue Savage-Rumbaugh trained Washoe.

In the meantime other researchers attempted to teach primates how to speak. Keith and Cathy Hayes recorded the most significant success after they reported that they had successfully taught a Chimpanzee called Vick how to speak. Vickis’ vocabulary was only four words but was a significant success[8]. Other researchers however observed that though primates could not use speech as a means of communication they easily learnt how to use gestures extensively to communicate and they also seemed to understand the human language[9].

The scientific community has focused on the use of sign language by primates as a means of conveying observations, emotions and thoughts. Chimpanzees and gorillas have reported the most success in acquiring and using sign language as depicted by the two case studies of Washoe, a chimpanzee who was able to acquire and use two hundred and fifty different signs and Koko a gorilla who was able to successfully use one thousand different signs.


Washoe is the first recorded successful study on the use of American Sign Language in primates. Washoe was a Chimpanzee who was adopted by Allen and Beatrix Gardner who started teaching her sign language as an infant in 1966[10].

Washoe was exposed to sign language as the only mode of communication from ten months old by all her trainers and guardians. Since chimpanzee infants remain dependent on the mother for up to two years, Allen and Beatrice Gardener were still able to influence language development. The environment was simulated to closely resemble that of a deaf human infant. The Gardeners’ used instrumental conditioning to motivate learning[11]

Washoe learnt how to use sign language through imitation, sign babbling, transfer and combinations. Within a short period Washoe was able to transfer learnt signals to accompany various referents. The Gardners’ recorded that Washoe was able to apply the word ‘more’ into other referents apart from the original referent which was tickling[12]. Washoe was also able to transfer the dog sign to indicate barking even when she could not see the dog.

Washoe was able to combine learnt signs to articulate a situation[13]. Differentiation was depicted by the ability to acquire and use specific signs to replace general signs. Initially Washoe experienced difficulty differentiating the word ‘flower’ from ‘smell’. After some training she was able to learn the sign for flower and differentiate it from that used to signal smell[14]


The most successful observation on Washoe was made when she adopted a Chimpanzee called Loulis. One of the most important standards used to define language is the ability for cultural transmission[15]. Although Loulis was not exposed to any sign language from humans, a study on her which was conducted five years after the adoption by Washoe indicated that Loulis had already learnt more than fifty signs from association with the other apes.

Bob Ingersroll who was among the researchers who studied Washoe and Loulis concluded that there was no active learning between Loulis and the other apes. He suggested that Loulis picked up the use of sign language from observing the other apes as they used signs to communicate[16] . This depicted sign language among the primates as a self supporting robust system unlike keyboards and the use of plastic tokens as a form of communication.


Nim was a male chimpanzee who was studied by Herbert Terrace in an attempt to discredit the published findings on the successful use of sign language by Washoe, Lana and Sara. Terrace had earlier discredited these findings comparing the observations to the phenomenon of teaching pigeons how to sort beads based on different color. Terrace also criticized the use of operant conditioning and a rewarding system, arguing that the primates would not use sign language in the absence of rewards.[17]

Terrence argued that apes only used signs so as to receive rewards from the trainers. Terrace exempted the use of tangible rewards in his study and used verbal approval as the only form of motivation[18]. Apart from this deviation, Terrace attempted to replicate the methodology used by the Gardners’ to teach Washoe how to use sign language. He also replicated the environment used by the Gardners’.

Nim was able to use signs with other referents as had been observed in the case of Washoe. Terence observed that Nim used the sign for dirty to indicate he wanted to go to the toilet and the sign for sleep when he wanted to display boredom. This confirmed the issue of transfer in language[19].

In his definition of language Hockett stressed on the need for substitution in a language. Nim used the signs for indicating ‘bite’ and ‘angry’ to warn his audience when he was angry. He however did not bite if he was given an indication that his message was conveyed[20]. This highlighted Hocketts’ language standard of specialization.

Terence however concluded that though Nim was able to acquire an extensive range of vocabulary he could not combine words to form meaningful sentences on his own. Terrence maintained that any sentences Nim formed were prompted by observing his trainers and not as a result of independent thought[21].

Koko the Gorilla

Sign language has also been successfully taught to a gorilla. Koko is a gorilla who was raised by Francine Patterson. Koko was adopted by Patterson in 1972 and taught how to use the America sign language[22].

Koko exhibited a wider range of vocabulary than Nim, more creativity and better application of structure in communication[23]. Researchers recorded a higher level of comprehension when Koko was able to apply sign language to joke and rhyme. Koko attached a long tube to her nose and joked that she was an elephant and that the tube was her trunk[24].

The use of sign language to communicate what had not been taught depicted productivity. Koko was taught sign language by use of operant conditioning. Although researchers have debated against the use of reinforcement and suggested that the withdrawal of rewards will lead to behavior extinctions, follow up studies have indicated continued use of sign language as a form of communication even in the absence of gratification[25].

Koko has depicted remarkable success in the application of signs to explain new phenomena. William Shatner recorded that Koko was able to combine two familiar words; water and bird to describe a duck the first time she saw one. In 1998, an online chat between Koko and Paterson highlighted the fact that Koko could form sentences when she tried to request for a treat from Paterson. Patterson also reported that a male gorilla known as Michel was also able to learn the use of sign language from observing and interacting with Koko. Michel learnt six hundred signs before he died.


Kanzi, a bonobo was adopted and trained by Sue Savage-Rumbaugh. Researchers believe that Kanzi understands more human language than any other primate or non human being. He depicted a faster rate of learning than all the other apes studied before.

Kanzi learnt his words just from watching Sue Savage-Rumbaugh teach his mother how to use a lexigram[26]. A lexigram is a board consisting of symbols which are connected to the computer. By choosing symbols on a board, the computer produces a vocal simulation of the chosen symbol facilitating the primates’ understanding of the human language. Kanzi had acquired a vocabulary of more than two hundred words by the time he was six years old.

While his mother unsuccessfully received structured learning, Kanzi was taught different signs while walking through the forest. The success in teaching Kanzi sign language has been widely attributed to the change in the learning environment.[27]

Kanzi has depicted an incredible ability to construct and use sentences to communicate. This successful display of structure in his utterances depicts duality which is one of the characteristics laid out by Hockett in defining language. Kanzi has also depicted an ability to formulate his own rules in sentence construction by combining the use of a lexigram and a gesture to indicate an action and a following agent[28].

Kanzi has demonstrated an incredible ability to identify, name objects and construct sentences outside the specific contextual cues. In a study where he was asked to identify thirty five objects in one hundred and eighty trials, he depicted a 93% success rate[29]. Kanzi has also depicted an ability to learn verbal words. Savage-Rumbaugh observed Kanzi utter a meaningful word consistently to his sister[30].


Chantek is an orangutan who was taught how to use the American Sign Language. Chantek, who understands both the English language and the American Sign Language, has successfully learnt more than one hundred and fifty different signs. He uses these signs spontaneously while communicating without any indication of undue repetition[31].

Chantek is the first primate to indicate the internalization of a value system. Researchers have observed that Chantek has successfully internalized a simple value system consisting of the symbols for good and bad[32]. Chantek is able to use either of these symbols in their right context.

Other studies by Savage-Rumbaugh have focused on Austin and Sherman, who are two chimpanzees who were able to successfully communicate information to each other through the use of symbols. Austin and Sherman were able to use signs to communicate information which they could not communicate without using symbols[33].

The Gardners’ replicated the study on Washoe using other chimpanzees. These included; Moja, Dar, Pili and Tatu. They observed the same tendencies and concluded that sign language was easily learnt and transferred by primates as a form of communication. The Gardners’ also observed that these primates would sign to each other, dogs, cats and even to humans. They also signed to inanimate objects including trees and toys[34].

Several researchers have argued against the ability of primates to use language. These critics include renowned linguist Noam Chomsky who proposed the universal grammar theory which strictly defines language as a human skill. Steven Pinker has also argued against the use of language by primates by ascribing the recorded observations to the ability of apes to acquire trained behavioral responses in an attempt to earn rewards. However these criticisms have been discredited using Terraces’ observations on Nim. These studies have also been characterized by various ethically based protests. Washoe and Viki distinctly characterized themselves as humans and characterized other chimpanzees as primates[35].

In conclusion the study of language acquisition in apes has shed light to the nature of cognitive and intellectual capabilities in primates as well as to the unique nature of development of the human language. The successful acquisition of the American Sign Language by the different primates continues to shed light on the process of language development in evolution and has provided several feasible avenues for teaching mentally retarded children how to communicate.

Works Cited

Cavalieri and P. Singer.1993. The Great Ape Project: Equality beyond Humanity. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. 1979.Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. 1989.Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hewes, G.W. 1977. Language Learning by a Chimpanzee: The Lana Project. New York: Academic Press.

Linden, E. 1974. Apes, Men, and Language. New York: Saturday Review Press.

Patterson, F., and Linden, E. 1981. The Education of Koko. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Rumbaugh, D.M. 1977. Progress in Ape Research. New York: Academic Press.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S. 1986. Ape Language: From Conditioned Response to Symbol. New York: Columbia University Press.

Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Rumbaugh, D.M., and Boysen, S. “Symbolic Communication between Two Chimpanzees,” Science, 201 (1978): 641-644

Savage-Rumbaugh, S. and Lewin, R. 1994. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Strum. S.C. 1987. Almost Human: A Journey into the World of Baboons. New York: Norton Press.

Terrace, H.S. 1979. Nim. New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishers.

Wallman, J. 1992. Aping Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[1] Linden, E. 1974. Apes, Men, and Language (New York: Saturday Review Press, 1974), 137.

[2] Wallman, J, Aping Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 6.

[3] Strum. S.C. Almost Human: A Journey into the World of Baboons (New York: Norton Press, 1987), 263.

[4] Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S. Ape Language: From Conditioned Response to Symbol (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 400.

[5] Wallman, J, Aping Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 11.

[6] Hewes, G.W. Language Learning by a Chimpanzee: The Lana Project (New York: Academic Press, 1977), 12.

[7] Rumbaugh, D.M. Progress in Ape Research (New York: Academic Press, 1977), 77.

[8] Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), 7.

[9] Ibid, 6.

[10] Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee (Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979), 12.

[11] Ibid, 144.

[12] Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. Teaching Sign Language to a Chimpanzee (Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979), 190.

[13] Ibid, 191.

[14] Ibid, 193.

[15] Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), 25.

[16] Ibid, 26.

[17] Terrace, H.S. Nim (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishers, 1979), 21.

[18] Ibid, 145.

[19] Ibid, 143.

[20] Ibid, 143.

[21] Terrace, H.S. Nim (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Publishers, 1979), 147.

[22] Patterson, F. & Linden, E. The Education of Koko (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981), 2.

[23] Ibid, 116.

[24] Ibid, 117.

[25] Ibid, 145.

[26] Savage-Rumbaugh, S. & Lewin, R. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 161.

[27] Ibid, 162.

[28] Ibid, 161.

[29] Savage-Rumbaugh, S. & Lewin, R. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 168.

[30] Ibid, 173.

[31] P. Cavalieri P. and Singer, P. The Great Ape Project: Equality beyond Humanity (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993), 47.

[32] Ibid, 52.

[33] Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S., Rumbaugh, D.M., and Boysen, S. “Symbolic Communication between Two Chimpanzees,” Science, 201 (1978): 641.

[34] Gardner, R.A. and Gardner, B.T. Teaching Sign Language to Chimpanzees (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), 24.

[35] Linden, E. 1974. Apes, Men, and Language (New York: Saturday Review Press, 1974), 50.

A Raisin In The Sun

A Raisin in the Sun


The influence of dreams on the thinking, attitude and behavior of the human beings is depicted in the play “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry. The play depicts some days in the lives of the family members of an African American family, the Youngers. The family stays together but as far as the dreams of its members are concerned, each of them differs from the other. All the adults in the family are holding on to their dreams and striving to achieve them. The family consists of Mama (Lena), her two children Walter and Beneatha along with Walter’s wife Ruth and son, Travis. Walter Younger, the son in the family pursues the dream of setting his own business and becoming a wealthy person. Walter is so obsessed with the fulfillment of his objective of becoming a rich person that he adopts a wrong way to accomplish his aim. But in the end, Walter realizes his mistake and emerges as a man who supports his family in the fulfillment of a dream which provided happiness to all its members.

Walter’s Journey

Walter Younger differed from the views of other family members, in regards to the significance of money in one’s life. Walter always thought that money can solve all the problems in one’s life. “No—it was always money, Mama. We just didn’t know about it.” (Hansberry 61). To fulfill his dream of becoming a wealthy person, Walter desired to start a business along with his friend, Willy. When Walter suggested that the insurance money should be invested in liquor business, Walter’s mother, Mama was not ready to hand over the money. But after paying some

of the money for the house, she gives Walter the remaining money so that his dream is also

fulfilled. But Walter fails to fulfill his dream, as Willy flees with his money. Walter not only loses his money but also the money kept aside by Mama for Beneatha’s education. He is so consumed with the fulfillment of his dream of becoming a rich man that he falls into the trap of Willy, who easily dupes him and runs away with Walter’s money. “Walter Lee’s obsession with money and improving his family blinds him to a swindle he is about to undertake in acquiring the liquor store.” (Krasner 59). Even after losing his money, Walter seeks to find another way to accomplish his dream. He convinces his mother to accept the money offered to them by Mr. Linder for not moving into their new house. He aims to utilize that money for realizing his dream. Being a dreamer, Walter fails to carry out his responsibility as the provider of his family. Walter makes up his mind to give up the pride of his family for sake of his dream by deciding to accept the money offered to them by Mr. Linder. Although Walter is right in harboring the dream of improving the living standards of his family by becoming a prosperous businessman, he is wrong in his desire to achieve his dream through easy means.

But when Walter becomes aware of the sorrow and contempt of Mama, Ruth and Beneatha, which was caused by his decision to accept the money offered by Mr. Linder, he realizes his mistake and failure in fulfilling his duties towards his family. “Walter Younger recognizes that he has earned his family’s shame and contempt, instead of their respect as he had wished. He has failed as a husband, father and human being.” (Thomas 148). He understands that moving in the new home will not only provide happiness to all the members of the family but also ensure that the family pride is maintained. The thoughts of Mama, Beneatha and Ruth regarding his decision make Walter to realize his folly in yielding to the pressures of the white

society. So he decides to give up his self-centered dream and aims to fulfill the dream of his

family. When Mr. Lindner arrives at Walter’s home with the money, Walter refuses his offer and states that his family has decided to move into the new house. Walter’s answer to Mr. Lindner’s offer brings forth the change in his attitude and his concern for the dream of his family. “We have decided to move into our house because my father—my father—he earned it for us brick by brick. We don’t want to make no trouble for nobody or fight no causes, and we will try to be good neighbors. And that’s all we got to say about that. We don’t want your money.” (Hansberry 132). Although Walter commits a mistake by deciding to forsake his family pride for the fulfillment of his dream, he realizes his mistake in the end and succeeds in rectifying his mistake by refusing to succumb to the offer of Mr. Lindner. “He makes a stupid error, but lives through it, reclaiming his dignity and his status in the family.” (Murphy 145). Walter’s refusal to accept Mr. Lindner’s offer aids him in regaining his lost status in the family. In the end, Walter transforms into a man who is aware of his responsibilities toward his family and comprehends the significance of family pride.


The play “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry presents the struggle of Youngers family, for the attainment of its dreams. Walter Younger, the son in the family pursues the dream of becoming a wealthy person by starting a business. But he decides to fulfill his dream by giving up his family pride. The impact that his decision has on the family members makes Walter to realize his mistake. The play depicts the journey of Walter from being a young man chasing a misguided dream to transforming into a man who gives up his dream and strives to fulfill the dream of his family.

Works Cited

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. The Modern Library. 1995.

Krasner, David. American drama 1945-2000: an introduction Volume 14 of Blackwell

introductions to literature. Wiley-Blackwell. 2006.

Murphy, Brenda. The Cambridge companion to American women playwrights. Cambridge

University Press.1999.

Thomas, James. Script Analysis for Actors, Directors, and Designers. Focal Press. 2009.

Drunk Driving Is Dangerous

Drunk Driving is dangerous.

Drunk driving can be defined as driving with a specific amount of alcohol in the blood which is also known as the individual BAC. BAC can be measured using the urine, blood as well as breath tests. The acceptable legal limit level for individual BAC in US is 0.08g/100ml. (Cismaru et al,292-5). Drinking under the influence of alcohol is dangerous as it jeopardizes the life of others and self. It is also has enormous economic costs on both the victim if he or she is lucky to be alive as well as the society at large. Alcohol has a depressant effect on people’s brains as well as their nerve pathways which control the muscle actions. Higher levels of alcohol in the blood impair one’s perceptions and judgment, reaction time, information processing as well as their vision. When all this are impaired the chances of involving in an accident are very high. People who drink and drive can easily drive on the wrong side of the road or drive into a ditch, as their vision as well as reasoning has been compromised. The magnitude and intensity in which alcohol affects people largely depend on their physical as well as mental wellness as well as other personal factors. Despite these differences increased consumption of alcohol on any individual leads to increased BAC which predisposes them to more risks of being involved in a traffic accident if they drive. Although there seems to be a general consensus that drunk driving has negative effects, there has always been conflicting views as to how it should be treated. Some argue that it should be criminalized and severe measures adopted to deter it while others dismiss this viewpoint on cost basis. This paper tries to explain the factors as to why drunk driving is dangerous and why it warrants strict or rather severe approaches to deter.

Statistics from various organizations have made it categorically clear that drunk driving brings about more harm than good in the society. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is a significant organization in as far as drunk driving is concerned. It was created in 1980 to assist the families of people involved in drunk driving as well as creating awareness of the dangers of drunk driving. MADD statistics have it that in 2002, 2.3% of underage Americans drove after drinking. This rate was 0.2% higher what had been recorded in 1997. MADD further noted that on average a person is killed within 45 minutes by a drunk driver and approximately a tenth of the total American population had been involved in drunken driving incidence. MADD observed that there was laxity in as far as the punitive approaches adopted to fight drunk driving were concerned as 50-75% of those whose licenses had been suspended continued to drive making the punitive measure adopted ineffective. (MADD). Since a higher proportion of young adults aged 19-20 are increasingly consuming alcohol there is a higher risk of their being involved in drunk driving which is associated with many negative effects. (Business Editors & Education Writers). 2000 statistics have it that the US incurred a cost of a$114.3 billion which comprised of the monetary costs as well as the loss in quality of life. The higher cost (63%) was met by other people rather than the driver. The World Health Organization noted that approximately 1.2 million people die annually while over 50 millions others sustain injuries annually in road crashes across the globe. Over 45% of these cases were alcohol related. (Cismaru et al,292). According to the Center Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 36 people die in America each day due to alcohol related motor vehicle accidents. It is also estimated that about 700 others are injured in alcohol related accidents. Drunk driving poses a huge economic cost to the American society of approximately 52$billion. The chances of being involved in a fatal accident when driving under the influence of alcohol tend to vary with age. With young people aged 16-20 registering the highest risks especially if they are new drivers. For this age group the males tend to have a higher likelihood of driving when drunk a situation made worse by the fact that the content of alcohol they consume before driving is also high. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The young drivers though a small proportion of the total driving population constitutes a very significant proportion in as far as involvement in alcohol related motor vehicle crashes. If nothing is done to change these trends America will lose the many young people who would have played a critical role in determining the country’s future.

Drunk driving is harmful and has economic costs both at the family level as well as at the government level. Accidents that are likely to occur when people drive under the influence of alcohol have direct economic costs as they lead to damage of property. In some instances the motor vehicles may be extensively damaged or beyond repair but in other instances a motor vehicle repair is all that would be needed. (Cismaru et al,292). Health costs are also incurred when people are injured from motor vehicle accidents. Severely injured people need emergency care services in the high dependence units or the intensive care units which tend to be very expensive due to their complexity. Indirect costs of drunk driving include the cost of maintaining law enforcement officials cracking down drunk drivers through the sobriety checkpoints. Imprisoning drivers found driving when drunk would have an economic effect on the society. (Cismaru et al,292). Drunk driving also has indirect economic costs on families when it leads to imprisonment. (Elbow 14). A clear illustration of this would be when a parent is imprisoned for drunk driving leaving the other parent to single handedly raise the family. The situation is worse when the person in question is the sole bread winner. Compensation paid after damages related to drunk driving occur also leaves a family suffering or rather straining economically. Injuries caused by drunk driving may have an in direct economic cost when they lead to unemployment. Other costs of drunk driving include premature death and reduced productivity attributed to the sustained injuries as well as on health and disability insurance. (Elbow 14). According to the Winscousin legislative Fiscal Bureau, the state would require a tune of $8.3 million each year to punish offenders if drunk driving was deemed a misdemeanor. This cost would further increase to $100 million if the drunk drivers were imprisoned. Critics argue that softer measures ought to be embraced to deal with drunk driving as the cost was quite high. To respond to this, the Mother Against Drunk Driving noted that on using the National Safety Council data, Winscousin had actually spent $747 million on both the health care insurance as well as on damaged property. This was seven times more what the preventive approach of incarcerating drunk drivers would cost. MADD argued that the cost was actually higher than this given the fact that that lives which could not be attached an economic value had been lost. Although the cost of fighting drunk driving would be enormous it would definitely be a wise move especially in the long run when the programs supported were effective. To fund this cause beer companies who make millions in terms of profit while predisposing the lives of many to danger could be taxed more. (Elbow 14).

Drunk driving has heinous negative effects and ought to be prevented by imposing with hefty penalties. Leniency on the part of the authorities can be associated to increased cases of drunk driving which translates to high costs on the government. When over 50-75% offenders of drunk driving drive after their licenses have been suspended, it shows that they do not feel the pain of their acts and the chances of them repeating the same acts are high. (MADD). Criminalizing drunk driving can however be dismissed by some as an over reaction especially if they have ever drove under the influence of alcohol or people they know have been involved yet no fatality was registered. This argument is however shallow in the sense that just because one has not been involved in an accident after driving when drunk is not a guarantee that it cannot happen. Other concerns are raised about the 0.08 limit with some arguing that they are not drunk despite having higher alcohol content in their blood. Although this argument may be accurate given the fact that people are affected differently by alcohol consumption, there is need to resolve the drunk driving problem at a universal level since it is a societal problem. Application of rules and regulations to govern this cannot be applied on an individual basis.

The good thing about drunk driving is that despite the numerous dire consequences it can be prevented. One approach would be through the introduction of punitive measures such as the revocation of licenses, hefty fines, as well as incarceration in some cases. Increasing the taxes imposed on alcohol to make it expensive as well as increased public awareness of the dangers of drunk driving. Increased advertisement encouraging people to use taxis rather than driving under alcohol intoxication can also play a critical role in reducing drunk driving and consequently its negative effects. (Cismaru et al, 292-311). CDC recommends legal action to fight drunk driving. It argues that continued aggressiveness in the enforcement of the 0.08% BAC laws, observation of the minimum legal drinking age as well as the zero tolerance laws for people below 21 years, would go along way towards the reduction of fatalities triggered by drunk driving. It would also be imperative to utilize the sobriety check points to prevent alcohol related fatalities. However collaborative efforts are needed to ensure that drunk driving is curbed. The relevant stakeholders such as the communities, the government at all levels and other institutions must introduce effective measures to fight this. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

Works Cited:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impaired Driving. Retrieved November 30, 2009 http://www.cdc.gov/MotorVehicleSafety/Impaired_Driving/impaired-drv_factsheet.html

Business Editors & Education Writers.  (6  November). MADD and Outside The Classroom Join Forces to Develop Online Alcohol Prevention Program for Youth Offenders and Teen Drivers. Business Wire,1.  Retrieved November 30, 2009, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 232903841)

MADD. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from http://www.madd.org/About-us/About-us/Mission-Statement.aspx

Magdalena Cismaru, Anne M. Lavack, Evan Markewich. SOCIAL MARKETING CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT PREVENTING DRUNK DRIVING: A REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Journal: International Marketing Review. Year:2009 Volume:26 Issue:3 Page:292 – 311. DOI:10.1108/02651330910960799. Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Steven Elbow The Capital Times selbow@madison.com.  “DRUNKEN-DRIVING LAWS ON TAP :MOMENTUM IS BUILDING IN THE STATEHOUSE TO GET INEBRIATED DRIVERS OFF THE ROAD. ” Madison Capital Times 21  Jan. 2009, ProQuest Newsstand, ProQuest. Web.  30 Nov. 2009.

Executive Summary

The need for health care services can never be substituted for any other need owing to its indispensable nature. Healthcare is life, and every citizen of this country has a right to life. It is therefore imperative that all possible measures be put in place to ensure that every person can have access to affordable medical services when one needs them; and that these services be conducted in the best manner possible. This healthcare policy brief is aimed at those in the political arena who need to understand the issues that affect citizens who have elected them to office. This policy brief is to Mitch McConnell, the current leader of the Republican Minority in the Senate. This is because his party is best placed to help bring about the necessary changes to the current healthcare system by working together with the Democrats to support the proposed healthcare reforms. The healthcare policy brief describes the background to the problem of lack of a comprehensive healthcare plan that makes all people access healthcare services when they need it, and provides its policy environment. It also discusses the available policy options, including the need for a more comprehensive healthcare insurance policy framework and the need to cut or control the souring costs of medical care. Finally, the policy brief gives the recommendations on the way to go so as to solve the problem once and for all. In this case, the brief recommends that all be done to cut or bring under control the rising costs of healthcare in the country.

Introduction and Background to the Health Care Issue

The need to live free from ailments and ill-health is a basic human need, and the necessary policy frameworks ought to be put in place to ensure that this right is not trampled down. Healthcare needs have been growing in the country in spite of attempts to have every American having access to basic medical care. The trend so far has pointed out a disproportionate distribution of healthcare services among the different populations, pointing out the need that there is for a lot more to be done by the Senators to help those in need of health care services. Since no person can predict when misfortune in the form of ill-health will strike, all that can be done is to anticipate the risks ahead and prepare as best as possible to confront them when they eventually come knocking. Preparedness is essential in minimizing losses of life, property, time, and money. One of the best ways for Americans to prepare for any eventuality in healthcare is to have a healthcare insurance scheme that can be used to fund one out of medical financial woes (Johnston, 2009).

The need for health care services to all is a basic human need that every American is entitled to. Health is very essential and borders to life itself. The ability for the federal government to provide for the most essential and the most basic healthcare is very critical to its efforts to realize its development goals. For a long time, healthcare service provision has been hampered by the failure by the federal government to take deliberate steps to ensure that there are formulated and implemented policies that are geared towards achieving this purpose. Whether it has been due to a sheer lack of political goodwill or a deliberate effort to ensure only a few Americans enjoy the fruits of healthcare service provision at its best, the fact remains that a lot of effort needs to be put in place to ensure that health care is no longer a recurrent problem in the modern American society (Johnston, 2009).

Today, only the rich can be assured of any kind of health care they need because they can afford it. The rest of the people, fellow Americans who contribute no less to the development of this country, live in constant fear of illness because they understand too well that in the event they become ill and are required to seek specialized medical attention, they will not be able to afford to pay for their medical bills. This leaves a large proportion of Americans looking forward to the day when the government will decide once for all to come to the aid of the people. Minority groups in the country are the worst affected, having to grapple with many other issues in life in addition to that of lack of health care. The political class in this country, led by the Senators of all parties, is asked to respond to the call of truth that this country is lagging behind others in the developed world when it ought to be showing leadership (Shi, 2009).

Healthcare Spending

It is absolutely unimaginable and even embarrassing that a whole over 15% of the people in this country do not have healthcare insurance. As if to compound this, healthcare provision has largely remained in the hands of the private sector. While the country may be among those that have the largest budget allocated to healthcare issues, a lot more needs to be done to both increase the proportion of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) that is spend on healthcare from the current 16%, and to ensure that this money goes to fund what is typically essential and helpful to the needy (Johnston, 2009).

The current trend where money is spend on less specific cases is worrying and needs to be reversed if this is possible in order to alleviate the continued suffering of the people who are without healthcare insurance. A plea is made to Senators to pass legislation that can help alleviate the suffering of people whenever they fall sick so that they too may enjoy life, living without the constant dread of sickness. If for every dollar of the 16% that is spend on healthcare 31% is used for hospital care services, and another 21% on the services of the physician, then so little is actually left for healthcare insurance (Johnston, 2009).

This aside, the government and the politicians in this country needs to consider the fact that the costs of healthcare are increasing every day. This in essence means that even those with healthcare insurance can not fully cater for their healthcare needs. Compared with the other developed countries, the United States of America is most likely to remain with a very unpopular healthcare insurance policy and the most expensive one as well. These rising costs are the outcome of the unwillingness by the government to get fully involved in public health matters, having left this role to the private sector. With surging costs of medical care and a growing proportion of the number of Americans without a healthcare insurance scheme, the future is dreary indeed. As the one nation where expenditure on healthcare has been consistently growing, it is not justifiable for her to remain among providers of the poorest services of health (Andersen, 2007).

Fig. 1: A comparison of the proportion of GDP spent on healthcare from 1970 to 2006 for some of the countries in the developed world.

Source: Office of the Actuary (OACT)

The Policy Environment

A lot has been done in the past to ensure that every person in the country can afford healthcare insurance and be able to access medical care whenever a need arises. Employers have been particularly doing a lot to provide healthcare insurance for their employees; ensuring that they augment the efforts of the government and the private sector in this endeavor. Hospitals and medical facilities both in the private and public sector have never faltered in their resolve to assist patients who find it extremely difficult to fund their healthcare needs. The government has been on the forefront trying to get the political goodwill and support to pass legislation that is aimed at providing healthcare insurance to all. A plea is made to support these efforts (Patel, 2006).

That aside, there have been deliberate efforts by the government to divorce healthcare insurance from employment. This has been a major stumbling block that has effectively locked some people, especially those without employment, out of the medical insurance. Medicare services have been subsidized by the government, with about 23% of every dollar of the 16% of GDP that is allocated to healthcare being channeled to finance most of such contingencies. The government has also ensured that in spite of the absence of a comprehensive healthcare insurance policy, the approximated 15% or so who have no healthcare insurance have been assisted in their quest for Medicare services (Harrington, 2004).

Although a lot has been done to ensure that healthcare services are available to all citizens, there has been a failure on the part of the government and other stakeholders to bring about what is desired. Fore instance, the government has still not managed to regulate the rising costs of medical care services. These high costs of medical services have only worked to block a lot more people from having access to the much needed healthcare services. Even the very vulnerable in society have failed to receive the most basic healthcare services because the priority in the medical field seems to have moved away from the needs of people to the political pressure (Shi, 2009).

Considering the nature in which provision of healthcare services in the country is, it is no wonder that the universal right to life is in essence being taken away from some people. Life is becoming a preserve of the few people who are rich enough not to rely so much on healthcare insurance, or capable of paying for the huge healthcare insurance costs. It would have been more important and valuable if the politicians put party interests last and the needs of the people who elected them first. The wish of the people is that healthcare matters were not discussed as Republican or Democratic agenda but an agenda of all people. This need of the people has been totally ignored (Shi, 2009).

Policy Options Available

The people plead, therefore, with the Senators to make up their mind and help all Americans have access to healthcare facilities when they need them. Since the most daring obstacles to health care accessibility by all people is the lack of a comprehensive healthcare insurance scheme and the relatively high costs of both healthcare insurance and healthcare services, it is imperative that any approach at formulating a policy to bring about healthcare reforms must take into consideration these factors.

Healthcare Insurance for All

First of all, a policy framework must be geared towards addressing the lack of a healthcare insurance policy for all. Those who do not have any healthcare insurance policy must be supported to purchase one through the various avenues available. This will ensure that when people fall sick, they have some form of savings that can help them finance their health bills even if this will not be enough to cover all the needs of the moment (Schimidt, 2008).

Benefits of a Universal Healthcare Scheme

The need for healthcare insurance to be available for all people is very critical. Its benefits include the following:

1. Reliability and Flexibility

Every American wants to be sure that in the event of sickness, he/she as well as the entire family will have the medication they require without having to worry about where to get the money from. When every person has healthcare insurance, it becomes less likely that anyone will fail to access medical care. Instead, all are assured of the services that they need. What else is more important, then, than getting what one wants and when one wants it? With insurance for all, everyone will get medical care whether they are employed or not. The provision of the services to those with healthcare insurance will be independent of present financial position or historical records. It will be the fairest approach, placing all people on a level playing field. In the event that one no longer needs an insurance policy, one can pass it on to other family members or opt out of the entire program as one sees best (Boychuk, 2008).


The main disadvantage of this policy approach is that it is bound to be ineffective unless it works alongside other options like controlling rising healthcare costs. This is because even with everyone with insurance, they can fail to use it if the cost of medical care exceeds that of the insured amount at a given time (Andersen, 2007).

Reign in Souring Healthcare Costs

The second policy option available targets the problem of souring healthcare costs. It has become apparent that a lot of focus has been placed on those people who do not have any healthcare insurance at all, but in doing so the problems experienced by those who have access to healthcare insurance but are finding it increasingly difficult to access medical care services have been ignored. There has to be a way of addressing their plight too through some form of policy framework. Although people in this category might not necessarily have any problem whatsoever purchasing healthcare insurance, they can not service their premiums effectively, or they cannot afford to foot the huge bills that come especially after some form of specialized treatment (Almgren, 2007).

Therefore, affordability of healthcare services for such is largely dependent on how best the political class is ready to work in conjunction with the policy makers in government to come up with a way to lower medical care costs to a level where all people, or at least a large majority of them, will be able to afford to pay. The current global economic crisis has served to aggravate the problem. Statistics have tended to point to a trend where an increasingly large number of people are finding it difficult to access medical care facilities because their marginal propensity to consume has drastically been lowered by their reduced incomes. The purchasing power of most people has become greatly reduced, and this has made them less inclined and able to spend a proportionately large proportion of their income on healthcare. This calls, more than ever before, for an intervention by the relevant government agencies and the politicians to work together to ensure that people can afford at least the most essential services like healthcare (Andersen, 2007).

Advantages of the Policy Option

The issue of healthcare and failure by a large proportion of the people to afford it has been compounded by surging healthcare costs. Any attempt at controlling this surge will bring about the following benefits:

1. Cheaper or Standardized Healthcare Costs

If by means of a comprehensive strategy the costs of healthcare are brought under check, it is possible to have a system where the costs will be regulated and standardized, or reduced altogether. Depending on the specific outcome, the nation is likely to enjoy the fruits of this reduction (Almgren, 2007).

2. More Affordability of Healthcare Services

When costs of healthcare are reduced or standardized, more people will be able to afford healthcare services because they can plan better for future expenditures without having to worry about the prospect of an increase in pricing.

3. Reduced Anxiety and Enhanced Physical Health

Out of place though it may seem, the very thought of a possibility of falling sick has been sending many people into an anxiety fit. Not that they fear sickness but they dread the consequences that come with seeking medical attention. Standardized costs of healthcare services have made people less worried of sickness (Almgren, 2007).


1. Influencing Market Outcomes

The economic policies of any free market will call for the demand and supply of healthcare services to be determined by the existing price level (price mechanism). It is not the involvement of people or external forces that ought to bring about changes in such market trends. Every effort needs to be put in place to ensure that there is minimal or no state interference at all in the otherwise free operations of the capitalist healthcare market. Although regulation of essential services like healthcare might be justified and even essential, it has many economic implications both in the short run and in the long run (Musgrave, 2006).

2. Risk of Brain Drain

The healthcare sector in the country is largely run by the private sector. The providers of healthcare services are bound to lose greatly when price controls are enforced. Since many attempts to regulate pricing will result into losses especially on private operators, they will be tempted to move away and practice elsewhere where returns are better. The country will then be faced with a worsening labor crisis, given that it is already facing an acute shortage of nurses (Kronenfeld, 2002).

Increase Government Expenditure on Healthcare

The final policy option available is for the government to work jointly with the opposition to ensure that the proportion of the country’s Gross Domestic Product that is spent on healthcare is increased from the current 16% to about 20% of GDP. Expenditure on healthcare is very essential and more that anything else, more than even education and food, it has to be given priority. Therefore, it pays for the spending on healthcare to be improved. There is a tricky situation in this approach, though. The increments must be commensurate with public needs and not political achievement (Patel, 2006). Not one American will fall sick because his/her political party or one of its key contenders for a key position has failed to make it. However, a lot of lives are risked every day when funding programs are not tailored to go in line with the needs of the people. It is like a golden ring securely fastened onto the muzzle of swine! It has no value (Jonas, 2007).

Possible Benefits from this Approach

When government expenditure on healthcare is increased, the following benefits are bound to be realized:

1. Universal Healthcare Affordability

This is by far one of the most important benefits that will be brought about by a decision by government to increase spending on healthcare. Since many people have no access to healthcare for different reasons, increasing budgetary allocation for healthcare will enable a lot more people to have access to healthcare facilities. Regardless of the cost of healthcare, the likelihood that part of the additional funding will find its way into medical facilities that in turn will offer help to those who are in need are high (Almgren, 2007).

2. Better Health Services

Just like in any other budgetary allocation, increases of budgetary allocation to healthcare will improve the health sector as a whole, and the country will never have to worry about the appeal of its healthcare system to the public. Increased funding will create a situation whereby each section in the health sector is improved, improving service delivery and changing the attitudes of the people towards it (Porter, 2006).


1. The move is Unpopular

The government can boast that it has already the one of the highest budgetary allocations to healthcare in the developing and the developed world. Statistics show that the USA is the second largest spender on healthcare at 16% of GDP. Therefore, requiring the government to increase funding on healthcare will not go down well with many (Patel, 2006).

2. Global Economic Crisis

The current economic crisis has made the government to, more that ever before since the days of the Great Depression, seek to reduce government expenditure because of the rampant unavailability of funds. It will therefore be economically very expensive and taxing to increase budgetary allocation to any sector of the economy. Any allocation will have to be implemented when economic times are favorable (Patel, 2006).

Conclusion and Recommendation

The three policy options discussed above are all possible and can bring about radical changes in the way healthcare facilities are accessed. However, based on the pros and cons of each, it is only realistic to come up with one that is capable of bringing about more benefits and lesser associated problems. Providing health insurance for all is possible but it can not help much when costs of healthcare keep on souring. On the other hand, increasing government funding to the health sector may not be viable partly because it has been done repeatedly over the years yet the problem has persisted. This leaves only one approach that can enhance healthcare accessibility: the ensuring that the cost of medical care is brought under check. This will improve the level of accessibility for all, whether or not they have healthcare insurance schemes. To have this implemented, the plea is again send to Senators to work together to pass relevant bills aimed at improving healthcare provision.

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The perception of the problem of proximity is what matters to us, humans. If something almost hurts us , or it is prevented or damage of any sort is eliminated, or if that is something they want but they do not tend to react more forcefully to buy than if the damage is unavoidable, or if any injury occurs, or if you forget to get what they want. In his research, checked on decisions under uncertainty, Kahneman and Tversky (1982a), whether the same negative result, there is no difference in the experience of pain, depending on the outcome of the act or omission. Near Miss experience can be painful, but educational institutions are suffering at the same time, stirring behavioral adaptations of those who do. By repeating the experience of Vignette, the earlier discovery of a strong tendency for a cost of several proposals, after the failure. The same tendency was for the pleasure experienced positive results.

This study is a partial replication of Landmans (1987) which investigated Regret and Elation Following Action and Inaction: Affective Responses to Positive Versus Negative Outcomes. The main hypothesis is “People imagine greater regret over unhappy life events following action than following failure to act. Similarly, people imagine greater joy over happy events following action than following failure to act. This study endeavors to test the validity of this hypothesis as well comparing regret and elation responses with regards to action vs. inaction.”

This study is partly a copy of “Landmans (1987) “, the sorrow and joy following action and inaction: Affective responses to positive results, compared with a negative balance were examined. The central hypothesis is” People think that the deplore the unfortunate events in life after surgery, not to act. In the same way that people think of great joy for the happy reaction inactivity. The study aims to approximate the validity of testing these assumptions and compare the reactions of pain and joy with each other to act in the form of action. ”
We note that the relationship is between the kind of repentance and self-regret, that is typical feature of the participants recalled an act or omission regrets systematically deviates from the Association of distortions due to availability. The self-description, followed by the memory of an unfortunate event, and the classification of sadness that an act or omission. Write or think of a complaint and use the incident as an act or omission classified, the participants are willing to consider someone who often complain of this type. Our experience in other contains checks to prevent this alternative explanation.
The word “abnormal” is used here without the connotation of psychopathology. In other words, in technical terms, it is unusual for the morning, brush your teeth when you brush your teeth more often during the night.

Landman. (personal communication) shows that it is regrettable that it presents examples of the participants presented a confusion of the experimental design was. Although buying a share of the value drops to ensure a loss, rising despite the impossibility of a file, its value, even if you missed the opportunity to buy or lack of profits. Could not possibly win the difference between an example of a loss, and an example due to differences in the intensity of the action and inaction regrets to remind the participants? In response to the first note is confusing for measures to increase the intensity of regrets, regrets the lack of work because they say such a loss as a result of intense regret that the example of the lack of profit due to inactivity. If this confusion is the effect on our data shows that the effects of the measures are unjustified, less than the observed effects and consequences of inaction does not justify larger than the observed effect. In other words, claiming that it did not support the false claim that the measure is more regret than inaction, that they sought to refute. Given that our data is a pity no difference between the intensity of the natural production of the action taken or not proven we can conclude that if it affects our data can be confusing, since the law of the state n ‘regret regret nothing, not even when intensive it shows the strong rejection of the application which is more action than inaction regrets. The literature shows that the loss of favorable result in changes in the absolute value is greater than objectively equivalent transactions (Kahneman and Tversky, 1991), but not for the fact that an unspecified losses in the volume of withdrawal leads to a deeper, unfortunately, was not the lack of more than words, from an undisclosed sum. It is not clear that the different intensities through the entrance to the loss of an unfortunate designated unspecified collected, not to win as a possible example of repentance. In fact, we are very skeptical that this could happen, and it is an empirical question in a follow-up study. Here is our starting point, that although this impact has occurred, so that a denial of the higher requirements that measures to create more than a sedentary regret.
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Classification of coders, data were excluded if (a) of the participants, although the intensity of the first or second (usually unintentionally), or (b) if programmers split on the issue of classification of first or second boring or (c) if a programmer had remorse inappropriate experimental conditions, such as programmers who are classified as a sad failure, however, regretted that for the first time in Retiro Condition 2 (first step to apologize for calling). The data were excluded from the classification of the participants that if the data is not the first criterion (a). Despite differences in sampling criteria were the consequences of an act or omission by the distinctive, almost identical to a participant or classification Encoder “everything. Feelings of guilt and grief are very powerful and often misunderstood. Debt is a feeling that occurs when someone felt he had done nothing wrong. Repentance is the willingness to change something that has already occurred.


Unfortunate effect of “action”, which produce more action than inaction, it is found to disappear from the model in question. This phenomenon occurs in the first study. It has been suggested that this disappearance is due to inability to understand the extent, despite differences in regret when the perception among individuals design used to be a problem highlighted by another study. A proposal for a new approach, with the common method to solve this problem. This method shows a study of the third and fourth, and discussed the conditions for these improvements.
Previous studies have shown that when they issued until all desired options consumers are more satisfied with their own choice options for alternatives abroad, but it is just the opposite, if the options are undesirable. This investment in satisfaction is explained by an emotional account of: Choose large commitment to the importance of emotional experience with the result of extreme than non-voters (Botti and Iyengar, 2004).
In the present study the hypothesis of the reinforcing effect on the satisfaction of the election of the ability of voters to distinguish between choice moderated: if fewer opportunities, such as
compared with the more nuanced decisions would be equally happy with the out-as he put it with a self-selected options. This forecast is based on confusion between the effects of decisions and responsibility in the above results. Research has shown that when people feel that it is the result of the emotional experience of this is multiplied by itself a credit card or a nice feeling of guilt for an unpleasant experience (Gilovich, Medvec, and Chen 1995 Kahneman and Tversky 1982, Landman 1987, Ritov and Baron, 1992, Weiner 1981). Therefore, the assumption that if it weakens the notion of responsibility, selectors would have less reason to congratulate or
themselves to blame, not what you choose a smaller difference between sitting and then.
Based on earlier studies that exercise the option is deeper in the absence of a clearly dominant choice (Dhar 1997 Shafir, Simonson and Tversky, 1993), we process personal responsibility for change in the extent to which decision makers identify the opportunities and most people prefer to distinguish itself: If the data do not exclude the diagnosis to identify the relative quality of each opportunity, the opportunity to choose the lesser noted that although differences between the options that are easy to voters a sense of understanding of accountability for results and influence the gap between voters and non-voters are given. But in line with previous studies showing that this approach is not sensitive to the choice of the same factors that influence satisfaction (Botti and Iyengar, 2004) argues that the will to choose, not by creating differentiability changed.
As expected, gives a measure (and) with a hard power), with a focus on design (both the status of agents. Contrary to expectations, we have a marginal effect meaningful measures of a pattern between individuals, but also the fact that only marginally significant in form of a smaller, much smaller than you is an internal affair
Design. This reaction, and usually N’gbala (1997 Branscombe’s) Wnding. The effect of the measure seems to disappear, with between subjects design. Two hypotheses are possible at this time. Could it be that the regret is essentially the same for the actor and the actor is not (as it seems between-subjects) design, and this small difference is exaggerated in style to substance. But as we show in the next section, it is possible that the direct use of renewable wave in a between-subjects design is a useful tool to examine differences in anger.
Ideally, we rely on the ratings of the stimuli evaluated, not the person performing the examination or assessment. We want to shared values. The depth of the introduction of a person on a scale of 0-8 digit meter measurements: Although the evaluation is always the same score. You can stand beside Michael Jordan and has the same score. But it is true that the scale of 0-8 meters with a 11-point scale from very short to be replaced very high? Each court has its own idea of what it means to “very shortly” and his own interpretation of the amount corresponding to the third point of the scale or the sixth.