Assessment of health care needs of Young men and availability of health care resources in a low-income Urban Community in Houston, Texas.

Assessment of health care needs of Young men and availability of health care resources in a low-income Urban Community in Houston, Texas. Introduction: In contrast to the health care related issues in Houston, the survey concluded by the doctors of BCM (Baylor Medical College) states that young men are not eager to visit the doctor and tries to suppress their minor medical health unless the problem tends towards the serious issues related to their health. The major health problems which usually move to sudden death after the diagnosis are associated with prostrate, liver, kidney, lungs, etc. becoming very normal in young men. Therefore according to the detailed survey done by the doctoral experts accompanying Inter Cultural Council experimented and measured the accuracy that fifteen percent of US populations are African-Americans. Further health study of diseases in black men verifies through detailed survey and conference held by U.S. Defense Department that the death causes through prostrate cancer is higher in young black men as compared to white men in America screening about the disastrous unavoidable circumstances and the disease have been formed through the lack of diet, environmental pleasure, awareness and late access to the physicians responsible for giving preventive measures about the disease after diagnosis. Therefore the Baylor Medical College have provided and allocated special treatment for African-African men leading to avoid racial and ethnic inequalities. The statistical surveyed data among the black men as compared to white people are exposed to highest tensions and diseases. For example sixty-five percent of the black men to black women are intensely obese with reference to the ratio of white men i.e. sixty-one percent to white women, greater proportion of heart disease, diabetes, thirty-five percent of death through cancer against white men, numerously spreading of prostrate and breast cancer diseases are accordingly higher than the white men in the southern part of the United States of America namely; Houston. All the above mentioned causes of disease had been inferential due to long term tenure of vulnerable cultural differences in the U.S. among black and white increasingly in young generation between the ages of eighteen to late twenties. (Anonymous, p1, n.d.) According to the journal of Medical Association, states that the African-American men are at a greater risk of health related issues as compared to the white people in United States, such that the lung caner is diagnosed as per rate of about forty five percent higher than the rest of the United States population dwelling in the identical vicinity and this happens because the remedial measures adopted in African-American males by the physicians are considered of lesser inevitability as compared to the White men especially in the country. Hence the death ratio is evaluated of about ten times higher which certainly inference that the racial differences does exist in the country who is the super power in the current century and tends to remain in the near the future as well. The diseases related to chest pains were of depending upon the severity of the cases and variation in the income level of the black young men in contrast with the white young men which shows clear evidence as racial differences. Analyzed that between the period from the start of 1980s till a decade there was highest rate suicidal deaths in the African-American male begun with the older men which sequentially through the generations resulted in at the same rate in the young black men as well categorized as African-American male, the figural rate given by the National Center of Health in Houston was that approximately sixty four percent of the young male were about shoot themselves up with guns as being in a vulgarity as compared to whites. Further the deaths in black men were transformed in the shape of homicide, suicide and accidents. Between 1987 and 1994 the suicidal death figures in young black men living in Houston rose by fifty seven percent of ages from fifteen to twenty-four which was given by the organization namely; Center for Disease Control and Prevention, therefore in the year 1997, headlines of the news paper in Washington were filled with the death stories among African-American teenage men. The Psychiatrist working for the cure of mental illness in Houston, a place where black young men are living in the majority concludes through various patients’ experiments that the black people do not have any respectable society to survive in a competitive world of white professionals. (Holloway, p89-90, 2003) Proved through various stories in Houston prevails as the racist society in US, for example the corporate development manager J.C.Benette for a black owned organization named as the Wilson Financial Group whose objectives were to take care of the funerals of black men in the locality where it was said that the dead body of black men were not allowed to be buried in the grave yard in the neighboring area which was particularly specified for white people, this was among one of the discriminatory interrogative remark on the lives of African-American men in the United States which eventually results to their bad health indicators. (Holloway, p38, 2003) Most of the black men work in the back hand of the white people in businesses with greater prevailing tensions and treating them like slaves, which was surveyed in Houston, Texas. (Holloway, p21, 2003) One of the African-American graduate in Houston in the conference held by Common wealth Institute of Funeral Service says, “that white people do not posses ethical guts to work with people not visibly like them, have learnt through the past traditions and willing to continue with prevailing obnoxious customs.” (Holloway, p30, 2003) The Houston based rap group composed and presented various lyrics on the serious issues of cultural and racial diversity among white and black men specially the young’s mentioning to the world that about the highest ratio of deaths in young African-American people. (Holloway, p144, 2003) The life of Houston, a city where the African-American people are being deprived of basic needs for example the social, economic and especially the health troubling indicators are advancing in young men because of tremendous deep suffering may causes to them through inequality in race and color between black and white men acutely in young generation which has made think of less importance creature resultantly prosperity tends to be a nightmare in their lives. The scholars of United States have mentioned in their articles with accurate figures of the past measures that the experts in para-medical treatment of Houston have led the city to be ruled by them in orderly manner with enormous efficiency involvement as compared to the white people in the United States and the prosperity of the city resulted as it was depicted among the biggest charity doer in the country. In the period of nineteen hundred century, the slums of African-American dwellers were brought to light by the young women in the Houston city through numerous of non governmental organizations in which the Young Men Christian Association Ladies Auxiliary was also enlisted. (Kirkland, p41-45, 2009) Then further elongated history of collaborative social functions including the health care needs in the young men of African-American people for example an organization founded as a Men’s Business League working as a subsidiary of Chamber Commerce set up; a Home Welfare Department whose objectives were to look after the prevailing health crisis and malnutrition circumstances. During the year before Nineteen hundred and twenty six, the charity based municipal and charity organizations allocated few numbers of separate beds for African-American patients peculiarly deprived of health necessity in the society. A black American, J S. Cullinan founded a Negro Hospital in the favor of his son Mr. John Halm Cullinan who fought bravely in the world war II without forming any racial differences among the people of his country in United States. The treatment done in the particular hospital was to yield a positive self help relationship among the patients and the physician, while the hospital was managed by an African-American under the white organization which tends to exert policy of their own and could be able to play a blame game any time towards the black men which was latterly condemned by the black spokesman Mr. C.F. Richardson. (Kirkland, p95-96, 2009) The research based on public health organization shows that the diseases related to HIV had been vastly spreading and found in young adults between the age of eighteen and twenty-two as the growing and inevitable trend of homosexuality, bisexuality and sexual relations among African-American gays; men to men sex is highly on the rise in Black men in United States where it has been examined during the period of 1998 in detail by the organization of disease prevention i.e. CDC (Center for Disease Control) which results in the natural cause to death and the number was measured as twice the number of white men in America. Also the thorough research in African-American men resulted in delay of the medical treatment and correspondingly forced towards a hospital at the end stage of their sufferings, when the doctors are not in a position to cure the health back to normal. The causes to serious illness through further research by the doctor is simultaneously vetted that black men are less likely to use condoms such that do not care about their security prospects also ain’t in a sense to cure themselves socially by gaining spiritual purities in advancement for self health. Hence the city of Washington D.C. is functioning keenly by offering curable services especially to the young men of African-American genes in order to prevent the risen number of diseases occurring through bisexuality in men and black gays through them. Various non-profit and governmental organizations are working in collaboration to prevent the highly infectious diseases such as HIV and AIDS in African-American young men communities but only less results are predicted in overcoming this dangerous cause, catering much through psychological measures in the form of giving education by piercing mental growth about the positive behavior in the society, emphasizing the cultural aspects through counseling which eventually yields in the positive response through two way communication between the victim and the authoritative organization whose major responsibility is specifically designed in the prevention of diseases caused through sexual vulgarity; epidemic of HIV positive in bisexual and black gay men prevailing jeopardizing in the vicinity of United States. Hence these built-in organizations have not accurately proved her achievement of goals based on planning criteria for lowering the cause of prevailing infectious diseases in African-American young men i.e MSM (Men having sex with men) model of population group in which numerous discrepancies had occur due to being associated with the governmental policies of Washington D.C., United States while unclear to target the morbid resulting factors through sensual measures in the majority population of African-American young men dwelling in United States. The safety measures adoption in the African-American young male model has asserted by the non-profit organizations to the patients of HIV/AIDS that the knowledge gaining for sexual security includes the package of analyzing needs through financial aid, physical health and building soft image in them while educating the whole family of a sufferer and the aims and objectives of positive traditional trends in the society as been observed black young men are acceptable very less among the major white population in the United States. Therefore special trainings are assigned in the development of MSM Model as formerly depicted for the cure through meticulous identification in the African-American young men and the numerous number of peculiar diseases in them is also the cause of less enrollment of the under-graduates black men in Houston, the statistical measures figure out of approximately only twelve percent of the black men take part of an education sector in the city of Houston specifically in United States of America. (Gordon, p162-166, 2004) Background: The history of uninsured health related issues possessed vulnerable statistical details such that the estimated figures observed from the survey among the civilian population which pragmatically do not belonged to any institution in the United States predicted in the year 1987 with the comparison of an year 1965 states that the percentage of smokers in the white has been dropped readily that is from fifty-one percent in the year 1965 to approx. thirty-one percent in the year 1987 and the smoking in the Black men also been simultaneously and the surveillance figures are from sixty percent to around forty percent. (Anonymous, p136, 1991) The study carried out by the associates of Hayward organization that the socio-economic health factors among the Black men are uninsured as to the rest of population dwelling in the United States such that the proportion of Black men eligible for the treatment of peculiar diseases suffered by the black men are extremely beyond the repercussions as being neglected due to the prevailing of racism in the country whereas the social class among the black and white is being catered regarding the surgical treatment for example black men are less likely to presume surgical treatment by the physicians due to uninsurance in extension with low income groups. (Anonymous, p137, 1991) The health insurance institution are being financed by the combination of private and public institutions, whereas private health insurance organization functions specifically for employed persons and the coverage of insurance varies according to the level of their income and the Black population are double the number as compared to the rest with double the birth rate being insured by the public health institutions and its coverage is distinct according to the race, age and ethnicity. The population with nullified health insurance adopts few health care needs through cautious health needs which predominantly are in the vulnerable health condition. While increasing the ways of health insurances to the nationals were being prioritized by the institution which was the major problem of prevailing concerns to categorize the priority for the country as the density of heterogeneous population were living in the country with different status in terms of incomes, personal characteristics and access to the prevention of cure through health facilities being provided to them distinctly varies as the huge size of cosmopolitans analyzed by the insurance institutions of health coverage. Therefore the families living with the number of an unemployed members suffers in adopting the health insurance possibilities responsible for security of health measures, ostensibly high among the young adults including Blacks and Hispanics. As the growing number of underinsured population in the States have caused a huge burden of expenses in providing better health care needs to the patients, the health insurance companies have decided to shift the medical aid from public hospitals towards the public institutions/ hospitals such that the Medicaid insurance company which is public health insurance program in the U.S. figures out that in the year 1986 the beneficiaries of health insurance coverage among black were about twenty-seven percent. (Anonymous, p345, 1991) The thorough medical research depicted in Houston figures out that the spread of prostrate cancer in African-American are approximately fifty percent higher than the White men and they do not possess any specific sign of symptoms regarding the disease. Hence the factual figures states that due to the prevailing of chronic desease multiply the increasing rate of death happenings greater in black men specifically as compared to the other racial or ethnic groups. The experimental study performed by American Cancer Society analyzed that for every hundred thousand black men there were around the number of hundred and eighty one of them possessing prostrate cancer and it was also predicted that the number of death will be about fifty-four that preceding year. Further the doctors are continuously searching the cause of increment of diseases in the black men which they have concluded that its being originated from the cultural and hereditary aspects seen in their diet which had been believed by the specialist in urologist that an intake of saturated fats in their diet might be the cause of deaths which were developing into a prostrate cancer and the experiments on genial study also states the cause of increment is also due to the transfer of hereditary disease in African-American men whereas the horrendous drawback is that the black men are publicly informed about the cure of disease in advance but ain’t taking any advantage regarding the peculiar outcomes related to their illness which directs to sudden horrible death. The history of black men in Houston, America had been inexplicably founded that the American community depends on the inherent differences related to socio-economic cultures in the society. For example as far as the cure of health is concerned; black men are less likely to be screened through medical tests for the diagnosis of a prolonged disease so forth which considerably been believed that the black men are poorer and less informed about the advantage of taking preventive measures through health institutions. (Ebony, p116-118, 1999) In Houston approximately hundred of black men had been composed an association group for improving the quality of health in black men living in the metropolitan city of Houston, their goals are based on the achievement of incorporated various programs for the mental development of youth that includes creativity programs, organizing academic campaigns and establishing social compatibility through moral standards among the youths of African-American men in Houston which in the beginning was founded on the grounds of difficult task for the achievement of goals through building up societal needs in them, skill counseling in promotion of education, catering health problems in designing appropriate measures in regard of preventing chronic health diseases prevailing in the black men in a society. Therefore the youth developmental programs had incurred mentoring on yearly basis estimated of around hundred thousand targeted youth, hence in the period of 1996 these associations of educated black men have joined hands with an another medical institution that is to be named as Merck Pharmaceutical and their mission for being in partnership with the pharmacy company was to bring awareness among the youths of black men in Houston for an increasing epidemic disease of prostrate cancer rising particularly among the African-American men which was concluded after the experimental survey carried out by the medical experts henceforth the screening of prostrate cancer was introduced among them an instrument which better diagnose the disease, this mission was proved enormously with great success thus the screening program had been resulted as the creation of positive model which simultaneously formed the basis for increment in the awareness campaign being launched every year also reduced the peculiar causes of prostrate cancer which was at times the serious threat among the black African-American men of America especially living in the vicinity of Houston city. (Anonymous, p1, n.d.) There is a horrendous myth about black men that every black men is responsible for the rape of white men usually which have been derived from the olden days of slavery in America where the black slave women were brought to white men purposely for rape by their white counter parts and then it was simultaneously abandoned, therefore the black men were severely punished by the white governing body if ever they found any white women engaged in sexual relation with the black men were the prevailing conditions of the past such that white men were cruelly wild dictators and the blacks were their vulnerable slaves. Mostly the rape involvement happened in the identical race but the myths of the black men as a rapist were on the rise and the white women were always victimized for being raped by the African-American men. If ever the white women reported of being raped by the black men it was taken as a serious action against the vulgar act but the rape of black women was not counted as serious as it was to be taken in favor of whites. (Houston, Galloway, p101, 2008) There was always consequently prevailing factors among the racial and ethnic differences in the American society against black people being originated at the times when slavery was on the rise; the white people were always to be perceived as pure, spiritual and never to have been performed in eager for sexual relations whereas the blacks were to be perceived as exactly as opposite to their white counterparts. An approach was designed by the undergraduates in United States in order to analyze the research based on the victim and accusers of rape with an amalgamation of race such that the opinion observed by the white females were highly pessimist as compared by the opinion given by the black females who thoroughly involved in the study material of the same sort such that the white victim was charged with less responsible for being raped against the black men who actually was being responsible for raping. Therefore the oriented results were proven that the white women being raped by the black men was blamed less when comparing with the black women being simultaneously raped by the white man. Further more the statistical study of rapes concluded that the black women if being raped are not to be believed much if they were allowed to report any incidence of rape. The lower the rates of reporting to the police and agencies engaged in the services of public on behalf of the African-American survivors of rape had been assumed that there were serious racial differences were the cause of stressful relationships between the police and community of blacks in the dwelling vicinity where blacks were most of the time to be seen as suspects. Secondly the fewer the number of reporting by the African-American women in rape survivors were also due to the fear of other African-Americans not to be believed so easily as their supportive participant in case of being considered as the victim of sexual assault. (Houston,Galloway, p102, 2008) In the prisons of United Kingdom black men placed in jail of any forceful sexual involvement as an accuser were always being over viewed then afterwards depicted to a sentence charge. There is also a stereotypic racism image of black men and women who were being pondered in the western clinics that the black men were continuously responsible for sexual assaults or rapes since years such that the study among the medical experts insinuates that the African-Americans are given less clinical treatment facilities by the predominant ruling of white services even though the clinicians should work hard in avoiding the inevitable prevailing differences in the cultural aspects of racial and ethnic differences. Such that the American society is very biased in their treatment habits, working conditions or functional authorities due to the perceiving differences among cultures, cross-cultures, different ethnic groups, racial varieties and language implications are based for the treatment given by the medical experts which are normally considered as an assessment tools for examining the patients. Therefore the issues about the sex offenders were broadly depicted on the basis of their cultural, racial, ethnical, social and economical differences such that the implications of the differences between the black and white population where black men were obliterate of being the cause of distrust among the health treatment services procured by the white men.(Houston, Galloway, p103, 2008) Hypothesis: H1: African-American males of ages between 18 to 24 years old. H2: Health care resource needs and availability in low-income urbane community in Houston, Texas. Statement of Problem: The history of Houston is filled with enormous things to be known with the increment of knowledgeable concerns through its exploration such as the city of Houston; Republic of Texas in America was being originated as an urban area since its foundation procured by the expert historians who were brave young aborigines of New York and was given the rank of capital of the state and revolution was evolved since its birth such that the print media founded its evidence enigmatically in the first month with the publication of newspaper and simultaneously with the introduction theatre in its second month. While the historians founded that in the period of 1961 Texas had a ruler of Spanish race which had ruled the particular area for around three-hundred years was being the city of investments and capitals by the reformers and business men. (Johnson, p1-4, 1991) During year between the periods of 1839-40 the Houston was founded to be filled with acute depression such that value of money was degraded from fifty cents on the dollar decreasingly towards ten cents before becoming the part of United States officially it enjoyed the sense of U.S. dollar. (Johnston, p47, 52, 1991) During the first decade of the twentieth century the Houston city flourished in the economic sense globally after the origination of oil companies being functioned in the area for the purpose of economic gains to be encouraged worldwide and being profitable through the advancement of capitals. (Johnston, p132, 1991) The distinct behavioral culture of Houstonians founded that the young ones were always had been taken off from their schooling institutions (functioned as educating pupils) in order to explore some other parts of the world to enlighten themselves in other subjects of education as were being predicted as slow learners and readers. The colleges for the education of graduates were not to be seen much through which the reason was that the Houstonian schools available in the city do not offer the courses for higher studies in the study of eleventh and twelfth grades. (Johnston, p269, 1991) The history of black psychology is openly linked with the Africa and Black America which means that they were practically originated from the continent of Africa. Hence to understand the behavior of someone it is inevitable to study the history of their origination from where they previously belonged to and the adoption of their culture in an identical society linked with a particular area. The black American scholars had started studying the strong myths of black men which was formed due to cultural backwardness of the past. Africa was considered as the ‘continent of darkness’ the reason were lack of literary enlightenment until the Europeans had conquered the area and started living in the place also brought various changes in the form of illuminating the cultural aspects through intellectuality and illuminating souls thereon. Before that the black men brutally and cruelly treated as slaves by the white men in their vicinity. It was accentuated that the continent of Africa do not possess any history of its own because the scientists or the explorers of the continent did not found any preserving or any information belongings to the respective place. By notifying the wealth of Africa in the countries of Mali, Ghana, Songhai and the empires of ancient Ghana, the surgical grounds found that the black men were never responsible of bringing economic change in terms monetary benefits in the country. There were few ethnical groups in contribution to other prevailing groups with distinct cultures of southern part of Africa living in the vicinity of Sahara claims to be popular among trade of slaves. Further study indicated that the slavery in Africa were been flourished before the invasion of Europeans and in the twentieth century historians formed that African was the home place for human body initially. (Houston, p1-4, 1990) An intellectual ability of blacks living in the southern part that is Houston, Texas were tested thus it was found that the Negroes; blacks were scored with worst conditions as compared to their whites living in the same region. There were several experiments being done on the basis arriving to resulted conclusion about the level of intellectual ability of black Americans while analyzing the army test scores of around twenty five thousand five hundred and seventy-five black immigrants in comparison with the number of fifty-five thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight of white Americans insinuates in advancing the scores blacks through testified concerns being adopted therein. It was also concluded on the grounds after comparing the results through geographical concerns that the northern blacks were being found with high scores as compared to the down-scoring results of southern blacks in the United States, simultaneously the scoring between were also the same for example the results of northern whites were greater than the whites of the southern part, on the other hand the scores of northern black Americans surpassed the results of southern whites. By observing the geographical experimentation it has been further concluded that those blacks and whites living in the southern part are lowered in the intellectual abilities as compared to the population of same race and ethnic values about to live in the northern regions. The views on the scores also had been analyzed by some of the experts in detail that the external factors are of major concerns in the alteration of the results being found inevitably. (Houston, p75, 1990) Else the population of blacks and whites dwelling in the southern parts were being narrowed in the test of Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) compared to the northern one such that an external factor were based on the freedom of living adoption and on the grounds of quality education being illuminated in them. One of the tests was designed to analyze the kindergarten education among the blacks which carried out on some vulnerable results that the number of black chlidren was very few as compared to the rest. (Houston, p76, 1990) Cases to be studied among the genial differences in terms of their distinct behaviors were picked up in order to analyze the intellectual concerns related to their hereditary behaviors. For example if the groups of people have been brought under some experimental study in order to analyze their behavior on the grounds of heredity and environmental factors, one of the variables should be kept constant. During the hypothesis research it had been based on the grounds of two variables separately which is to be considered for understanding the intellectual behaviors of the groups being tested, one of them is heredity and the other is environment. To understand the behavior of population performing differently in terms of genes the environmental factor has to be kept constant and if the study of behavior depicted on the grounds of environment then alternately the genial or heredity factor should be constant. Therefore the historians on analyzing the human behavior have further depicted that the historical and economic factors are the major concerns in identifying the differences of behavior in the society yielding a separate model of social structure in which the persons are brought in front of each other varying distinctly in their behaviors through different environmental concerns. Apart from the genial factors it is imperative to understand the psychological and mental differences through predicting the effects of un-equal education and socio-economic factors. For example the survey had been founded that the ratio of blacks in innate intelligence that is I.Q. are lowered as compared to the whites because the number of population due to high birth rate are greater in numbers. (Houston, p79,83, 1990) Henceforth the black Americans in the past were categorized for the purpose of slavery when distributed after their own continent Africa was conquered by the Europeans as mentioned by the historians, their black color of the skin were never been accepted in the society and were always been degraded at the cost of their racial difference as compared to whites suffered the status of lowered self esteem in the American Republic, primarily were not skilled for any intellectual, scientific, etc works based on any type of professionalism of their work but was being found to work as a low income class mostly being worked as slaves such that the slavery of black men in America were considered to be found with especially two types of class systems in their well being; an upper class of the black Americans were based on the baisc differences of their pigmentation of skin and the lower class was considered according to the number of their sons and daughters in the fields. (Houston, p71, 1990) Issue of cost: The rise of prostrate cancer in Houston young black men the government had been decided to allocate cost in terms of delivering funds and educating about the causes of certainty should be adopted in the prevention which were being procured for the recovery of peculiar health disease in African-American men living enormously on specific grounds in Houston. One hundred and eighty million dollar had been spent on the research concerning prostrate cancer which amounts to one-twelfth of infectious disease that is AIDS which simultaneously one-sixth of money incurred on breast cancer. (Anonymous, p24, 1998) The health management systems in the United States seemed an expensive burden on the sufferers apart from their health provisional facilities and policy’s primary objectives and goals in order to flourish through gaining profitability measures for the organization itself with the help of giving quality healthy treatment. Apart from the investments being made in the health care sectors the non-governmental institution i.e. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD working in coopertraion with the United States had been proven that the country regarding their health measures and achievement of the designed policies for overcoming the health threats in future still ranking below among the various other countries such that the rules for maintaining the excellent health care systems are complicated and the external economic factors had resulted in the vulnerability of health policy concerns. Whereas the health insurance policies are based on two strengths firstly it has been analyzed that the approach to health insurances being given specifically to those African-American men, applicable through some restricted rules who’s past employment history should be strongly based on effectiveness of being stick to a post hired for and switching gradually towards growth. Secondly major view point is that the up coming subscribers should be working in coordination with the programs sponsored by the governmental institutions. (Molina, et al, p55, 2001) Political and other stake holders and their dilemma: Insinuates about the intense confusions arising for the improvement of health factors in the African-American specially young males through cooperation of organizations governed by blacks and whites in the southern part of Texas, Houston explored in detail with an example mentioned below: In the year 1905 a historian Mr. Nickerson travelled Houston, the young black male had formed health insurances agencies in cooperation with the southern whites through an organization depicted as American Mutual Benefit Associations in Texas for achieving constructive health insurance policies in the betterment of young men of African-American health related issues selling purposely to the black men in the United State province of Texas being known as fraternal insurance. Later on the conflict aroused and sued by the American Mutual Benefit organization stating that the fraternity insurance is not obeying exactly according to their designed mission mentioned in their depicted charter which was agreed by both the firms. The afterwards the laws of health insurance was variedly studied in detail by the organizer of ‘fraternity insurance’ company which formed the ground conclusion that the laws designed were not in good health for the African-American sufferers which later on was communicated to the American Mutual Benefit Association to join the hands in order of giving the life time health insurance to the consumers of African-American people but the party repealed their plan of cooperation which resulted into a sole insurance company by the Nickerson himself in the name of Life Insurance company of Atlanta, Georgia situated in southern Texas, Houston for improvement in the black men in terms of their lavishing health related chronic issues. (Ingham, Feldman, p59, 60, 1994) Dwelling problem towards the essence of acute health measurable are depicted as follows: The cancer disease is numerously found in the black men mostly in their young ages as compared to the rest of Americans which were adamantly being diagnosed under the age of fifty. (Anonymous, p25, 1998) The meeting held in Houston in the month of November, Dr. McDonald proposed a detail plan in minimizing the risk factors of the disease yielding unmanageable deaths in the young African-American men. For example the name of the plan incorporated in view of campaigns was known as ‘blueprint plan’ which were based on developing separate organizations for introducing counseling to the sufferings and their families in particular. The problem of cost is being concluded that the knowledge of prostrate does not primarily reduce deaths or secure the health of the sufferer such that the plan is only adopted for the self-satisfaction and based on miracles to be happen might be in the future as scientists are still unaware about the degree of outcomes by analyzing and gaining knowledge regarding particular aspects of the disease. (Anonymous, p25, 1998) The study arrived from the institute of American Association of Colleges of Nursing states that the number of specialists in examining such disease are being lowered because of less number of students studied the fields of nursing; figure of estimation proposed that around 6.6 percent of the enrollment of graduate students had dropped as compared to the previous year happened because the risk of low income in the particular is measured on the grounds whereas the number of schools had also dropped the subject due unavailability of the faculty responsible for teaching the nursing course. Hence the accurate measures of the less number of graduate students enrolled brought increment in the specialization of the course through entering advantageously in the master programs inference of 1.6 percent in the increase towards specialization in the nursing course during the end of nineties which was simultaneously measured as huge figures as compared to past decade records. Particularly the hiring in the field of hospitals for the occupation of nursing were not favorable as compared to the jobs of nursing being hired among the other institutions such as other health agencies, nursing homes, etc. (Anonymous, p26, 1998) In the year 2000 the detailed research carried out by the National Health and Nutrition And Examination Survey (NHANES) states that the highest rate of hypertension in the African-American men had been found since the time of their young age. For example the sample of five thousand four hundred and forty eight people were selected of which one thousand forty nine were blacks and the percentage of acute hypertension including the rest were nearest to the ratio of about thirty-three percent of blacks assumed as hypertensive to the ratio of nearest to twenty eight percent such that the twenty eight percent were the figures estimated as excluding blacks, an elaborate study had been founded that the study of overcoming the phenomenon of hypertension procuring the control of the risk of hypertension in black women is greater when compared to the controlling risk in black men. (Weber, Oparil, p587, 2005) In the year 1988 the calculated figures shown that the percentage of awareness related to the causes, implications, origination and knowledge of hypertension among the black had been remain unchanged such that the rates were nearly around seventy-three percent. Simultaneously the rates regarding the treatment of the particular disease being improved drastically and the rounding figures depicts from fifty-six percent to sixty-three percent approximately. (Weber, Oparil, p587, 2005) The organization known as Coronary Artery Disease (CARDIA) were founded for being specialized in the heart diseases in order to overcome the risk factors and symptoms of illness related to the heart organ in young adults African-American were also founded with the troublesome disease related to the heart on the reality grounds, possessing heavily among the young men with cardiovascular disease. For example the prospective sample was being experimented to check the intensity of cardiac disease such that the number of black men and women were picked up of age between eighteen to thirty, the total number was five thousand one hundred and fifteen through which the percentage of black men were around at least thirty-nine percentage and the causes were specifically due to the regional, social, ethnic and racial differences among the young black generations founded inexplicably in the region of south being epidemic. (Weber, Oparil, p587, 2005) In the year 1963 an organization claimed with the name of ‘hundred black’ men were formed for upgrading the poor lives of black in America such that the aims of an organization of was based on the development among the young generations of black men prevailing with the hazardous conditions due to their health in order to form a conducive environment at least within their vicinity and simultaneously the health progression was categorized according to the special facilities being provided in terms of fascinating their growth through the improvement being made on the grounds of emotions that is through psycho analysis as most of the young blacks; African-American men were deprived from their normal lifestyle whereas the major development in attaining their respective goals were to overcome the inferior complex in blacks which had been caused due to the whites specifically such that the lives of African-American men in staying away from the normal lifestyles were highlighted and then formation of gradual improvement were depicted. One of basic goals of the origination of ‘hundred black men’ were to analyze and improve towards the developmental concerns among the differences in the young black men in terms of education, ethnicity and socio-economic factors which remained typically in the deprivation of their actual lifestyles. The institution was heavily financed by various sectors of which palpable are entrepreneurs, top grade governmental officials, private and public governing bodies. In the period of 1994 the strength of strategies were brought to light for improving the records on the grounds of morality and economics based on the proven number of four characteristics conceptualized as ‘four of the future’ and the goals were based on the figure of four variables i.e. upbringing of young black men through mentoring, valuable education, curing health through various means and analyzing the better improvement in health factors. The impact of an improvement of young black men were proven successful through one on one coordination with the school going students of middle and advance age groups. (Smith, et al, p605, 2006) Also developed awareness among the web based programs in business faculty that includes the knowledge to be gained about electronic businesses after being affiliated with various registered universities working correlatively in achieving the goals of an organization for the advance improvement of mental concerns among black African-American young men in the southern part of the United States in order to emerging an intellectual skills for surviving competitively in the identical industry through out the global business concerns. The major purpose was to inculcate a leadership quality in the students of black men such that the sample of African-American men who were being considerably picked up as the population of being deprived from the needs which was concerned valuable in the society through the advancement of economical factors. For example the special intellectual games for the development programs were originated that inevitably includes chess games which is considered profitable in the growth of mental health and incites the habit of shrewdness in every walk of life for being the attribute of survival in the global competition, interaction of the group of black teenagers with the other distinct group also bring closer the understandings of each others cultural values and accepting the beliefs and customs of different cultures or ethnic groups without being mingling up or demolishing their own selves cultural, moral or religious values such that sensing the ideology of role models through abolishing the peculiar and antagonistic racial differences among the young black men prevailing in the cosmopolitan societies. A philanthropic well known as Walker was also a popular business men and a role model for their employees who inherently took part in the educational deals of depicting intellectual concerns specially among the students and illuminating their minds with knowledge based on the competitive grounds in order ot achieve profitable concerns with advancing moral standards of the distinct race, always wanted his students to be up grown in the sense of self developmental ideological concerns such that to form their own works on the way of successful epitome resulting self capability to prosper in every walk of life competing through the periodical aspects remarkably based on the growth of technological change so forth. Concluding since the olden times of around past forty years the studies were organized purposely based on various experimentations for affecting the young Africa-American men. (Smith, et al, p606-607, 2006) Things that were different based on historical perspective of African-American men in the prevailing society and their phenomenal issues to be driven through past experiences as follows: 1827-1861: The period of movement for skirting slavery among African-American young men in the name of drastic Antislavery Movement which eventually raised the voice for African-American men to accept freedom as their sole purpose to flourish even though it was difficult for changing the past attitudes of behaving in terms of remaining and working as slaves since the evolution of hereditary measures in the genes of African-American, strong annihilating differences with the whites, such that the era was simultaneously being named as the African-American press which was enormously being accepted by the honorable and philanthropic white community against their black counter parts. It was the period to be determined as the era of migration simultaneously towards northern then afterwards to southern parts of the continent sharing lives obstructing at the time of acute disturbances at the cause of migration where the Negroes were intensely in the need of health facilities being governed by the Africa-American, Negro health officers itself. (Simmons, p9, 45, 1998) 1914-1920: During the outbreak of first world war an African-American men had analyzed and highlighted the precarious conditions of black people among the society to inculcate defensive strategies among them through rest of the assailants depicting policies against the prevailing cultural and racial differences which automatically causes the bad conditions of health among the black people For example due to the obstruction of war possibilities around the world the ethnic groups of African-American young soldiers were in great need of help towards safeguarding principles of their dying black generation at the cost of annihilating war outcomes, the chances were being the cause of adoption of health facilities towards young black soldiers because most of them were given poorly battalion trainings in order to defend themselves enormously among the worst conditions by the American governing soldiers. (Jordan, p2, 2001) 1939-1945: An era of world war II, during the existing period Negro press was enormously been measured as the surviving competition among the other relative press in the United Sates by the large number of subscribers which in turn lead the cooperation of African-American men with the other surviving communities in the field of journalism but the fighting cause was strongly inherited for visualizing the racial conflicts still confronting between the blacks and their white companions. (Simmons, p69, 1998) 1910-1920: An era when African-American young soldiers conquered the Mexican grounds through bravery and encouragingly being resilient among the battles such that the American whites were involved with the war in Europe and the black soldiers were not given the status to fight on the grounds through not been given the enjoying disciplines through seniority levels among the fields of army in their vicinity which resulted as the unsatisfactory downtrodden causes on behalf of the black soldiers. (Home, p133, 2005) 1917-1918: In the year 1917 the naval officer refused the assignment of jobs to Negros based on illusionary false theories on the grounds of their color, body shapes, etc. which was not proven up to the mark among any other army post of the country and also highlighted by the governing army that formed the basis of extreme disturbances specifically in the southern parts of the country. (Ellis, p76, 2001)At the beginning of the twentieth century there was an immense need from the organizational perspectives of United States that the goals were about to achieve in the essence of delivering phenomenal practicalities towards the out flowing of facilities in regards of various means which incredibly includes curability of health formations, upbringing intellectuality through profitable educational policies in terms surviving with flying colors in the growing complications, facilities in housing and transport schemes specifically for the generations of African-American men with the advancement of publications in terms of securing the future outcomes among the sectors of employment with the involvement of surviving income strategies to be catered in the long run. During the formulation of war it was analyzed by the governing warriors the health of black men at the age of being young suffered an illness of heart diseases that is high blood pressures were specifically diagnosed through medical experts in the warfare which later on the ethnic group of blacks were being objected to discharges from their professional careers. For example an army general Mr. Wilson exchanged some words with the Mr. President of United States that the African-American men should not be given the high post jobs in their professional careers and the causes he highlighted were the vulnerable immune systems of young black men in the country prevailing intensely among them which later on was proven fallible on the general grounds as conglomerates of black men in the army later on proved to be talented when training skills were organized by the higher ranks in the field of battalion. (Ellis, p52, 2001) Further studies founded by the historians delivered that the African-American civilians and other various class of blacks performing menial jobs were being deprived immensely from the health safeguarding possibilities and measures being procured for the betterment of advantageous health facilities which in turn had caused the unsatisfaction among the blacks; African-American men enormously. (Ellis, p210, 2001) Summary: In houston, Texas; the availibility of health care needs comprises of nurse practitioner programs in the medium of adult, women and mental health care needs in the medical institutions. Whereas the doctoral programs are also available. (Peterson, p408, 2009) As far as the reality is concern in the modern times, the black students had strong affinity with an absence of interest gain among the black community and in the inheritance of culture. Whereas the modern generation of black men in America possess the strong ability in the context of education and political aspects. (Bowser, p271, 1991) References: Anonymous, Baylor Medical College of Medicine, p1, n.d.,, Accessed December 28, 2009. Anonymous, Black America’s leading magazine, p24-26, Johnson Publishing Company, February 2, 1998. Anonymous, Diane Publishing Deptt of Health and Human Services, United States, p136-137, Health status of minorities and low income groups, 1991. Anonymous, Hundred Balck Men, Metropolitan Houston Chapter, p1, n.d.,, Accessed January 6, 2010. Anonymous, Ebony Magazine, Why prostrate cancer is picking on black men, p116-118, Johnson Publishing Company, July, 1999. Benjamin P. Bowser, Black male adolescents: Parenting and education on Community Context, p271, University of Press America, 1991. Charles A. Simmon, The African American Press: With special reference to four newspapers, p9,45,69, McFarland, 1998. Gerald Home, Black and Brown: African American and the Mexican revolution, 1910-1920, p133, NewYork University Press, 2005. Jacob U. Gordon, The Black Male in White America, p24, 162-166, Novinka, 2004. Julia Houston, Sarah Galloway, Sexual offending and mental health: multi disciplinary management in the community, p101-103, Jessica Kingsley, 2008. Jessey Carney Smith, Millicent Lownes Jackson, Linda T. Wyn, Encyclopedia of African American business vol 2, p605-607, Greenwood, 2006. John N. Ingham, Lynne B. Feldman, African-American business leaders: a bibiliographical dictionary, p59, 60, Greenwood, 1994. Kate Sayen Kirkland, The Hogg family and Houston: Philanthropy and civic deal, p41-45,95-96, University of Texas Press, 2009. Karla F.C. Holloway, Passed on: African American Mourning Stories; a Memorial, p21, 30,38, 89-90, 144, Duke University Press, 2003. Lawrence N. Houston, Psychological principles and the Black experiences, p1-4,71-76,79,83, University Press of America, 1990. Marguerite Johnston, Houston, the unknown city: 1836-1946, Texas A&M University Press, 1991. Marylin Aguirre-Molina, Carlos W. Molina, Ruth E. Zambrana, Health issues in the Latino community, p55, Josey-Bass, 2001. Mark Ellis, Race, war and surveillance: African-Americans and the United States, p52,76,210, Indiana University Press, 2001. Peterson, Nursing programs 2010, p408, Peterson’s; a Nelnet Company, 2009. Suzanne Oparil, Michael A. Weber, Hypertension: a companion to Brenner and Rector’s the kidney, p587, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2005. William G. Jordan, Black newspapers and America’s war for democracy, 1914-1920, p2, University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Marketing Description Section of Business Plan

Market Definition The niche market are 30 – 50 year olds in the twin cities area that are health conscious that have an interest in adopting “green” elements into their lifestyle.

Middle age 30-50 is a time when health is generally very good, with relationships maturing at the younger end, and perhaps re-establishing after children have left home at the older end; in general, there is more control over life than in younger years.

The Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul are known for its unique combination of avant-garde shopping areas, ethnic restaurants, busy professional sections and an enviable set of theatrical, musical, and dance institutions. Having an Ecogym could be a plus factor.

There are around 157,500,000 people who live in twin cities between ages 25 – 54.

These individuals can achieve physical fitness while maintaining an environmentally conscious attitude. The fact that they are concerning energy while burning the calories may encourage more people to take their own initiative in promoting a healthier environment. Mr. Williams-Derry said, the human power initiatives “show the kind of ingenuity that we’re capable of, and a comprehensive, smart climate policy would unleash lots of similar efforts.” (Alter, 2008)

Many people are in a time crunch and want to feed healthy, delicious, home cooked meals for their family. It can be really hard to do this on a busy work schedule so we offer an onsite kitchen where people can order a meal for themselves or their entire family.

Our ultimate customers are our immediate customers; however, non members can also order a meal for their families with a 3 dollar additional fee for not being a member and have to pay a rate to use our in house nutritionist. Our kitchen will be located at the front entrance before the front desk

Competitive Matrix The major competitors in the Twin Cities area could be Dakotah Sport and Fitness, LA Fitness and Lifetime Fitness. Although this fitness centers are just considered the usual, ordinary types, they have their own share of the target market. Ecogym, while different, shall consider these establishments as tight competitors since they are located in the Twin Cities area and they offer the same goal which is to become physically fit.

People are becoming health conscious; they try to look for fitness centers that can help them achieve their goals. Ecogym offers similar results; to become physically fit. The only difference is that, this gym promotes energy conservation. The equipments are hooked up to a generator; the movement creates a current that flows to a battery pack. They generate an average of 200 watts. (Baker, 2008). The display of the amount of watts generated may serve as a motivator.

The table below shows the similarities and differences among these competitors.

target market 30-50 year olds No specific age category; family No specific age category; family No specific age category; family
Services offered Work out sessions Weight training,

swimming, racquetball lessons ,aerobics class

racquetball, swimming, indoor cycling, free weights, cardio Weight training,

cardio , yoga, group fitness, yoga, pilates

Equipments and facilities green gym equipments treadmills, ellipticals, exercise bikes, multi-gym equipments treadmills, ellipticals, exercise bikes, multi-gym equipments treadmills, ellipticals, exercise bikes, multi-gym equipments
Membership Types Monthly membership Individual, couple, family, nanny, junior & corporate Monthly membership Lifetime membership
Discounts and privileges 50% off the monthly membership for leading work outs; 2 buddy sessions weekly

$10 off their membership

Discounted membership for people ages 59 over

Complimentary use of Locker Room Lockers

Complimentary Towel Use

Discounted rates to County of Riverside employees and their families. Free Trial Pass good for 7 consecutive days

Guest’s children ages 3 months to 11 years old have access to two hours free childcare in the Child Center.

Target Strategy

In an era of global crisis and tough economic times, our facility helps people stay healthy. We encourage members to form and develop strong support groups of health conscious individuals who will encourage each other to live a healthy lifestyle.

In order to encourage our niche market, we offer an exceptional support system.  We have professional trainers as well as other gym members that sign up to lead group work out sessions.

We will conduct efficient information dissemination such as free lectures/classes on health consciousness and awareness or give handouts that inform people about their health interests. The impact of a healthy lifestyle on insurance premiums and the general well being of an individual are examples of what we would share. We will tie up with suppliers of supplements and health products and conduct a massive campaign through the distribution of catalogues that promotes Eco gym and their respective products as well. We can create an incentive program to employees to volunteer. Our employees that volunteer can wear tee shirts to publicize our business.

We will create an e-mail marketing campaign targeting households within the twin cities area and its suburbs. In doing this, we need all the necessary contact information to run a personalized campaign to every recipient. We will be using the media as our tool through advertisements in the newspaper. These are some ways to get the news out fast and we deliver it in an efficient manner.

The niche market we are targeting needs this information so that they will be more conscious with their health and they will be encouraged to avail of our programs.

Ecogym will offer affordable rates and exceptional discounts. Members that sign up will receive 50% off the monthly membership price for the months that they lead workouts. If a member leads 2 workout sessions a week for 6 consecutive months they can receive free membership for every month that they continue to lead 2 sessions a week for the entire month.

If a member attends 2 buddy sessions weekly they can get $10 off their membership for that month. The buddy system will greatly encourage members to disseminate the information to the people that they know and encourage more members to attend the workout sessions.

Pricing Strategy (NOTE*** depends on target income; to be analyzed with financial analysis section)

Membership: $30 a month

Individual Twin Cities resident Non resident
Annual $ 320 $ 350
6 months $ 150 $ 200
Monthly $ 30 $ 35
Daily $ 5 $ 8

Cost of Capital:

Treadmills: $500 all the way up to over $5,000 covering models to suit every requirement

Ellipticals: $250 – $ 750 depending on the class

Exercise bikes: as low as $39 – $1,000 depending on the style

For more details, log on to:

Marketing Tactics

Free preliminary check up, discounts, and give always

Obtaining the first customers is a crucial stage in starting this business. Ecogym will first need to give hand outs and flyers informing our target customers regarding a free health session and preliminary check-up which will be conducted in a certain area in Twin Cities. This advertisement will also be posted in the newspaper. Conducting a free health awareness session/lecture with a free assessment on their health needs will encourage people to attend this since it is free. We will be bringing along doctors, nutritionists, and other health professionals who can give them a preliminary diagnosis regarding their possible health problems. They will also advise the people who will attend this session about their health needs and the possible burdens that they will encounter if they won’t adopt healthy lifestyles. To encourage new members, a 50% discount will be given to the first 10 registrants who will attend the session and sign up for our monthly work out programs. This could be a little costly so we need to tie up partnerships with companies who can share in the expenses and/or contribute their resources in this endeavor. We can work out an agreement with suppliers of supplements and health products. We will also give out free shirts that bear our name. Employees who will be wearing our company shirt will also receive incentives.

E-mail marketing campaign In today’s technological world, the internet has served as an efficient tool in the busy lifestyles of our people today. The company will establish a website and an online system where potential members can register online or simply check out on our services and facilities.

Importance of Permanency and Family Connections in Preventing Children from Becoming Part of the Social Services System


Establishment of permanent family connections is very important for normal child development in the society. Children have special health care and developmental needs hence the society strives to see that all children’s emotional, physical and social needs are catered for. Many parents are always concerned about the well being of their children in case of a tragedy whereby one or two parents die or become disabled after a tragedy. The family is the basic unit of the society, still an institution nurtures and takes care of children until they become responsible adults. Personal connections and family bonds are very critical in strengthening the relationship between parents/guardians and children. As a result, children are adversely affected by tragic loss of their parents or close family members (Barth, 1990). One of the ways through which the physical, mental, emotional and social well being of a child can be guaranteed even after the death of a parent/s is through the establishment of permanent family connections with other family members or a guardian. It is important for parents to prepare for such situations by ensuring that a child develops permanent connections with close family members or a guardian who can take care of the child in their absence. Such plans have great benefits to children and the family because they prevent having children raised within the Social Services System.


Social services systems enable governments to provide individuals with services that address their specific needs. In many cases, the elderly, children and individuals with disability are given priority in the social services system. When primary care givers are unable to provide child’s needs, the child is taken care of in the social services institutions established by state-sponsored and for-profit non-governmental organizations. For example, the death of one or two parents can lead to placement of a child under foster care or children’s home. A tragedy is devastating for children and when it affects close family members they may be traumatized. For example, death of parents as a result of natural disasters, violence, crime, accidents and diseases affects millions of children. A child’s inability to respond appropriately to the tragedy undermines proper development in the child. Adult caregivers and parents are able to identify problems that children experience and provide them with love and care. This results in grief and sadness when they lose their primary care givers. Tragedies challenge children’s sense of security hence the inability of children to comprehend the events that follow after a tragedy that claims their parents’ lives leads to hopelessness and loneliness. Some of the ways through which children react to tragedies include experiencing sleeping problems and nightmares, change in eating and toilet habits and exhibiting demanding and aggressive behavior. For school-going children, depression, poor interaction with colleagues, behavioral problems and poor academic performance is witnessed. Although parents or guardians often want to protect a child from the harsh realities brought by tragedies, failing to provide a child with the right assistance only makes the situation more frightening and distressing (Fanshel, Finch, and Grundy, 1990). Children are self-centered and lack of proper assistance to cope with a tragedy may have them assume responsibility for their misfortunes. For children to have an individual who can take care of them is vital. This demands that plans that are able to identify these individuals should be created.

Children look upon their guardians or parents to explain tragic situations and when close family members fail to assist a child, the future of that child is put at risk. Using natural support, such as friends and close family members to help a child overcome tragic events is one of the best ways of handling the situation. This is due to the fact that primary connection between a child and the caregiver is very important in providing a child with healthy emotional matrix necessary for development (Werner, 1990). Individuals who are able to sustain a life-long relationship with children play a major role in preventing emotional problems of the children. The connections increase child’s self-esteem and optimism while he /she struggles to cope with the loss. Early intervention is demanded when dealing with tragic cases influencing children, their psychological, mental, emotional, and physical wellbeing is considered to be a priority. One advantage of having children establish life-long connections with family members or a guardian is that these individuals understand a child well enough and can prove solutions to their problems much easier as compared to a stranger.

Making plans to have close family members establish good relations with a child is vital. A relative or guardian who is identified by parents to assist a child should be able to manage the behavioral and emotional needs of a child even during tragic events. The plan should aim at ensuring that proper development of a child is not compromised. In addition, the plan needs to make sure that care provided to a child is consistent with values that promote permanency and family support. A supportive family environment is important for a child to develop skills that are necessary for good social relationships and good personality. Children need a guardian who can meet his/her needs when parents are no longer able to do so. Lack of a guardian or relatives to live with forces children to be raised within state social service systems. For example, in the United States, children who lack guardians after their parents’ death are placed under foster care or institutions such as children homes. Some children may be adopted under the provision of the auspices of public child welfare agencies. Statistics on children under foster care in the US are usually provided by the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS). For instance, when children are put under foster care, they live with a certified caregiver until they are ready for adoption, permanently transferred to a guardian or reunited with a biological parent. Reuniting with parents is the best option for children. In some cases, foster care can be provided to a child when the parents are still living. This occurs when a biological parent or guardian is unable to raise the child. Foster home licensing requirements in the US vary from state to state and the process of putting a child under foster care is overseen by the Department of Social Services in every state.

When children cannot function well when placed under foster care, they may be placed in residential treatment centers (RTCS) or group homes. Due to the negative impact that growing up within a social services system has on children who are raised within the system, it is always recommended that children remain with their families as much as possible. Growing within the social services systems has adverse impact on the mental and physical well being of a child. Young children who are placed under the system in institutions far from home are likely to experience depression as compared to the children living with their families. For example, in the US, children living under foster care in Washington and Oregon were found to have higher incidence of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) as compared to those raised at home. Children in the social services system have low self-esteem, become anxious and may become easily troubled. Those who remain under foster care after reaching 18 years of age may become poor and homeless when they are not placed in permanent families. Those who leave homes without getting a permanent family are the most affected. The children may also show disorganized attachment, especially those who may experience psychological and physical neglect. Losing a primary caregiver is traumatic and this disrupts a child’s normal development of secure attachment. Disorganized attachment may lead to anxiety, depression and dissocialize symptoms. Neglect and abuse of children under social services system undermines a child’s ability to build close and healthy relationships with the family members. This affects their successful transition into adulthood.

Statistics on children who are raised within the social services system indicate that neglect and abuse of children contributes greatly to placement of children in the system. In England, children are taken care of by the local authority on voluntary basis after an agreement with parents or under the provisions of section 31 of the Children Act 1989. In 2008, an estimated 59,500 children were taken care of by the local authorities (Harker, 2009). Children between age 10 and 15 accounted for the largest number of the looked after population (42 per cent). Children under one year accounted for about 5 per cent of the population. About 71 per cent of the children of children within the social services system were in foster placement. A decrease in number of children placed with parents indicates that many children are growing up in institutions rather than in the family. However, about 39 per cent of the children managed to return to their parents or relatives. Children who are raised within the social services system may have low self-esteem because they feel insecure and lack parental care. Furthermore, they are unable to develop close relations with the family members. This undermines their self confidence and ability to establish long term relationships with their colleagues. Children who feel lonely and isolated become withdrawn hence they are not able to socialize with others. Poor socialization and feelings of neglect affect their normal development and transition to adulthood. In the United States, about 581,000 children were under foster care in 1999. To encourage growing up of children in family institutions, the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) demands that children be placed in permanent families or reunited with their families. In 1995, the number of children under foster care was estimated to be 53,902 but this number decreased to 25,878 in 2008. About sixty per cent of the 251,000 children who left foster care in 1999 were reunited with their parents (Foster Care Facts, 2010). Twenty percent of the number began living with a permanent guardian or were adopted. This is important for children because they are reunited with family members or guardians who are in a good position to provide good care of them until they mature into adulthood. According to a 2000 Department of Health and Human Services report, foster children are more likely to have mental problems as compared to other children. In addition, the Child Welfare League of America reported that about 60 per cent of children within the social services system experience mental problems and show higher rates of substance abuse than their colleagues growing up in families. In Canada, the number of children within the social services system has been decreasing over the years but only a small number of children manage to get permanent families (Foster Children Find Adoptive Families through “Canada’s Waiting Children” Program, 2005). For example, the Adoption Council of Canada which handles issues of child in foster care and adoption estimates that of the total number of children eligible for adoption, only a small number of children are adopted. To avoid such situations, it is very important that permanent connections between children and family members or guardians are established so that in case of a tragic event that leads to the loss of a primary caregiver, the child continues to grow within the family set up. Some children under foster care who have maintained connections with members of the extended family find it difficult to become adopted. Through permanent connections, a child and the family members are able to maintain the basic legal link between the child and the birth family. Permanent relationships promote openness and communication that ensure children develop well because being in a family allows children to learn about their beliefs, identity and religious background. By growing up in a family set up where a child receives good care from a guardian, he/she learns how to become independent and make the right choices. Guardians who have permanent connections with a child tend to understand his/her character and personality better and this makes interaction between them easier.

The relationship between children and parents/guardians is very important for normal child development (Werner and Smith, 1982). Growing up in the company of close family members even after the loss of a parent assists a child to cope easily with trauma and increases his/her self-confidence. For instance, in some nations, a foster care program that promotes the establishment of permanent connections between children and family members/ guardians has been put into place. A good example is the Aspirant Foster Care Program within California’s Foster Care System. The program aims at reuniting children under foster care with their birth families and emphasizes on the importance of permanent connections between children and their family members. The connections are supported and maintained by the program. Where reunification of a child with family members fails, connections with other relatives, friends, teachers or individuals the child knows and trust should be supported. It is estimated that about 61 per cent of children who leave Aspirant homes are usually reunified with their families. The support program promotes the development of permanent connections between children and family members by facilitating safe return of children to their families. When identifying a guardian for a child, involving the child in pointing out individuals who they are close to and trust is important. Identifying individuals who are close to the child, one they can trust and value is vital. The choice of a guardian needs to be consistent with the interests of a child. Supporting and maintaining permanent relationships between a child and family members should be one of the aims of child welfare services. Temporary caregivers should not interfere with a child’s mail or confidential phone calls with family members with the aim of cutting off the child’s connections with other family members. Furthermore, prohibiting a child to visit friends or family members is a violation of a child’s rights. For instance, in the US, children can make complains about such violations by contacting the Community Care Licensing officials. Permanent connections are very beneficial to children and family members because they maintain the family bond between a child and the rest of the family. This promotes the development of secure attachments between family members. For example, legislation on child welfare in many countries recommends that if a child cannot live with the parents, seeking ways of having the child live with members of the extended family should be done. A family provides children with a safe and secure home environment where important family connections and attachments are maintained. Permanent connects are in almost all cases consistent with the wellbeing of a child (Malucci, Pine and Warsh, 1994).

One of the ways through which parents can ensure that their children are placed with their friends or families in case they die or are unable to take care of the children is through a legal protocol. Permanency is achieved through legal relationship such as guardianship, parental custody and kinship care. For parents who have disabled children who cannot live independently without assistance, a good estate plan is important. The plan should aim at protecting the child financially and personally. A will is a tool of estate planning through which parents can provide names of the beneficiaries of the property on their behalf. Naming a guardian in a will allows parents to give a guardian the responsibility to make decisions on behalf on an incapacitated child. Parents can seek the courts appointment for a guardian to make sure that a child is taken care of by a guardian in the event of parents’ death. The legal process of appointing a guardian allows parents to nominate a guardian in their will. In cases where the court makes decision about a will, court battles between family members and selfish interests of individuals in a child’s inheritance are eliminated. The battles lead to confusion of a child who may end up with a guardian who neglects her/him. By naming a guardian, courts are able to identify an individual who takes care of the children and manages family finances. For minors, parents can have a Declaration of Appointment of a Guardian for Minor Children prepared.

Children have the right to maintain connections with their biological family members and other individuals whom they have developed emotional ties with. Studies that have been conducted in relation to child welfare show that children develop well when raised up in families (Blome, 1997). Whenever possible, there is need for children to remain in families. Efforts to place of a child in institutions outside the family unit should be the last option. Kinship connections ensure that a child is well taken care of, sibling and community connections are preserved and the family is kept together. Even in the social services system, planning should focus on preserving a child’s family ties, reuniting the child with the family or encouraging permanency in another family. Permanency planning should begin after the first contact children’s services system makes with a child. Family connections that already exist have great benefits to children. For children who are brought up within the social services system, engaging them in identifying an individual they have had long-term caring relationship with is important. During the process of placing a child in permanency, it is important to contact individuals who have been significant in a child’s life. Using case record information, a thorough search for relatives should be done. Making renewed contacts with family members assists children to prepare for permanency. The involvement of adults who will take care of the child in planning for permanency is crucial. By establishing permanent connections and making plans to have a guardian to take care of children makes these children to be proud of their identity. They become self-confident and feel secure because they are assured of family care and love in future. In the US, recognition of the importance of family connections had the Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997 encourage child permanency to be the primary concern in child welfare decisions.


Social Services System in various countries plays a very important role in catering for the needs of children, the elderly and the disabled. In some cases, when children lose their parents or primary care givers due to death, having their needs fully met becomes a challenge. For children who may lack a guardian, being raised within the social services system is sometimes the best option. This is likely if no member of the family is in a position to provide and take care of the child. However, failing to grow up within the family has negative effects on an individual. Children develop well when they grow up in a family institution. This makes the establishment of permanent connections in the family vital. The family connections ensure that a child is taken care of by family members or a guardian in case he/she losses his/her parents.Permanency and the establishment of family relationships to prevent children from becoming part of the social services systems are vital in proper child development.


Barth, P.1990. On Their Own; The experiences of Youth after Foster Care. Child and Adolescent Social Work 7(5); 419-440

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Fanshel, D., Finch, S. and Grundy, J. 1990. Foster Children in a Life Course Perspective. New York; Columbia University Press

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Werner, E and Smith, S. 1982. Vulnerable But Invincible; A Study of Resilient Children. New York; McGraw Hill

Why Audit is Essential

Abstract Audit may be expensive but as facts have proven, it is essential. Analysis According to an online Encyclopedia (2010), auditing is defined as “Examination and statement of accounts and of other documents connected with accounts by persons who have had no part in their preparation.” It is mainly done so that a business can see that its different functions adhere to the internal and external guidelines set forth by the company itself or by law-making bodies. An internal audit is one that is initiated by the company to see if its different lines adhere to company policies (Institute of Internal Auditors, 2010). An external audit, is actually mandated by law to companies engaged in public trading because the law is concerned on how properly a company represents itself to the investing public (Institute of Internal Auditors, 2010). According to the California State University, external and Internal Auditing can still be subdivided into the following: 1.Operational audit which is concerned with auditing the operations of a business; 2.Financial audit which is concerned with the accuracy of financial data; 3.Compliance audit which is concerned if a company is complying with different laws and regulations set forth by the government; 4.Information System Audit which reviews the internal control policies of a companies information systems (i.e. computerized documents); 5.Internal Control reviews which are concerned with how well the internal controls of a company is being applied. Auditing is a big empire, as a lot of accounting graduates become auditors, internal or external, during the courses of the practice of their profession. Is auditing still relevant to today’s society? The answer is yes. All companies have their own internal auditors who do all sorts of the types of audits mentioned above. It is for management’s peace of mind that the company is still operating as it should. Additionally, internal auditing can minimize significantly the potential liabilities or risk exposure of a company. For instance, a good compliance audit can find that the department in charge is habitually late in filing monthly withholding taxes for its numerous employees. Before penalties and surcharges amount so high, the company was able to rectify the situation and was able to minimize damages that would be imposed by the governing Revenue Office. On a more specific example, consider the headline from the Office of New York State Comptroller (2005), “Hevesi Audit Finds School Employees Used At Least $11.2 Million of Roslyn School Funds for Personal Benefit”. Internal audit was responsible for uncovering these fraudulent activities. As for external audit, there are 4 Big Firms out there who provide audit services to big corporations. Engaging these audit firms mostly for a financial audit on yearly basis can be very costly. However it is actually mandated by law that public corporations be audited by external auditors so essentially, companies have no choice but to comply. With the fall of Enron Corporation in 2001, a lot of focus has been given by different law-making bodies to external audit. In a nutshell, Enron was one of the world’s leading electric and natural gas companies audited by Arthur Andersen, then part of the former Big Five (Thomas, 2002). Enron was supposed be in good financial standing one day, however, on the next day, the world found out that it is bankrupt (Thomas, 2002). There apparently was a lot of anomalies in its financial reporting systems which, they manage to generate together with Arthur Andersen (Thomas, 2002). Given the scandal, Arthur Andersen was dissolved (Thomas, 2002). This being the case, a lot of legislators became concerned with the practice of auditing. A lot of significance has been emphasized on the issue of Independence. The current Big Four audit firms, with their affiliates world-wide, can hardly render any other service for their US audit clients and the latter’s subsidiaries located anywhere in the world. Additionally, auditors have one of the strictest guidelines regarding ethics. An external auditor cannot at anytime sacrifice his integrity, otherwise, his license can easily be revoked. His whole work is governed by the principle of Materiality and this threshold must never be crossed. Come to think of it, these restrictions seem very reasonable. A public company is mandated by laws and regulations to show its financial standing to the public annually, as audited by the auditor. The auditor is required so that the public or potential investors can see whether it is safe to invest in a certain company and current investors. A company actually needs an auditor to achieve financial backing from potential stakeholders in the business. Without an auditor, the public will have no confidence on management representations (Business Accent, 2009). It is true that auditing, whatever type it may be, is very costly and the cost is not constrained in the audit fee alone. A lot of time is necessary to do the audit. People in the function being audited might get very defensive in their practices. A lot of time also is being taken away from normal operations for an auditor to do his job. Note that auditor is not usually involved with the process, hence he makes a lot of inquiries and he performs a lot of procedures that can disrupt the employees’ daily function. Time is money in business and hence the extra salary for the overtime of the people and the money loss from the slack in production are just some of the other costs management has to bear to conduct these audit procedures. However, given today’s strict adherence to rules and regulations, a company cannot really do without being audited. References: “External Auditing of Financial Statements: Its Importance to Your Company and Business.” (2009). Business Accent. Retrieved from “Hevesi Audit Finds School Employees Used At Least $11.2 Million of Roslyn School Funds for Personal Benefit.” (2005). From the Office of the New York State Comptroller. Retrieved from “How do internal and external auditors differ and how should they relate?” (2010). The Institute of Internal Auditors. Retrieved from Thomas, C. (2002). “Called to Account.” Time. Retrieved from “Types of audit.” (2008). The California State University, Northridge. Retrieved from “What is Auditing?” (2010). Retrieved from