Table of Content Page No
- Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….. 2
- Literature review …………………………………………………………………….. 3
2.1 Motivation ………………………………………………………………………… 3
2.1.1 Motivation Theories………………………………………………………. 4
126.96.36.199 Incentive Theory ……………………………………………………… 6
188.8.131.52 Goal-setting theory …………………………………………………… 7
2.1.2 Motivation strategies …………………………………………………….. 9
184.108.40.206 Providing effective reward system …………………………………… 10
220.127.116.11 Creating flexibility ………………………………………………… …. 12
18.104.22.168 Personal involvement ………………………………………………… 13
2.2 Productivity ……………………………………………………………………… 14
2.2.1 Definition of productivity ……………………………………………… 14
2.2.2 Importance of productivity ……………………………………………… 14
2.2.3 Productivity and efficiency ……………………………………………… 15
2.3 How can motivation increase productivity …………………………………….. 15
2.4 Research Gap …………………………………………………………………… 16
- Methodology ………………………………………………………………………… 16
- Conclusion ……….….……………………………………………………………… 16
- References …………………………………………………………………………… 17
To be or not to be motivated is much of an individual’s choice. The motivation factors that people think, make them to be motivated, and are in essence not the motivation. Organizations have had to employ motivational speakers who are meant to motivate the employees but then this turns out to be, to some extent, a waste of money and resources. The motivational speakers and the motivational talks are meant to, not just motivate the employees, but rather to empower the employees to be more productive in their jobs (Reference Answers 2010, par. 1) and (Johnson & Geupel 1996, p. 139). Just like Chris Anderson who was generous enough to quote the words of a French Economist who goes by the name Jean – Baptiste (1767 – 1832) as cited by Mancini (2009, p. 6) saying that supply that is readily available, does create in itself, its own demand. Since more and more people think that for them to be motivated, they need highly renowned motivational speakers, then the “Motivational speakers” keep emerging from left, right and centre in all corners of the world. Oh, Yes! A truly clean business opportunity indeed. Some people do have a high sense of self – motivation while others have to be given an ignition key for them to become motivated.
A person’s inner motivation is what drives such a person into waking up every single morning and look forward to another brighter day. It is almost impossible for one to declare that they are not motivated because, motivation does not in reality, depend on the achievements. However, productivity (Johnson & Geupel, 1996, p. 138 +) can mostly be attributed to the fact that motivation has played a major role in ensuring that there is increased performance (Shadare and Hammed, 2000, p. 8). The very fact that one has chosen to wake up from bed and do something, is enough motivation. The only difference is that there are different levels of motivation. Some have high motivation to do what they are willing and able to do, while to others, the motivation is to do as much as the minimum requirements. One of the old sayings as cited in Levoy (2009, p. 18) states that the doors that open out to change are opened from the inside and not from the outside.
Motivation can be internal (coming from within one self) (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104), or external (influenced by other external factors like people’s comment on oneself and the like) (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104) and (Levoy, 2009, p. 18). Whatever the source of motivation is is not as important as the productivity (Foster et al., 2007, p. 1) that such motivation is intended to have in the organization (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1009).
Then, what really is motivation (Rabey, 2001, p. 26), this that people keep craving for every single day, and what theoretical frameworks have been put forward concerning motivations? What strategies do different organizations employ to get their employees motivated? Does this affect the productivity of the organization (Foster et al., 2007, p. 1), (Johnson & Geupel, 1996, p. 138 +) and (Shadare & Hammed, 2000, p. 8 +) and if so, how? These are just among the questions that the researcher intends to tackle in this paper.
- Literature review
A lot has been said concerning motivation as well as theoretical models developed. These models are the focus in this section. This shall cover motivational theories, motivational strategies and productivity.
According to Rabey (2001, p. 26), motivation has been defined as the internalised drive that is more dominant in an individual at a given moment. Rabey (2001, p. 26) continues to argue out that there is no way that a person can be motivated by another person. The only thing that a person can do to help a non – motivated individual is to be in a position to create an environment that is conducive enough to aid in that person’s realization of oneself by making a personal choice to respond to the inner motivation (Rabey, 2001, p. 26). Through their meta-analysis of motivation, Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103), high task performance by employees as well as contextual performance is highly dependent on the fact that employees are well motivated. According to Rabey (2001, p. 26), the ingredients that are necessary for getting people to be motivated are securely kept within oneself. The only thing that is needed is for an individual to be able to unlock the secure door (s) and gain access to the motivation within.
One of the renowned Chief executive, during an interview, as recorded by Rabey (2001, p. 26) said that during the recruitment exercise, above all other critical issues that are take into consideration, motivation is among the most important thing that the manager looks for in such an interviewee. To Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103), Personal motivation is highly attributed to the fact that each individual has a different personality which contributes to their motivation. In the event there are no signs of enthusiasm and motivation for that job vacancy, it is better for the organization to retain the position vacant than hire an employee who is not motivated at the new job. Rabey (2001, p. 26) notes that for employees who are seriously looking for a job opening and are serious with their work, do demonstrate their motivation even at the interview. Rabey (2001, p. 26) continues to note that motivation in such individuals is seen by their level of keenness during the interview as well as the enthusiasm as they are bound to ask very good questions during the interview (Rabey, 2001, p. 26). Sometimes social responsibilities that people are expected to have (Lawrence & Jordan, p. 104) do contribute to the motivation of individuals.
In a sub summary of motivation, it is clear that motivation is within oneself and all that is needed is an environment (Rabey, 2001, p. 26) that will enable a person to realize their cliché to getting motivated. Whether motivation is because of personality as described in Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103), or otherwise, it is still debatable. The most important thing to realise is that one can never motivate another in any way. Maybe the one thing that needs to be addressed is the difference between motivation and inspiration for which many people think as being one and the same thing, which apparently is not the case. But then, that is a topic for discussion in another setting, for now the focus is on motivation.
2.1.1 Motivation Theories
There are a vast number of motivational theories that have been put forward to explain the motivational factors that affect or influence the performance and the perception of individuals and what this perception does to the organizational performance. For example, in Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103), equity theory, the perception that individuals have about their compensation (Levoy, 2009, p. 18) for their work, such that they perceive (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105) that they are underpaid as compared to the effort that they put in their work, the response is more likely to be that the individuals will decrease their efforts accordingly regardless of whether they have high internal (intrinsic) motivation (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404).
In another version of theory in Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103) does come up with a one – dimensional focus on motivation that is implicit-related. In their theory, they come up with the MMG (Multi motive grid) which is a theoretical measure of the motivation that is apparently implicit – related (Fu et al., 2009, p. 277). In their theory, they base their arguments on the use of pictorial stimuli (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105) which are meant to arouse the hidden motives within one self (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). In this theoretical framework, there is a predetermined response (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 56), out of the questionnaire that is issued at that time of the interview (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 103).
In this style of motivation, the theorists make use of the story-based system as a means of measure to get the response from the individuals (Schmalt & Sokolowski, 2000, p. 115; Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). It is also meant to gain access to what they regard to as the implicit sections, which are only accessed by highly privileged that requires undisturbed access, which is granted, to the schematic section of the memory (Schmalt & Sokolowski, 2000, p. 115; Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105).
In another theory that is more focused on the explicit emotional response as explained in Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 103), the NAQ (Need Assessment Questionnaire) which is meant to stimulate emotional response is used to measure the motivation responses (Levoy, 2009, p. 18).
According to NAQ theory, there is an access to a classified four types or motivations that are within the self (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). The first is the inbuilt need that seeks to be identified with great and outstanding achievements (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105) and (Emery, 2009, p. 98). Secondly, the need to be an affiliate / to be affiliated to a strong and powerful individual (s) (Levoy, 2009, p. 18) has been identified in this theory (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). The third type of motivation that is prominent is the dire need to gain dominance or be seen as to be powerful (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). The last motivation type that is evident is one that demonstrates a need to be autonomous (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105). This theory is highly inspired by the theory of needs as proposed in Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 117). However, the NAQ theory is inclined to work-content and hence does not explicit on the motivation aspect that is outside the working environment (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105).
22.214.171.124 Incentive Theory
As per Lawrence & Jordan (2009, p. 104), the authors note that explicit motivation is as a result of strong influence from the demands of the society as well as normative pressures therewith. It is crucial that the management know and understand the different motivations (Levoy, 2009, p. 18) that motivate their employees (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104).
According to the incentive theory, two categorical approaches have been put forward. The first is one that is focused on people who have strong implicit motivation within themselves (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104). In the implicitly motivated employee (Rabey, 2001, p. 26), it is important that such things as being given new and challenging jobs, which will be an incentive for higher achievement (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104), reward the employees. They can also be given some additional responsibility apart from what they are used to which is perceived as adding power to them hence the very fact that they perceive themselves as being more powerful that the rest of the employees, is one high motivation factor that such people are willing to pursue (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104).
The third element that is given attention and focused on the intrinsically (Rabey, 2001, p. 26) motivated employees is the employment of praise as the employee (s) perceives that they are highly regarded in the organization and they identify with the motivation that is affiliation centred (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104).
To those who are not intrinsically motivated, but rather depend on extrinsic motivations (Levoy, 2009, p. 18), the theory suggests that such people can be inspired and rewarded by being given job promotions as a form of power motivation (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104). The same people can be motivated in the event that they are given some bonuses (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104) at the end of the year as a motivation to their outstanding job (even if the job was not as satisfactory as it would have been expected). To a great extend, giving such people some celebratory lunches and throwing some dinner parties in recognition of their contribution is one great incentive as an affiliation motivation (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104).
According to Levoy (2009, p. 18), external motivators which might include monetary rewards, Recognition as well as being given praises in front of the other employees, were found to work miracles but only for a short time. To the author, it is rather unfortunate that the intended effect of the motivation does not last forever, as one might want it to last (Levoy, 2009, p. 18). Levoy (2009, p. 18) continues to argue out that practices which are normally done, like giving employees salaries which are above average, offering benefits for excellence as well as increasing the vacation time do not translate into employee motivators. Rather, instead of them motivating the employees to work harder, they tend to make the employees remain in the organization a little while longer (Levoy, 2009, p. 18). This fulfilment of basic needs makes the employee last a little while until their motivation fades away (Mancini, 2009, p. 6) and (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 105).
126.96.36.199 Goal-setting theory
According to the goal setting theory as stated by Fried & Slowik (2004, p. 406), it is the instrumentality, expectancy as well as the variance that is demonstrated from the outcomes is high in the event that the goals which are set are difficult or challenging, combined with the fact that the goals remain specific to the objective and they are also attainable. This is a sentiment that is shared also in (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 406).
In the goal setting theory, it is clear that the goals must be very specific as well as challenging goals (Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6) that will require more effort and input. This has been found to be a major boost to the behaviour as well as the performance of the individuals within the organization (Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6). To Ordóez et al. (2009, p. 6) this is a form of panacea that can be used to boost the performance of the employee.
In their research, Locke & Latham (2006, p. 265; Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6), they do agree that as long as an individual remains committed to the set goal (s), and that the individual has the ability to attain the set goals, whereby there are no other, otherwise conflicting goals set, then graphically, this would be a linear relationship. The linear relationship is set between the task performance and the goal difficulty (Locke & Latham, 2006, p. 265; Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6).
However, to Fu et al. (2009, p. 277), the Locke’s theory on motivation and goal setting has been found with defects, as there is none linear relations that are exhibited since there is no comparison between the effort of the individual and the goals that are set. Self-efficacy and the self-set goals have been given a broad classification called motivation hub (Fu et al., 2009, p. 277). In an explanation, Locke (2001, p. 14) as cited in Fu et al. (2009, p. 277) the motivational hub is exemplified as the most immediate and yet the most motivational determinant to the individual’s course of action. This is caused mostly by external factors within the organization, which may include the company directives, or it may at times be influenced by personality (Locke, 2001, p. 23; Fu et al., 2009, p. 277). These motivators to some extent do contribute to the performance of the individuals, which is well stipulated in the hub variables (Locke, 2001, p. 23; Fu et al., 2009, p. 277).
In most instances, individuals are given Sales Quotas for which they are expected to meet within a given time frame and this strategy has been employed in many firms regardless of their sizes (Fu et al., 2009, p. 277).
In an analysis, Fried & Slowik (2004, p. 404) did realize that, due to the fact that time, in all the proposed theorems, had not been considered prior to their research, then the motivational theories had generally failed to achieve the intended goals. It has been noted that time is among the most important variable that a great influence on people’s motivation (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404).
It has become arguably clear that organizations have been, continue to employ goal – setting theory as their fundamental strategy to get their employees working, and has dominated the motivational theory (ies) that have been put forward for organizational use (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404).
It is clear that the goal setting motivational theory has been the leading theory that has incorporated time as a major factor because the employees are required to meet their deadlines within a given time period (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404). This in return points out that the goal setting theory has and still remains to be the most successful theories put forward as it deeply incorporates time as a main determinant (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404).
The assumption that is taken in the goal setting theory is that the set goals are a true reflection of the inner intentions of the individual as well as the individual’s conscious goals (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404). In their argument, the researchers do contend to the fact that the theories do explain the reason behind human quest to interpret the past, the present as they envision on what is to come in the future (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404). With timeframe incorporated, it is evident enough that the cognitive processes that are involved in decision – making and behavior at work can very well be explained (Fried & Slowik, 2004, p. 404).
2.1.2 Motivation strategies
Different people have very different interpretation of the incentive theory of motivation and the kind of motivational strategies (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104 +) that they employ are wanting. For example, in a case study of a security organization as highlighted by Houts et al. (2010, p. 41), the employers and other senior management officials did employ a rather crude way of giving incentives to their workers. It is highlighted of their behaviours at the workplaces where employees were in reality spanked while at the workplaces in the name of Motivational purposes (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41). This mode of motivation that was adopted in the organization was referred to as Camaraderie building exercise (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41).
The organization did have some incentives like having a pie smacked on the face of the culprit, or one being forced to eat baby food, at times it was required that the offenders wear diapers in front of the rest of the members of the organization (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41). In some rare cases, the offenders were required to sing while standing in front of the whole group but the most notable of all forms of incentives that the organization employed was spanking on the buttocks, which was more preferred (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41). The greatest problem was not much of the hitting / spanking that was done, but rather the humiliation (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 104) as this was being done with jeers from the fellow colleagues (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41). Sentiments like “Bend over your little a–” and the like were being used more often especially in the event that the offender was a female (Houts et al., 2010, p. 41). Whether it is a case of motivational strategies gone haywire or a case of immense ignorance and negligence, it is clear that some strategies are not motivational at all and they are not amusing.
To some managers and other people who are in leadership positions, having some eco-friendly policies (Levoy, 2009, p. 18) and (Mancini, 2009, p. 6) can be a great deal of motivation as they do not have to get stressed by some highly bureaucratic policies that would otherwise be a hindrance to their show-offs as high performers in the organization (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 103, 105).
188.8.131.52 Providing effective reward system
To reward a person has some short – term effect on the motivation of the individual in the organization (Levoy, 2009, p. 18). Adam Smith (1776) as quoted in Emery (2009, p. 94) is recognized to have been on the forefront in popularizing the need to have division of labour so as to optimise production in the organizations. According to Emery (2009, p. 95), there are two sources of the motivation drive. One of the drives is brought out by the fact that there is an internal need to gain resources as supported by the need theory (Lawrence & Jordan, 2009, p. 103, 105).
The second source of motivation is the commitment by an individual to external problems or might be the opportunities that are available elsewhere (Emery, 2009, p. 95). The most important of all the factors is the fact that the employees share the same goals as their management as this would be a true measure of the strength of the organization (Emery, 2009, p. 95).
A good reward system is one that has accountability as well as rewards being based on the performance as measured using the cross functional integrations (Emery, 2009, p. 95). The effectiveness of a system is ordinarily judged as per the levels in which there is resolution of the individual in the event there is a conflict as well as the extent to which the individual is willing to go to have collaboration for equity (Emery, 2009, p. 100).
Reward system in the work places include having appraisals for employees as well as integration that is targeted at making improvements by making sure that there is clear flow of information to and from the employees in the organization (Emery, 2009, p. 100).
To have an effective reward system, the focus should be turned from financial (money – focused) to behavioural focused reward system (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 56). It has been noted that the payment of benefits to the employees has been and still remains to be very insufficient although it is a necessity in the organization (Emery, 2009, p. 95).
A reward system is meant to bring positive reinforcement (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 57) to the individuals and this should be addressed, as it ought to, for it to be termed as successful. For positive reinforcement, there should be a number of factors that should be considered in the design process of a good and effective reward system.
To start with, the reward system should be made in such a way as to replace the ordinarily used subjective performance measurement with the revolutionary objective performance measurement system (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). It has been a tradition that the supervisors and other operations managers have been the ones with the mandate of having all the powers of giving appraisals to employees (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). This has been majorly influenced by the perception that the supervisor has on an individual which include the likeability of an individual, how busy an individual is perceived to be, personal prejudice, how manageable an employee is as well as compliance with the set system with a great review of the past mistakes done in the organization (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). Instead of all these non-linear modes of evaluation, there should be a system that determines the employee performance by the average output and other measurable factors (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
Bonuses that are given at the end of every season (Year) should instead be replaced with pay for performance reward system, as bonuses have been perceived to be very discretional payments that are made to employees for their well – done jobs (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
For the annual performance measure, there ought to be measures that are more frequent that would help to account for individual performances within short periods of time (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). The short period data collected and analysed is more objective than the annualised subjective performance measurement system (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). These performance measures should be done monthly if possible as they help to tell which employee is deteriorating and why (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
Minimise group measurement strategies, as they do not reflect on individual efforts within the group (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). Personal performance strategies should be employed so as to get more accountability from the individuals rather from a large group (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
Actionable measures like the pay per performance should be employed in place of the broad financial measures that are usually done in many of the organizations (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59). In so doing, questions on how best the employee can input into the organization’s revenue by a change of behaviour should also be addressed (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
Due to the different natures of the performance of the organization, unbalanced performance measures ought to be replaced with plans that can be able to account for the performance of the individuals like sales commissions and the like (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
Lastly, the discretionary measures that are normally used like the pay for performances should be harmonised to be more rule – based plans so that there is a win-win situation for all the parties involved (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 59).
184.108.40.206 Creating flexibility
Inherent flexibility that is demonstrated by the resources which are available in the organization has a great impact on the firms’ performance as proposed by Ketkar & Sett (2009, p. 1009). The issue is not much of the availability of the resources in the firm as much of how applicable is the resources to the firm (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1009). The ability of a firm to put into use the different resources that are at the disposal of the organization is very important (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1009).
The human resources should be flexible enough especially in their relationship with the employees which can be translated into firm’s performance if properly managed (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1010). This flexibility, especially in the human resources department does help to express the need for variety in information distribution and synthesis offers better situational analysis (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1011). This also does offer the modalities in which the information that is on offer can be reconfigured or redeveloped so as to be easily synthesized and assimilated in the organization without much complications going into it (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1011).
During employee selection, it is important that the organizations offer intense staff training so as to develop their skills and sharpen those that they already have (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012). There should also be management of the individual employee performance that is aimed at ensuring that there is improvement of the employee’s output as well as an in – depth understanding of the employee (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012).
There should be application of compensation schemes, incentives and reward schemes put in place to encourage employees to add more effort to the organization’s performance (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012).
The management should also put in place good communication channels that are meant to converse information both ways, from the employees to the management as well as from the management to the employees (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012). The channels should remain open so that communication can be done at any moment when there is information that might be needed (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012).
Employees should be empowered by having more participatory forums and avenues opened up within the organization (Ketkar & Sett, 2009, p. 1012). This will encourage more employees to stay active in their duties and roles while within the organization as well as raise enthusiasm of the individual employees.
220.127.116.11 Personal involvement
In the event where downsizing an organization seems impossible, after all possible avenues have been considered, then it is prudent enough for the management to look for the more opportunities that would enable for more flexibility within the organization (Mishra et al, 2009, p. 39). This approach, together with innovation and well – established and improved internal communication set in place, improves the level of trust between the employees and the management as things are not done in the dark (Mishra et al, 2009, p. 39).
Several factors are important that foster personal involvement. To start with, Innovation as well as creativity enhanced commitment by the organization’s management does help in explaining the noticeable change in the organization (Mishra et al, 2009, p. 42).
Secondly, improved communication channel, which incorporates all the stakeholders (Mishra et al, 2009, p. 42), is also important as well as having developments that are more flexible to the organization’s needs (Mishra et al, 2009, p. 41).
2.2.1 Definition of productivity
Productivity can be definition as the inert achievement of rapid, sustainable as well as measurable improvements in operations (Reference Answers, 2010, par. 1). A system is termed as productive if on average, the system is able to meet the set targets without failure. From an industrial perspective, productivity can be termed as the total profitable output that a machine or other equipments are able to make within a given timeframe.
Looking at productivity from the perspective of human resources, it can be said to be the cumulative, evidential output that is both measurable (Reference Answers, 2010, par. 1) and profitable as well. The productivity of an individual must be within the period set by the organization or the individual to achieve a certain goal. This period must be strict, as the project must be undertaken within the shortest possible time (Reference Answers, 2010, par. 1).
2.2.2 Importance of productivity
To begin with, in the event that the employee is paid through commission (Emery, 2009, p. 95), then, in the event that there is an increased productivity, then the employee can rest assured that the returns will be reflected in the payslip. If there were no set targets in achievement of an event, then there would be no sense in talking of production, as this would be a failing system. Given a short timeframe, the sales personnel (Emery, 2009, p. 95) are able to meet their targets and this goes a long way in improving the sales and returns of the organization.
Secondly, when there is productivity in the organization, the organization’s annual returns are increased hence more generation of revenue for the country economically through taxations. Due to the fact that the organizations have to be taxed, the organization’s management make an effort to remain productive for the better part of the years so that they can have an increased net profitability at the end of every financial year (Daniel et al., 2006, p. 56). This means that the organization has to be aligned in its operation to take on the market with better products, which are more appealing to the customers hence, the drive for innovation (Emery, 2009, p. 98) within the organizations.
2.2.3 Productivity and efficiency
A motivated employee is more likely to output more to the benefit of the organization (Shadare & Hammed, 2000, p. 8). Shadare & Hammed, (2000, p. 8) continues to argue that most of the successful people that are around, have been proved to be very efficient time managers. The efficiency of an organization is seen in its productivity.
An organization’s production capacity is dependent on two important factors. The first is the machine production capacity (Shadare & Hammed, 2000, p. 8). In the event that an organization acquires a machine that is meant to make, say one thousand yarns per hour, then if the machine can only make four hundred yarns, then it is not efficient. There is a lot of energy wasted as the machine consumption is still the same but the production is less. The machine might need motivation, which in this case would be servicing and replacing worn out parts, oiling and greasing to reduce friction and the like.
Looking at the second factor, which is the human capital, the production of an organization, is also dependent on individual efforts of the employees. Employees just need to be understood and revitalised to remain productive (Levoy, 2009, p. 18). Employees who are efficient are those that have a constant maximum output regardless of the situations surrounding them as measured within a given time period.
2.3 How can motivation increase productivity?
As noted above, motivated employees have a greater influence on the organization’s performance (Shadare & Hammed, 2000, p. 8). When the leadership is efficient enough, it will be able to influence the organization performance (Shadare & Hammed, 2000, p. 11). A leader is like the father figure in a family and the rest of the members seek to emulate what they see in their father figure. The same applies in organization. Employees will follow what their leader says and does. If the leader is kind, caring and approachable (Levoy, 2009, p. 18), then the employees are more likely to feel safe in the presence of their manager.
In return, the employees will demonstrate their respect and trust in their leader by having an increased output.
The motivation in a team can be reflected and achieved when there is achievement of goals that are set, having better recognition systems in place, a conducive working environment as well as clear self growth that is evident. Goals that are set in a team together are more likely to be valued as the members are part of setting the goal (Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6). Involvement of the members is important in ensuring continued production (Levoy, 2009, p. 18) and (Ordóez et al., 2009, p. 6).
2.4 Research Gap
Some clear research gap is there in the incorporation of the time aspect into the various proposed theories, which leads to the researcher seeking to find a solution to that gap. The time aspect is a crucial element as seen in the goal setting theory and should be incorporated in the new theories that may emerge.
Due to the amount of research as pertains to motivation, the researcher found it prudent to conduct a qualitative research methodology as well as review some of the available notions.
In conclusion, it is evident that motivation is inbuilt within oneself and all that is needed is for individuals to realise this and to address it. Nobody can motivate another, but one can inspire another person to make the changes that are necessary to become motivated. Motivation has been seen to have a great influence on the productivity of the organization and hence this should be taken with the seriousness it deserves.
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