Archive for September, 2011

Hero’s Legend

September 26, 2011

 

Legends and myths existed in the world since creation. Many stories are told which do not make real sense to people today but remain wonders in their lives. For example, the origin of the world and human beings is yet to be established, with several theories formulated to explain it. Supernatural powers remain responsible for occurrences of every wonder or eventuality that human beings find difficult to understand.  There exists a 15-year old boy who poses powers similar to a supernatural being. His name is Death Diseased Dead Dude. His age mates referred to him as 4Ds. People in his village discovered weird behaviors in him; they learned that he has powers above normal human beings.

4Ds developed faster than his age mates, and when they went to school, he could learn extremely fast as compared to pupils of his age. He was even used to ask teachers questions beyond his age. His parents were summoned to the school by the teachers to help them understand whether the boy was normal. When the mother went to school, she was shocked as well as she told teachers that she cannot answer some questions asked by her son.  At 8 years, there was a chicken pox outbreak that affected many children, leading to deaths of several. 4Ds refused to get vaccinated and survived without acquiring the disease. The mother recalled that he was once infected with chicken pox and after getting cured he has never been sick again.

After one year, he acquired another deadly disease that almost took his life. He was treated by many medics in vain. Then one morning, he advised his mother to get some herb for him. When he ate that herb, he got well and people in his community adapted the use of that herb as a cure for several illnesses.

It is said that 4Ds never acquires one disease twice: once he got cured of one disease that became the end of him contracting the disease again. He dresses in goat skin, unlike his age mates who dressed in formal clothes. It was said that his grandfather left the magic to the boy since he never contracted even common cold. At a point, people started consulting him on the kind of herbs they need to eat or brew to get medicine for their illnesses. They believed that he knew because everyone who had herbs prescribed by 4Ds got cured.

His greatest fear was rainfall, and during rainy seasons, he remained supremely inactive. Nobody understood the reason behind his fear of rain. When asked why he does not like rain, he said that when he gets rained on, his ancestors will be sad and the punishment can be unbearable. 4Ds is an extremely humble boy, and his villagers say that it is rare to find boys of his age reason in the same way as he does. He is consulted by people of all ages, and this promoted his popularity. In fact, scientists visit him to learn about herbs he believes are medicinal. They try those herbs and find out cure for many diseases.

This boy is of considerable importance to the community because he guides people on the herbs they should take whenever they get ill hence saving a lot of lives. He is also acutely kind to everyone in the community and assists anyone whenever called upon. Therefore, he makes his mother proud who is as hugely popular as he is and is associated with positivity all the time.

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Tribalism and politics in Nigeria

September 14, 2011

 

Running Head; TRIBALISM AND POLITICS IN NIGERIA

Tribalism and politics in Nigeria

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Tribalism and politics in Nigeria

Nigeria is a country with many ethnic tribes; some are the original inhabitant of the country while others are believed to be freed slaves that were voluntary settled in Nigeria. A good example is the Aborigines who are believed to have been settled in Nigeria after the abolition of the slave trade in the late 19th century. For many years, Nigeria has been a country occupied with desperate people in terms of national identity. By this, we mean tribe and language. Before the colonial era, Nigeria’s coexisted peacefully within their respective tribes. Each tribe had its own political and leadership structure that was unique from the other communities. Most of the tribes in Nigeria were ruled by Monarchs, elders and kings that inherited authority from their fathers. Tribes in the North of Nigeria were mostly of Muslim faith and were ruled according to the principles of the Quran. The southern Nigeria community believed in God while other tribes believed in their own gods. Tribalism begun during the colonial era in Nigeria protectorate and further escalated after independence. Tribalism in this country has lead to a number of civil wars and a change in the political scene within the country. Tribal diversity in a country should be the strong pillar for peace and unity, but this is not the case in many nations that have numerous tribes. Political leaders have for a very long time used tribal linage to rise to power or bring down a competitor basing on which tribe a candidate is from. In Nigeria and Africa at large, tribalism is their biggest undoing in terms of economic and political development.

Nigeria is the most populated country in African with about one sixth of the African population. The country had an estimate of about 170,235,583 people in 2005. The country is home to more than 260 ethnic groups with the Hausa- Fulani from the north being the most numerous tribes in that region. The Nupe, Kanuri, and Tiv also form a significant group in northern Nigeria. The Yoruba tribe forms the largest ethnic group in the southern region of the country. Tribes found in the south of Nigeria more than half are Christians, and the rest are either Muslims or pagans. The Efik, Annang, Ibibio, and Igbo, are also found in southern Nigeria. Nigeria political stage is set by seven ethnical groups as follows: Hausa and Fulani 27%, Yoruba 20%, Igbo (Ibo) 16%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 5%, Ibibio 4.5%, Tiv 3.5%. Below is a map showing the distribution of different tribes of Nigeria (Faloya 2005).

Nigerians’ tribes

Nigerians tribes are diverse and only three tribes have achieved ethnicity status, and the rest are manor ethnic groups. The major tribes form the Nigeria culture own their own practices. Nigerians major ethnic groups are the Yoruba, Ibo, and the Hausa Fulani. These three tribes are perceived to be exposed to the world and advance technology. In the Northern part of the country is inhabited by the Hausa Fulani tribe, while in the south the Ibo and the Yoruba shelters. The Hausa and the Fulani are a mixed race of the Yoruba. The Hausas are believed to be descendants of the Sudanese some group them as descendants of the Palestine’s and they are Muslim followers. They are governed by the Islamic law. The Fulanis are traced back are the in 13th century, and followers of the Islamic faith (Faloya 2005). National statistic rate the Ibo tribe as the second largest group in the country. Their origin cannot be traced. Presently they inhabit the rainy forest area within the Niger valley. Nri town is Ibo boson.

YORUBA TRIBE

IGBO TRIBE KING

IGBO TRIBES MEN

British colonialism, political and tribalism in Nigeria

British colonialism transformed indigenous political structures in Nigeria leading to a westernized political structure that was practiced by its colonial masters. This rule generally favored tribes that were devoted to the colonial administrators and never mounted any opposition to new colonial order. This was the beginning of tribalism in Nigeria. Communities formed alliances with foreigners to gain favor over other communities or tribe in the country.

Nigeria was ruled by the British before they obtained their independence in 1960. In 1900, the protectorate of Northern Nigeria was administered by Frederick Lugard as the High Commissioner. He ruled through with a divided method, although his mission fails before he changed to military action. The northern protectorate was divided from the south for easy administration. The Northern tribes such as the Yoruba and the Sultan set up a strong resistance against colonization by British masters than the southerners. Hence the north feels it is their right to rule Nigeria because they fought harder for independence than their southern counterparts. This is what is currently being experienced in Nigeria. In 1998, the then president Olusegun Abosanjo, brokered a deal between the southern and northern tribes to share the presidency sit equally in consecutive terms, and this marked another chapter from tribalism to religious fight within the political scenario in the country. This situation has since the spread of civil war to neighboring countries like Ghana and Ivory Coast. Politics in the region is based on what is taking shape in Nigeria (Faloya 2005).

Frederick success in the region particularly in Northern Nigeria has been attributed to betrayal from different tribes in the region and indirect rule policy. He used the defected rulers in the North from Fulani and Kanuri tribes to govern the protectorate. The emirs from the Kano tribe were required to modernize their administration and be confirmed to office. Other tribes such as Tiv, saw this as betrayal, and decided to side line the Kano tribe from community affairs. Sultan, Oyo tribe and its king formed an alliance with the colonial master to protect their wealth from other native tribes. This was the beginning of bad blood between the other tribes of Northern Nigeria and the Oyo, Kano and the Sultan.

Lugard was bias in the allocation of resources. He favored the North Muslim region in the expense of the South Christian region. He proposed the movement of the capital city from Lagos, which was a cosmopolitan city with a majority of educated and Westernized Africans that were a cause of constant unrest in the protectorate (Eleke 2005).

Hugh Clifford (1919–25) was Fredrick’s successor. His approaches to governance in the colonial states were opposed from his from his former predecessor Fredrick Lugard. Clifford argued the quickly introduction practical Western experience. He was concern about the Muslim north who would present problems. Clifford emphasized development and encouraging enterprises by all the local citizens but restricting European participation. Clifford was bias and against the north. He ruled out on the extension of powers of the local leaders under the indirect rule. He was against the schooling of the northerners something he encouraged at the south with the construction of a schools, modeled on a European method. The school was mandated to teach basic principles to regulate character. This led to the rejection of Lugard’s proposal to move the capital from Lagos. It was a stronghold of the elite.

From the above observation and discussion, it is evident that tribalism and segregation between the northern and southern tribes begun way back during the colonial era. Although the country attained independency in 1960, these differences are evident in the political structure of the country. During all general elections, voters cast their votes according to their tribes and regional inclination to stand a better chance of getting a bigger share of the national cake. This same scenario is replicated all over Africa (Sklar 2004).

Emergence and fall of Nigerian Nationalism

Nigeria was ruled by the British colonial power, bringing diverse people and regions in an artificial political group. Nationalism became a political factor in Nigeria; it was derived from an older political particularism and pan-Africanism. Its goal was to increase participation in the government process but not self determination that was acquired later. The colonial policy was inconsistencies and reinforced bias on regional animosities, and attempting to introduce Western political and social concepts. In the north, the Islamic legitimacy upheld the authority of the emirs, for the nationalist sentiments to be decidedly anti-Western. In the south, the elite modern nationalists opposed indirect rule because it had entrenched anachronistic ruling class and left no room for the Westernized elite.

Emergence of tribal union took the form of ethnic and kinship organizations. They were primarily urban movements that arose due to rural urban migration. Alienated by the harsh environment in an urban environment and brought together by ties by their ethnic homelands. City dwellers grouped and formed local clubs that later transformed into federations covering whole regions. This was the beginning of all the ethnic and religious found political parties in Nigeria. Major ethnic groups are inclined to a political party. Non political associations were also formed. It was made up of professional and business associations. These professional bodies like the Union of Teachers, provided trained leadership for political groups; lawyers brought together by the Nigerian Law Association, many of whom obtained education in Britain; and the Nigerian Produce Traders’ Association also was part of this association. The indirect rule practiced by the British has played a major role in fronting tribalism in Nigeria political system.

Tribalism in Political Leadership in Nigeria

Tribalism in Nigeria is a crucial issue of concern with respect to the scope of its practice, and the areas which it has affected. In Nigeria, tribalism is at the heart of national matters, whereas presidential hopefuls from certain areas and tribes were seen as jokers, and not fit to lead the country. At first, Nigeria was made of a large group of people who were desperate with regard to tribe and language, and coexisting loosely. Historically, it can be said that the action by the colonial masters in 1914 to join the south and north for easy governance was a positive move that led Nigeria to be born. All went well until in 1960, when the British left; this move led back to the inter-tribal suspicion, which came to the country and has stayed to date. This has been seen in a number of sections of the many ethnic groups that exceed 250 in Nigeria. This led to several coups, massive pogroms and counter coups which brought about the civil war that lasted for 30months, and led to the death of 2milllion people (Mwakikagile 2001).

At the end, of Biafra war, General Yakubu Gowon, the then head of state declared no victor or looser in the war, and this gave hope to the ethnic groups in the south who felt discriminated against. A new hope came up that Nigeria would be a nation that was tribalism free, where all people will have equal access to in all areas such as governance, resources, expression and so on. However, things were not that way for in about 40years after the declaration, the presidency remained at the court of a few tribes and region, what is often referred to in Nigeria as the establishment of a political glass ceiling. In governance, the northern tribes are said to discriminate against the southern tribe, and this is evident when the line of presidents of Nigeria is studied as portrayed as under.

General Gowon, a northerner, was overthrown by another northerner, Murtala Muhammed in 1975. Later, under unfortunate circumstances, the mantle fell on General Obasanjo, a South Westerner, who then handed over to Shehu Shagari, another northerner. Muhamadu Buhari, a northerner, forcibly took over from Shagari, but his tenure was short-lived when a fellow northerner, Ibrahim Babangida, took away the helmsmanship from him. Under fire for annulling a supposedly free election that would have put Moshood Abiola, a south westerner in power, Babangida handed over to a south westerner, Ernest Shonekan before General Sani Abacha, another northerner, snatched it away from him. When Abacha mysteriously and suddenly died, General Abdulsalam Abubakar, a northerner, took over and eventually handed back to Obasanjo, a South Westerner. Before leaving office, Obasanjo made sure that the presidency had gone back to another northerner – Umaru Yaradua. Haba!” (Mwakikagile 2001).

This may sound like a chess game between the northern tribes and southwest tribes; but it is not so, it is the true position in Nigeria. As much as the country boasts of many tribes, and regions, presidency is passed back and forth amongst tribes, and this is often done forcibly. The question that is asked may take the form of; why the misrepresentation of regions and tribes? Are the other tribes less intelligent or important as compared to the others? Or are they less ambitious or hard working compare to the other tribes/regions? Do they contribute equally to the growth of the nation? The answers to this question may portray how bad tribalism is in Nigeria.

The truth is that those who nursed presidential ambition, and were not from certain tribes were regarded as a joke or unrealistic. This made people from certain regions/tribes to turn to be political lackeys and harlots whereby they have to join political parties, which are headed, by people from more privileged tribes/regions. Tribalism in Nigeria is not only amongst Nigerians who live in Nigeria, but, unfortunately, even among those in the Diaspora. Studies and experience with many Nigerians in the Diasporas reveals that they have not yet shed the tribal cloak that they left with from the country. A good number of them support the political glass ceiling that supports Nigerians from other tribes. A number promote this as a way or payback for the Biafra war. This is ironical, for it is thought that by the fact that the Nigerians in Diasporas live in multiracial societies, and must have come to understand the benefits of diversity; but this in many cases has not been the case (Asuzu 2005).

Dealing with tribalism in Nigeria

Tribalism is really a political curse on Africa from the pro- colonial structures and political deals that were used to replace the African nationalism with a European nationalism. Tribalism calls as to content that we are Fulani, Yoruba, Ijaw, Hausa, Tiv, Igbo, Ibibio, and the other tribes, but not Nigerians. The same applies to all African states that have tribal identification and outlook (Eleke 2005).

Each tribe under the sun has a distinctive characteristic, which tribesmen hold dearly. This characteristic is what makes a Yoruba tribal, Ijaw separatist and an English colonialist. Tribalism main objective is the migration of people to build empires, not for the betterment of the nation but for tribal interest. These empires are what form political backbone in Africa. They tend to take charge of their own political affairs, and verbalized a political leader. Politicians lean to their tribes for favor and support to outdo other tribes. For the country to attain development, and prosperity the political leadership of the country must take full charge of the country by formulating policies and laws to foster a common ground for the country to make wealth, and explore resources to the full potential (Emeh, 2011).

Yoruba is the largest tribe in Nigeria, with most of the elite people in the country coming from his tribe. When President Olusegun Obasagen took office, his tribes men scrambled for the little resources they could lay hands on, or come across. The president appointed his tribal men to key government positions a move that did not go well with other tribe’s men. The only way to get rid of tribalism in Nigeria is through the in cooperation of all the tribe in key government departments. The government should ensure equal distribution of the country’s resources and revenue (Obiagwu 2008).

Decentralism of the government services and offices to reach all the tribes of the country. This move will create more offices and in co-operate more tribes in the governance of the country. Tribalism thrives because of selfish interest by politicians and tribal elders to enrich their community and people (Asuzu 2005).

No tribe is superior to other tribes; this is what the community should be told to foster a common understand and unity among the different tribes of the country. The country can only deal with tribalism by overcoming all the post colonial hangovers. Tribal kingpin think that since attaining independence it’s their time to loot public property and share it with their tribes men. It is 50 years after independence; the country has nothing to show. Poverty level is on the increase, and civil war is the order on the day. Thanks to tribalism in Nigeria. A democratic political system is what will shape a unified nationalism in Nigeria with the country’s population having to sing one song.

Tribalism is ramped in Nigeria; a leader is imposed on the Keno tribe, by their tribal, political party. It is only fair for the political-out fit to allow the people choose their own preferred candidate rather than an imposed candidate. A free and democratic political system will set the country free from tribalism (Emeh, 2011).

Politics and ethnicity

Looking back at the Nigerian history, it can only be concluded that their fore fathers did not carry out the same acts of tribalism. They lived in harmony together with other communities, which were, of different ethnic tribes. It is evident from the relationship that the nupe, jukun and the igala shared during the Elizabethan period and as a result of this, 40 percent of the Anambah trace their origin from the igala community. However, this was not to stay long as the modern political patterns were to break the same ethnic relationships all over Nigeria and divide the people of Nigeria into tribalistic groups. This was because the current political situations is about materialism and does not promote the service for humanity. All that the politicians do is to look for issues that divide the ethnic groups rather than issues that would unite them (Obiezu 2008).

In Nigeria, the tactics used by the politicians has been that of divide and rule. In this case what it means by divide and rule was that tribalism was used to gain power. Tribalism has become one of the lethal weapons in politics and to a greater extent the greatest factor that is to determine ones success. Politicians form tribal alliances so as to be able to lure votes from certain communities rather than the whole nation as one. These political alliances are the heart of tribalism as most of them are between few ethnic groups creating a rift between them and other ethnic groups. As a result of this, Nigeria has failed to become one nation and thus a divided nation. Ethnic relationships have been sources of embarrassments in Nigeria as Nigeria has failed to address the same (Time, 1968). Some of these embarrassments are not easily forgotten such as that of the molestation of their vice president by young supporters of the people democratic party led by Muyiwa Collins.

As much as political upheavals that are related with ethnicity are used to reshape their victims’ view of the whole world for instance, Germany in which the pre and post war Germans differ a lot that has not been the case in Nigeria. Their former civil war that was followed with ethnic massacres all failed to change the views of Nigerians and the whole world and instead painted a gloomy image of Nigeria. The fact that it harbors the highest number of educated Africans did not cause any difference as it is now faced with a very difficult test of ethnicity. Comparing Nigeria with other African counterparts, it is obvious that they are far much more ahead than Nigeria. For example, South Africa, though the blacks in that country have different political views, it may be stated that their views are bound together by black national consciousness. It is clearly depicted in their last two general elections whereby they had presidents elected, not from the largest tribe the Zulu. Other nations such as Togo, Ghana and Benin also enjoy the same reverence as South Africa. Most of these nations have different ethnic groups that have lived for so many years with peace and have never resulted to butchering of one another. Tribalism has now become a national issue in Nigeria and should be tackled immediately in order to avoid more harm. As long as they continue this way, tribalism in Nigeria is bound to persist and even intensify to greater heights that would be hysterical (Obiagwu 2008).

Politics in Nigeria is the same as the colonial authority that found it during the colonial era. In 1960, after the country attained independence it was perceived by Nigerian’s that it was the end of an authoritarian rule in Nigeria, but that was not the case. The guards had change, but not the systems. There is no difference in the colonial system between the current political scenarios in the country and what the British government practiced in the country. The current political parties and all leaders use split and rule policy to govern the country. This approach has been widely copied by most of the neighboring countries for personal interest. Recently, we witnessed the situation that took part Ivory Coast during the general election that took place early this year. The incumbent president was stripped off his victory and forced to flee back to his ethnical and political supporters to protect him from his competitors. Leaders should take political responsibility and not hide behind ethnic groups.

Political parties in Nigeria are all inclined towards a certain ethnical group or religious groups. A good example is the Niger Progressive party. This political party was mainly for the tribes in the north who wanted to have a great allocation of government resources because they are home to numerous multinational oil companies in the region. The northern and southern ethnic tribes are, on a quest to outwit each other. Each region intends to choose one of its own to the presidency, for him, or she to guide them against the other region tribes. This mean trend has been replicated in other countries far from Nigeria. In Kenya, a country situated in East Africa, has the same population element as Nigeria. These country boosts of a high ethnical diversity as Nigeria, its political nature, resemble that of Nigeria. Political parties are formed from ethical groupings. A good example if FORD KENYA, a political party inclined to the Luhya community, Western Province in Kenya (Obiezu 2008).

As a result of tribalism in politics, corruption has been seen to be the best beneficiary from these trends. It has thrived to its peak and this can clearly be seen by recent world rankings in which Nigeria was among the top corrupt nations in the world. This has completely tarnished the image of Nigeria and not forgetting the whole of the African continent as most European states consider Africans to be corrupt. In Nigeria the whole idea of corruption is attributed to tribalism since favoring of kinsmen is the theme of the day. Oil on the other hand has even worsened the situations. It is evident that the tribes that are situated on oil reach areas are the tribes that practice tribalism to the fullest and are the most corrupt communities (Time, 1968). It has in turn infected the whole nation making it a corruption nation. Oil has also affected the politics of the country as leaders want to control the oil rich areas and thus encourage tribalism in order to achieve the same goals.

Nigeria adopted a new constitution in 1999. Their laws state that a president can only be in office for a two four year term. They aborted a rotational system of the presidency which was to be between the north and the southern region. This political situation was a compromise between political parties to promote peace and harmony in the country that was marked with regular civil and ethnical conflict. This kind of political compromise is what was witnessed in Sudan in 2005, with the signing of the peace agreement in Kenya between the Khartoum government and the southern Sudan Progressive Liberation Movement (SPLM). This type of governance also calls for equitable resource allocation between the different regions of the country. The political situation in Sudan is exactly what Nigeria underwent through immediately after independence. The Igbo and the Yoruba tribes went to war with the other tribes, so that they can create their own country. The same applies to the steady political and civil unrest that is attributed to religious sentiments in the country leading war between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria. This is what is being witnessed in Sudan. The northern part of Sudan is occupied by Muslim majority while, in the south; it is occupied by Christian majority. Each group wants to stamp its authority in the country, which calls for, comprise between the two groups to live in harmony (Sklar 2004).

Conclusion

Nigeria’s main problem is tribalism. The country has not achieved full sovereignty and self order from the time it got independence in 1960. Tribal interest and political instability in the country are the greatest undoing for this nation. Just like the European nations have attained full economic and political instability by uniting and abolishing all tribes and language affiliation it is essential that Nigeria has to do the same. For Nigeria and other African countries to realize their full economic potential, these countries must recognize that the different tribes are equal partners in the country, and need to be treated equally. Leaders that take up public responsibility for challenges that face the country are the right leaders for Nigeria and not leaders who only think of themselves. It is therefore critical for Nigeria to settle their issues as first as possible as it is among the leading nations in Africa. Some nations will be looking up to such a nation for inspiration and this will only be done if they achieved sorting out there issues.

 

 

References

Sklar, R. (2004). Title Nigerian Political Parties: Power in an Emergent African Nation. California; Publisher Africa World Press,

Obiezu, E. (2008). Towards a Politics of Compassion: Socio-Political Dimensions of Christian Responses to Suffering. Denver; Author House,

Obiagwu, C. (2008). Adventures of Ojemba: the chronicle of Igbo people, Michigan; Publisher Hamilton Books,

Asuzu, O. (2005). The Politics of Being Nigerian, Lagos; Lulu.com,

Mwakikagile, G. (2001). Ethnic politics in Kenya and Nigeria, Abuja; Nova Publishers,

Eleke, U. (2005). The impact of tribalism on Nigerian politics, Texas; East Texas State University,

Faloya, T. (2005), Nigerian history, politics and affairs: the collected essays of Adiele Afigbo

Classic authors and texts on Africa. Lagos; Africa World Press,

Emeh O. ( August 2011). Dealing with tribalism in Nigerian politics, The Daily Trust (Abuja), Retrieved on Monday, June 28th 2011 from http://dailytrust.dailytrust.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11560:dealing-with-tribalism-in-nigerian-politics&catid=7:opinion&Itemid=12

TIME (August 1968). On tribalism as the Black Man’s Burden, Time Magazine (New York), Retrived on June 28th 2011 from

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,838606,00.html

 

 

Eating Disorders in Teens and Young Adult Women

September 14, 2011

Running Head: EATING DISORDERS

Eating Disorders in Teens and Young Adult Women

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Executive summary

Abnormal eating habits that involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual’s physical and mental health are what many physicians regard as eating disorders. The most common among teenagers and young adult women are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. These conditions were in the past most common in women but now there have been cases of teenage boys who have been diagnosed with these eating disorders. Although statistics have shown an increase in these conditions worldwide, it is women living in industrialized countries who have been severely affected by these conditions. The real cause of these conditions is yet to be identified even though it is believed they are linked to other medical conditions and family situations.

A study that was carried out by Dr. Annan in 2006 revealed that girls with ADHD have a higher chance of getting an eating disorder as compared to those that did not have ADHD. Results from the study also showed that children under foster care were more likely to develop bulimia anorexia than those living with their real parents. The reason behind this behavior is still not clearly known even though some experts in this field believe that children under foster care tend to compensate their loneliness by eating too much food at once then vomiting it out. Some have adopted this behavior due to neglect by their foster parents. Teenagers suffering from anorexia nervosa suffer from intense fear of gaining weight even though there are underweight. In females who have reached puberty, they may experience infrequent or even miss their menstrual periods completely. It is therefore the responsibility of parents and guardians to monitor closely the behavior of their children in order to be able to monitor changes in their eating habits.

Introduction

In the recent years, 1 in every 60 teens has been diagnosed with an eating disorder such as anorexia, bulimia or binge. The findings of a study that was done by the National Institute of Mental Health in 2010 revealed that the percentage of teenagers who are suffering from anorexia eating disorder comprises of 1.9 percent of the America’s Population (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, July 2011). Eating disorders these days are more than just going on a diet to lose weight since there are other extremes in eating behaviors that also affect teenagers such as diets that never end or some that are more restrictive on some foods. The aim of this essay is to discuss the current epidemic of eating disorders among the teens and young adult women around the globe.

Discussion

Eating disorders among teens

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Fashion designers around the world use skinny models on runways to market there designs. Due to the popularity of these models, many young female teenagers are doing whatever they can to be thin as there idols are. This has forced many to try different types of food diets in order to maintain a thin waistline. Due to this continuing trend, anorexia and bulimia eating disorders have been on the rise since 2000(Firth, January 2010). A host of other minor eating disorders have too been identified by medical practitioners in adolescents and young adults. Since eating disorders are linked to various psychological, social and emotional issues, they pose serious nutritional deficiencies to the individual under concern. Even though eating disorders are more common in adolescent and college-aged girls, serious cases have also been reported in boys and young men under the same age bracket.

Some of the health risks associated with anorexia include impaired sexual maturation, osteoporosis, weak bones and numerous nutrient deficiencies evident in their skin, hair and vital body organs (Kan & Buitelaar, 2011). Teenagers suffering from anorexia nervosa suffer from intense fear of gaining weight even though there are underweight. In females who have reached puberty, they may experience infrequent or even miss their menstrual periods completely. In severe cases of anorexia patients may develop a habit of repeatedly checking there weight and may engage in various techniques to control there imaginary weight such as intense or compulsive exercise.

Teenagers suffering from bulimia nervosa have recurrent episodes of eating excessive amount of food within a small amount of time. In order to prevent weight gain they adapt recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise and even extreme fasting (Treasure, 1 April 2005). However teenagers suffering from bulimia usually weigh within the normal range for their age and height. Bulimia causes inadequate nutrient absorption, mouth sores, tissue damage to the esophagus from excessive vomiting and also tooth decay. It is therefore advisable to seek professional medical assistance whenever a friend or family member has been suspected to suffering from any eating disorder. Bulimia if not early treated may further cause severe damage to the small intestines and colon due to excessive use of laxatives by the individual in a bid to loss weight.

Treatment and management of Anorexia Nervosa

The best mode of treatment that is suitable for teens suffering from anorexia should be on an outpatient basis. This is because parents or guardians of the patient need to be involved in the psychological treatment being administered to their children in order to give them moral support. In case inpatient treatment is necessary, it should be administered in a setup that can provide skilled implementation of re-feeding while monitoring the physical changes on the patient carefully (Cash & Smolak, 2011). Family interventions that may be of help in the treatment should also be offered to the children and adolescents who have anorexia nervosa.

Treatment and management of Bulimia nervosa

The first step in the treatment of bulimia nervosa is to encourage the patient to follow an evidence based self-help program while being given antidepressants to alleviate their suffering. For the first 4 to 5 months after diagnoses, patients should be offered Cognitive behavior therapy for bulimia nervosa (Mitchell, January 2011).Adolescents with bulimia nervosa may be offered Cognitive behavior therapy, adapted as needed to suit their age, level and status of its development, and including the family as appropriate. Nutritional therapy along with Cognitive-behavior therapy is the most recommended combination of therapy that is supposed to be administered to patients showing early signs of bulimia nervosa. This step is only advised if the patient seems reluctant to remain in a support group. Antidepressants are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of bulimia patients who are not responding to support group and combined therapy treatment discussed earlier.

Eating Disorders among Young Adult Women

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Young adult women with anorexia tend to have an extreme fear of gaining weight which causes them to try to maintain a weight far less than normal. Women in this age bracket are willing to do anything to avoid gaining weight. These may include exercising too much and also starving themselves for weeks as ways of preventing any weight gain. Anorexia causes Young adult women to think of themselves as being extremely fat whereas they are extremely thin. Young adult women with anorexia tend to feel that their entire self esteem is directly linked to how thin they are (Bjorklund, 2011). Even though Anorexia is an emotional disorder primarily focusing on food, doctors believe it is an attempt by the individual to attain a perfect body size by strictly controlling how much they eat. Young adult women in industrialized countries are the most affected by anorexia since cultural expectations there encourage women to be thin as the society considers thin women beautiful.

The most common sign that one has anorexia is experiencing severe weight loss due to the individual trying to lose weight by putting limits of how much they take on a daily basis. Some women may start to exercise excessively in a bid to lose weight to attain the perfect slim body figure like supermodels. Some young adult women may insist that they are overweight even though they are very thin. Physical symptoms of anorexia include thinning, dry skin, missing menstrual periods, cold or swollen feet and bloated stomach. Other signs may be low blood pressure, fatigue and Osteoporosis. People suffering from anorexia tend to have a distorted perception of self as they feel as if they have gained weight whereas they are very thin in appearance.

They tend to become too choosy on the kind of food they desire and crave to eat while at the same time they try avoid certain foods completely at times even refusing to eat anything. Other psychological and behavioral changes may range from the inability to remember important things to obsessive-compulsive behaviors and depression (Firth, January 2010). Young adult women suffering from anorexia tend to skip meals and are constantly weighing themselves. They also start refusing to eat in the presence of others even though they are constantly planning and preparing elaborate meals for others. After carrying out study on the eating disorders in the U.S in 2007, Medical experts at St John Hopkins hospital attributed anorexia signs and symptoms to severe trauma or emotional stress such as the death of a loved one or sexual assault during puberty or before. They also stated that anorexia may be caused by abnormalities in brain chemistry and serotonin which is the source of depression.

Bulimia is an eating disorder where young adult women might binge on food then proceed to vomit in a cycle of binging and purging. Binging is the act of eating large quantities of food over a very short period of time while purging involves forcing oneself to vomit by using laxatives in an attempt to lose weight that might be gained after binging. Young adult women suffering from bulimia often feel as if the can not control how much they consume on every sitting and this makes them feel guilt of the behavior (Adan, 2011). In the desire to fix the problem immediately, they may decide to exercise too much or seek laxatives to force themselves to vomit. People with bulimia do not show any changes in their normal weight which makes the distinction from anorexia nervosa.

Although the real cause of bulimia is not yet known to medical practitioners, there are a number of related factors that seem to influence its development. Though the frequency of eating may be attributed to the genetic makeup of the patient, family influence has also been noted to trigger this condition. Alienated levels of serotonin are the cause of clinical depression which is very common in patients suffering from bulimia nervosa. Some medical experts believe that the failure by some parents to provide their infants with a safe and secure foundation may be blamed for the lapses in their eating order when they are young adults. Some of the health problems that are as a result of bulimia include teeth erosion, cavities, abdominal bloating and acute stomach stress. Forceful vomiting tendencies may lead to the rupture of the esophagus causing a problem when swallowing hot food or drink.

Young adult women who have a history of eating disorders may have healthy pregnancies although they are a greater of facing complications during delivery and may require assistive procedures such as cesarean sections (Summerfield, 2011). The babies too are at a higher risk of being under-weight, premature or have serious malformations. Since smoking has been know to reduce the rate of gaining weight, it has become a norm for bulimia patients as they try to manage their eating and weight problems. In addition to smoking, bulimia patients also abuse alcohol and other related drinks as they try to deal with depression. Young adult women with bulimia nervosa find it hard to resist the temptations of abusing over-the-counter medications such as laxatives, appetite suppressant and other drugs that are capable of inducing vomiting.

Treatment for Anorexia

The treatment of a person suffering from anorexia requires a team effort to properly manage and treat it. The first step is to check and treat all medical problems related to the condition. These may include imbalances in important electrolytes in the body, loss of bone strength and any hormonal deficiencies (Treasure, 1 April 2005). The second treatment program should focus on the nutritional rehabilitation of the patient while still providing supportive psychotherapy. In cases where an individual continues to lose their weight even after receiving outpatient treatment, hospitalization is then required in order to monitor the patient’s progress. The treatment lasts for about 10 to 12 weeks before the patient can be allowed to leave the hospital and continue with outpatient treatments while being closely monitored by their family members.

Treatment for Bulimia

Treatment of bulimia patients has been categorized by medical experts into 3 treatments programs according to the stages of the condition. For those showing early signs bulimia, support groups are recommended to help them re-think their feeding habits (Mitchell, January 2011). Nutritional therapy along with Cognitive-behavior therapy is the most recommended combination of therapy that is supposed to be administered to patients showing early signs of bulimia nervosa. This step is only advised if the patient seems reluctant to remain in a support group. Antidepressants are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of bulimia patients who are not responding to support group and combined therapy treatment discussed earlier. Patients suffering from bulimia should be admitted in a health care facility if the Binge-Purging cycles have led to anorexia nervosa. Another case that may require hospitalization is when drugs are needed for withdrawal from purging.

Conclusion

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main eating disorders that are very common among teenagers and young adult women. These two conditions develop gradually thus it is the responsibility of the parents, friends and relatives to report these cases so that the patients can start being given the right diagnosis for their condition before treatment commences. If anorexia is left unchecked, patients may end up not being able to walk properly due to weak bones resulting from poor nutritional habits.

References

Adan, A. H. (2011). Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders. New Mexico: Springer.

Bjorklund, F. D. (2011). Child & Adolescent Development: An Integrated Approach. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.

Cash, F. T., & Smolak, L. (2011). Body Image, Second Edition: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention. London: Guilford Press.

Firth, L. (January 2010). Understanding Eating Disorders. Health and Wellbeing, 184 (1), 120-167.

Kan, C. C., & Buitelaar, K. J. (2011). ADHD in Adults: Characterization, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meyer, C. (May/June 2011). Special Issue:Special edition on compulsive exercise. European Eating Disorders Review, 19 (3), 169-237.

Mitchell, B. P. (January 2011). The pharmacological management of bulimia nervosa: A critical review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7 (1), 29-41.

NationalInstituteforClinicalExcellence. (July 2011). Eating disorders:Core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44 (5), 383-476.

Summerfield, M. L. (2011). Nutrition, Exercise, and Behavior: An Integrated Approach to Weight Management. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.

Treasure, J. (1 April 2005). Treatment of anorexia nervosa in adults. Psychiatry Journal, 4 (4), 10-13.

What I Understand about My Temperament

September 13, 2011

Running head: MY TEMPERAMENT

Name:

Course Title:

Instructor:

Institution:

Date:

 

 

What I Understand about My Temperament

 The combination of my character and abilities is what makes up my personality trait and hence my temperament (Isacoff, 2007). From a temperament sorter, I discovered that my temperament entails an artisan trait. In comparison to other personality traits, it gives me the broad ability to balance between exemplary leadership skills, best performance at work, and the ability to satisfy the interest of others.

This kind of personality involves risk takers as artisans always possess the drive to achieve their goals besides venturing in activities that others have not attempted before. It is enhanced by the fact that I really like to work using my hands. As an artisan, I usually find myself winning the confidence and admiration of those around me, who include family, friends, as well as colleagues. I believe that most of the things I do are enjoyable and full of fun.

Since I additionally always enjoy being where action is, I derive a lot of fun in every activity in which I engage. As a result, it enables me to do everything perfectly as though it were the last.

From research, these qualities among others are of great significance especially in an organizational setup. This is because they enable me to be alert most of the time, able to negotiate due to the ability to follow my instincts because of my keen senses and capability to produce best performances at all times. This is a professional advantage as it allows me to exhibit my perfect leadership skills in dealing with situations that involve emergencies and chaos. I am additionally able as an artisan to take part in other social activities such as sports and artwork in the organization naturally. With these, I am able to create a positive impact on whatever organization I am working in, as I am able to set a perfect example to others at all times.

 

 

List of References

Isacoff S. 2007. Temperament. London: Faber and Faber. Print.

Running Head: MARKETING PLAN FOR DOMINOS PIZZA

September 9, 2011

                                                    Marketing Plan for Dominos pizza

(Presented by)

(Name)

(Presented to)

(Lecturer)

(Topic)

(Date)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive summary:

Dominos Pizza is a corporation that deals with the delivery of pizza in different countries and has its head quarters at Michigan, United States. The corporation was started, in 1960. Currently, it is among the largest pizza chains in United States of America. It has over 600 stores in different growing cities in Wales, Ireland, and England among others. Dominos Pizza is a subsidiary of Domino’s Pizza UK and IRL, plc and it is quoted in the London Stock Exchange market (Dominos.uk.com, 2011).

Internal Environment Analysis:

Dominos Pizza corporation is a pizza delivery company with franchise stores in so many countries. Its reputation for being in the industry for long has earned it an advantage over other upcoming pizza stores. The stores are able to monitor and maintain quality and consistency of its products. From the many years of experience and staff dedication to serving customer needs, the company has earned a good public reputation. The store recognizes that different customers have different needs; there are those who order the Domino pizza to satisfy the need for food caused by hunger, and there are others who want to enjoy the pizza and the comfort; thus, the Pizza hut. Internally the employees support each other, although everyone has duties and specific roles to play. However, teamwork is always encouraged. It would be impossible to serve the target market effectively without dedication of the internal personnel involved. The franchises have to meet set standards to do business with domino pizzas. This aids in building the public reputation of the company.

 

 

External Environment Analysis:

Dominos Company operate in an environment where there is free competition.  There are other companies in the market that offer the same products. Therefore, competition for customers is there, the resource and raw materials used in preparation and competent employees have also found perfect competition in this market. To retain its employees Dominos pizza has to offer competitive remuneration as per the prevailing market rates. The suppliers also have to be treated in an appropriate way to get reliable suppliers always. These measures are crucial in order to enable the company to earn a competitive edge in comparison to other companies dealing with similar products.

SWOT Analysis:

One of the Domino pizza strength is in its delivery system of its products to customers. They are known for quick delivery for the products. The image and good will it has earned itself in its time of operation is also a strength for the company. The franchises have a reputation for quality services and product variety. The service is of high-quality and hygiene is satisfactory. The customers are thus satisfied with the offers at Dominos pizzas. Some of the weaknesses are the lack of enough parking spaces in the stores, in adequate stores and high prices for its products into the market (Scribd.com, 2011).

Dominos pizza also has an opportunity in that the fast food market has not been fully exploited by the other similar companies. There is more room for expansion and more attractive offer can be designed in order to exploit the existing market environment. The threats facing Dominos pizza is in the emergent of other pizza delivery firms the biggest threat being papa John’s world pizza makers.

Marketing objectives:

Domino pizza aims at maintaining the current good will and reputation from customers through enhancing the quick delivery service. This can be done through acquiring extra motor bicycle for pizza delivery. Home delivery will also aid in easing the challenge of parking space because some customers will order from home.

Giving promotional discounts once a week in a bid to reduce the pizza prices to customers is another marketing objective which stands to benefit domino pizzas.

Opening of extra new franchises in at least three states each year will help to get to the market of fast foods, which is growing. Domino pizza aims at positioning itself as a high class in dining pizza and take away restaurant. It aims at offering quality service that will see it achieve market leadership and have competitive advantage over competitors in a profitable and cost effective way. This is through more advertising and brand awareness campaigns. Increasing sales and profits will lead to more growth of the dominos pizza.

Marketing Strategies:

The corporation plan to achieve market leadership through more promotions. It can also use offers and discount to attract more customers and retain the existing ones. Online market and internet transactions where order and delivery is online can also increase the reach of more customers and the target market for its products.

 

Implementation of marketing strategies:

The promotions and discounts can be communicated to the target markets through posters and banners. Opening some more stores in other places will improve the market reach, which will increase sales.

Evaluation and Control of market Strategy:

The marketing objectives of growth will be evaluated by looking at the sales volumes and profit margins. Sustainable incentives can be given to attract customer feedback and response. The customer base and market growth can also be measured by evaluating and monitoring the repeat sales and new sales. Soliciting customer feed back will help to determine when customer satisfaction increases or changes (Luther, 2011). To monitor loyal customer award and bonus programs can be implemented.

The sales volume growth will be represented in term of percentage increase to see the change in sales after the promotions campaigns.

In all, business customer satisfaction should be given the priority over other issues (Kennedy, 2011). If the pizza stores keep their customers satisfied, there is more chance for growth into the future. Domino pizza marketing objective stand to look at the profitability, survival, growth of its brand and market share of the incorporations.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dominos.uk.com. (2011). Available from: http://www.dominos.uk.com/aboutus.aspx

Kennedy Dan. (2011). The Ultimate Marketing Plan: Target Your Audience fourth

Edition. New York: Adams Media

 

Luther William. (2011). The Marketing Plan: How to prepare and Implement I. New

 

York: AMACOM

 

Scribd.com. (2011).Available from:

 

http://www.scribd.com/doc/25371457/Pizza-Hut-and-Dominos-marketing-strategy

The Epidemic of Eating Disorders amongst teens and young adult women

September 7, 2011

Running Head: EATING DISORDERS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eating Disorders in Teens and Young Adult Women

(University)

(Name)

(Course)

(Tutor)

(Date)

 

 

 

 

 

Executive summary

Abnormal eating habits that involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual’s physical and mental health are what many physicians regard as eating disorders. The most common among teenagers and young adult women are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. These conditions were in the past most common in women but now there have been cases of teenage boys who have been diagnosed with these eating disorders. Although statistics have shown an increase in these conditions worldwide, it is women living in industrialized countries who have been severely affected by these conditions. The real cause of these conditions is yet to be identified even though it is believed they are linked to other medical conditions and family situations.

A study that was carried out by Dr. Annan in 2006 revealed that girls with ADHD have a higher chance of getting an eating disorder as compared to those that did not have ADHD. Results from the study also showed that children under foster care were more likely to develop bulimia anorexia than those living with their real parents. The reason behind this behavior is still not clearly known even though some experts in this field believe that children under foster care tend to compensate their loneliness by eating too much food at once then vomiting it out. Some have adopted this behavior due to neglect by their foster parents. Teenagers suffering from anorexia nervosa suffer from intense fear of gaining weight even though there are underweight. In females who have reached puberty, they may experience infrequent or even miss their menstrual periods completely. It is therefore the responsibility of parents and guardians to monitor closely the behavior of their children in order to be able to monitor changes in their eating habits.

 

Introduction

In the recent years, 1 in every 60 teens has been diagnosed with an eating disorder such as anorexia, bulimia or binge. The findings of a study that was done by the National Institute of Mental Health in 2010 revealed that the percentage of teenagers who are suffering from anorexia eating disorder comprises of 1.9 percent of the America’s Population (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, July 2011). Eating disorders these days are more than just going on a diet to lose weight since there are other extremes in eating behaviors that also affect teenagers such as diets that never end or some that are more restrictive on some foods. The aim of this essay is to discuss the current epidemic of eating disorders among the teens and young adult women around the globe.

Discussion

Eating disorders among teens

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Fashion designers around the world use skinny models on runways to market there designs. Due to the popularity of these models, many young female teenagers are doing whatever they can to be thin as there idols are. This has forced many to try different types of food diets in order to maintain a thin waistline. Due to this continuing trend, anorexia and bulimia eating disorders have been on the rise since 2000(Firth, January 2010). A host of other minor eating disorders have too been identified by medical practitioners in adolescents and young adults. Since eating disorders are linked to various psychological, social and emotional issues, they pose serious nutritional deficiencies to the individual under concern. Even though eating disorders are more common in adolescent and college-aged girls, serious cases have also been reported in boys and young men under the same age bracket.

 

 

Some of the health risks associated with anorexia include impaired sexual maturation, osteoporosis, weak bones and numerous nutrient deficiencies evident in their skin, hair and vital body organs (Kan & Buitelaar, 2011). Teenagers suffering from anorexia nervosa suffer from intense fear of gaining weight even though there are underweight. In females who have reached puberty, they may experience infrequent or even miss their menstrual periods completely. In severe cases of anorexia patients may develop a habit of repeatedly checking there weight and may engage in various techniques to control there imaginary weight such as intense or compulsive exercise.

Teenagers suffering from bulimia nervosa have recurrent episodes of eating excessive amount of food within a small amount of time. In order to prevent weight gain they adapt recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior such as self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise and even extreme fasting (Treasure, 1 April 2005). However teenagers suffering from bulimia usually weigh within the normal range for their age and height. Bulimia causes inadequate nutrient absorption, mouth sores, tissue damage to the esophagus from excessive vomiting and also tooth decay. It is therefore advisable to seek professional medical assistance whenever a friend or family member has been suspected to suffering from any eating disorder. Bulimia if not early treated may further cause severe damage to the small intestines and colon due to excessive use of laxatives by the individual in a bid to loss weight.

Treatment and management of Anorexia Nervosa

The best mode of treatment that is suitable for teens suffering from anorexia should be on an outpatient basis. This is because parents or guardians of the patient need to be involved in the psychological treatment being administered to their children in order to give them moral support. In case inpatient treatment is necessary, it should be administered in a setup that can provide skilled implementation of re-feeding while monitoring the physical changes on the patient carefully (Cash & Smolak, 2011). Family interventions that may be of help in the treatment should also be offered to the children and adolescents who have anorexia nervosa.

Treatment and management of Bulimia nervosa

The first step in the treatment of bulimia nervosa is to encourage the patient to follow an evidence based self-help program while being given antidepressants to alleviate their suffering. For the first 4 to 5 months after diagnoses, patients should be offered Cognitive behavior therapy for bulimia nervosa (Mitchell, January 2011).Adolescents with bulimia nervosa may be offered Cognitive behavior therapy, adapted as needed to suit their age, level and status of its development, and including the family as appropriate. Nutritional therapy along with Cognitive-behavior therapy is the most recommended combination of therapy that is supposed to be administered to patients showing early signs of bulimia nervosa. This step is only advised if the patient seems reluctant to remain in a support group. Antidepressants are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of bulimia patients who are not responding to support group and combined therapy treatment discussed earlier.

Eating Disorders among Young Adult Women

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Young adult women with anorexia tend to have an extreme fear of gaining weight which causes them to try to maintain a weight far less than normal. Women in this age bracket are willing to do anything to avoid gaining weight. These may include exercising too much and also starving themselves for weeks as ways of preventing any weight gain. Anorexia causes Young adult women to think of themselves as being extremely fat whereas they are extremely thin. Young adult women with anorexia tend to feel that their entire self esteem is directly linked to how thin they are (Bjorklund, 2011). Even though Anorexia is an emotional disorder primarily focusing on food, doctors believe it is an attempt by the individual to attain a perfect body size by strictly controlling how much they eat. Young adult women in industrialized countries are the most affected by anorexia since cultural expectations there encourage women to be thin as the society considers thin women beautiful.

The most common sign that one has anorexia is experiencing severe weight loss due to the individual trying to lose weight by putting limits of how much they take on a daily basis. Some women may start to exercise excessively in a bid to lose weight to attain the perfect slim body figure like supermodels. Some young adult women may insist that they are overweight even though they are very thin. Physical symptoms of anorexia include thinning, dry skin, missing menstrual periods, cold or swollen feet and bloated stomach. Other signs may be low blood pressure, fatigue and Osteoporosis. People suffering from anorexia tend to have a distorted perception of self as they feel as if they have gained weight whereas they are very thin in appearance.

They tend to become too choosy on the kind of food they desire and crave to eat while at the same time they try avoid certain foods completely at times even refusing to eat anything. Other psychological and behavioral changes may range from the inability to remember important things to obsessive-compulsive behaviors and depression (Firth, January 2010). Young adult women suffering from anorexia tend to skip meals and are constantly weighing themselves. They also start refusing to eat in the presence of others even though they are constantly planning and preparing elaborate meals for others. After carrying out study on the eating disorders in the U.S in 2007, Medical experts at St John Hopkins hospital attributed anorexia signs and symptoms to severe trauma or emotional stress such as the death of a loved one or sexual assault during puberty or before. They also stated that anorexia may be caused by abnormalities in brain chemistry and serotonin which is the source of depression.

Bulimia is an eating disorder where young adult women might binge on food then proceed to vomit in a cycle of binging and purging. Binging is the act of eating large quantities of food over a very short period of time while purging involves forcing oneself to vomit by using laxatives in an attempt to lose weight that might be gained after binging. Young adult women suffering from bulimia often feel as if the can not control how much they consume on every sitting and this makes them feel guilt of the behavior (Adan, 2011). In the desire to fix the problem immediately, they may decide to exercise too much or seek laxatives to force themselves to vomit. People with bulimia do not show any changes in their normal weight which makes the distinction from anorexia nervosa.

Although the real cause of bulimia is not yet known to medical practitioners, there are a number of related factors that seem to influence its development. Though the frequency of eating may be attributed to the genetic makeup of the patient, family influence has also been noted to trigger this condition. Alienated levels of serotonin are the cause of clinical depression which is very common in patients suffering from bulimia nervosa. Some medical experts believe that the failure by some parents to provide their infants with a safe and secure foundation may be blamed for the lapses in their eating order when they are young adults. Some of the health problems that are as a result of bulimia include teeth erosion, cavities, abdominal bloating and acute stomach stress. Forceful vomiting tendencies may lead to the rupture of the esophagus causing a problem when swallowing hot food or drink.

Young adult women who have a history of eating disorders may have healthy pregnancies although they are a greater of facing complications during delivery and may require assistive procedures such as cesarean sections (Summerfield, 2011). The babies too are at a higher risk of being under-weight, premature or have serious malformations. Since smoking has been know to reduce the rate of gaining weight, it has become a norm for bulimia patients as they try to manage their eating and weight problems. In addition to smoking, bulimia patients also abuse alcohol and other related drinks as they try to deal with depression. Young adult women with bulimia nervosa find it hard to resist the temptations of abusing over-the-counter medications such as laxatives, appetite suppressant and other drugs that are capable of inducing vomiting.

Treatment for Anorexia

The treatment of a person suffering from anorexia requires a team effort to properly manage and treat it. The first step is to check and treat all medical problems related to the condition. These may include imbalances in important electrolytes in the body, loss of bone strength and any hormonal deficiencies (Treasure, 1 April 2005). The second treatment program should focus on the nutritional rehabilitation of the patient while still providing supportive psychotherapy. In cases where an individual continues to lose their weight even after receiving outpatient treatment, hospitalization is then required in order to monitor the patient’s progress. The treatment lasts for about 10 to 12 weeks before the patient can be allowed to leave the hospital and continue with outpatient treatments while being closely monitored by their family members.

Treatment for Bulimia

Treatment of bulimia patients has been categorized by medical experts into 3 treatments programs according to the stages of the condition. For those showing early signs bulimia, support groups are recommended to help them re-think their feeding habits (Mitchell, January 2011). Nutritional therapy along with Cognitive-behavior therapy is the most recommended combination of therapy that is supposed to be administered to patients showing early signs of bulimia nervosa. This step is only advised if the patient seems reluctant to remain in a support group. Antidepressants are the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of bulimia patients who are not responding to support group and combined therapy treatment discussed earlier. Patients suffering from bulimia should be admitted in a health care facility if the Binge-Purging cycles have led to anorexia nervosa. Another case that may require hospitalization is when drugs are needed for withdrawal from purging.

Conclusion

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main eating disorders that are very common among teenagers and young adult women. These two conditions develop gradually thus it is the responsibility of the parents, friends and relatives to report these cases so that the patients can start being given the right diagnosis for their condition before treatment commences. If anorexia is left unchecked, patients may end up not being able to walk properly due to weak bones resulting from poor nutritional habits.

References

Adan, A. H. (2011). Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders. New Mexico: Springer.

Bjorklund, F. D. (2011). Child & Adolescent Development: An Integrated Approach. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.

Cash, F. T., & Smolak, L. (2011). Body Image, Second Edition: A Handbook of Science, Practice, and Prevention. London: Guilford Press.

Firth, L. (January 2010). Understanding Eating Disorders. Health and Wellbeing, 184 (1), 120-167.

Kan, C. C., & Buitelaar, K. J. (2011). ADHD in Adults: Characterization, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meyer, C. (May/June 2011). Special Issue:Special edition on compulsive exercise. European Eating Disorders Review, 19 (3), 169-237.

Mitchell, B. P. (January 2011). The pharmacological management of bulimia nervosa: A critical review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7 (1), 29-41.

NationalInstituteforClinicalExcellence. (July 2011). Eating disorders:Core interventions in the treatment and management of anorexia nervosa,bulimia nervosa and related eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 44 (5), 383-476.

Summerfield, M. L. (2011). Nutrition, Exercise, and Behavior: An Integrated Approach to Weight Management. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.

Treasure, J. (1 April 2005). Treatment of anorexia nervosa in adults. Psychiatry Journal, 4 (4), 10-13.

Asmat War Shield

September 7, 2011

Title

The War Shield of the Cannibalistic Asmat Tribe of Papua

 

Author

 

Tutor

 

Course

 

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

The war shield is wood curving that was used by the Asmat group of people. These are people who live on a small Island in rugged and isolated mangrove vegetation, on the southwest side of the New Guinea Island of the Indonesian province of Papua. This shield was used during the war and traditional hunting for prey or food. The shield was curved from light weight, plank of the prop root of the mangrove trees and measured about 5 to 6 feet (170-200cm). It had protrusion on one side while the front side was curved in a high relief with incised non-figural symbols of wild boar tusks, bones, and flying foxes sand tails of tree kangaroos among other symbols.

The war shields deferred in features with substantial differences being shape, decoration and ornamentation. The war shield can be divided into two types; type A and type B on the basis of particularities of expertise and decoration. The type A was more rectangular, rectilinear form with projection of the ancestor symbol (phallic, figure head) from the upper head and large motif of ornamentation. The grip of the shield comprised of two finger holes which extended over the whole length of the shield and arching at the center with the end of the crosspiece forming a hand. In terms of the ornamentation, the shield had large symbols, which covered the entire surface of the shield in pairs, lying opposite to one another either vertically or horizontally. The reverse side was smoothed and painted with zigzag lines on both sides of the handle. It also had large holes at regular intervals on the long border with bunches of sago fronds knotted on and free falling from the knots (Konrad and Bohning,1974). Type B shield was oval with appointed top, wider and more rounded at the bottom, and the surface was covered with small motifs and had many fill-in decorations besides the main ornamental motif. The grip showed u-shaped bow ending directly at the plank of the shield or running out the plank within a short distance. The reversed side was unpainted or sometimes painted half red and half white with the upper head region being white. It had fine holes on the border on which tuft of sago frond on one long braided, cord hanged.

Until recently, Asmat is a word that long scared people. Asmat is a tribe whose members embraced warfare and head hunting as their culture. During the war, they ate the brain of their enemies in the territory of the asmatic tribe. They then used the human skull as a pillow. The war shield had immense significance in their livelihood. It always represented ancestors and the ancestor’s spirits believed to be present in the shield making the owner fierce, powerful and invincible.

The shield was used to protect them from the physical and spirituals powers of the enemies. It is believed that the shield gave the owner the power, making him fierce, lethal and invincible. The shield was curved prior to headhunting reprisal raid. This was organized to avenge the death of ancestors for whom the shield was named(Rockefeller,1967).According to the journal Rear vision in the article “A Miracle in the Indian Ocean” describes the shield as being so powerful that it could control the owner and the symbols engraved would scare off the enemies. The enemies on seeing the symbols would free in terror or become immobilized in fear.

The shield had a crucial role in providing spiritual help to the owner when hunting for the regular prey and food. The power was derived from a special feast, ‘yamas pokumbu’ which was held to call upon the ancestor’s spirit to enter the war shield. The Ancestors spirit was properly treated or otherwise would cause disease or doom hunting efforts. During the feasts, the shield were decorated with tassive on sago leaves and placed near each other so that the spirit may interact.

The shield protected the homes of the Asmat people from the evil spirits and human intruders. The shields were placed near the doorways of the houses where every family had its own reserved house.

The shield was also used for ‘hunting for names’ by the unnamed persons. Every person in Asmat native was named after someone deceased or after killed enemy. A child was given a name only after 10 years after birth and after setting out to kill a man from enemy village nearby. The child had to learn the name of the man it killed and brings his skull to the village thus getting a name.

In conclusion, in the art of the Asmat, the shield through its arousing decoration, acquires a special significance as “comrades in arms” and a medium between the living and the dead (Konrad and Bohning, 1974).The shield played a significance role in honoring the ancestors. Despite the rich variation in design and decoration on the war shield, there is a wide area in which the characteristics elements of the both shield are overlapping. There is no strict borderline between the two types.

 

 

 

 

References

Konrad,G.,& Bohning,W.(1974).Asmat shield from the Brazza river; Weapons and Ancestors,Sandoz Bulletin 34

Rockefeller,M.(1967). The Asmat of New Guinea.The journal of Michael Rockefeller.New York Museum of Primitive Art.

RN-Rear vision-23 November 2008-A Miracle in the Indian Ocean(n.d).Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/rearvision/stones/2008/2422122.htm

Tobias,S.(1988).Where the spirit dwell; an odyssey in New Guinea jungle.Grove press

 

 

 

 

Racial Discrimination Laws In the U.S. and How They Impact On Businesses

September 7, 2011

Racial Discrimination Laws In the U.S. and How They Impact On Businesses Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract Racial discrimination is an issue that has taken its roots in the U.S. since history. Most ethnic groups in the U.S. especially the minority ethnic groups have witnessed all sorts of discrimination against them since history. Due to this, the U.S. remains one of the nations where most practices were profoundly embedded towards discrimination. Although racial discrimination has been an issue of concern in the U.S., several laws have been enacted to focus on the issue. Over the past few decades, the nation has taken measures to implement the enacted laws, policies and regulations that mainly focus on racial discrimination. Although the laws have assisted in fighting against racial discrimination, they have impacted much on different sectors of the economy. The business sector has not been left out. This paper presents a description of some of the specific laws in the U.S. that focus on racial discrimination and how these laws impact on the business sector. Introduction Discrimination is a term that has certainly grown to be among the significant terminologies within the English dialect. It is a terminology that has been used especially in history classes during lessons that expound on how the prehistoric civilizations were prejudiced and inequitable. The history of the U.S. remains one of the global histories that depicted most of the practices that were profoundly embedded towards discrimination (Wright, 2006). Most ethnic groups in the U.S. especially the minority ethnic groups have witnessed all sorts of discrimination against them since history. Ranging from the way in which the Native Americans were treated, to the slavery era where the African Americans were maltreated, to the feminism era when women fought for their civil rights, the U.S. history is packed with all forms of intolerance, predisposition and iniquitous treatment (Loevy, 1997). Since history, racial discrimination has been a major agenda to all civil rights groups. Most nations and civil rights movements have over the past decades continued to fight against racial discrimination in which various groups have been discriminated based on their gender, sex, religion, nationality, race as well as color (Loevy, 1997). It is due to this tattered past that the U.S. has over the past few decades enacted and implemented a number of laws, policies and regulations that mainly focus on racial discrimination. These laws have arguably impacted much on the economy of the nation with the huge impact being witnessed within the business sector (Wright, 2006). This paper presents a description of some of the specific laws in the U.S. that focus on racial discrimination and how these laws impact on the business sector. Racial Discrimination Laws in the U.S The investigation of racial discrimination laws in the U.S. as well as the impact that these laws has had especially to the business sector is very crucial. Owing to the impacts that racial discrimination has had particularly to America and generally to the world, a discussion of the racial discrimination laws in the U.S. becomes important. Within the history of the U.S., the major action towards racial discrimination was witnessed during the early years of 1960’s (EEOC, 2002). According to Loevy (1997), the 1960’s was a period when racial discrimination was at its heightened stages. However, it is still during this period when America was witnessing heightened activities of civil rights movements against racial discrimination (Loevy, 1997). The first major human rights bill that touched on the enactment of racial discrimination laws was presented before the legislature in 1960’s by J.F. Kennedy, the then President of America. This action formed the starting point for the legal and civil fight against racial discrimination (Loevy, 1997).Although the assassination of Kennedy occurred before the crucial racial discrimination bill was passed into law; Johnson Lyndon who succeeded him followed his feet and took the fight against racial discrimination. It was through the efforts of Johnson that the Civil Rights Act of 1964; a famous law against racial discrimination was passed (Wright, 2006). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is perceived as the first major law against racial discrimination to be enacted in the history of the U.S (Wright, 2006). According to Wright (2006), prior to the enactment of this act, several acts that promoted racial discrimination had existed based on the ancient Jim Crow Laws. Before this act, as denoted by Loevy (1997), many states in the U.S. had passed stringent statutes that promoted racial segregation even in the public schools. Moreover, before the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, many business enterprises including various local, state and national employers had openly segregated individuals from the black ethnic groups (EEOC, 2002). The blacks were openly denied employment opportunities in most businesses. Nonetheless, when they were hired, the employers offered them jobs that were termed as low -status jobs (Loevy, 1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 remains one of the most important legislative pieces against nearly all forms of racial discrimination (Wright, 2006). It is described as one of the racial discrimination legislations that have had numerous impacts to the business sector. Passed by the Congress on the 2nd day of July 1964, the Civil Rights Act illegalized any form of discrimination against any person despite his/her religion, nationality, sex, color and race (Loevy, 1997). Title VII of this act clearly specifies that any business enterprise is required to follow the provisions of this act. As denoted by Hasday (2007), the act provides that no person must be discriminated either in the employment, education or housing sectors on the basis of his/her racial profile. Through this act, it is illegal for any business enterprise to discriminate its employees based on their nationality, color, race or religion (Hasday, 2007). Moreover, as denoted by Hasday (2007), the act illegalized any forms of discrimination within public accommodation sector as well as within the business sector. Through this act, the business sector was impacted much since it became illegal to discriminate employees during employment (Hasday, 2007). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was established to cater for businesses with employees amounting to 15 and above. Applying to all local, state and national businesses, the Act has required all businesses to comply with its requirements on racial discrimination (Hasday, 2007). According to Hasday (2007), through this Act, businesses are not capable of limiting or segregating any person within their workforce on a basis of the person’s racial profile. However, the Act provides certain exceptionalities to the businesses in that it explains that business enterprises may utilize merit, performance appraisals, tests as well as seniority to promote, hire or fire their employees. However, the Act provided that these exceptions were not to be aligned towards the employee’s racial profile (Hasday, 2007). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was instituted through the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Hasday, 2007). According to Hasday (2007), he commission was given the responsibility of overseeing the execution of the Act especially the provisions of Title VII. Due to the activities of the commission, most business enterprises that violated the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were prosecuted (Loevy, 1997). Most of the businesses were entangled in a tussle with the government as numerous law suits related to racial discrimination emerged. As denoted by Hasday (2007), since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act and the subsequent formation of EEOC, the fight against racial discrimination on the U.S. has taken novel directions. Although businesses have been impacted much especially in relation to the hiring of employees as well as in conducting businesses, the Act has greatly assisted in establishing workplace environments that are devoid of racial discrimination (Loevy, 1997). The EEOC has played great roles in ensuring that no cases of racial discrimination are witnessed in all sectors of the economy in the U.S. Several legal achievements in the fight against racial discrimination in the U.S. have been witnessed through the efforts of the EEOC. Through EEOC, the Equal Payment Act enacted in 1963 was equally implemented (Hasday, 2007). The Equal Payment Act is also another legislative tool enacted in the U.S. that focused on racial discrimination. As denoted by Laney (2003), through this Act, it is illegal to discriminate workers based on their racial profiles. As denoted by EEOC (2002), the provisions of the Equal Payment Act of 1963 have greatly protected employees employed in similar work environments and performing same kind of work from being discriminated based on their racial structures (Laney, 2003). According to Loevy (1997), this act has greatly impacted on businesses since it requires all employers to pay all employees performing similar jobs the same amount of pay despite their race. Through the Equal Payment Act of 1963, businesses have been able to establish workforces that embrace the aspect of racial diversity (Laney, 2003). Another major act that was instrumental towards the fight against racial discrimination in the U.S. was the Voting Rights Act enacted in 1965 (Laney, 2003). According to Laney (2003), this act has been perceived as among the acts focused on racial discrimination passed by the Congress. Based on the 15th Amendment of the U.S. constitution, the Voting Rights act ensured that no individual would be discriminated as well as deprived of his/her voting rights on the basis of racial profiles (Laney, 2003). According to Laney (2003), the Act has had an impact to the business sector as well as the entire nation since it ensured that all literacy tests, restrictions related to bureaucracy and poll taxes imposed on individuals during voting were abolished. Since the Voting Rights Act had a great impact towards the fight against racial discrimination, it was challenged through the U.S. high court although the Supreme Court ruled that the law was an important tool in the fight against racial discrimination in the U.S. The act has been strengthened and readopted in 1970, 1975 and 1982 (Laney, 2003). The Age Discrimination in Employment Act, enacted in 1967 is also another act that has focused on racial discrimination (Neumark, 2001). According to Neumark (2001), the act was enacted after it became evident that most workplace environments not only discriminated their employees based on their racial profiles but also based on their age structures. Through this Act as denoted by Neumark (2001), individuals aged above 40 years have been protected from being discriminated by their employers. The act has impacted much on businesses since most businesses have been left with no option but to employ workers who are aged over 40 (Neumark, 2001). According to Neumark (2001), economists have argued that this act has adversely affected the output of most businesses since individuals aged above 40 years are perceived to have a low production compared to those below 40 years The Fair Housing Act of 1968 is another act that focuses on racial discrimination (Clarkin, 1993). Based on Titles VIII and IX of the Civil Rights Act, the Fair Housing Act was enacted in a bid to eliminate racial discrimination in the housing sector. This law ensured that no person was discriminated on the basis of his/her race during the leasing and selling of houses (Clarkin, 1993). According to Clarkin (1993), this act has encouraged the existence of fairness in the housing sector throughout the U.S. Through the provisions of this act, it is illegal to deny a person a chance to rent as well as sell a house based on racial profiles (Clarkin, 1993). Moreover, the act makes it illegal to discriminate an individual through imposition of conditions aimed at eliminating a certain race in the provision of housing services. The provisions of the Fair Housing Act of 1968 have been replicated in several regulations including the USC Section 1981 and 1982 (Clarkin, 1993). The Arizona Immigration Act enacted in 2010 forms one of the most recent acts enacted in the U.S. that focuses on racial discrimination (Archibold, 2010). The Arizona Immigration Act of 2010 has been passed during a period when immigration has become an issue of concern especially to the U.S. as argued by Archibold (2010), although the U.S. has argued that it is focused on fighting against illegal immigrants, it is clear that the major underlying factor in immigration remains ethnicity. The recently passed act has remained a controversial act since it was enacted (Archibold, 2010). It is an act that makes it illegal for any person to live in Arizona without a legal citizenship status. It is undoubtedly that this act is an act aimed at fighting against illegal immigrants. However, although former acts passed in the U.S. have aimed at fighting racial discrimination, it has been argued that this act promotes racism (Archibold, 2010). Despite these arguments, the Arizona Immigration Act has gone further to prevent the occurrence of any racial based abuses as well as racial discrimination during its enforcement (Archibold, 2010). According to Archibold (2010), the statute has explicitly banned all possible forms of racial profiling. The impacts of the Arizona immigration act on the business sector are already being felt despite the law being new. The law has impacted much on most business organizations within the state. Due to this act, issues that are related to race relations have emerged. Archibold (2010), argues that the law has led to increased employee conflicts in most business enterprises; an aspect that has adversely affected productivity in most business organizations. Moreover as argued by Archibold (2010), the act has brought on to board a renewed focus on issues related to diversity as well as eligibility of employees to be offered jobs within the state. This act has not only affected businesses within the state but also within the external environment. Most businesses within the entire U.S. as well as other nations have found it hard to market their products within the state as well as recruit (Archibold, 2010). The racial discrimination laws have greatly impacted on the business sector. Production costs have increased, hiring, firing and retaining employees has become a demanding activity, profits have dwindled, businesses have been entangled in occasional lawsuits and most of them have lost their reputation (Laney, 2003). However, despite these perceived production impacts to businesses occasioned by the various legislative tools aimed at illegalizing racial discrimination, businesses have been left with no option but to embrace the acts and therefore fight all forms of racial discrimination within their premises (Loevy, 1997). The acts have required all businesses to eliminate any forms of racial discrimination related to employee termination, promotion, as well as hiring. Moreover, the accommodation business enterprises have been left with no option but to admit for accommodation any person despite his/her racial profile. As argued by Laney (2003), the past laws against racial discrimination have had a great impact on businesses. Most of those that have failed to follow the laid regulations have opened their business empires to numerous lawsuits that have equally damaged their reputation as well as their finances (Loevy, 1997). Conclusion This paper has presented a description of some of the specific laws in the U.S. that focus on racial discrimination and how these laws impact on the business sector. As established, discrimination is an issue that has prevailed thought-out the history of the U.S. the U.S. has remained one of the major nations in which racial discrimination has taken its roots since history. Most ethnic groups in the U.S. especially the minority ethnic groups have witnessed all sorts of discrimination against them since history. However, despite the increased rates of racial discrimination, the federal government has taken initiatives to enact a number of legislative tools aimed at fighting against racial discrimination. The paper has described some of the major laws enacted in the U.S. that have focused on racial discrimination including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Fair Housing Act of 1968, and the current Arizona Immigration Act enacted of 2010. It is perceived that these laws have impacted negatively on business production. However, despite these perceived production impacts to businesses occasioned by the various legislative tools aimed at illegalizing racial discrimination, businesses have been left with no option but to embrace the acts and therefore fight all forms of racial discrimination within their premises. References Archibold, R. C. (2010). Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration. New York Times. Accessed on 25th August, 2011 from:http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html EEOC (2002). Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination Questions And Answers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Accessed on 25th August, 2011 from: http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html Clarkin, T. (1993). The Fair Housing Act of 1968. Texas: University of Texas at Austin. Hasday, J. L. (2007). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation. New York, NY: InfoBase Publishing Company. Laney, G. P. (2003). The voting rights act of 1965: historical background and current issues. New York, NY: Novinka Books, an Imprint of Nova science Publishers, Inc. Loevy, R. D. (1997). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: the passage of the law that ended racial Segregation. Albany: State University of New York Press. Neumark, D. (2001). Age discrimination legislation in the United States. University of Michigan: National Bureau of Economic Research. Wright, S. (2006). The Civil Rights Act of 1964: landmark antidiscrimination legislation. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Roman architecture

September 7, 2011

Introduction

Roman architecture seems to be contradicting in terms of political and religious aspects so evident in it today. In fact, the research is aimed at working out this issue with more details. The thing is that Roman architecture needs more facts and assumptions on whether it is more about political influence or religious tradition. In this respect the paper seeks to find out the truth of this issue. Hence, Roman architecture is widely concerned with both political (imperial) and religious (mythological) impacts.

Evaluation

Roman architecture is many-faceted and has a lot to say about its foundation. There were different reasons why Roman architecture sprang up in the ancient world and became a part of the contemporary architecture. First and foremost, antiquity was well emphasized by the mythology and the Etruscan origin of Rome. On the other hand, since the 2nd century BC, Roman Empire had been increasing borrowing the most brilliant ideas on architecture from Greece. It became the most powerful in the ancient world and had an enormous potential for developing arts and architectural originality, in particular.

The role of emperor was above all. Hence, the prevalence and the magnificence of the political leader should be incorporated in the architecture. That is to say, forms and lines of the architectural objects should bring about concrete associations of the higher position of the emperor among the rest of people. It was so-called “Imperial architecture” still evident throughout contemporary cities which belonged to the former possessions of Roman Empire (Thomas, 2007). The issue of power organization was at stake for Caesars. It was their responsibility and the issue of their devotion to gods. Roman architecture is full of mythological tokens. Their relationship to the figure of an emperor seems to be very strong.

The main buildings of the state significance included circuses, temples, theatres, and amphitheatres. This is why the emperor should keep a strict eye on the construction of such places in order to follow tradition, first of all, and peculiarities of Roman social, economic, and political predominance in the ancient world, on the other hand. Public and private buildings were closely checked out by the highest echelons of power:

The construction of such buildings was, therefore, closely monitored by the emperor and his staff. It was the task of the proconsuls to ensure that a buildings by a private benefactor that met with imperial approval was carried through if there was local opposition (Thomas, 2007, p. 153).

 

Roman architecture should have manifested the attributes of the power given to the emperor by gods. In fact, such a relation is still overt in numerous buildings that survived until present times. Hence, the main attributes of power and the figure of an emperor are well discussed in the following way, namely: “The construction of Antoninus’ power according to a cosmological framework encouraged the use of the certain architectural manifestations, such as the tetrastyle, the arch, and the dome, which suggest a “vision of cosmic order” (Thomas, 2007, p. 151). Apparently, consistency of the abstract meanings with the material implementations was quite strong among ancient Romans. Architectural ensemble should serve the gist of power given to the emperor on the part of gods. Moreover, the symbols of power in Roman architecture were well considered with complicated constructions of the building and their height and size, in particular.

The religious impact is also felt throughout Roman architecture. The Capitoline Temple of Jupiter is among the most applicable in this case with its unrivaled size and religious as well as political importance (Stamper, 2005). This temple was an illustration of how close political leaders and mythology were in their urge for perfection in art and architecture. It was a kind of idol which then was well inherited and developed in the medieval times. Another example is the Temple of Mars Ultor which overwhelms by its prominence and brilliance of forms explicitly done in the Roman tradition (Stamper, 2005). Roman architecture without religious flow is never possible. Temple of Apollo as well as Temple of Saturn was also originally built in keeping with the best traditions of the Roman architecture.

Romanesque architecture embraced gothic features of the Christian temples with sculptures of mystical creatures around the building of a temple. In dark times of the European history, the most applicable example of the Roman architecture was Cluny Abbey which was the highest building of the time (Santos, 2008). Religious status of the building, as the most significant monastic center was also added by the political significance of the Abbey.

Thus, ancient times classify the gist of Roman Empire in the world which lagged behind civilization and culture. Political leaders along with their devotion to religious views cannot but be present in Roman architecture. Places of public significance were all full of Roman idea on the significance of power core of which is largely concentrated around the religious constituent. Needless to say, Romans tried to change Greek architecture in a manner. Such an attempt gave rise to a host of buildings in Rome and empire. Their remnants are still vivid and well guarded. Coliseum is one of such places which was associated with a well-known Latin proverb “Panem et circenses!” which is “bread and circuses!” in English. It was also a place where Caesars spent much of their time.

Nonetheless, the role of the emperor in establishing new buildings was of great concern to the publicity. It was even a tradition of the highest rank. Roman Empire should have possessed glorious and magnificent buildings throughout its area in order to show its supremacy and predominance over the rest of the world. It is not for nothing that “the emperor had an overriding role in the patronage of public buildings, even where he was not directly responsible for initiating the project” (Thomas, 2007, p. 152). Temples to Jupiter, Mars and other gods were all over the empire. Obviously, they served to carry along Roman soldiers and the rest of the citizens in terms of the invincibility of the Roman Empire. Rome was the center of Roman architecture:

Livy describes Rome as a city “founded by the auspices and augury; there is not a corner of it that is not full of our cults and our gods; our regular rituals have not only their appointed places, but also their appointed times (Clarke, 2000, p. 21).

 

Roman temple architecture faced a transition period form Etrusco-Roman tradition to Hellenistic style largely represented through Ionic Order (Stamper, 2005). Thus, religious component of Roman architecture was well accomplished by the cultural junctions that were under watch of the emperor. Along with the buildings of state (political) significance, sacral religious buildings had all features of the Roman identity understood in terms of interrelation between state power and gods.

Conclusion

The aforementioned research has shown that Roman architecture is still full of exemplifications of religious and political attributes cultivated by ancient Romans. It is also clear now that the role of emperor in the future form of the architectural complex was paramount. Moreover, mythological component was applicable throughout numerous temples in Rome and Roman cities. Architectural significance was above and beyond. Each building of state significance should bear representations of divine and political character. As of today, Roman architecture is still felt in a host of European buildings or its remnants since the ancient times. Understandably, two pivots – religion and political power – are well implemented in Roman architecture.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Clarke, A. D. (2000). Serve the community of the church: Christians as leaders and ministers. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Santos, J. B. (2008). A Community Called Taizé: A Story of Prayer, Worship and Reconciliation. Westmont, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Stamper, J. W. (2005). The architecture of Roman temples: the republic to the middle empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thomas, E. (2007). Monumentality and the Roman Empire: architecture in the Antonine age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.