Coming Through Slaughter


The 1976 fictionalized biographical novel by Michael Ondaatje expresses the high passion of the story which focuses on the main character who is a musician is named Buddy Bolden. He is a well-known American musician who becomes a famous yet  controversial musician because of his use of a prostitute as his own dramatic inspiration for his widely performance. Bolden become the center of attraction when he came up to crowd from nowhere and started to play his music and through it, he captured the people’s attention and imagination through his melodramatic and sensual melody. Bolden’s outstanding talent to create powerful music using the art of photography for him with the help of his friend E. J. Bellocq expresses the idealistic theme of his music which made him famous by playing the coronet and his genre music of jazz.

The whole novel starts when a young musician man aged 23 years old came up to a crowd and starts to catch every attention of the people by playing his very own music with other musicians. In New Orleans, Louisiana, there are many prostitutes that can be seen in red light districts looking for some customers preferably some local musicians. New Orleans is well known of having many bars and clubs which being center of prostitution for many looking for temporary happiness and intimacy like sex (Ondaatje 19). The settings of the story supports the theme of the main character to express how the district of Storyville, New Orleans is becomimg famous of having lot of prostitute and brothels. And yet it inspires Bolden to create music about them and the place become the settings of the story.

The main theme of the novel is Sex. The story focuses on Charles “Buddy” Bolden’s complicated life as musician and also a man married who married a prostitute named Nora Bass. Besides being a jazz performer, Buddy is also a part-time barber and journalist to a newspaper. The mystery starts when Buddy has been gone for around 5-6 months and Nora Bass  as the only person he trusts in the place because he has no family, and nothing much to worry. Nora asks for some help from Buddy’s long time police detective friend named Webb to investigate and find Buddy (Ondaatje 13-14).

The main theme of the story supports the relationship between the main character and other supporting characters. This is through having an affair like having sex with any emotional involvement or any mutual relationship. Buddy is a musician and has no permanent relationship of having a family with him, so he is basically working by day to survive and avoiding too much emotional attachment rather expressing his own feelings and ideas through playing his jazz music and also getting nude photos of some prostitute and having sex with them (Ondaatje 56). The character of Buddy somehow expresses the difficulty sexual addiction and being alcoholic which leads him to experiment few unusual fetishes. Quite controversial just for the sake that he eagerly wants to express different view of how people might appreciate bringing out the erotic art of prostitution together of his own radical music rather than fantasizing their bodies.

The fragmenting personality of Buddy is more likely to have erotic behavior fantasies and insanity which leads to self-destruction as a complicated person. Buddy loses his mind and his own identity of letting himself drown by having an addiction to sex and do some erotic experimental being know as a player.

Sex is main cause of the complications of the whole story and the self-destruction of the main character. The moral aspect of sex during 19th century is not that clear and the most common thought during this century is called “free love” that implies a sexually active lifestyle especially of many men with preference to have few commitments or rather a casual sex affair and no relationship at all. This novel provides all the descriptions of the lifestyle using the main character Buddy and his sexual relationship with Nora which defines them as “free lovers.” The themes of the novel show various relationships of sex to many people during 19th century. Today, the so called term is no longer available because of the laws protecting the right of marriages and to restrict the crime of prostitution which they use sex as their main service. Nowadays, this kind of lifestyle is discreet and people are smart enough to hide any exclusive sexual relationship with anyone. This novel also presents the difference of what world was before and today’s lifestyle.

However, this theme provides some ideas or value of how every individual in this world should know how to be sexually responsible not only for themselves but to other people. They should know how to act or behave properly and not being drowned of its addictive pleasure.  This novel expresses the irony and yet logical lessons such as being open minded, having self- control and most importantly, knowing the difference between love and sex. Love is a solely a commitment to one person leading to a mutual relationship which sex is involveed in a right way of expressing the love for someone physically. The theme provides occurring lessons to learn, appreciate and understand every aspect of it and to make one smart enough to know what is right and wrong.  Every man should know how to control their fantasy to avoid insanity and losing their mind throughout their life all because of sex as it can bring pleasure but in the long run cause the ruin of many a man.



Work Cited

Ondaatje, Michael. Coming Through Slaughter. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004. Print.

CFD-based shape optimization for optimal aerodynamic design



Increased energy costs make optimal aerodynamic design even more critical today as even small improvements in aerodynamic performance can result in significant savings in fuel costs. Energy conscious industries like transportation (aviation and ground based) are particularly affected.

There have been a number of different optimization methods, some of which require geometrically parameterized models. For non-parameterized models (as it is the casa often in reality where models and shapes are very complex).  Shape optimization and adjoint solvers are some of the latest approaches.

In our study we are focusing on generating best practices and investigating different strategies of employing the commercially available shape optimizer tool from ANSYS’CFD solver Fluent. The shape optimizer is based on a polynomial mesh- morphing algorithm. The simple case of a low speed, airfoil/flap combination is used as a case study with the objective being the lift to drag ratio.

A number of different built-in optimization algorithms and the way to best employ them are investigated.

  1. I.                  Introduction


Computationally expensive simulation codes based on mathematical models of a relevant system are in wide-spread use throughout the engineering industry. For instance, in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) a single evaluation of the model may take several hours of computer run time. With the help of modern computer facilities, numerous difficult and mathematically intensive problems are now readily solved.

Towards significantly reducing user expertise requirements (Zingg et al, 2002), the solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to aircraft design, involve challenges in the following three areas.

Computational Efficiency: There has to be a reduction in the computing time required to achieve appropriately resolved solutions. This is an urgent need in aerodynamic and multi-disciplinary design optimization, as an outcome of the trend towards an integrated product and process development environment. For complete integration into the design process, the time required for solution of the RANS equations should be restricted to a few minutes, over three-dimensional configurations, which is two orders of magnitude faster than capability, a new development at the start of the new millennium. Although there is a definite advantage of parallel architectures and increased computer speeds, there is a need for improvements in algorithms. In design optimization also, algorithm reliability has greater significance. “Modern design optimization algorithms, such as adjoint methods cannot be effective if the flow solver does not converge in relevant areas of the design space” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.347).

Human Efficiency: There is a pressing need for a reduction in the “human effort and expertise required for computing flows over complex configurations since humans are not governed by Moore’s law” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348) which states that computer power doubles every eighteen months, and the rapid increase in power on this scale is a unique and tremendous advancement in the history of technology (Kaku, 1999). Though expertise in CFD and aerodynamics is vital for carrying out the computations, there should be a minimization in the expertise required in the selection of solver and grid parameters. Another issue to be resolved is the estimation of global numerical error

Accuracy of Physical Modeling: Through methods such as appropriate grid resolution, numerical errors can be carefully controlled. However, errors resulting from “physical models, including turbulence models and prediction of laminar turbulent transition are more difficult to estimate and control” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348). The eddy-viscosity turbulence models used at present for computing aerodynamic flows are unable to predict with accuracy, subtle phenomena such as Reynolds number or flap gap effects on high-lift configurations.

The most optimal approach appears to be Reynolds stress models or second moment closures. It is essential to considerably increase the speed with which such models are incorporated into aerodynamic flow solvers, for production use at this stage, and to assess and guide the development of such models. Further development of turbulence models requires reduction of time needed to compute three dimensional flows; also there is a need for more high quality experimental datasets which include all the boundary condition data needed for computations. To increase the computational efficiency of RANS solvers, two new developments are considered: an inexact Newton-Krylo algorithm which decreases the time needed for computing towards achieving a steady state solution; and “a higher order spatial discretization which decreases the grid resolution requirements for a given level of numerical accuracy” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348), consequently also reducing computing expense. Moreover, objective measures of algorithm performance are required.

This paper is organized as follows.


II. Research strategy plan


The strategy of this research is to develop an airfoil design and optimization system that can modify an airfoil shape (section geometry) yielding improved aerodynamic performance in terms of maximum lift to drag ratio under landing and takeoff flight condition. Lift-to-drag ratio is simply defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the lift to the amount of turbulence, or drag, of an aerodynamic structure (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011).

Computerizing the optimization progression can considerably shorten development product lifecycle and bring forth improved designs compared to conventional tactical design alteration approaches (Andreoli, 2003). An efficient and effective optimization technique is developed by a combination of high-fidelity commercial CFD tools with mathematical optimization techniques. This system not only offers a consistent, automated optimization tool for blueprint engineers, but also considerably diminishes the cost and the manufacturing time for a design procedure.

The development will be to combine the high fidelity commercial CFD tools (Fluent) with numerical optimization techniques to morph high lift system. In research strategy as shown in the figure below, we will perform morphing (grid deformation) directly inside the fluent code without rebuilding geometry and the mesh with an external tool. Direct search method algorithms such as the Simplex, Compass, and Torczon are investigated. The user can choose any of those to utilize in optimization of aerodynamic shapes characteristics.


Fig.  1 Research Strategy Plan






III. Formulation

  1. A.                Flow Solver

FLUENT is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. It is a software package to simulate fluid flow problems. It is based on a finite-volume method to solve the governing equations for a fluid. It provides the capability to use different physical models such as incompressible or compressible, inviscid or viscous, laminar or turbulent, steady- state or transient analyses.

In the CFD formulation as well, the conservative forms of continuity and Navier-Stoke’s equations in integral form for incompressible flow of constant viscosity were solved by the built-in functions of the Fluent 13 CFD software. The current work used two equation turbulent models: the realizable k-e model that solves one transport equation to allow the turbulent kinetic energy, and its dissipation rate to be independently determined. The realizable k-e model is particularly suitable for our model, as the model uses enhanced wall treatment based on the law of the wall.

In the present work, steady-state, incompressible two dimensional flow was assumed. The numerical simulations were carried out by solving the conservation equations for mass and momentum by using structured and an unstructured grid finite volume methodology.

The sequential algorithm, semi-implicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE), was used in solving all the scalar variables. For the convective terms of the continuity and momentum equations, and also for the turbulence equations, the first order upwind interpolating scheme was applied in order to achieve more accurate results compared to experimental results. The computational conditions are given in the next section.


  1. B.    Design Variables 

As shown from Figure 2.1, the overlap and the gap between the flap and main airfoil are used as the design variable. Each design variable is limited as shown in Figure 2.2.


Fig. 2.1 Horizontal (overlap) and vertical (gap) translation design variables in multi-element configurations.

            The control points will be situated around the areas of the gap and the overlap sections. Thus, the shape optimization, i.e., expansion, retraction, etc., will be imposed in these areas in order to achieve optimal values of L/D ratio.




Fig. 2.2 Design Variables

            The figure above illustrates the possible locations of the control points (shown here, for instance, are points p1 and p2).

  1. Objective functions

The problem that is considered in current work is single-objective programming problem. A single-objective programming problem can be stated as:

Find X which

Minimize f(X) = [f1(X)/ f2(X)]

Where f1, f2 are drag and lift functions, respectively, X is called the design vectors.

The vector of design variables, X, primarily contains parameters that control the shape of the airfoil. Depending on the problem of interest, additional design variables may include the angle of attack, the horizontal and vertical translation design variables that control the position of flaps in multi-element configurations as shown in Figure 2.2.

During this work the objective function will be formulated by C++ language programming and built on the User Defined Function (UDF) library which takes control points and angle of attack as input parameters, and values of lift to drag and drag to lift ratio are output parameters.

  1. Different Strategies in Optimization

There will be five (5) strategies of optimization to be studied in this paper. The strategies are the following:

1.)    Changing the position of the control points

2.)    Changing the number of control points

3.)    Applying the Compass Algorithm

4.)    Applying the Simplex Algorithm

5.)    Applying the Torczon Algorithm

Simulations will be executed using each of these strategies. The resulting L/D ratio will be closely monitored. Comparison between the before and after optimization scenarios will be noted. Each strategy will be evaluated of its effectiveness in improving the performance of the system. Also, analogous strategies will be compared to each other.




IV. Results and Discussion

In this section, we show the influence of algorithms on the value of L/D ratio at varying angle of attack . As shown from Figure 4.20, all data sets indicate a nearly identical lift to drag ratio value at (-4 to 0) degrees angle of attack and the data continues to match quite well at (6 to 20) degrees. There are variance values at angle of attack from (0 to 6) degrees. The figure below shows that the Torczon and simplex algorithms produced the maximum lift-to-drag ratio, while the compass algorithm produced the worst value.


Fig. 4.20   Effect of algorithms on lift to drag ratio.

            Those variances arise from the specific behavior of each algorithm; the differences between the various algorithms of the direct search method are largely in the choice of the step length and search direction. For example, in compass algorithm, first choose an initial point (x0,y0) for 2D or ( x0,y0,z0) for 3D, an initial step length Δ, compute the objective function at initial point then at east, west, north, south respectively. If one of these steps yields to a smaller f(x ,y) for 2D,or f(x ,y ,z)for 3D there is new iteration (x1,y1) or (x1,y1.z1)  as shown in Figure 4.21 . The calculation steps continue by the same initial step length and search direction until converge optimal shape, while the step length and search direction are variables depend on objective function value  at Torczon and simplex algorithms.

Fig. 4.21 New Iteration (x1, y1)

            As we mentioned from previous description, the compass algorithm has few steps as compared to other algorithms such as the Simplex and Torczon algorithms. These latter two need more steps to approach a minimum objective as explained by (Torczon, 2009), (Dantzig, 1953). This makes the compass algorithm easy to describe, easy to implement. Also, it may quickly approach a minimum, but may be slow to detect it, if the step size is large.

This seems clear from present work, that the number of design approaches in the compass algorithm are less than the other algorithms; for example at angle of attack (0, 4) degrees the maximum number of designs were 31 and 32 respectively in compass algorithm, while in Torczon, there were 40 and 41 at 0 and 4 degrees respectively, and in simplex algorithm, there were 40 and 44 for 0 and 4 degree respectively. This means that the convergence of the solution for compass algorithm is achieved faster.

As we have mentioned before, the objective of current work is the improved the value of  L/D ratio at landing and take-off flight conditions by aerodynamic shape optimization using grid deformation .

As shown in Figures 4.22-4.24, it is clear that the optimization system is successful in achieving the goal. In the comparison between L/D ratio before optimization and after optimization, we see clearly how values of L/D ratio increases with the angles of the attack varying from -4 to 20 degrees. The highest percentage of improvement was 33.919% at angle of attack 4 degrees in simplex algorithm, and the lowest percentage of improvement was 6.925%  at 0 degree angle of attack in compass algorithm, as presented in appendix A.

Figures 4.25-4.27 show the final shape for  airfoil  after optimization processes. These figures show the influence of different algorithms on final shape optimization. As compared to the initial configuration, there are miniscule variations in the shapes of the airfoil and the flap.

Fig. 4.22 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Compass algorithm

Fig. 4.23 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Simplex algorithm

Fig. 4.24 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Torczon algorithm

            As we mentioned before every algorithm has specific behavior and search method.  The compass algorithm has bounded search direction and length size, while the simplex and Torczon algorithms have unbounded length size and search direction that are shown clearly in Figures 4.26-4.27.

Both the algorithms, the Simplex and the Torczon, produced approximately the same optimal shape. This is a very useful observation because it probably translates to the intrinsic similarities of the two algorithms in terms of computational methods. Nevertheless, their L/D ratio plots are also essentially identical.

Fig. 4.25The shape after optimization ( compass algorithm at 4deg)

Fig. 4.26 The shape after optimization( simplex algorithm at 4deg)

Fig. 4.27 The shape after optimization (Torczon algorithm at 4deg)

V. Conclusions


Everything in the design process is implemented using the CFD-based software Fluent. Different approaches in attempting to optimize the aerodynamic design are suggested in this study. The design to be studied is basically a low speed, air-foil/flap combination.

In this study, the main objective is achieving the optimum lift-to-drag ratio. There are five (5) approaches, or strategies, that are included in this study for the optimization of the aerodynamic design. The five (5) approaches are the following:

1.)    Changing the position of the control points

2.)    Changing the number of control points

3.)    Applying the Compass Algorithm

4.)    Applying the Simplex Algorithm

5.)    Applying the Torczon Algorithm

In each approach, the lift-to-drag ratio, or simply L/D ratio, is closely investigated. This is a very practical criterion since it greatly defines the performance of any aerodynamic structure. Simulations are run using the Fluent program. The L/D ratio is plotted against the angle of attack (in degrees).

  1. Changing the Position of the Control Points

The first strategy employed in the design is changing the position of the control points. The control points are critical in the design of an aerodynamic structure since they determine the factors in the system to be measured. Three (3) locations of the control points are examined in the study. The positions (A, B and C) are illustrated in Figure 4.28.


Fig 4.28 Location of the Control Points

            Location A is directly in front of the flap and is very close to the air foil but not under the overlap. Location B is above the flap and is very close, directly below the overlap.  Location C is above the flap and is quite far from the air foil. Location B is halfway between locations A and C. These locations are chosen strategically so as to achieve different measurements of L/D ratio. Also, these are the critical positions where in manipulations of the parameters in these positions could possibly translate to changes in the performance of the structure.

Figure 4.29 shows the L/D ratio graph against the angle of attack. Measurements are extended up until angle of attack = 16 degrees. The results of the three locations are all plotted in one graph.

This figure shows that at negative angles, the L/D ratio of locations A and C are slightly higher than location C, although the difference is not that significant. Across the majority of the angle measures, the values are virtually the same.

Fig. 4.29 L/D ratio at different locations

            This test shows that changing the location of the control points does not affect the L/D ratio of the design structure.


  1. Changing the Number of Control Points

The second approach in this study is changing the number of control points. Intuitively, this criterion will affect the performance of the air foil structure since more system points are manipulated throughout the process (Gill, 1981).

There are three cases. The first case is using four (4) control points; the second case is using eight (8) control points; the third case is using twelve (12) control points. The L/D ratio is plotted against the angle of attack up to angle of attack = 20 degrees.

Fig. 4.30 L/D ratio for 4, 8, and 12 control points

            Figure 4.30 shows the results for the different numbers of control points. At negative angles, the values of the L/D ratio of the three cases are virtually the same. At angles in the range [2,8] degrees, the third case is slightly higher than the other two, although this difference is not significant. Also, at this range, the third case achieved an L/D ratio slightly greater than 25. At angles above 10, the L/D ratios of the three cases are virtually the same.

The plot shows a pattern implies that the L/D ratio is slightly increased when the number of control points is increased. This pattern may be further verified by testing larger number of control points. The changes may be insignificant in value, but these miniscule changes would translate to higher energy efficiency. Thus, it can be concluded that the number of control points would affect the performance of the aerodynamic design.


  1. Applying the Compass Algorithm

Utilization of optimization algorithms is essential in establishing the foundation of this study. The first algorithm to be studied is the Compass algorithm.

The Compass algorithm is incorporated in the system using the Fluent software. The L/D ratios before and after the optimization is measured; measurements are done up until angle of attack = 20 degrees. Figure 4.31 shows the graphs before and after the application of the algorithm.

Fig. 4.31 L/D ratio of Compass Algorithm, before and after optimization

            The L/D ratio is increased significantly all throughout the range of angle of attack. The maximum L/D ratio is 25, which is at angle of attack ≈ 5 degrees, wherein the increase in L/D ratio is approximately 2.5.  At angles of attack between 8 to 12 degrees, the increase in L/D ratio is about 5.

The plot shows that the Compass algorithm is very effective in optimizing the value of the L/D ratio. Increase of 5 in the L/D ratio can be reached using this algorithm.


  1. Applying the Simplex Algorithm

The second algorithm studied is the Simplex algorithm. This algorithm is implemented in the design by changing the program options in Fluent.

Fig. 4.32 L/D ratio of Simplex Algorithm, before and after optimization

            Figure 4.32 shows the results of the Simplex algorithm approach. The plots of with and without the algorithm are graphed in one plot. The measurements are done up to angles of attack = 20.

This plot shows that Simplex algorithm significantly increased the L/D ratio of the system. The maximum L/D ratio achieved is 25, which is at angle of attack = 5 degrees, with increase of ≈ 2.5 in the ratio. The minimum increase is ≈ 1. At angle of attack from 7 to 12, the increase in L/D ratio is ≈ 5.

The simplex algorithm is proven to be useful in optimizing the L/D ratio value. The range of angle of attack of maximum increase in L/D ratio is slightly higher than that of the Compass algorithm.

  1. Applying the Torczon Algorithm

The third and last algorithm tested is the Torczon algorithm. This algorithm is introduced in the system using the Fluent software. The L/D ratio is measured across angle of attack values up to 20 degrees.

Figure 4.33 shows the results of using the Torczon algorithm.

The maximum L/D ratio achieved is ≈ 25. This is at angle of attack = 5 degrees. The increase of L/D ratio at this point is ≈ 3.      The maximum increase in L/D ratio is ≈ 5, which is achieved at angles between 9 and 13 degrees.


Fig 4.33 L/D ratio of Torczon Algorithm, before and after optimization

            The Torczon algorithm is also an effective approach in increasing the L/D ratio of the aerodynamic structure. The value of the L/D ratio is increased in all the values of angle of attack.


  1. Comparison of the Compass, Simplex and Torczon Algorithms

Figure 4.34 shows the interleaving plots of the three algorithms.

At angle of attack = 5 degrees, the Torczon algorithm achieved a slightly higher L/D ratio. This slight difference could translate to magnified effects on the performance of the system. Nevertheless, the contours of the plots of the three algorithms are virtually the same.

Fig. 4.34 L/D ratio of Compass, Simplex, and Torczon Algorithms

            This just shows that all the three algorithms are effective in optimizing the L/D ratio. The performances of the algorithms are similar. The effects of the three algorithms on the L/D ratio are virtually the same. The increase in L/D ratio, which ranges from 1 to 5, translates to decrease in energy costs of the entire system. Thus, it can be concluded that all these optimization techniques are meet the objective, which is attaining higher lift-to-drag ratio.

Further advances of this work could be the combination of any of these techniques to achieve better design optimization, i.e., Torczon algorithm using 14 control points, etc.


This study has tested and proven the effectiveness of five (5) different optimization strategies. Changing the location and the number of control points both affect the L/D ratio of the system. Compass, simplex, and Torczon algorithms are even more effective in optimizing the design. Combinations of these strategies could be a possible venture in the future of further optimization of aerodynamic systems.


















Andreoli, M., Janka, A., Desideri, J.A., Free-form-deformation parameterization for

            multilevel 3D shape optimization in aerodynamics. INRIA, No.5019, November              2003.

Dantzig, G. B., Orden, A., Wolfe, P. The Generalized Simplex Method For             Minimizing a Linear Form Under Linear Inequality Restraints. RAND             Corporation, Copyright 1953.

Hong, L., Nelson, B., Discrete Optimization via Simulation Using Compass. Operations   Research Vol. 54, No. 1, January-February 2006, pp. 115-129

Kaku, Michio (1999). Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st century and         Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press

lift-to-drag ratio. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved             from

Gill, P. E.,  Murray, W., Wright, M. H., Practical Optimization, Academic Press,    London, 1981.

Torczon, V., Lewis, R.M. Active set identification for linearly constrained minimization   without explicit derivatives, SIAM Journal on Optimization, Volume 20, Issue 3,    2009, pages 1378-1405.



Appendix A. Algortihm Fluent Results


alpha L CL D CD (L/D)after (L/D)before improvement%


























































alpha L CL D CD L/D)after (L/D)B improvement%
-4 -141.052 -0.18 19.883 0.0253 -7.0941005 -9.36422 24.242
0 209.3865 0.267329 15.5001 0.019789 13.5087193 10.08724 33.919
4 593.6022 0.75786 24.3635 0.031105 24.3644058 22.33445 9.089
8 942.13833 1.202855 42.5575 0.0543344 22.1380093 18.7843 17.854
12 1219.0726 1.556425 70.95902 0.090595 17.1799526 13.231 29.846
16 1399.2947 1.7865207 118.31805 0.15106013 11.8265531 10.0044 18.213
20 1413.675 1.80488 182.91876 0.233537 7.72843092 6.2311 24.030


alpha L CL D CD L/D)after (L/D)B improvement%



























































Good health is one of the most important aspects of human life. Human beings do their best to obtain and maintain good health. Man may achieve this by eating a healthy balanced diet, exercising regularly, drinking plenty of water and avoiding other health hazards. Such hazards include excessive consumption of alcohol and un-prescribed use of hard drugs like cocaine.

To obtain and maintain good health, man applies various ways to achieve this. Some people believe in the power of prayer to heal diseases and ailments. On the other hand, other people believe and use traditional medicines to address their medical concerns while others entirely rely on biomedical medicines to heal their ailments. In the ancient times our ancestors believed and put their trust in traditional medicines. Herbs and medicinal plants were used in various ways while administering them to the sick persons. The various ways include; boiling the leaves of a plant, chewing the roots or the bark of the herb and drinking the resulting liquid or drying the plant and putting the resulting powder in the wound (Myers and Moro, 2000).

In those ancient times people relied on traditional medicines since biomedical medicine had not been discovered. However even after it’s been discovery, most people still depend on the traditional medicine. This medicine cannot however be quantified. The question that arises is whether the biomedical community should accept this medicine. I am on the affirmative that this medicine should be accepted. This is from the fact that biomedical medicine has evolved from traditional medicine where an active ingredient from the herb is extracted and tested for their effectiveness in treating specific disorders. For instance an extract from Artemisia annua a plant from China has been used as anti-malaria for Asia for over 2000 years (Myers and Moro, 2000). Another fact is that some modern medicines have to be proved before being certified for use by people.



Monica wrote. “First, most biomedical medicine was made from traditional herbs. The medicine was only improved by scientists and when various tests certified that it could heal certain diseases they recommended that it should be used. There however other diseases that biomedical community have not discovered their cure e.g. HIV/AIDS. This simply means that biomedical medicine cannot be said to have provided permanent solution to all diseases. Therefore even though traditional medicine cannot be quantified, it helps most people deal with their health issues even those the biomedical community cannot address. Just as you have indicated traditional medicine should only be refuted only when it causes health risks to people.”
















Moro P. A. and Myers J. E. (2006). Magic witchcraft Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion, McGraw

Hill 8th Edition


Article Critique: Diversity in the Workforce

The study sought to find the strengths and gaps that exist among diverse workers of East Area Office, a community social work group operating in the city of Calgary, Alberta. The researchers sought to identify gaps left in handling cultural diversity, sexual orientation and health condition questions, disabilities and social inclusion issues among the workforce (Both and Neff, 2008). The researchers, in addition, studied the relationship between East Area Office workers and their counterparts at the Community Recreation Coordinators who provide facilities for recreation and leisure. Furthermore, the researchers sought to establish the effect of East Area Office’s programs and services on the diverse needs of the diverse community (Both and Neff, 2008). Moreover, the study aimed at identifying strategies that the East Area Office could put in place to connect with its diverse community and how it could best meet the needs of the various diverse groups in the community the Office serves (Both and Neff, 2008).

Therefore, the population at risk in this study was the community social workers at the East Area Office and the recreation coordinators. This is because these two groups of workers are the ones who would be affected by discrimination on the basis of culture, disability, sexual orientation and health status at their place of work. Basically, the primary factor that puts this population at risk is the aspect of diversity among the workers such as cultural diversity. Following their contact, culture clash may occur which may result in discrimination against the minority workers. The second factor that puts both East Area Office and the Community Recreation Coordinators at risk is their very existence within one community and yet they are offering similar services to similar people. In another approach, the population at risk could be seen as the population that is affected by conflicts among that may exist among social workers at East Area Office and between the two organizations. In this light, the community that East Area Office and Community Recreation Coordinators serve may suffer from the effects of the poor relationship between workers of the two organizations as well as the cultural discrimination that may exists among East Area Office social workers.

C. What is the relevance of this article for social workers, for you, and for students in this class?

The article is relevant to social workers, social work organizations and those expecting to become social workers such as students in a number ways. In the wake of globalization, cultural competence-the article’s primary concern-will be an essential tool for social workers. Second, the article stresses the importance of being loyal to the social organization that the social worker is affiliated to. When a social worker is proud of their organization, they are likely to obtain job satisfaction from the work they do. Second, the article emphasizes the importance of being culturally sensitive when one is working with people from different cultural backgrounds. Given that many social workers may work in social settings that deal with people from different cultural backgrounds, they are likely to have colleagues from different cultures. The article proposes on how one can deal with situation such as that-by being culturally competent. The article is also relevant to social worker organizations in that it urges them to provide cultural studies to their employees so as to develop cultural competence among them. This cultural competence will be an effective tool in addressing cultural diversity at work place. This results into social inclusion at the place of work.

The article is further relevant because it demonstrates the importance of consulting the communities that the social workers serve in decision making. It further shows that social work is best done at the community where people live as opposed to doing it from the offices.

D. State the author’s premise in the article.

The author’s implied premise is that cultural competence and competency on diversity among social workers within a diverse organization promotes social inclusion and effectiveness of the social work.

Give one strong point and one weak point of the author’s premise. Provide a rationale for your answers. (This is a critical thinking question. Be sure you think about the response and answer each part fully.);

The strength in this premise relies in the fact that it calls for competency on diversity among social workers without limiting itself to one aspect of diversity such as culture. This is a strong aspect of the premise because it includes all aspects of diversity within the work place and the community. The premise is also strong because it identifies the effect of the condition. The condition is competency while the effect is social inclusion and effective social work.

The weakness in the premise is that it does not mention diversity competency on the part of the community. This is because the members of the community interact with themselves during social work sessions in addition to interacting with social workers. Therefore, the premise should have taken into account the importance of diversity competency on the part of the community.

E. What is one specific thing you learned from the article?

From this article, I have especially learned that social workforce should be equipped with sufficient knowledge and skills that will enable it deal effectively with diversity in the workplace and the community they serve. The diversity may be in areas such as cultural background, health conditions, disabilities and sexual orientation.

F. Describe specifically how you would utilize this knowledge in the field (practice); and

The knowledge obtained from this article can be utilized (in real life practice) by ensuring that one is competent on matters of diversity. This can be achieved by attending training institutions with relevant courses. The knowledge and skills on diversity obtained from training can be used to promote sensitivity on disabilities, cultural differences, and sexual orientation and health issues.

G. What question would you ask the author(s) about his/her position, ideas, hypothesis, findings, theory?

Since the authors point out to the importance of being competent with diversity, I have one question on such diversity. How would knowledge of how to deal with sexual orientation of people be of significance because gay, lesbians, and transgender people rarely identify themselves?

H. Could the findings be used to promote social justice?

Yes. The findings can be used in promoting social justice. This is because they stress the importance of ensuring that social workers are knowledgeable on issues to do with diversity such as health statuses, disabilities, sexual orientation, and cultures within the social workforce. This would in turn bring about unity and collaboration within the workforce. This would ensure that social workers meet the needs of everyone in the communities they serve, especially those who may be disadvantaged. When social work meets the diverse needs of a diverse community, then social justice is achieved.

I. Identify one course competency and explain how the article relates to that competency.

One of the course competencies is the ability to analyze a research article and show its relevance to the practice of social work. This article has given an opportunity to carry out a critique that is in line with the course competency.


Both, P. L. & Neff, R. (2008, October). Working with diverse communities in East Calgary, Alberta. Journal of Social Work 8 (4), 325-339. doi: 10.1177/1468017308094988


Asset management of power transformers is based on statistical analysis of transformer’s failures and forced outages. The statistical analysis results are useful. They can be used to determine the design of the transformer, also enhance utility. More so, the results can be used to improve the care of the transformers as well as monitor its actual conditions. It is essential to understand the transformer’s outage rates as well as outage and repair durations.
The Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company (EETC) provides outage information in this thesis. This work presents outage data analysis within eight years, from 2002 to 2009, for 1922 average number of transformers in voltage populations ranging from 33 kV to 500 kV and MVA rating from 5 MVA to 500 MVA. Forced outages due to correct and false action of transformer’s protection systems are carefully considered.
There are two phases of conducting Outage data analysis. The first phase performs failure and repair analysis of transformers while the second phase assesses the impact of transformer outages on customers. Percentage average number of failures (%AANF), and annual average repair time (AART) per transformer represent the failure and repair data of power transformers. Two indicators represent the impact of transformer outages on customer interruptions. These indicators are the annual average interrupted MW (AAIMW) and annual average customer-interruption duration (AACID).
This thesis presents analysis of study on the reliability, availability, and maintainability of power transformers manufactured by EETC. Additionally, failures of transformers are also estimated in the study. The thesis also addresses different maintenance practices that can make a system reliable and efficient.

1.0 Thesis outline
This thesis constitutes four chapters as outlined below:
1.1 Chapter one: Covers theory and operation of transformers. It focuses on the transformers construction and other installation equipments necessary for the transformer operation. It also covers the transformer’s maintenance process. Additionally, the chapter covers the Egypt’s transmission system together with the load development for the past five years.
1.2 Chapter two: Covers in detail the maintenance definition and category as well as the scope of responsibilities of transformers. More so, the chapter addresses the maintenance policies, reliability as well as the causes for transformers failures. It also mentions the previous international survey and studies concerning transformers failures.
1.3 Chapter four: Focuses on the RAM analysis for voltage subpopulation in Egypt and its comparison to IEEE survey in 1979. The chapter investigates calculations of hazard functions, true and estimated failures rates for transformers in all voltage subpopulation against 1979 IEEE survey.
1.4 Chapter five: Provides summary and conclusion of the work already covered in the previous chapters. Moreover, it provides recommendations and suggestions for the future research work meant to reduce the forced outages of transformers.
The outage data analysis carried out on 1922 (average number) transformers in voltage populations ranging from 33kV to 500kV and MVA rating from 5MVA to 500 MVA presents the following results:
Outages of incomers and over current protection are the leading causes of outages. They are responsible for about 57 percent of outages falling within the range of 6kV to 33kV subpopulation, and of outages within 132kV subpopulation. In the 220 kV subpopulation, the leading cause of outages is the over current protection which contributes to the cause by 19 percent followed by others equivalent to 14 percent of the outage cause. Additionally, the major cause of outages in the 500kV subpopulation is the other over current protection of 23 percent followed by fire systems which translates to 19 percent of the cause.
More so, outages within the range of 66kV to 33kV voltage subpopulation caused the highest annual average of percentage number of failures (%AANF) per transformer followed respectively by the 220kV, 500kV, and 132kV subpopulations. In addition to that, the 500kV recorded the longest annual average repair time (AART) followed by the 220kV, 132kVand 66-33kV subpopulations respectively.
The longest annual average customer interruption duration (AACID) per transformer associates with the 132 kV voltage subpopulation the 66-33kV, 500kV, and 220kV respectively. It was noted that highest annual average interrupted MW (AAIMW) per transformer is associated with the 500kV voltage subpopulation followed by 220kV, 132kVand 66-33kV subpopulations respectively.
Additionally, the fire systems are responsible for the highest number of false trips in all voltage subpopulations except for 220kV subpopulation, where the leading cause of false trips is the busbar protection. Busbar protection is also a significant cause of unauthentic outages in both the 132kV and 66-33kV subpopulations. In the 500kV population, a large number of unauthentic outages arise from over current protection, buchholz and pressure relief. More so, the 220kV subpopulation has the highest failure rate followed by the 66-33kV, 500kVand 132kV subpopulations respectively.
It is clear that both estimated failures and true failures rates are extraordinarily in comparison with the failure rates of 1979 IEEE power transformers survey. Consequently, the reliability of the considered transformer is extremely low. Calculated hazard functions show that failure rate for transformers in most voltage subpopulation increases significantly with time. Therefore, the considered transformers operate in the wear-out phase.
Ideally, the availability of EETC transformers is higher than the average of the 1979 IEEE survey. Although EETC transformers have an unusually high failure rate, their availability is high. This is due to the extremely small MTTR. As matter of fact, MTTR is not the most significant factor that can efficiently and effectively impose a positive or negative impact on the availability.
EETC should consider replacing most of their transformers, and instead increase the number of transformers to face rapid growth of loads. This will serve to limit over current outages. More so, EETC should provide sufficient stock of spare parts in each power substation. Additionally, the body should also apply new maintenance for the transformers like online monitoring of DGA and RCM. Ideally, false trips of protection system can be reduced significantly by improving maintenance procedures, system monitoring, and strategies as well as revising the design of protection systems.
EETTC should train technicians and Engineers in charge of the maintenance of transformers for to enable them identify and analyze arising problems. Finally, EETC should invest in improving engineers’ educational curriculum in both regional and national control centers to make engineers competent enough to deal with cases of outages, and also understand the behavior of the disconnected network components.

(1). W H Tang & Q H Wu, Condition Monitoring and Assessment of Power Transformers Using Computational Intelligence Power Systems, Springer, Liverpool, 2011




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International Trade

China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 with the intention of largely increasing its strength in the world economy. This paper is going to concentrate on highlighting some of the concerns that have surrounded the entry of China into the WTO such as why it took about 15 years for China to join, issues of trading rights, why some professions such as engineering and nursing have been selected for ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs), and some of the implications of the Asian production networks and ‘fragments’.

The process of joining the WTO, otherwise known as the accession process, is believed to take about five months or so depending on the commitment of the said country to the process. China is believed to be the country that took the longest period in the process; 15 years of negotiation (United States-China Business Council (USCBC), 2010). Despite this long duration China was determined to see the process come to end successfully.

With the rapid increase in the Chinese economy, and further driven by the intention to increase her command in the world market especially with the growing globalization of businesses, China was more than determined to see the completion of this process that had began in 1986 successfully. This could not be achieved without getting through some major hurdles and that’s why it took about 15 years before china was given green light of joining the World’s largest trade organization, WTO. The main reasons as to why the process took a very long duration before completion was due to the process being highly politicized both in China and in other trading partners such as the United States of America and also breaking the major barriers such as trading rights (Yang, 2000).

The negations could not have been carried out without the issue of “trading rights” rights being addressed in depth. These rights were largely to discuss what is to be traded where and what restrictions were to be reviewed. A good example of these trading rights is where discussions were carried out and agreements reached that China would not impose any restrictions on United States companies when conducting business and especially in distribution of manufactured goods. Further agreements were made that trading rights would be phased out within a period of three years (Yang, 2000; USCBC, 2010)

Definitely, the accession of China to the WTO has had some significant reforms in the domestic economies of China and Vietnam with the major ones being; enhanced transparency in the said economies, the process of accession also saw the introduction of reduced tariffs and mostly on agricultural goods in China with areas such as the grain sector being reformed to ensure Tariff Rate Quarters (TRQs) are adopted. This will ensure by all means that in-quota tariffs remain as low as between 1 to 3 percent (Zweig, 2007).

The accession process also saw to it that restrictions within the China’s economy were made and especially in the areas of banking, telecommunications, travel and tourism among others (USCBC, 2010). These few examples siginificantly show that some transparency had been installed in China’s economy and especially in allowing other players in the service industry without any form of restriction as opposed to what used to happen before the accession. Some of other areas where restrictions were to be lifted included the logistics industry, rental and air courier within a period of about three years (Morrison, 2011).

It arguable that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) included professions such as engineering, architecture, nursing and accountancy in the mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) in line with the intentions of establishing or fulfilling standards on which authorization or even licensing would be made for the goods or services rendered (Hai, n.d). These professions were relatively easy to quantify the standards that were to be applied. For the same reasons it was hard to include professions such as lawyers whose standards could not be regulated by quantifiable measures. Another major reason as to why lawyers were not included was due to the fact that lawyers are basically involved in interpretation and application of law which in this case would not be applicable due to the different constitutions and laws of the member countries.

The advances made in the information and communications technologies in the last two decades have played a very key role in the growth of the East Asian Production Networks. This is largely so because the more skilled labor in that region used to produce high technology components and then have them assembled by the less skilled workers of ASEAN before they were exported to other regions of the world for sale (Thorbecke, 2011). The productions networks grew largely due to their involvement in the production of information and technology components and also due to the increasing demand of the products as a result of the growth in information and technology sector mostly in the developing world. Still it can be argued that the fragmentation of the production industries on the basis of resources and skills of the available labor also played a key role in the growth of the networks (Thorbecke, 2011).

The East Asian Production Networks have very far reaching implications on the economy and trade of the region. The increase of goods from the East Asian region in the world market translates directly to increased business activities both within the East Asian production networks and other parts of the world and more specifically since 1982 to 2008 (Thorbecke, 2011). AS Thorbecke further reports, different production factors have resulted to slightly varying prices of goods such as laptops and textiles. Thorbecke has also shown that the production networks within this region are greatly affected by exchange rates otherwise if exchange rates were stable a continuous flow of goods would be experienced (Thorbecke, 2011).

From the foregoing discussion it is evident that the main reasons as to why China took a very long period before it being in cooperated in the World Trade Organization (WTO) are due to the process being highly politicized both within and outside china and arriving to consensus over some critical matters such as the trading rights. The reasons as to why professions such as engineering have been included in the mutual recognition agreements of the ASEAN and others such as law being left out can be attributed to the intentions of accrediting the products and services of such professions. The East Asian production networks have been largely affected by the rapid growth of the information technology sector both in the region and the targeted market. This has had some serious impacts on the region’s economy.


Hai, T. C. (n.d) Mutual Recognition of Surveying Qualifications within the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from

Hew, D. (2005) Roadmap to an ASEAN Economic Community. ISEAS Publications, Pasir Panjang

Morrison, W. M. (2011) China-U.S. Trade Issues. Congressional Research Service.

Thorbecke, W. (2011) The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade in East Asia. ADBI Working Paper 263. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from

United States-China Business Council (USCBC) (2010) China’s Implementation of Its World Trade Organizations Commitments: An assessment by the US-China Business Council. Retrived on September 5th, 2011 from

Urata, S. Yue, C. S. and Kimura, F. (2006). Multinationals and Economic Growth in East Asia: Foreign Direct Investment, Corporate Strategies and National Economic Development. Routledge, Oxon

Yang, Y. (2000) China’s WTO Accession: Why has it taken so long? Asia Pacific Press. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from

Zweig, D. (2007) China’s Reforms and International Political Economy. Routledge, Oxon.

English- Belonging

In his poetry, Peter Skrzynecki above all deals with the theme of understanding oneself as being the key to belonging. This view is explicit in two of his best-known works, Feliks Skrzynecki and Post card. One can also connect this line of thought to a more modern version of poetry, the song End of the Road by Boyz II Men.


Skrzynecki’s poem Feliks Skrzynecki is based on the character of the author’s father. Throughout, the reader notes the emphasis made on physical labor by the main character, specifically in relation to his garden. The author writes that he “loved his garden like an only child” (Skrzynecki, Feliks Skrzynecki 4). There is also vivid description about the work done for the upkeep of the garden, which is made to seem like a constant job. The second poem, Post card, rightly deals with a postcard we assume the author received, which depicts the city of Warsaw in Poland. The author does not discuss how it is in reality in as much detail as what it used to be like. He seems to very vividly separate the Warsaw of memory with that post-WWII, a city “that bombs destroyed/its people massacred” (Skrzynecki, Post card 17-18).

A very clear link can be made between these two works, through their common theme that understanding oneself is the key to belonging. The first thing to note is that the author makes it out to read as though he were an immigrant, this is made most clear in Post card, “a post card sent by a friend/haunts me/since its arrival” (Skrzynecki 1-2), and since he later mentions that he never went to visit the city of Warsaw, one can interpret this as meaning either that he left the country when he was very young or that his parents immigrated and he was born in a different place. In either scenario, the key factor is that he does not have a traditional Western background, but that his father is Polish and his mother Ukrainian. This is the first instance where we can see a difficulty in belonging, as diverse backgrounds often go hand in hand with different values, often brought from the country of origin. In Feliks Skrzynecki the author discusses his forgetting his first Polish word, and his father “repeated it so I never forgot” (Skrzynecki 55), while he remembers others asking if his father ever attempted to learn English. Here we see the importance of language in relation to the central theme of belonging, as it is an indispensable medium of communication. However, as one must understand oneself in order to belong, one must understand one’s present as well as one’s past. The author attempts to convey the importance of wholeness, that it is not only one’s present and future but clearly one’s past that create the individual, and that belonging requires the acceptance and reconciliation of both these parts. In Feliks Skrzynecki the author specifically describes his father as keeping pace “only with the Joneses of his own mind’s making” (Skrzynecki 2), which also centrally ties into the main theme. Understanding oneself means knowing what one is capable of as well as one’s limitations, and acknowledging if they are different from those of the individuals that surround us, for belonging does not necessarily entail selling oneself short or not attempting to rise above what is expected.

When examining Post card anew one again notes the author’s phenomenal description techniques, this time not of his father but of the city of Warsaw and how it was and will be remembered. Skrzynecki puts much effort into describing two seemingly distinct versions of the city of Warsaw, as it existed before the Second World War and how it is portrayed presently on the post card. It is ironic that Warsaw is the Old Town, while the post card that the author focuses on in this work pictures “red buses on a bridge/emerging from a corner-/high-rise flats and something/like a park borders/the river with its concrete pylons” (Post card 7-11), the two descriptions seem to fundamentally conflict and provide contrasting accounts of the same city. One can apply this same dichotomy to an individual, in the attempt to belong. Just as the buses and the high-rise flats seem commonplace in many a city around the world and are not specifically representative of the city of Warsaw, so should one not deny oneself in order to forcefully fit into society’s mold. One of the most striking lines in this work is that the city “survived/in the minds/of a dying generation/half a world away” (Skrzynecki, Post card 19-22), which really brings the point home. Regardless of the extent to which the city was devastated by war, and particularly the bombings, in the minds of even those who left it will endure as an unchanged memory, “they shelter you/and defend the patterns/of your remaking” (Post card 23-25). In the same way should the individual shelter and protect himself as a whole, a collection of his past as well as his future, and only through deep understanding will he be able to find his place in society.

Similarly to the way that these two poems share a common theme, one can also find a connection to a popular song by Boyz II Men, End of the Road. This song describes a relationship where the woman is cheating on her boyfriend and he knows, but loving her as much as he does he does not want to leave her but is ready to forgive her, she left him for this and he wants her to come back to him. Again the claim of understanding oneself is paramount here, for the man in the relationship has to dig deep inside of himself and come to terms with the fact that his girlfriend was unfaithful, which is in no way an easy feat. He not only has to account for his feelings towards her but for her feelings and actions as well, he has to understand that she was in fact unfaithful and nonetheless be willing to forgive her. It seems that the title of the song does not exactly fit the message that the man is attempting to send, because it does not have to be the end of the road for their relationship, he is willing to put aside her faults because of his love for her. In this case, belonging has a very narrow meaning, he feels that he belongs with her, and the understanding that is key to this is the acceptance and forgiveness of her faults.


Skrzynecki’s works and the song End of the Road both deal with the same theme of understanding as being key to belonging, but in very different ways. While Post card and Feliks Skrzynecki deals with understanding in a very broad sense, where one’s understanding of oneself, both considering one’s past and future, lead to belonging in society as a whole, the song has a very narrow interpretation of the same message, where the belonging is constricted to a society of two, a relationship. In both cases the individual must consider himself as a whole, in the first case specifically taking into account his past, while in the second accounting for his feelings towards the actions of another individual. However, in both cases, the end result that the subject is striving towards can only be achieved through deep understanding of oneself.

Reflective case study of an arterial ulcer


Arterial ulcers are identified as a severe decrease in the blood flowing through arteries usually due to lifestyle habits. The scenario is identified widely in the Australian health premises. Problems arise when blood flow decrease as a result of increased blockage in the arteries causing poor peripheral circulation (Rooke, 2007, 143).  The decreased blood flow within the arteries of legs and feet ultimately results in the situation of ischemia, ulceration and finally tissue necrosis (Morisson, Moffatt, & Franks , 2007).

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of arterial ulcers, which is a chronic progressive disease concerning the accumulation of cholesterol, most often known as plaque, in the length of the inside layer of the artery track. Hazardous aspects for budding atherosclerosis are frequently connected to way of life and consist of smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and diabetes (Hafner, Ramelet, Schmeller & Brunner, 1999).

Acute arterial ischemia, on the hand over, has a swift inception and is associated with an embolic occurrence. Portions of plaque are freed from arterial walls as they float around until they become blocked in smaller blood vessels. The consequential obstruction leads to a situation where the tissues are famished of oxygen and other essential thereby becoming ischemic which subsequently leads to cell death (Munden, 2007). The contemplative case study conducted attempts to give details on managing the complexities of an arterial ulcer caused by atherosclerosis whilst criticaling reviewing the care given the patient.

Reflective Case Study: Purpose and Utility

The usage of reflective case study is most appropriate in the profession of nursing which has much to do with observation and diagnosis. The dependence on reflective case study is owing to its inclusion of the major four traits namely supposition investigation, background consciousness, creative conjecture, and contemplative cynicism (Aitken, & Marshall, 2007). It is a fact that no matter could be built purely on exact availabilities and theories. More often, theories remain far behind the actual practice especially when dealing with medicine and human conditions. Reflective case studies have higher dependence on various assumptions linked to the topic and also the ultimate achievement has to be made aware of. Imagination as well as creativity on the features of a scenario supposed becomes crucial and brooding doubts are inevitable (Imel, 1998).

Unlike primitive nursing department, the current profession has been entitled with bulky responsibilities and mode of practices. With respect to the Australian health care communities, nurses find a great deal of critical position while dealing with acute diseases of dangerous nature. Nurses working in the hastily altering medical and treatment department are progressively more flattering attentive to the requirements to assess and progress of their performance as well as think about the prevailing opinionated, societal and hierarchal problems disturbing it (Bowden, 2003, 2). For the reason that modifications are happening across the world, it is significant for nurses to become efficient enough to scrutinize and react to latest and diverse confronts in a practical mode. Expanding a decisive philosophy and insightful expertise will aid the nursing department to congregate the defying of supplying concern in a circumstance of hurried alteration as well as to develop into a seriously thoughtful professional (Rolfe, 2002, 127).

The proposed case study is to examine a patient with arterial ulcer who is admitted for treatment. Usually case analyses contain the prospective abundance to create a considerable donation to the overall depicted information in a definite spot of medical training (Welcome to the Community Services & Health Industry Skills Council, 2005, 17). Obvious insinuations for exercise and proposals for upcoming study are indispensable to guarantee a brawny didactic significance is transmitted throughout the information presented (Brooker, & Nicol, 2003, 198).

Patient Details and History

Mr. A is a 68-year-old man, who lives by himself. Upon initial assessment, it was determined that the patient possessed a reasonable level of health, however it is important to note that he has been a smoker throughout this life. Mr. A is considered to be a fairly active person, who enjoys getting outdoors. Prior to this health issue, the patient reported experiencing some cramping in the calves, which was known to intensify when performing moderate activity. Over the last 6 months, the patient’s condition had developed into ulcers on both legs, which required constant treatment from a community care nurse. Unfortunately, this treatment alone was not enough, as the ulcers failed to heal. As a result of the continuation of this issue, the patient was referred to a vascular surgeon, for further treatment.

Assessment and Treatment Objections

As discussed, the patient presented with ulcers on both legs. When focusing on a health issue such as this, it is important that the primary focus is in determining the ulcer aetiology. When ascertaining the patients’ health history, it important to take a clear history to determine venous or arterial disease indicators and assess the ulcer and the peri- ulcer skin integrity (Hess, 2005). The Bates-Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT) was used to gain a adequate baseline data for planning treatments and interventions appropriate for Mr. A (Kozier, 2004). Details stage punched out act.

Further assessment of the patience health history shows signs of progressive disease, pathology tests were carried out later revealing the presence of arterial atheromatous.

Pain is one of the distinct features of arterial ulceration. Mr. A’s complaints of pain suggest there is presence of intermittent claudication, this linking back to the patients previous history of smoking. When examining the ulcer, it was covered in thick, stringy slough, which continued to appear irrespective of autolytic wound debridement using hydrogel dressings. Poor blood flow to the tissues resulted in the legs being hairless and looked pale in colour (Grey, & Harding, 2006).

Doppler assessment was carried out to assist in diagnosis. This should be used in accordance with the aforementioned assessments to support findings and not used in isolation. Monphoasic Doppler signals hinted arterial blood flow in Mr. A’s legs was compromised. The ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) showed 0.54 on his right leg and 0.47 on his left representing a significant decrease in lower limb blood flow (ABPI in healthy normal arteries in 1.00). A non invasive vascular scan known as ‘Arterial duplex ultrasonography’ was then used to confirm the presence of occlusive disease in both legs. An angiograph was also undertaken to provide a more comprehensive picture of the underlying pathological problem (Wound Care Information Network, 2010). Results of this revealed atheromatous plarks in both legs with Mr A’s superficial femoral artery (SFA) showing a total occlusion in his left leg and a 50% stricture in his right leg.


When analysing the treatment objectives, the following were found to be the most important in this process. Blood flow improvement in the lower limbs to assist with the healing. Controlling the pain by using appropriate medication was vitally important, as well as ensuring the constant level of blood supply. Finally, it was integral to debride the slough from the ulcer bed, as this was crucial to aid in the healing. By controlling these areas and keeping the patient informed, this will allow the treatment to have its best affect and promote the healing process (Shai, & Maibach, 2005).

In all forms of treatment there are certain risks that need to be considered. The patient in this example needs to be made aware of such risks, as ensuring the patient has all the facts prior to giving consent is essential (Brooker, & Nicol, 2003). The risks in this case were explained to Mr. A and he consented to the said treatment.

Pain relief treatment over the entire phase of the patients stay saw his pain treated with schedule doses of long and short acting morphine. This was controlled using a numerical pain scale to ascertain a stable level of pain relief for Mr. A. (REFF) reports that there are no set pain relief methods for any patient as pain is subjective. Antibiotics were also given to aid in prevention of infection (REFF)

Angioplasty is radiological intervention used to amend blood flow in compromised arteries by dilating them and increasing the blood flow. Angioplasty was necessary for Mr. A and the surgical intervention was carried out successfully.

With the blood flow enhanced it was anticipated that ulcer would become free from slough and healing would begin (Rooke, 2007).

Following reperfusion of the limbs the next treatment goal was removal of devitalised tissue. As a number of autolytical debridement treatments had been tried and tested before with little to effect on Mr. A’s ulcers, surgical debridement was necessary. The benefit of this being the relatively swift and complete removal of nonviable tissue (Rooke, 2007).

After revascularisation Mr. A’s ulcers were treated with a hydrocolloid dressings that promotes a moist wound healing environment (Grey, et al. 2006).Observations were documented upon dressing the wound to recorded the progress and or any variances of the ulcer and surrounding skin.

A dietarian review saw that Mr. A’s diet was refined to include less salty and fatty foods to reduce cholesterol levels and prepared a high protein diet to aid in wound healing. Fluids were also monitored to ensure adequate hydration was achieved for wound healing (Mathieson, & Upton, 2008).

Mr. A’s medication was reviewed by both the pharmacy and the treating doctor to ensure management of the patients underlying condition was treaded effectively. Atherosclerosis includes medications such as antilipid medications, platelet inhibitors, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. It important to point out however, that although medications are a critical part of preventing and treating atherosclerosis, they have a limited role in treating an arterial ulcer (Hafner, et al, 1999).

After 2 weeks of treatment and numerous visits with a physiotherapist and occupational therapist Mr. A was able to return home under the pretences that the hospitals wound nurse would visit daily to dress and monitor the wounds healing. It can be seen that patients with arterial ulcerations require a multiprofessional approach. The complexity of the disease is determined through early intervention through adequate assessment and treatment. The underlying conditions of arterial ulcers need to be addressed in order prevent and heal existing ulcers. This along with adequate would care provides an environment favourable to healing.

Reflection on the treatment process

To care for, and manage a patient suffering from ulcers is full of knowledgeable and informative experiences. It calls for professionalism matched with integrity based on the skills obtained from school and from the bodies governing nursing as a profession. This reflection is essential it assists in understanding what this profession entails and what is expected when dealing with cases such as this one (Bowden, 2003).

Though the National Competency Standards for the Registered Nurse clearly outlines what is expected of a nurse when dealing with a patient, it was not easy to handle such a case as this of Mr. A. This was a learning moment where some negative aspects were observed (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

Considering Mr. A was an old man aged 68 years, age difference was a major issue. It prevented us from an informative dialogue that should exist between a nurse and the patient. As a profession, age should not be a limit. It is required for every nurse to treat all individuals equally despite their age. In treatment, dialogue is very important. Mr. A was not able to respond comprehensively to questions due to the pain he went through and the effects that were accrued from diabetes leading to poor memory. This made it hard to determine the problem and I was forced to jump into conclusion depending on the information I had gathered from class (Bullock et al, 2006).

Being the first time in handling such a serious case as arterial ulcers, it is challenging. At this point all the information gathered in class and other sources such as bodies governing patients’ care was put in to test. Sometimes confusion may intervene leading to poor treatment (Bullock, et al, 2006).

Due to lack of enough exposure on the importance of proper time management and flow with a given program, inadequate services are sometimes offered. For example, in Mr. A’s case different tests were supposed to be done each following each other accordingly. Some tests were untimely performed and this could have lead to unreliable results which could have led to poor treatment. Nurses should be cautious of how they manage their time. In cases dealing with ulcers such as this one, dressing has to be done from time to time. If it is not handled in time, it may put the wound in a worse condition than before. This was experienced in the case for Mr. A and could have led to poorer condition of the patient (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

Prescribing to the patient was also challenging. It was had to determine what to use in treating the patient. This was due to the many conditions that surrounded arterial ulcers. I had to ask for guidance from other professionals for more informative care of the patient.

Although there were a lot of challenges in dealing with this case, some strengths or positive aspects can also be identified. Applying one of the principles developed by the nursing body in Australia, I was respondent to the patient in case he had any question concerning his health. It is the role of any physician to motivate his or her patient. This principle reined my mind and I believed my relationship with Mr. A would influence his well being and quick recovery. Some patients need hope every day to make their health improve with time. However challenging the question was, I responded accordingly. This gave the patient hope that his case was manageable (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

The other strong end of this care was masterly of development of the patient as he continued gaining good health. There was a clear record that I updated daily to show response of the patient with time. This is important in monitoring any change that may occur in case an examination was performed on the patient concerning the issues surrounding his health (Bullock, et al, 2006).

Depending on the history of the patient I was able to determine the stage of the ulcers. I was able to know how much time it would take for the patient to be fully healed. This history acted as prove to what had been learnt in class as the major causes for this disease (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

A lot of courage was portrayed by cleaning the wound daily and dressing it. It showed maturity and professionalism in nursing as a profession.

Since this case is not the last one to handle, given another chance, I will watch over some things and do them differently. One of the major things that would be subject to change is the data entry and handling process. Feeling data manually is not up to date practice. It is easy to loose data about the patient and this may lead to poor treatment process due to loss of some very important information. Technology should be applicable in data entry and processing. This would make information accessible as soon as it is required (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

The other thing that I would change is my attitude towards old people. I view them as ignorant to questions from young people. This prevented me from digging deep on information about Mr. A and gave me a chance to make hasty conclusions. It is against nursing standards to offer treatment from a general point of view without an informative discussion of the problem with the patient (Bullock, et al, 2006).

Untimely manner of attending the patient would also bee a subject to change. I will master the schedule of treatment in order to avoid inconveniences that may occur due to poor time management when dealing with a patient. Following the prescribed program will also serve reducing the misfortunes that may occur due to omission of certain activities or due to performing in the wrong order. For a case where dressing is needed, punctuality is very important (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2005).

Communication is also very important when dealing with a patient. It may be influenced by age or culture of the nurse as well as of the patient. This was another thing I would cover by gaining exposure to dialogue. Handling Mr. A was a challenge due to misunderstandings and therefore I find this as an element subject to change.


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Epic Characters: Three Heroes, A Similar Journey

Through out ancient history, legendary stories have acted as a form of rich culture to depict various characters and try to explain various occurrences such as Gilgamesh, Odyssey and Beowulf. Although these tales evolved from different civilizations, they exhibit a variety of fundamentals that make them similar to each other. Each of the heroes depicted in these tales embarks on different journeys with different aims of conquering what they set to achieve. One of the common aspects that emerge in their journeys is the bravery and prowess that each exhibits. It also becomes obvious in the story that even though the heroes had exceptional gifts from other people, they still had their weaknesses that they find imperative to overcome in order to attain the missions they set out in their journeys.

The Epic of Gilgamesh centers on an ancient young king of Uruq, present day Iraq. Gilgamesh, its main character has superhuman powers. According to the prologue, the gods created this young king as “two thirds divine and one third human”. Gilgamesh is a character endowed with immense strength in addition to his good looks. As the king of Uruk, Gilgamesh is the ultimate protector of his subjects, but contrary to this responsibility, he uses his powers to accomplish his own vanities. Instead of serving his people, he oppresses them and engages in sexual promiscuity with women, such as raping without regard of whether they were wives or daughters of noble men or his warriors. This results in lamentation from his people to the gods to tame his wild spirit and ego. The gods in an attempt to tame him create Enkindu, a wild man who as equal as Gilgamesh. The two become close confidants but their actions annoy the immortals and they decide that Enkindu should die an action that leaves Gilgamesh distraught and he decides to seek eternity by searching for the only man who gained eternity.

Odysseus, the hero in the Odyssey, remains one of the most celebrated epic heroes in Greek mythology. He is renowned for not only his prowess and bravery but also wise character. His athletic psychic is also one of the features that justify his depiction as an insuperable character in Greek myths. Odysseus is a character that first analyzes situations rather than acting unconsciously such as Gilgamesh. His patient character acts as one of his strongest attributes, and this becomes evident when he disguises himself as a beggar and only reveals himself in the most appropriate time during his journey.

Just like the two other epics, Beowulf sets on a journey, but his is to help the Danes conquer Grendel, the monster that has terrorized them for a period of twelve years. Beowulf gathers his best warriors and heads to Danes. Hrothgar, the king of the Danes welcomes Beowulf and gladly accepts his help especially because the king had once helped Beowulf’s father. They describe Beowulf as “strong indeed is the chief who has led the warriors here” (7).

In comparison to the three journeys that the individual heroes embark on, it is evident that they set out to accomplish various tasks. Gilgamesh sets out to find the secret of eternity. Odysseus on the other hand is on a journey back home to be with his wife and son whom he loves dearly after engaging in the war in Troy for almost 10 years. Beowulf on the other hand aims at embarking on a journey to help the Danes conquer a fierce monster that has been terrorizing them. The three heroes have to contend with engaging in fights both at home and away. Gilgamesh fights Enkindu who had been sent by the gods in an attempt to tame him. In contrast to Gilgamesh, both Odysseus and Beowulf have to first fight away from home and after their success in these battles, they return home and have to fight again to assert their supremacy. Beowulf comes home after his success in helping the Danes fight Grendel and his mother and his successes earns him the entire kingdom after the death of its king. However, another battle with a dragon awaits him after his 15-year rule in power. He engages in a fierce fight with the dragon but it ends up injecting him with poison, which ultimately kills him. Odysseus on the hand has to come home and ward off the threat posed by suitors who admire to take his wife and reign in the kingdom. He comes home disguised as a beggar and after passing the test that his wife had set for the suitors; he turns against them and kills them all.

In contrast to the other two epic characters, Gilgamesh embarked on his journey to prove his might and quench his insatiable thirst for supremacy. Having the attributes of a divine and human nature, Gilgamesh sets out on to steal cedar trees in a forest forbidden by gods. His immense strength does not fail him and with the assistance of Enkindu, he manages to fight and kill Humbaba, a demon tasked with guarding the forest. The two manage to cut the forbidden cedar trees and make out a gate and a raft and return to Uruk. The first journey that Odysseys embarks on is that to go and fight in Troy, where he comes out victorious but longs to go back home after 10 years to reunite with his wife and son. Beowulf on the hand goes on his first journey to fight a menacing monster and assist the Danes. He just like the other epic characters completes his mission with relative ease and returns home to be crowned king after the king dies. The second journeys that the epic characters embark on have considerable effects on the communities where they hail from.

After ruling for about fifteen years, Beowulf is faced with the threat of a dragon that is threatening to wipe out in existence the people whom he rules over. The dragon is angered after a servant takes away one of its treasurers and it goes to revenge by killing people. After knowing about this ordeal, Beowulf knows that the task is not any simple and that he has to compose himself and try to slay the dragon. He organizes some warriors to go and fight the dragon. However, only one of them is left while the others flee from fear of the dragon. Although he manages to kill it, it bites him and he dies from this poison. Odysseus on the other hand longs to go back home to his wife and child and rule over his people but is taken captive by Calypso. However, the gods manage to convince Calypso to let him go. On his journey, he has to face the god of the sea who has a score to settle with Odysseus. The gods however help him and he goes through this ordeal unscathed. After he arrives to Ithaca, he disguises himself as a beggar and takes part in a contest organized by his wife and only he can accomplish the task. He succeeds in this task and turns to kill his wife’s suitors before taking his rightful place as the king. In contrast to Odysseus and Beowulf who had the ultimate aim of bringing prosperity to their communities and protecting them, Gilgamesh sets out on his journey in an aim to attain the secret of immortality after the death of his close confidant, Enkindu. Gilgamesh does not want to absorb the fact that he just like any other human, is going to die. In his journey he has to overcome the test set by Utnapishtim of not sleeping for seven days. He however fails in this test but is given the secret of a plant found in the sea that can bring his youth back. He manages to get this plant but a snake steals it and he cannot use it.

Looking at the outcomes of the three journeys it is evident that they had profound consequences on the communities that the epic characters hailed from. Gilgamesh finally found the meaning of true life and appreciated the gift of life, which made him to attain his tasks as the king of Uruk by protecting and ensuring the prosperity of his community. Odysseus on the other hand went back to his wife and son and took his rightful place as the king of his community. Although he died protecting his community against the dragon, Beowulf ensured that his community will live prosperously after fighting his last battle with the dragon in addition to bringing prosperity for the Danes.


In conclusion, it is evident that the three epic characters embark on journeys to bring good and prosperity to their communities. Although the Gilgamesh and Beowulf die in the end, they have protected their communities, while Odyssey returns to take his rightful place as the king. All the heroes face fierce battles, which act as a way of proving their insatiable strength and prowess. However, what becomes evident is that even through the strength they exhibit, these heroes are mortal.


Works Cited

Beowulf. University of Virginia Library. Retrieved from

Homer. The Odyssey. New York: Wlider Publications, 2007.

Sandars, Nancy K. The Epic of Gilgamesh. New York: Penguin Books. 1972