Coming Through Slaughter

 

The 1976 fictionalized biographical novel by Michael Ondaatje expresses the high passion of the story which focuses on the main character who is a musician is named Buddy Bolden. He is a well-known American musician who becomes a famous yet  controversial musician because of his use of a prostitute as his own dramatic inspiration for his widely performance. Bolden become the center of attraction when he came up to crowd from nowhere and started to play his music and through it, he captured the people’s attention and imagination through his melodramatic and sensual melody. Bolden’s outstanding talent to create powerful music using the art of photography for him with the help of his friend E. J. Bellocq expresses the idealistic theme of his music which made him famous by playing the coronet and his genre music of jazz.

The whole novel starts when a young musician man aged 23 years old came up to a crowd and starts to catch every attention of the people by playing his very own music with other musicians. In New Orleans, Louisiana, there are many prostitutes that can be seen in red light districts looking for some customers preferably some local musicians. New Orleans is well known of having many bars and clubs which being center of prostitution for many looking for temporary happiness and intimacy like sex (Ondaatje 19). The settings of the story supports the theme of the main character to express how the district of Storyville, New Orleans is becomimg famous of having lot of prostitute and brothels. And yet it inspires Bolden to create music about them and the place become the settings of the story.

The main theme of the novel is Sex. The story focuses on Charles “Buddy” Bolden’s complicated life as musician and also a man married who married a prostitute named Nora Bass. Besides being a jazz performer, Buddy is also a part-time barber and journalist to a newspaper. The mystery starts when Buddy has been gone for around 5-6 months and Nora Bass  as the only person he trusts in the place because he has no family, and nothing much to worry. Nora asks for some help from Buddy’s long time police detective friend named Webb to investigate and find Buddy (Ondaatje 13-14).

The main theme of the story supports the relationship between the main character and other supporting characters. This is through having an affair like having sex with any emotional involvement or any mutual relationship. Buddy is a musician and has no permanent relationship of having a family with him, so he is basically working by day to survive and avoiding too much emotional attachment rather expressing his own feelings and ideas through playing his jazz music and also getting nude photos of some prostitute and having sex with them (Ondaatje 56). The character of Buddy somehow expresses the difficulty sexual addiction and being alcoholic which leads him to experiment few unusual fetishes. Quite controversial just for the sake that he eagerly wants to express different view of how people might appreciate bringing out the erotic art of prostitution together of his own radical music rather than fantasizing their bodies.

The fragmenting personality of Buddy is more likely to have erotic behavior fantasies and insanity which leads to self-destruction as a complicated person. Buddy loses his mind and his own identity of letting himself drown by having an addiction to sex and do some erotic experimental being know as a player.

Sex is main cause of the complications of the whole story and the self-destruction of the main character. The moral aspect of sex during 19th century is not that clear and the most common thought during this century is called “free love” that implies a sexually active lifestyle especially of many men with preference to have few commitments or rather a casual sex affair and no relationship at all. This novel provides all the descriptions of the lifestyle using the main character Buddy and his sexual relationship with Nora which defines them as “free lovers.” The themes of the novel show various relationships of sex to many people during 19th century. Today, the so called term is no longer available because of the laws protecting the right of marriages and to restrict the crime of prostitution which they use sex as their main service. Nowadays, this kind of lifestyle is discreet and people are smart enough to hide any exclusive sexual relationship with anyone. This novel also presents the difference of what world was before and today’s lifestyle.

However, this theme provides some ideas or value of how every individual in this world should know how to be sexually responsible not only for themselves but to other people. They should know how to act or behave properly and not being drowned of its addictive pleasure.  This novel expresses the irony and yet logical lessons such as being open minded, having self- control and most importantly, knowing the difference between love and sex. Love is a solely a commitment to one person leading to a mutual relationship which sex is involveed in a right way of expressing the love for someone physically. The theme provides occurring lessons to learn, appreciate and understand every aspect of it and to make one smart enough to know what is right and wrong.  Every man should know how to control their fantasy to avoid insanity and losing their mind throughout their life all because of sex as it can bring pleasure but in the long run cause the ruin of many a man.

 

 

Work Cited

Ondaatje, Michael. Coming Through Slaughter. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004. Print.

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CFD-based shape optimization for optimal aerodynamic design


Abstract

 

Increased energy costs make optimal aerodynamic design even more critical today as even small improvements in aerodynamic performance can result in significant savings in fuel costs. Energy conscious industries like transportation (aviation and ground based) are particularly affected.

There have been a number of different optimization methods, some of which require geometrically parameterized models. For non-parameterized models (as it is the casa often in reality where models and shapes are very complex).  Shape optimization and adjoint solvers are some of the latest approaches.

In our study we are focusing on generating best practices and investigating different strategies of employing the commercially available shape optimizer tool from ANSYS’CFD solver Fluent. The shape optimizer is based on a polynomial mesh- morphing algorithm. The simple case of a low speed, airfoil/flap combination is used as a case study with the objective being the lift to drag ratio.

A number of different built-in optimization algorithms and the way to best employ them are investigated.

  1. I.                  Introduction

 

Computationally expensive simulation codes based on mathematical models of a relevant system are in wide-spread use throughout the engineering industry. For instance, in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) a single evaluation of the model may take several hours of computer run time. With the help of modern computer facilities, numerous difficult and mathematically intensive problems are now readily solved.

Towards significantly reducing user expertise requirements (Zingg et al, 2002), the solutions of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations in the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to aircraft design, involve challenges in the following three areas.

Computational Efficiency: There has to be a reduction in the computing time required to achieve appropriately resolved solutions. This is an urgent need in aerodynamic and multi-disciplinary design optimization, as an outcome of the trend towards an integrated product and process development environment. For complete integration into the design process, the time required for solution of the RANS equations should be restricted to a few minutes, over three-dimensional configurations, which is two orders of magnitude faster than capability, a new development at the start of the new millennium. Although there is a definite advantage of parallel architectures and increased computer speeds, there is a need for improvements in algorithms. In design optimization also, algorithm reliability has greater significance. “Modern design optimization algorithms, such as adjoint methods cannot be effective if the flow solver does not converge in relevant areas of the design space” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.347).

Human Efficiency: There is a pressing need for a reduction in the “human effort and expertise required for computing flows over complex configurations since humans are not governed by Moore’s law” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348) which states that computer power doubles every eighteen months, and the rapid increase in power on this scale is a unique and tremendous advancement in the history of technology (Kaku, 1999). Though expertise in CFD and aerodynamics is vital for carrying out the computations, there should be a minimization in the expertise required in the selection of solver and grid parameters. Another issue to be resolved is the estimation of global numerical error

Accuracy of Physical Modeling: Through methods such as appropriate grid resolution, numerical errors can be carefully controlled. However, errors resulting from “physical models, including turbulence models and prediction of laminar turbulent transition are more difficult to estimate and control” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348). The eddy-viscosity turbulence models used at present for computing aerodynamic flows are unable to predict with accuracy, subtle phenomena such as Reynolds number or flap gap effects on high-lift configurations.

The most optimal approach appears to be Reynolds stress models or second moment closures. It is essential to considerably increase the speed with which such models are incorporated into aerodynamic flow solvers, for production use at this stage, and to assess and guide the development of such models. Further development of turbulence models requires reduction of time needed to compute three dimensional flows; also there is a need for more high quality experimental datasets which include all the boundary condition data needed for computations. To increase the computational efficiency of RANS solvers, two new developments are considered: an inexact Newton-Krylo algorithm which decreases the time needed for computing towards achieving a steady state solution; and “a higher order spatial discretization which decreases the grid resolution requirements for a given level of numerical accuracy” (Zingg et al, 2002, p.348), consequently also reducing computing expense. Moreover, objective measures of algorithm performance are required.

This paper is organized as follows.

 

II. Research strategy plan

 

The strategy of this research is to develop an airfoil design and optimization system that can modify an airfoil shape (section geometry) yielding improved aerodynamic performance in terms of maximum lift to drag ratio under landing and takeoff flight condition. Lift-to-drag ratio is simply defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the lift to the amount of turbulence, or drag, of an aerodynamic structure (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011).

Computerizing the optimization progression can considerably shorten development product lifecycle and bring forth improved designs compared to conventional tactical design alteration approaches (Andreoli, 2003). An efficient and effective optimization technique is developed by a combination of high-fidelity commercial CFD tools with mathematical optimization techniques. This system not only offers a consistent, automated optimization tool for blueprint engineers, but also considerably diminishes the cost and the manufacturing time for a design procedure.

The development will be to combine the high fidelity commercial CFD tools (Fluent) with numerical optimization techniques to morph high lift system. In research strategy as shown in the figure below, we will perform morphing (grid deformation) directly inside the fluent code without rebuilding geometry and the mesh with an external tool. Direct search method algorithms such as the Simplex, Compass, and Torczon are investigated. The user can choose any of those to utilize in optimization of aerodynamic shapes characteristics.

 

Fig.  1 Research Strategy Plan

 

 

 

 

 

III. Formulation

  1. A.                Flow Solver

FLUENT is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. It is a software package to simulate fluid flow problems. It is based on a finite-volume method to solve the governing equations for a fluid. It provides the capability to use different physical models such as incompressible or compressible, inviscid or viscous, laminar or turbulent, steady- state or transient analyses.

In the CFD formulation as well, the conservative forms of continuity and Navier-Stoke’s equations in integral form for incompressible flow of constant viscosity were solved by the built-in functions of the Fluent 13 CFD software. The current work used two equation turbulent models: the realizable k-e model that solves one transport equation to allow the turbulent kinetic energy, and its dissipation rate to be independently determined. The realizable k-e model is particularly suitable for our model, as the model uses enhanced wall treatment based on the law of the wall.

In the present work, steady-state, incompressible two dimensional flow was assumed. The numerical simulations were carried out by solving the conservation equations for mass and momentum by using structured and an unstructured grid finite volume methodology.

The sequential algorithm, semi-implicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE), was used in solving all the scalar variables. For the convective terms of the continuity and momentum equations, and also for the turbulence equations, the first order upwind interpolating scheme was applied in order to achieve more accurate results compared to experimental results. The computational conditions are given in the next section.

 

  1. B.    Design Variables 

As shown from Figure 2.1, the overlap and the gap between the flap and main airfoil are used as the design variable. Each design variable is limited as shown in Figure 2.2.

 

Fig. 2.1 Horizontal (overlap) and vertical (gap) translation design variables in multi-element configurations.

            The control points will be situated around the areas of the gap and the overlap sections. Thus, the shape optimization, i.e., expansion, retraction, etc., will be imposed in these areas in order to achieve optimal values of L/D ratio.

 

 

 

Fig. 2.2 Design Variables

            The figure above illustrates the possible locations of the control points (shown here, for instance, are points p1 and p2).

  1. Objective functions

The problem that is considered in current work is single-objective programming problem. A single-objective programming problem can be stated as:

Find X which

Minimize f(X) = [f1(X)/ f2(X)]

Where f1, f2 are drag and lift functions, respectively, X is called the design vectors.

The vector of design variables, X, primarily contains parameters that control the shape of the airfoil. Depending on the problem of interest, additional design variables may include the angle of attack, the horizontal and vertical translation design variables that control the position of flaps in multi-element configurations as shown in Figure 2.2.

During this work the objective function will be formulated by C++ language programming and built on the User Defined Function (UDF) library which takes control points and angle of attack as input parameters, and values of lift to drag and drag to lift ratio are output parameters.

  1. Different Strategies in Optimization

There will be five (5) strategies of optimization to be studied in this paper. The strategies are the following:

1.)    Changing the position of the control points

2.)    Changing the number of control points

3.)    Applying the Compass Algorithm

4.)    Applying the Simplex Algorithm

5.)    Applying the Torczon Algorithm

Simulations will be executed using each of these strategies. The resulting L/D ratio will be closely monitored. Comparison between the before and after optimization scenarios will be noted. Each strategy will be evaluated of its effectiveness in improving the performance of the system. Also, analogous strategies will be compared to each other.

 

 

 

IV. Results and Discussion

In this section, we show the influence of algorithms on the value of L/D ratio at varying angle of attack . As shown from Figure 4.20, all data sets indicate a nearly identical lift to drag ratio value at (-4 to 0) degrees angle of attack and the data continues to match quite well at (6 to 20) degrees. There are variance values at angle of attack from (0 to 6) degrees. The figure below shows that the Torczon and simplex algorithms produced the maximum lift-to-drag ratio, while the compass algorithm produced the worst value.

 

Fig. 4.20   Effect of algorithms on lift to drag ratio.

            Those variances arise from the specific behavior of each algorithm; the differences between the various algorithms of the direct search method are largely in the choice of the step length and search direction. For example, in compass algorithm, first choose an initial point (x0,y0) for 2D or ( x0,y0,z0) for 3D, an initial step length Δ, compute the objective function at initial point then at east, west, north, south respectively. If one of these steps yields to a smaller f(x ,y) for 2D,or f(x ,y ,z)for 3D there is new iteration (x1,y1) or (x1,y1.z1)  as shown in Figure 4.21 . The calculation steps continue by the same initial step length and search direction until converge optimal shape, while the step length and search direction are variables depend on objective function value  at Torczon and simplex algorithms.

Fig. 4.21 New Iteration (x1, y1)

            As we mentioned from previous description, the compass algorithm has few steps as compared to other algorithms such as the Simplex and Torczon algorithms. These latter two need more steps to approach a minimum objective as explained by (Torczon, 2009), (Dantzig, 1953). This makes the compass algorithm easy to describe, easy to implement. Also, it may quickly approach a minimum, but may be slow to detect it, if the step size is large.

This seems clear from present work, that the number of design approaches in the compass algorithm are less than the other algorithms; for example at angle of attack (0, 4) degrees the maximum number of designs were 31 and 32 respectively in compass algorithm, while in Torczon, there were 40 and 41 at 0 and 4 degrees respectively, and in simplex algorithm, there were 40 and 44 for 0 and 4 degree respectively. This means that the convergence of the solution for compass algorithm is achieved faster.

As we have mentioned before, the objective of current work is the improved the value of  L/D ratio at landing and take-off flight conditions by aerodynamic shape optimization using grid deformation .

As shown in Figures 4.22-4.24, it is clear that the optimization system is successful in achieving the goal. In the comparison between L/D ratio before optimization and after optimization, we see clearly how values of L/D ratio increases with the angles of the attack varying from -4 to 20 degrees. The highest percentage of improvement was 33.919% at angle of attack 4 degrees in simplex algorithm, and the lowest percentage of improvement was 6.925%  at 0 degree angle of attack in compass algorithm, as presented in appendix A.

Figures 4.25-4.27 show the final shape for  airfoil  after optimization processes. These figures show the influence of different algorithms on final shape optimization. As compared to the initial configuration, there are miniscule variations in the shapes of the airfoil and the flap.

Fig. 4.22 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Compass algorithm

Fig. 4.23 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Simplex algorithm

Fig. 4.24 Comparion L/D ratio before and after optimization for Torczon algorithm

            As we mentioned before every algorithm has specific behavior and search method.  The compass algorithm has bounded search direction and length size, while the simplex and Torczon algorithms have unbounded length size and search direction that are shown clearly in Figures 4.26-4.27.

Both the algorithms, the Simplex and the Torczon, produced approximately the same optimal shape. This is a very useful observation because it probably translates to the intrinsic similarities of the two algorithms in terms of computational methods. Nevertheless, their L/D ratio plots are also essentially identical.

Fig. 4.25The shape after optimization ( compass algorithm at 4deg)

Fig. 4.26 The shape after optimization( simplex algorithm at 4deg)

Fig. 4.27 The shape after optimization (Torczon algorithm at 4deg)

V. Conclusions

           

Everything in the design process is implemented using the CFD-based software Fluent. Different approaches in attempting to optimize the aerodynamic design are suggested in this study. The design to be studied is basically a low speed, air-foil/flap combination.

In this study, the main objective is achieving the optimum lift-to-drag ratio. There are five (5) approaches, or strategies, that are included in this study for the optimization of the aerodynamic design. The five (5) approaches are the following:

1.)    Changing the position of the control points

2.)    Changing the number of control points

3.)    Applying the Compass Algorithm

4.)    Applying the Simplex Algorithm

5.)    Applying the Torczon Algorithm

In each approach, the lift-to-drag ratio, or simply L/D ratio, is closely investigated. This is a very practical criterion since it greatly defines the performance of any aerodynamic structure. Simulations are run using the Fluent program. The L/D ratio is plotted against the angle of attack (in degrees).

  1. Changing the Position of the Control Points

The first strategy employed in the design is changing the position of the control points. The control points are critical in the design of an aerodynamic structure since they determine the factors in the system to be measured. Three (3) locations of the control points are examined in the study. The positions (A, B and C) are illustrated in Figure 4.28.

 

Fig 4.28 Location of the Control Points

            Location A is directly in front of the flap and is very close to the air foil but not under the overlap. Location B is above the flap and is very close, directly below the overlap.  Location C is above the flap and is quite far from the air foil. Location B is halfway between locations A and C. These locations are chosen strategically so as to achieve different measurements of L/D ratio. Also, these are the critical positions where in manipulations of the parameters in these positions could possibly translate to changes in the performance of the structure.

Figure 4.29 shows the L/D ratio graph against the angle of attack. Measurements are extended up until angle of attack = 16 degrees. The results of the three locations are all plotted in one graph.

This figure shows that at negative angles, the L/D ratio of locations A and C are slightly higher than location C, although the difference is not that significant. Across the majority of the angle measures, the values are virtually the same.

Fig. 4.29 L/D ratio at different locations

            This test shows that changing the location of the control points does not affect the L/D ratio of the design structure.

 

  1. Changing the Number of Control Points

The second approach in this study is changing the number of control points. Intuitively, this criterion will affect the performance of the air foil structure since more system points are manipulated throughout the process (Gill, 1981).

There are three cases. The first case is using four (4) control points; the second case is using eight (8) control points; the third case is using twelve (12) control points. The L/D ratio is plotted against the angle of attack up to angle of attack = 20 degrees.

Fig. 4.30 L/D ratio for 4, 8, and 12 control points

            Figure 4.30 shows the results for the different numbers of control points. At negative angles, the values of the L/D ratio of the three cases are virtually the same. At angles in the range [2,8] degrees, the third case is slightly higher than the other two, although this difference is not significant. Also, at this range, the third case achieved an L/D ratio slightly greater than 25. At angles above 10, the L/D ratios of the three cases are virtually the same.

The plot shows a pattern implies that the L/D ratio is slightly increased when the number of control points is increased. This pattern may be further verified by testing larger number of control points. The changes may be insignificant in value, but these miniscule changes would translate to higher energy efficiency. Thus, it can be concluded that the number of control points would affect the performance of the aerodynamic design.

 

  1. Applying the Compass Algorithm

Utilization of optimization algorithms is essential in establishing the foundation of this study. The first algorithm to be studied is the Compass algorithm.

The Compass algorithm is incorporated in the system using the Fluent software. The L/D ratios before and after the optimization is measured; measurements are done up until angle of attack = 20 degrees. Figure 4.31 shows the graphs before and after the application of the algorithm.

Fig. 4.31 L/D ratio of Compass Algorithm, before and after optimization

            The L/D ratio is increased significantly all throughout the range of angle of attack. The maximum L/D ratio is 25, which is at angle of attack ≈ 5 degrees, wherein the increase in L/D ratio is approximately 2.5.  At angles of attack between 8 to 12 degrees, the increase in L/D ratio is about 5.

The plot shows that the Compass algorithm is very effective in optimizing the value of the L/D ratio. Increase of 5 in the L/D ratio can be reached using this algorithm.

 

  1. Applying the Simplex Algorithm

The second algorithm studied is the Simplex algorithm. This algorithm is implemented in the design by changing the program options in Fluent.

Fig. 4.32 L/D ratio of Simplex Algorithm, before and after optimization

            Figure 4.32 shows the results of the Simplex algorithm approach. The plots of with and without the algorithm are graphed in one plot. The measurements are done up to angles of attack = 20.

This plot shows that Simplex algorithm significantly increased the L/D ratio of the system. The maximum L/D ratio achieved is 25, which is at angle of attack = 5 degrees, with increase of ≈ 2.5 in the ratio. The minimum increase is ≈ 1. At angle of attack from 7 to 12, the increase in L/D ratio is ≈ 5.

The simplex algorithm is proven to be useful in optimizing the L/D ratio value. The range of angle of attack of maximum increase in L/D ratio is slightly higher than that of the Compass algorithm.

  1. Applying the Torczon Algorithm

The third and last algorithm tested is the Torczon algorithm. This algorithm is introduced in the system using the Fluent software. The L/D ratio is measured across angle of attack values up to 20 degrees.

Figure 4.33 shows the results of using the Torczon algorithm.

The maximum L/D ratio achieved is ≈ 25. This is at angle of attack = 5 degrees. The increase of L/D ratio at this point is ≈ 3.      The maximum increase in L/D ratio is ≈ 5, which is achieved at angles between 9 and 13 degrees.

 

Fig 4.33 L/D ratio of Torczon Algorithm, before and after optimization

            The Torczon algorithm is also an effective approach in increasing the L/D ratio of the aerodynamic structure. The value of the L/D ratio is increased in all the values of angle of attack.

 

  1. Comparison of the Compass, Simplex and Torczon Algorithms

Figure 4.34 shows the interleaving plots of the three algorithms.

At angle of attack = 5 degrees, the Torczon algorithm achieved a slightly higher L/D ratio. This slight difference could translate to magnified effects on the performance of the system. Nevertheless, the contours of the plots of the three algorithms are virtually the same.

Fig. 4.34 L/D ratio of Compass, Simplex, and Torczon Algorithms

            This just shows that all the three algorithms are effective in optimizing the L/D ratio. The performances of the algorithms are similar. The effects of the three algorithms on the L/D ratio are virtually the same. The increase in L/D ratio, which ranges from 1 to 5, translates to decrease in energy costs of the entire system. Thus, it can be concluded that all these optimization techniques are meet the objective, which is attaining higher lift-to-drag ratio.

Further advances of this work could be the combination of any of these techniques to achieve better design optimization, i.e., Torczon algorithm using 14 control points, etc.

Conclusion

This study has tested and proven the effectiveness of five (5) different optimization strategies. Changing the location and the number of control points both affect the L/D ratio of the system. Compass, simplex, and Torczon algorithms are even more effective in optimizing the design. Combinations of these strategies could be a possible venture in the future of further optimization of aerodynamic systems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Andreoli, M., Janka, A., Desideri, J.A., Free-form-deformation parameterization for

            multilevel 3D shape optimization in aerodynamics. INRIA, No.5019, November              2003.

Dantzig, G. B., Orden, A., Wolfe, P. The Generalized Simplex Method For             Minimizing a Linear Form Under Linear Inequality Restraints. RAND             Corporation, Copyright 1953.

Hong, L., Nelson, B., Discrete Optimization via Simulation Using Compass. Operations   Research Vol. 54, No. 1, January-February 2006, pp. 115-129

Kaku, Michio (1999). Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st century and         Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press

lift-to-drag ratio. (2011). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved             from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/340373/lift-to-drag-ratio

Gill, P. E.,  Murray, W., Wright, M. H., Practical Optimization, Academic Press,    London, 1981.

Torczon, V., Lewis, R.M. Active set identification for linearly constrained minimization   without explicit derivatives, SIAM Journal on Optimization, Volume 20, Issue 3,    2009, pages 1378-1405.

 

 

Appendix A. Algortihm Fluent Results

COMPASS ALGORITHM  FLUENT RESULTS

alpha L CL D CD (L/D)after (L/D)before improvement%

-4

-155.328

-0.19831

20.385

0.02602

-7.6197204

-9.36422

18.629

0

193.67516

0.247414

15.52708

0.0198238

12.4733794

10.08724

23.655

4

572.0383

0.730338

23.95354

0.03058219

23.8811591

22.33445

6.925

8

922.85634

1.178237

41.2369

0.052648

22.3793821

18.7843

19.139

12

1206.4263

1.54027

71.4266

0.09119245

16.8904344

13.231

27.658

16

1362.6852

1.73978

117.0807

0.1494804

11.6388542

10.0595

15.700

20

1412.675

1.7990488

181.91876

0.20324918

7.76541683

6.2311

24.624

SIMPLEX  ALGORITHM  FLUENT RESULTS

alpha L CL D CD L/D)after (L/D)B improvement%
-4 -141.052 -0.18 19.883 0.0253 -7.0941005 -9.36422 24.242
0 209.3865 0.267329 15.5001 0.019789 13.5087193 10.08724 33.919
4 593.6022 0.75786 24.3635 0.031105 24.3644058 22.33445 9.089
8 942.13833 1.202855 42.5575 0.0543344 22.1380093 18.7843 17.854
12 1219.0726 1.556425 70.95902 0.090595 17.1799526 13.231 29.846
16 1399.2947 1.7865207 118.31805 0.15106013 11.8265531 10.0044 18.213
20 1413.675 1.80488 182.91876 0.233537 7.72843092 6.2311 24.030

TORCZON ALGORITHM  FLUENT RESULTS

alpha L CL D CD L/D)after (L/D)B improvement%

-4

-150.766

-0.192488

19.35581

0.024712

-7.7891858

-9.36422

16.820

0

202.4986

0.258536

15.90276

0.0203035

12.7335507

10.08724

26.234

4

578.8115

0.73898

23.36652

0.02983

24.7709757

22.33445

10.909

8

945.22

1.2067903

42.8034

0.054648

22.0828252

18.7843

17.560

12

1226.154

1.56546

73.4578

0.093785

16.691951

13.231

26.158

16

1409.3438

1.7993508

120.0749

0.153303

11.7372057

10.2303

14.730

20

1409.014

1.7989

184.38187

0.235405

7.64182509

6.2311

22.640

 

Anthropology

Good health is one of the most important aspects of human life. Human beings do their best to obtain and maintain good health. Man may achieve this by eating a healthy balanced diet, exercising regularly, drinking plenty of water and avoiding other health hazards. Such hazards include excessive consumption of alcohol and un-prescribed use of hard drugs like cocaine.

To obtain and maintain good health, man applies various ways to achieve this. Some people believe in the power of prayer to heal diseases and ailments. On the other hand, other people believe and use traditional medicines to address their medical concerns while others entirely rely on biomedical medicines to heal their ailments. In the ancient times our ancestors believed and put their trust in traditional medicines. Herbs and medicinal plants were used in various ways while administering them to the sick persons. The various ways include; boiling the leaves of a plant, chewing the roots or the bark of the herb and drinking the resulting liquid or drying the plant and putting the resulting powder in the wound (Myers and Moro, 2000).

In those ancient times people relied on traditional medicines since biomedical medicine had not been discovered. However even after it’s been discovery, most people still depend on the traditional medicine. This medicine cannot however be quantified. The question that arises is whether the biomedical community should accept this medicine. I am on the affirmative that this medicine should be accepted. This is from the fact that biomedical medicine has evolved from traditional medicine where an active ingredient from the herb is extracted and tested for their effectiveness in treating specific disorders. For instance an extract from Artemisia annua a plant from China has been used as anti-malaria for Asia for over 2000 years (Myers and Moro, 2000). Another fact is that some modern medicines have to be proved before being certified for use by people.

 

Response

Monica wrote. “First, most biomedical medicine was made from traditional herbs. The medicine was only improved by scientists and when various tests certified that it could heal certain diseases they recommended that it should be used. There however other diseases that biomedical community have not discovered their cure e.g. HIV/AIDS. This simply means that biomedical medicine cannot be said to have provided permanent solution to all diseases. Therefore even though traditional medicine cannot be quantified, it helps most people deal with their health issues even those the biomedical community cannot address. Just as you have indicated traditional medicine should only be refuted only when it causes health risks to people.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         References

Moro P. A. and Myers J. E. (2006). Magic witchcraft Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion, McGraw

Hill 8th Edition

 

Article Critique: Diversity in the Workforce

The study sought to find the strengths and gaps that exist among diverse workers of East Area Office, a community social work group operating in the city of Calgary, Alberta. The researchers sought to identify gaps left in handling cultural diversity, sexual orientation and health condition questions, disabilities and social inclusion issues among the workforce (Both and Neff, 2008). The researchers, in addition, studied the relationship between East Area Office workers and their counterparts at the Community Recreation Coordinators who provide facilities for recreation and leisure. Furthermore, the researchers sought to establish the effect of East Area Office’s programs and services on the diverse needs of the diverse community (Both and Neff, 2008). Moreover, the study aimed at identifying strategies that the East Area Office could put in place to connect with its diverse community and how it could best meet the needs of the various diverse groups in the community the Office serves (Both and Neff, 2008).

Therefore, the population at risk in this study was the community social workers at the East Area Office and the recreation coordinators. This is because these two groups of workers are the ones who would be affected by discrimination on the basis of culture, disability, sexual orientation and health status at their place of work. Basically, the primary factor that puts this population at risk is the aspect of diversity among the workers such as cultural diversity. Following their contact, culture clash may occur which may result in discrimination against the minority workers. The second factor that puts both East Area Office and the Community Recreation Coordinators at risk is their very existence within one community and yet they are offering similar services to similar people. In another approach, the population at risk could be seen as the population that is affected by conflicts among that may exist among social workers at East Area Office and between the two organizations. In this light, the community that East Area Office and Community Recreation Coordinators serve may suffer from the effects of the poor relationship between workers of the two organizations as well as the cultural discrimination that may exists among East Area Office social workers.

C. What is the relevance of this article for social workers, for you, and for students in this class?

The article is relevant to social workers, social work organizations and those expecting to become social workers such as students in a number ways. In the wake of globalization, cultural competence-the article’s primary concern-will be an essential tool for social workers. Second, the article stresses the importance of being loyal to the social organization that the social worker is affiliated to. When a social worker is proud of their organization, they are likely to obtain job satisfaction from the work they do. Second, the article emphasizes the importance of being culturally sensitive when one is working with people from different cultural backgrounds. Given that many social workers may work in social settings that deal with people from different cultural backgrounds, they are likely to have colleagues from different cultures. The article proposes on how one can deal with situation such as that-by being culturally competent. The article is also relevant to social worker organizations in that it urges them to provide cultural studies to their employees so as to develop cultural competence among them. This cultural competence will be an effective tool in addressing cultural diversity at work place. This results into social inclusion at the place of work.

The article is further relevant because it demonstrates the importance of consulting the communities that the social workers serve in decision making. It further shows that social work is best done at the community where people live as opposed to doing it from the offices.

D. State the author’s premise in the article.

The author’s implied premise is that cultural competence and competency on diversity among social workers within a diverse organization promotes social inclusion and effectiveness of the social work.

Give one strong point and one weak point of the author’s premise. Provide a rationale for your answers. (This is a critical thinking question. Be sure you think about the response and answer each part fully.);

The strength in this premise relies in the fact that it calls for competency on diversity among social workers without limiting itself to one aspect of diversity such as culture. This is a strong aspect of the premise because it includes all aspects of diversity within the work place and the community. The premise is also strong because it identifies the effect of the condition. The condition is competency while the effect is social inclusion and effective social work.

The weakness in the premise is that it does not mention diversity competency on the part of the community. This is because the members of the community interact with themselves during social work sessions in addition to interacting with social workers. Therefore, the premise should have taken into account the importance of diversity competency on the part of the community.

E. What is one specific thing you learned from the article?

From this article, I have especially learned that social workforce should be equipped with sufficient knowledge and skills that will enable it deal effectively with diversity in the workplace and the community they serve. The diversity may be in areas such as cultural background, health conditions, disabilities and sexual orientation.

F. Describe specifically how you would utilize this knowledge in the field (practice); and

The knowledge obtained from this article can be utilized (in real life practice) by ensuring that one is competent on matters of diversity. This can be achieved by attending training institutions with relevant courses. The knowledge and skills on diversity obtained from training can be used to promote sensitivity on disabilities, cultural differences, and sexual orientation and health issues.

G. What question would you ask the author(s) about his/her position, ideas, hypothesis, findings, theory?

Since the authors point out to the importance of being competent with diversity, I have one question on such diversity. How would knowledge of how to deal with sexual orientation of people be of significance because gay, lesbians, and transgender people rarely identify themselves?

H. Could the findings be used to promote social justice?

Yes. The findings can be used in promoting social justice. This is because they stress the importance of ensuring that social workers are knowledgeable on issues to do with diversity such as health statuses, disabilities, sexual orientation, and cultures within the social workforce. This would in turn bring about unity and collaboration within the workforce. This would ensure that social workers meet the needs of everyone in the communities they serve, especially those who may be disadvantaged. When social work meets the diverse needs of a diverse community, then social justice is achieved.

I. Identify one course competency and explain how the article relates to that competency.

One of the course competencies is the ability to analyze a research article and show its relevance to the practice of social work. This article has given an opportunity to carry out a critique that is in line with the course competency.

Reference

Both, P. L. & Neff, R. (2008, October). Working with diverse communities in East Calgary, Alberta. Journal of Social Work 8 (4), 325-339. doi: 10.1177/1468017308094988

abstract/conclusion

Abstract
Asset management of power transformers is based on statistical analysis of transformer’s failures and forced outages. The statistical analysis results are useful. They can be used to determine the design of the transformer, also enhance utility. More so, the results can be used to improve the care of the transformers as well as monitor its actual conditions. It is essential to understand the transformer’s outage rates as well as outage and repair durations.
The Egyptian Electricity Transmission Company (EETC) provides outage information in this thesis. This work presents outage data analysis within eight years, from 2002 to 2009, for 1922 average number of transformers in voltage populations ranging from 33 kV to 500 kV and MVA rating from 5 MVA to 500 MVA. Forced outages due to correct and false action of transformer’s protection systems are carefully considered.
There are two phases of conducting Outage data analysis. The first phase performs failure and repair analysis of transformers while the second phase assesses the impact of transformer outages on customers. Percentage average number of failures (%AANF), and annual average repair time (AART) per transformer represent the failure and repair data of power transformers. Two indicators represent the impact of transformer outages on customer interruptions. These indicators are the annual average interrupted MW (AAIMW) and annual average customer-interruption duration (AACID).
This thesis presents analysis of study on the reliability, availability, and maintainability of power transformers manufactured by EETC. Additionally, failures of transformers are also estimated in the study. The thesis also addresses different maintenance practices that can make a system reliable and efficient.

1.0 Thesis outline
This thesis constitutes four chapters as outlined below:
1.1 Chapter one: Covers theory and operation of transformers. It focuses on the transformers construction and other installation equipments necessary for the transformer operation. It also covers the transformer’s maintenance process. Additionally, the chapter covers the Egypt’s transmission system together with the load development for the past five years.
1.2 Chapter two: Covers in detail the maintenance definition and category as well as the scope of responsibilities of transformers. More so, the chapter addresses the maintenance policies, reliability as well as the causes for transformers failures. It also mentions the previous international survey and studies concerning transformers failures.
1.3 Chapter four: Focuses on the RAM analysis for voltage subpopulation in Egypt and its comparison to IEEE survey in 1979. The chapter investigates calculations of hazard functions, true and estimated failures rates for transformers in all voltage subpopulation against 1979 IEEE survey.
1.4 Chapter five: Provides summary and conclusion of the work already covered in the previous chapters. Moreover, it provides recommendations and suggestions for the future research work meant to reduce the forced outages of transformers.
Conclusion:
The outage data analysis carried out on 1922 (average number) transformers in voltage populations ranging from 33kV to 500kV and MVA rating from 5MVA to 500 MVA presents the following results:
Outages of incomers and over current protection are the leading causes of outages. They are responsible for about 57 percent of outages falling within the range of 6kV to 33kV subpopulation, and of outages within 132kV subpopulation. In the 220 kV subpopulation, the leading cause of outages is the over current protection which contributes to the cause by 19 percent followed by others equivalent to 14 percent of the outage cause. Additionally, the major cause of outages in the 500kV subpopulation is the other over current protection of 23 percent followed by fire systems which translates to 19 percent of the cause.
More so, outages within the range of 66kV to 33kV voltage subpopulation caused the highest annual average of percentage number of failures (%AANF) per transformer followed respectively by the 220kV, 500kV, and 132kV subpopulations. In addition to that, the 500kV recorded the longest annual average repair time (AART) followed by the 220kV, 132kVand 66-33kV subpopulations respectively.
The longest annual average customer interruption duration (AACID) per transformer associates with the 132 kV voltage subpopulation the 66-33kV, 500kV, and 220kV respectively. It was noted that highest annual average interrupted MW (AAIMW) per transformer is associated with the 500kV voltage subpopulation followed by 220kV, 132kVand 66-33kV subpopulations respectively.
Additionally, the fire systems are responsible for the highest number of false trips in all voltage subpopulations except for 220kV subpopulation, where the leading cause of false trips is the busbar protection. Busbar protection is also a significant cause of unauthentic outages in both the 132kV and 66-33kV subpopulations. In the 500kV population, a large number of unauthentic outages arise from over current protection, buchholz and pressure relief. More so, the 220kV subpopulation has the highest failure rate followed by the 66-33kV, 500kVand 132kV subpopulations respectively.
It is clear that both estimated failures and true failures rates are extraordinarily in comparison with the failure rates of 1979 IEEE power transformers survey. Consequently, the reliability of the considered transformer is extremely low. Calculated hazard functions show that failure rate for transformers in most voltage subpopulation increases significantly with time. Therefore, the considered transformers operate in the wear-out phase.
Ideally, the availability of EETC transformers is higher than the average of the 1979 IEEE survey. Although EETC transformers have an unusually high failure rate, their availability is high. This is due to the extremely small MTTR. As matter of fact, MTTR is not the most significant factor that can efficiently and effectively impose a positive or negative impact on the availability.
Recommendations:
EETC should consider replacing most of their transformers, and instead increase the number of transformers to face rapid growth of loads. This will serve to limit over current outages. More so, EETC should provide sufficient stock of spare parts in each power substation. Additionally, the body should also apply new maintenance for the transformers like online monitoring of DGA and RCM. Ideally, false trips of protection system can be reduced significantly by improving maintenance procedures, system monitoring, and strategies as well as revising the design of protection systems.
EETTC should train technicians and Engineers in charge of the maintenance of transformers for to enable them identify and analyze arising problems. Finally, EETC should invest in improving engineers’ educational curriculum in both regional and national control centers to make engineers competent enough to deal with cases of outages, and also understand the behavior of the disconnected network components.

Citation
(1). W H Tang & Q H Wu, Condition Monitoring and Assessment of Power Transformers Using Computational Intelligence Power Systems, Springer, Liverpool, 2011

references

Endnotes:

Books

[1] James H. Harlow, “Electric power transformer engineering,” 9th ed. Florida: CRC Press, 2004.

[2] Robert M. Del Vecchio, Bertrand Poulin, “Transformer design principles: with applications to core-form power transformers,” 2nd ed.Florida: CRC Press, 2010.

[3] Martin J. Heathcoat, CEng, and FIEE, “The J & P Transformer Book,” 12th ed. Oxford: Planta tree,1998.

[4] C. Russell Mason, “The art and Science of protective relaying,” 3rd ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

[5] Walter A. Elmore, “protective relaying theory and application,” 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994.

[6] L.G.Hewitson, Mark brown, and Ramesh Balakrishnan, “ Practical Power system Protection, ”Massachusetts: ELSEVIER,2004.

[7] Richard E. Brown, “Electric power distribution reliability,” 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2009

[8] B. S. Dhillon, “DESIGN RELIABILITY fundamentals and applications” CRC Press, 1999

[9] Richard E. Brown, “Electric Power Distribution Reliability” 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press, 2010.

Handbooks

[10] PROTECTION APPLICATION HANDBOOK, ABB, Vol. 6,1996.

[11] Network protection& automation guide, third edition, AREVA, 2002.

[12] Transformer Fire Protection, Facilities Instructions, Standards, and Techniques, Vol.3-32, January 2005.

[13] Lindley R. Higgyins, and R. Keith Mobley, “Maintenance engineering handbook,” 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill,2001.

[14] Darko Louit, Rodrigo Pascual , Dragan Banjevic, “Optimal interval for major maintenance actions in electricity distribution networks,” IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 31, pp. 396-401, 2009

[15] IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and Commercial Power Systems (Revision of IEEE Std 493-1980), IEEE Std. 493-1990.

[16] Turan Gönen, “Electric Power Distribution Engineering, ” 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press, 2008.

Reports

[17] R.N. Allan, “Basic concepts in Reliability Evaluation, ” IEEE Trans. on Reliability

[18] IEEE Guide for Reporting Failure Data for Power Transformers and Shunt Reactors on Electric Utility Power Systems.ANSI/IEEE C57.117-1986.

Online

[19] IEC 60076-1, “power transformers-general” Edition2, 1993.

[20] WATER SPRAY EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS, Tyco Integrated Systems, Fire Extinguishing division [online].available at http://www.tycoeurope.com.

[21] Marek Zima, and Marrija Bockarjova, “operation, Monitoring and control technology of power systems,” lecture 227-0528-00, March 2007[online]. Available: http://www.eeh.ee.ethz.ch

[22] Ministry of Electricity & Energy. (2010). Annual report of EEHC 2008/2009 [Online]. Available: http://www.moee.gov.eg/English/e-fr-main.htm

[23] Janine Jagers, and Stefan Tenbohlen,” Evaluation Of Transformer Reliability Data Based On National And Utility Statistics,” 2009. Available at http://www.uni-stuttgart.de

[24] Applied R&M manual for defense systems (GR-77 Issue 2009) [Online]. Available: http://www.sars.org.uk/BOK/

Periodicals/Journals

[25] Department of the Army TM 5-686, “ Power transformer Maintenance and Acceptance Testing, ” WASHINGTON DC,16 November, 1998.

[26] Charles W. Brice, “ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS PROTECTIVE RELAYS,” part 3, August 2004

[27] M Chow, L.S Taylor, “Analysis and prevention of animal caused faults in power distribution Systems, ” IEEE trans power delivery, Vol. 10, pp. 995 – 1001, 1995.

[28] T.S. Kim, C.S. Park, S.E. Ahn, “Determining the optimal maintenance action for a deteriorating repairable system,” Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 23, pp.95-101, 2008.

[29] Florin Munteanu, Adrian Nemes, “Methods for maintenance optimization of power system components,” annals of the university of Craiova, Electrical Engineering Series, vol.32, 2008.

[30] Vladica Mijailovic, “Method for effects evaluation of some forms of power transformers preventive maintenance,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 78, pp. 765

[31] G.K. Chana and S. Asgarpoor, “Optimum maintenance policy with Markov processes,” Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 76, pp. 452-456, 2006.

[32] V.I. Kogan, et al., “Failure analysis of EHV transformers, ” IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol.3, 1988, pp. 672-683

[33] Shwehdi, M.H.; Bakhashwain, J.M.; Farag, A.S.; Assiri, A.A., “Distribution Transformers Reliability; Industrial Plant in Saudi Arabia, ” in Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, vol. 4, 2000, Page(s): 2769 – 2774.

[34] A.J. McElroy, “On the significance of recent EHV transformer failures involving winding resonance,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. 94, no. 4, 1975, pp. 1301-1306.

[35] A. Bossi, J. E. Dind, J. M. Frisson et al., “An international survey on failures in large power transformers in service, ” CIGRÉ Working Group 1205, Electra, vol. 88, pp. 21-48, May 1983.

[36] M. Wang and A.J. Vandermaar and K.D. Srivastava,” Review of Condition Assessment of Power Transformers in Service,” IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol.18, 2002.

[37] Dimitrakopoulou, T. Adamidis, K. Loukas, ”A Lifetime Distribution With an Upside-Down Bathtub-Shaped Hazard Function, ” IEEE Transactions on reliability, vol. 56, 2007, pp. 308-311.

[38] J. Murphy, and T. W. Morgan, “Availability, Reliability, and Survivability: An Introduction and Some Contractual Implications, ” Journal of Defense Software Engineering, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 26-29, March 2006 .

[39] M. Hayashi, T. Abe, and I. Nakajima, “Transformation from availability expression to failure frequency expression,” IEEE Trans. on Reliability, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 252-261, 2006.

Conferences

[40] L.Bertling, R.Eriksson, R.N. Allan, “Relation between preventive maintenance and reliability for a cost-effective distribution system”, IEEE Porto Power tech Conference, Portugal, 2001

[41] Matti Lehtonen, “On the optimal strategies of condition monitoring and maintenance allocation in distribution systems,” in Proc. 9th international conferences on probabilistic methods applied to power systems, Stochholm, Sweden, 2006, pp. 1-5.

[42] J. A. LAPWORTH,” TRANSFORMER RELIABILITY SURVEY, ” CIGRÉ Biennial Session, Paris, 2006.

[43] M. Minhas, J.P. Reynders, and P.J. de Klerk, “Failure in power system transformers and appropriate monitoring techniques, ” presented at the 11th Int. Symp. High Voltage Engineering, London, U.K., 1999.

[44] R. Jongen, P. M. E. Gulski, and a. A. J. J. Smit, “Statistical analysis of power transformer component life time, ” in Proc. 8th International Power Eng. Conf. (IPEC 2007), Singapore, 2007, pp. 1273-1277.

[45] Thanapong Suwanasri, Ekkachai Chaidee, and Cattareeya Adsoongnoen “ Failure Statistics and Power Transformer Condition Evaluation by Dissolved Gas Analysis Technique, ” in Proc. International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis, Beijing, China, 2008.

[46] B. Sparling, “Transformer monitoring and diagnostics, ” in Proc.IEEE Power Engineering Society 1999Winter Power Meeting, vol. 2, New York, 1999, pp. 978-980.

[47] J. Fuhr, and T. Aschwanden, “Experience with diagnostic tools for condition assessment of large power transformers, ” in Proc. International Symposium on Electrical Insulation, 2004, pp. 508-511.

[48] S. E. El-Arab, and H. Zarzoura, “Reliability evaluation for the Egyptian transmission and subtransmission networks,” in Proc. Power Tech, Lausanne, 2007, pp. 1723-1725.

[49] G. N. Alexandrov, and M. M. Dardeer, “500 kV Transmission System in Egypt Solving Problem of Voltage Regulation By Means Of Controlled Shunt Reactor Transformer Type (CSRT), ” in Proc. 12th International Middle-East MEPCON2008, Aswan, Egypt, 2008, pp. 178-182.

[50] T. Dietermann, G. Balzer, and C. Neumann, “The development in electricity exchanges and their impact on the German transmission system, ” in Proc. Power Tech., Lausanne, Switzerland, 2007, pp. 12-16.

International Trade

China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 with the intention of largely increasing its strength in the world economy. This paper is going to concentrate on highlighting some of the concerns that have surrounded the entry of China into the WTO such as why it took about 15 years for China to join, issues of trading rights, why some professions such as engineering and nursing have been selected for ASEAN Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRAs), and some of the implications of the Asian production networks and ‘fragments’.

The process of joining the WTO, otherwise known as the accession process, is believed to take about five months or so depending on the commitment of the said country to the process. China is believed to be the country that took the longest period in the process; 15 years of negotiation (United States-China Business Council (USCBC), 2010). Despite this long duration China was determined to see the process come to end successfully.

With the rapid increase in the Chinese economy, and further driven by the intention to increase her command in the world market especially with the growing globalization of businesses, China was more than determined to see the completion of this process that had began in 1986 successfully. This could not be achieved without getting through some major hurdles and that’s why it took about 15 years before china was given green light of joining the World’s largest trade organization, WTO. The main reasons as to why the process took a very long duration before completion was due to the process being highly politicized both in China and in other trading partners such as the United States of America and also breaking the major barriers such as trading rights (Yang, 2000).

The negations could not have been carried out without the issue of “trading rights” rights being addressed in depth. These rights were largely to discuss what is to be traded where and what restrictions were to be reviewed. A good example of these trading rights is where discussions were carried out and agreements reached that China would not impose any restrictions on United States companies when conducting business and especially in distribution of manufactured goods. Further agreements were made that trading rights would be phased out within a period of three years (Yang, 2000; USCBC, 2010)

Definitely, the accession of China to the WTO has had some significant reforms in the domestic economies of China and Vietnam with the major ones being; enhanced transparency in the said economies, the process of accession also saw the introduction of reduced tariffs and mostly on agricultural goods in China with areas such as the grain sector being reformed to ensure Tariff Rate Quarters (TRQs) are adopted. This will ensure by all means that in-quota tariffs remain as low as between 1 to 3 percent (Zweig, 2007).

The accession process also saw to it that restrictions within the China’s economy were made and especially in the areas of banking, telecommunications, travel and tourism among others (USCBC, 2010). These few examples siginificantly show that some transparency had been installed in China’s economy and especially in allowing other players in the service industry without any form of restriction as opposed to what used to happen before the accession. Some of other areas where restrictions were to be lifted included the logistics industry, rental and air courier within a period of about three years (Morrison, 2011).

It arguable that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) included professions such as engineering, architecture, nursing and accountancy in the mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) in line with the intentions of establishing or fulfilling standards on which authorization or even licensing would be made for the goods or services rendered (Hai, n.d). These professions were relatively easy to quantify the standards that were to be applied. For the same reasons it was hard to include professions such as lawyers whose standards could not be regulated by quantifiable measures. Another major reason as to why lawyers were not included was due to the fact that lawyers are basically involved in interpretation and application of law which in this case would not be applicable due to the different constitutions and laws of the member countries.

The advances made in the information and communications technologies in the last two decades have played a very key role in the growth of the East Asian Production Networks. This is largely so because the more skilled labor in that region used to produce high technology components and then have them assembled by the less skilled workers of ASEAN before they were exported to other regions of the world for sale (Thorbecke, 2011). The productions networks grew largely due to their involvement in the production of information and technology components and also due to the increasing demand of the products as a result of the growth in information and technology sector mostly in the developing world. Still it can be argued that the fragmentation of the production industries on the basis of resources and skills of the available labor also played a key role in the growth of the networks (Thorbecke, 2011).

The East Asian Production Networks have very far reaching implications on the economy and trade of the region. The increase of goods from the East Asian region in the world market translates directly to increased business activities both within the East Asian production networks and other parts of the world and more specifically since 1982 to 2008 (Thorbecke, 2011). AS Thorbecke further reports, different production factors have resulted to slightly varying prices of goods such as laptops and textiles. Thorbecke has also shown that the production networks within this region are greatly affected by exchange rates otherwise if exchange rates were stable a continuous flow of goods would be experienced (Thorbecke, 2011).

From the foregoing discussion it is evident that the main reasons as to why China took a very long period before it being in cooperated in the World Trade Organization (WTO) are due to the process being highly politicized both within and outside china and arriving to consensus over some critical matters such as the trading rights. The reasons as to why professions such as engineering have been included in the mutual recognition agreements of the ASEAN and others such as law being left out can be attributed to the intentions of accrediting the products and services of such professions. The East Asian production networks have been largely affected by the rapid growth of the information technology sector both in the region and the targeted market. This has had some serious impacts on the region’s economy.

References

Hai, T. C. (n.d) Mutual Recognition of Surveying Qualifications within the ASEAN Framework Agreement on Services. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from http://www.fig.net/pub/jakarta/papers/ps_05/ps_05_3_teo.pdf

Hew, D. (2005) Roadmap to an ASEAN Economic Community. ISEAS Publications, Pasir Panjang

Morrison, W. M. (2011) China-U.S. Trade Issues. Congressional Research Service.

Thorbecke, W. (2011) The Effect of Exchange Rate Changes on Trade in East Asia. ADBI Working Paper 263. Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from http://www.adbi.org/files/2011.01.21.wp263.effect.exchange.rate.changes.trade.east.asia.pdf

United States-China Business Council (USCBC) (2010) China’s Implementation of Its World Trade Organizations Commitments: An assessment by the US-China Business Council. Retrived on September 5th, 2011 from https://www.uschina.org/public/documents/2010/10/wto_commitments_testimony.pdf

Urata, S. Yue, C. S. and Kimura, F. (2006). Multinationals and Economic Growth in East Asia: Foreign Direct Investment, Corporate Strategies and National Economic Development. Routledge, Oxon

Yang, Y. (2000) China’s WTO Accession: Why has it taken so long? Asia Pacific Press. Retrieved on September 5th, 2011 from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan002258.pdf

Zweig, D. (2007) China’s Reforms and International Political Economy. Routledge, Oxon.