People’s vulnerability to substance use varies as a result of the biological make up (Absi, 2007). Most people have virtually unrestricted access to drugs and related substances. However, not everyone gets to use drugs, and even those who experiment with the substances do not all get addicted. Moreover, the possibility of developing habitual use of substances is not the same across the divide. Naturally, drug abuse starts in adolescence, reaches a peak during the twenties and rapidly drops in the later years. Still, this trend is not universal as some individuals persist with the habit much later into adulthood. These disparaging variations among personalities are attributable to inherent genetic conditions and physical traits (Absi, 2007). Therefore, there is enough evidence ruling out dependence on substance as a socially acquired disorder.

Vulnerability and Genetics

The process of substance abuse and the eventual addiction are a complex one. It is a process that derives heavy influence from the behavioral tendencies of the individual as well as genetic structure thus contributing to the apparent differences among various users. The biological influences upon substance dependence operate at various levels. The biological factors that drive a person to pick up drug abuse appear to vary from those influences that lead the user into deeper use and heavier dependence.

It is also crucial to note that vulnerability can be varied by factors known to stimulate the desire to stop the abuse habit (Preeti, 2007). These biological factors are also responsible for shielding the individual from developing a regular abuse pattern that eventually solidifies into dependence. The genetic variants are prone to catalyzing modified substance reinforcing properties and altering the drug’s pharmacological effect. They also trigger the desire to seek sensation that a certain drug offers which influences the individual to develop a routine for using the substance. The level or amount of the gene in a person determines how these features come into play during the process leading to addiction (Alper and Bastiaans, 1999).

The said gene is also a determinant in a user’s choice of substance. Research into the addiction inducing genetic component follows an interlink age between neurological aspects of vulnerability and substance use, habit maintenance and the uncontrollable resistance to stopping the use (Comer et al, 2007). The studies focus on individuals fitting into a certain category of use duration and dependence extent in an attempt to demystify the genetic make up associated with drug use vulnerability. The studies involved subjects related by the family, so as to establish the precise influence of biological vulnerability on substance dependence. The resultant findings demonstrate that there exists evidence on the genial contribution to disorders such as addiction (Elmer et al, 2000). There is indeed a genetic pattern of vulnerability to chronic substance dependence.

The Endorphin-Deficiency Theory

This theory seeks to explain how an addict’s inherited genealogy is responsible for his addictive susceptibility. The levels of susceptibility to addiction vary from individual to individual due to the inherent mechanisms within (Preeti, 2007). Narcotic addiction is a metabolic disease and the addictive tendency usually outlives the dependence on a drug (Absi, 2007). This metabolic disorder can either precede or follow the narcotic use. This implies that the perennial consumption of narcotics not only leads to a constant and chronic demand for the substance, but an addict could already have had such a demand at the time he began using the drug and became dependent on it.

These findings later supported new knowledge that the body is capable of producing its opiates known as endorphin (Elmer et al, 2000). The addict could possess an inbred endorphin disorder that makes them very sensitive to pain. Consequently, such a person is open to any narcotics that present an opportunity of alleviating their pain. In fact, some theorists argue that the affected individuals not only desire, but could require such relief. This deficiency in endorphin is an indication of a continuous and irreversible dependence on substance that takes place in unusual scenarios of addiction. The individuals in possession of the metabolic deficiency, comprise of only a small proportion of lifetime addicts.

Global Biological Addiction Theories

There exists an addictive illness to which can be attributed why a large number of addicts have previous histories of addiction to different substances (Smith& Meyers, 2007). This explains why it is so difficult to understand predetermined responses could lead the same individual to be as indulged in substances as unrelated as alcohol, Valium and Cocaine. These substances could as well be interlinked by similar activation mechanisms as well as by their pharmacological affluent effects (O’Donohue & Fergusson, 2006).

Still, some scientists pursue the line of thinking that indeed, biological defects are responsible for multiple drug use. According to Lowinson& Ruiz (2005), substances like cocaine, amphetamine and opiates are capable of rousing brain points known to be reward centers. There is also credible proof that some people possess an elevated inclination to substance abuse and as a result, abuse a diverse range of dissimilar substances. The possibility of genetic and environmental attributes feeding into the reward centers to produce unstable and imbalanced reactions is solid ground for investigating the biological backgrounds of drug dependency.

Smith& Meyers (2004) presents a neurological model explaining addiction as a result of self-induced variations in neurotransmission. A certain gene is responsible for producing enzymes that affect hormones, as well as neurotransmitters, and the individual ends up developing a personality more prone to substance abuse.

Interpersonal Addiction

The dependence on drugs could also be explained by the net effect of interpersonal, physical relationships. Chemical imbalances drive substance abusers to engage in self-destructive, compulsive and unhealthy relations with others in similar circumstances. These people are no different from the rest of the populace.

However, they have a biological inclination to fall in love unconditionally and uncontrollably and consequently indulging in disastrous romantic associations (Gass& Olive, 2008). Dutcher& Moore (2007) suggests that subdued neurochemical regulation leads the affected persons to become excessively romantically attached, mostly to inappropriate partners, and end up overtly depressed following the failure of these relationships.

In conclusion, though the biological theories do not exhaustively provide concrete evidence that substance use is exclusively a manifestation of biological and genetic traits inherent in the abuser; they give ample ground for further investigation. On the other hand, dependence on drugs cannot be dismissed as a socially acquired disorder since it is evident that an individual’s biological extraction and genetic deficiencies trigger the vulnerability.








Absi, M (2007). Stress and Addiction. Biological and Psychological Mechanisms. Boston: Academic Press.

Alper, K.R& Bastiaans, J (1999). Treatment of Acute Opioid Withdrawal with Ibogaine. The American Journal on Addictions8 (3).

Comer, S.D, Sullivan, M.A& Hulse, G.K (2007). Sustained-release naltrexone: novel treatment for opioid dependence. Expert Opin Investig Drugs16 (8).

Elmer, G. I, Uhl, G.R, Labuda, M.C& Pickens, R.W. (2000). Human Substance Abuse Vulnerability and Genetic Influences. National Institute of Drug Abuse 23(1).

Dutcher, L.W& Moore (2009). Neurobiotic Reinforcement on Substance Dependence. Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health Fitness and Behavioral Medicine, 2(1).

Gass, J.T, &Olive, M.F (2008). Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism. Biochem. Pharmacol.75(1).

Lowinson, J.H& Ruiz, J.H (2005). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook(4th Ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

O’Donohue, W.K, Ferguson, K.E (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology and Behavior Analysis.” The Behavior Analyst Today7 (3).

Preti A (2007). New developments in the pharmacotherapy of cocaine abuse. Addict Biol12 (2).

Smith, J.E& Meyers, R.E (2004). Behavioral Approaches to Treating Substance Abuse-Abusing Individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today 5(4).

Scholarship Essay



Running Head: Scholarship Essay








Student Name

Subject Name

Professor’s Name

Date of Submission

Education does not always involve the study of books or going to class but rather, it is inclusive of any experience that affects ones thoughts, feelings and/or actions in a formative way. It is the process through which societal values, customs, skills and knowledge are passed from one generation to another. Since time immemorial, education has been a strong pillar in any given society; the educated members being more respected as they are more knowledgeable and consequently more successful in life. It is for the above reasons that I grew up respecting education and knowing that I had to be educated in the right way, to be able to achieve my lifelong goals and dreams. As a kid, I always wanted to do want interested me most and even take it up as a profession; machines interested me and my dream to become a mechanical engineer one day did not come as a shock to those who were close to me and who actually understood my passion.

I was not born into a rich family, nor was I brought up in a rich neighborhood, though I always knew that one day, my life would brighten up and I would live the life I always envision for myself, doing what I enjoy most. From the beginning, my primary school education was not a bed of roses. It was characterized by a number of hardships like walking long distances every morning and evening to get to school, a school which was a few kilometers from home, but which my parents thought was best for me, the lack of educational materials and having to read at night with candles as the only source of light due to the lack of electricity. Years passed by and sooner than later, I had finished my primary school education, and was graduating into high school. It would have been easier to join a public high school together with most of the folks, who I grew up with, but my grades were way above average and the chance that I could actually get a scholarship into one of the best private high schools in the state excited me. And so I made an application. However, my application was declined, but as luck would have it, one of my primary school trustees had seen my potential and he offered to sponsor my high school education. It has been a smooth sail since then, with new experiences every day, meeting new friends, gaining new confidences and working harder towards my goal.

I am sure that high school has/will provide a good baseline for my future endeavors. I have often taken up units which utilize machines and I believe that my skills have been polished and will enable me to join the university to study mechanical engineering. I look forward to the time that I will finish my education and employ my skills practically in the professional field. As the saying goes, east or west home is best. I intend to return back to my home country where there is an evident need for human capital. The resources in my home country are under-utilized, and with the educational qualifications that I will have obtained, I am certain that I will play a big part in promoting growth and development in my home country. Apart from that, I also intend to use my knowledge, skills and whatever resources I will have gained as at that time to give back to society; in encouraging and supporting young children who might have a background similar to mine not to give up but rather work harder towards their goals. The possibility of the above will be enhanced by the fact that I have always engaged in community activities something which has helped me meet different people and develop networks which will help promote my deeds.

I have been a prominent member in three different youth groups in my community, which are involved in different activities ranging from youth empowerment campaigns to promotional activities which solicit for donations from people to give to children’s homes. This has enabled me to learn that people are different in their different ways, and that acceptance of these differences is what will promote healthy relations and curb conflicts. Given an opportunity, I hope to help promote these relations for the betterment of individuals and the society as whole.


Ebony. 1993. Johnson Pub.Co.


The enlightment and the question of its refusal of religion and the church

The enlightenment period is believed to be the time of reasoning around the 18th century in Europe where intellectual’s movement began with great philosophers coming up and try to move and mobilize the ability to reason by people so as that they can change the society and advance knowledge (Jacob, 1991). David Hume a Scottish historian is one of the philosophers during the enlightenment time. Thinking liberty and thought expression is always dangerous to the power vested in priesthood power. Priests have been considered to be the enemies’ of liberty in all the world ages is certain (Hackett, 1992). Their steady conduct must be founded on reason and interest that are fixed.

Human beings are free to get the truth and obtain reality. Religions, governments and other institution should allow people to obtain the truth and get real information. The enlightenment turned away from church and religion thus rejecting it. Through religion, the church used its doctrines to persecute and prevent people from having democracy and liberal views. Realization of liberty varied between different countries either through constitution and other movement activities. Either way, the efforts were all aimed at realizing a common goal of independent reasoning of people and democracy. During the same period is when churches broke away from the Roman Catholic. According to David Hume, the priest and the church at large were involved in serious manipulation of its faithful minds such that they never tried to search for the truth and reality. In Britain and other countries of Europe, the belief had different implications. When the great empire of Rome collapsed, the control of the entire Europe devolved to the Christian churches. The roman church was the ultimate institution that had enough infrastructures to ensure their cause and order. There was a profound spiritual influence since there was a complete secular church control. Doctrines and systems of theology of the church were used to control the minds of the Christians. Religious leaders were believed to have specific motivations from theirs faithful. File and rank get their inspiration from the faith light, whereas the religious leaders were taken by a mixture of self interest and calculation. Philosophers during the period of 18th century decided to unlock peoples mind by trying to spread reality (Hackett, 1992).

The disruption and slaughter of Britain’s civil war that ended in 1649 by the execution of the king changed the minds of many to the political philosophy discovery. The discovery made people who made strong disagreement to be able to live in the same country together. Theocrats and autocrats came with the idea of having a free and democratic society. Hume had strong criticism to the religious leaders. Religious liberty was considered to be very dangerous. Christian’s sects did all their best to deny liberty religion. Majority of Roman catholic in the 1529, demanded religious liberty for their congregation in territories covered by Lutherans, while they refused religious liberty to the Lutherans in the Catholic territories (Haakonssen, 2006). Toleration ideas were inimical to the churches. Christians regarded the champions of tolaration as enemies in England and most part of Europe.

Humans deserved a right to life, property and liberty according to the enlightenment, which was being denied by the priest (Halsall, 1997). Fredrick the great was the first leader in Europe to espouse toleration in religion and equally detested all the denominations. Voltaire became the greatest toleration champion in France. Much of his time was spent on fighting fight against intolerance in religion, punishments that were inhuman and injustice. Liberal thinkers were also considered enemies by the church. At one time Paine Thomas was forced to flee England due to his views that were libertarian. He was instrumental in the establishment of new revolutionary government spirit in America and through him and other free thinkers; the USA had no option but to adopt a constitution that was secular. Deist’s like Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington and john Adams were like Paine. The Bill of Rights and the USA constitution were direct enlightenment products, rejecting directives that were religious and embraced toleration principles.

Torture was used in Europe so as to make sure that person accused, according to the canon law, by their own mouths would condemn and admit themselves to liberty crimes (Halsall, 1997). When the Emperor Joseph II decided to end persecution that were religious, and consequently passed a toleration edict in the Australian Empire, he was strongly objected by Pius VI a pope from 1775 to 1799 (Haakonssen, 2006). The emperor had allowed anyone to be a lawyer, a physician, to hold any public office; he also abolished censorship and made education system to be both compulsory and secular. The church and the pope were outraged. Gregory XVI the pope had denounced the press freedom, speech freedom, conscience freedom and freedom to education. It appeared as if God had instructed him about the issues of liberty since he had no doubt about any of them and his decisions (Jacob, 1991). He claimed that ideas that were liberal were as bad as a sewer full of filth and bound to be vomited. He refused the separation of the church from the state. He attacked countries that were moving towards democracy which included Belgium, France and Austria. Pius IX declared that Austrian laws were illegal and threatened to spiritual penalties to those having any involvement in them (Halsall, 1998).

Muslims too had religious intolerance, where they segregated against women, their belief in religious wars also were against the right to life of their followers (Israel, 2010). The right to kill by using terrorism is also inhuman. The Muslims fanatics believed that the Koran contained absolute truth that could not be questioned. Similarly as open criticism through democracy that results to a good government, rather than the suppression of autocracy controlled debate, criticism freedom discourages religious leaders from the propagation of prejudice and superstition and followers manipulation (Hill, 2004). Defenders of enlightenment were correct to be afraid of religious enthusiasm. Priests, imams and rabbis have to develop openness to understanding. Apart from the Roman Catholics who were denied basic rights, other European countries also denied rights to Christians apart from the ones in the denominations approved by the state (Halsall, 1998). Churches abused their powers everywhere, even in the democracies that were liberal. Religious registration was compulsory in Sweden. In Europe naming of children was not free it was controlled by the religion. In France, only biblical and saints names were allowed until the 1990s (Cassirer, 1979). Any person that was not baptized had no status of civic and any legal name that would be accepted. Kings or people were believed to have been appointed by God and everyone was expected to follow their conditions and demands. The church provided everything to the society from civil servants to diplomats. Universal suffrage idea was not considered. Many denominations took sides with whoever was going to possibly favor their interest (Israel, 2010).

The church and the religion were both rejected by the enlightenment since they were together used to prejudice people and prevent them from gaining knowledge (Cassirer, 1979). The champions of the ability to reason among them philosopher Rene’s Discrete and David Hume helped people in the spreading of knowledge that they need to be able to make independent reasoning. Through religion doctrines and believes the minds of innocent Christians were used to block them from making judgment (Hill, 2004). Religions and Churches in all countries should allow their followers to be free and feel independent. Many countries majorly in Europe had different ways that in which religion and churches were acting towards their Faithfull’s and how the enlightenment responded. The enlightenment was a great tool that led to reforms and democracy that is being enjoyed all over.


Blom, P. (2005).Enlightening the world. New York: Pricely

Cassirer, E. et al. (1979). The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Hill, J. (2004). Faith in the Age of Reason. Downers Grove, IL: Lion/Intervarsity Press

Halsall, P. (1997). David Hume: On Miracles. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 1st September 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/hume-miracles.asp

Halsall, P. (1998). Thomas Paine: Essays on Religion. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 1st September 2011. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/paine-essaysreligion.asp

Haakonssen, K. (2006).Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hackett, L. (1992). The Age of Enlightenment: The European Dream of Progress and Enlightenment. Chicago: Chicago press.

Israel, J. I. (2010). “A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press

Jacob, M. C. (1991). Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Environment and People

Environment issues are major concern of our day to day life activities especially when we see in some way or form that almost all creatures have recognized the importance of nature and its biological diversity. Societies have understood the need of maintaining environment as recurrent statistics show that the number of plant and animal species as well as microorganisms is reducing day in day out, and their ecosystems such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are getting misused increasingly.

With as much attention as the environment has been getting lately, one would think that we are all headed for a fight to preserve the species of the world, its resources and its attractive diversity of nature. However, things are not easy as one would think. In fact, many of the environmental issues that are attracting most of the public attention are worse that one could think as we witness increased destruction of rain forests and persistent melting of glaciers. This shows that there is yet a big journey to be covered.

Certainly, the question of what is the major concern of the environment today is not only a contradicting question, but also an overwhelming question because there are so many different aspects of the environments which are being impacted today. They range from problems associated with overpopulation, global warming, and deforestation, to many different types of things that eventually lead to destruction of natural environment and to the concerns that impact individuals who live in this planet earth.

In order to have a clear focus point, these environmental issues can be broadly categorized into four major classes, namely; water issues, air issues, waste and land pollution issues, and climatic change issues. Each of these four classes of environmental concern has other sub-categories and entities but when grouped in that manner, easy understanding of major issues is attained. The two main concerns which will be evaluated in this paper are waste and land pollution and climatic change concerns, although water and air concerns will initially be evaluated briefly because they contribute to other environmental concerns.

Concern on water issues is brought about by water pollution and increasing scarcity of clean drinking water in the world. More people should get involved in reducing water waste as much as possible through basic and technical methods that include reducing the daily water usage, collecting rain water, recycling and reusing water, and via extensive methods such as setting up landscapes that are natural which do not require a lot of water for plants. Government and non-governmental organizations should join hands to fight water pollution in the entire globe.

Air issue, although most people do not consider it to be a critical environmental concern issue since it does not seem to pose immediate pressing threats to many people, it usually brings about devastating health problems and also it threatens the natural environment. This means that this is an issue that should be tackled immediately and carefully right away. Some of the possible ways through which air pollution can be minimized is reducing car and other automotives usage, and instead walk or ride a bicycle. People can also cut on chemical usage that pollutes air, while industries can clean the gases they emit before releasing it to the atmosphere through oxidation and reducers.

Waste and land pollution

One of the biggest concerns that impact many different parts and almost the entire globe is the issue of waste. Toxic waste that result from agricultural, mining, garbage, industrial, and ashes as well as placement of electronics into landfills on a wide scale basis makes this a major issue that entirely everyone in the world is impacted by.

Land pollution is facilitated by waste and soil pollution activities. The level of garbage is increasing in an overwhelming rate because large percentage of solid waste in use today is non-biodegradable, meaning that they are discomposed by either organic or inorganic processes. Such wastes include plastic containers and bags, electronic equipment, and used cars among others.

These wastes end up causing other types or pollution especially air and water pollution, not forgetting that they take up a big portion of land space that is much needed. McKibben (2007) also notes that nuclear weapons can be considered as solid wastes which have resulted to significance rise in temperatures. To actively reduce contribution to waste, people should begin buying what they require. They should also learn how to recycle and re-use majority of these items instead of dumping them off. Efforts of making a change to this environmental concern can reduce impact on environment.

Climatic changes concern

According to Fast Fact (), this is another and probably the most area of concern that people have in this world. This is because climate change irrespective of how minor it is causes significant problems to large portions of the world if not the entire globe. Often, scientists talk of climate change which is resulting in global warming. Consequently, species and environmental habitats are decreasing while the chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally get diminished. In fact, climate change is one of the great threats that are facing the world. The bitter part of this issue is that it is induced by people.

Climate change has effects on environment that include melting of glaciers which leads to augment in sea level, and destruction of Ozone layer. This means that reproduction of both plants and animals will gradually decrease. Scientists also associate disasters such as hurricanes and floods to climate change. These may probably end the already in place civilization. According to Fast Fact the rate at which temperatures are rising as a result of gas emission will cause temperatures to rise by over 11 degrees Fahrenheit. As a result, species will go extinct due to hurricanes, famine and drought.

Should geo-engineering be explored more and regulated to save nature as we know it?

Geo-engineering is a discipline that describes those activities that are designed specifically and deliberately to effect a change in global climate with the objective of reducing or reversing human induced climate (anthropogenic) change. It covers numerous methods and technologies although it is divided into two major categories. The first category deals with those techniques that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere like sequestering and locking this gas in geological formations. The second category entails those techniques that reflect solar radiations like injecting sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere to mimic the cooling effect that is brought about by large eruptions of volcanic (Wood).

Geo-engineering techniques and technologies vary so much to an extent that any regulatory framework for this discipline cannot be uniform. Instead, those methods especially for carbon removal which are closely related to familiar existing technologies could be regulated by formulating international regulation for the already present regimes in order to encompass geo-engineering.

As indicated by Wood some scientists view geo-engineering as the last-available option that will prevent people from destroying this planet. However, it comprises most innovative and hazardous ideas that are considered to stop climate change. Therefore, geo-engineering should be explored more and regulated in order to save the nature more than we know. This is because it is believed to have potential unforeseen catastrophic consequences. Its techniques may also allow only one nation to unilaterally affect the climate in future. Aslo, there are some small scale geo-engineering testing that are already underway and yet to be implemented. Moreover, people and scientists may need geo-engineering as an alternative if, in the event of reducing greenhouses gases the plans fails and the world face high disruptive climatic change. In addition, geo-engineering techniques that are currently available do not present viable alternatives of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Lastly, scientists recognize that it is good to keep options of geo-engineering under review because some might eventually have a role to play when it comes to dealing with climate change if reduction of emissions will not be attained quickly enough.

In conclusion, geo-engineering techniques should be graded according to factors which include disposal of potentially hazardous materials in the environment and the direct effect on the ecosystem. Regulations for geo-engineering should also be tailored accordingly and those techniques that score low against the required criteria should be reviewed and additional regulations should be imposed to them. Those that score high should also be subjected to extra controls.

On the major environment concerns, it is evident that there are other types of environmental concerns that people are inclined to focus on when we observe what is going on within the environment around us. However, if an individual takes a closer look at any of the specific concern, he/she will realize that it falls into other types of concerns as a sub-type within them. This means that environmental concerns are interrelated and intertwined as they facilitate or cause similar problems in the environment.










Works cited

Fast Facts. All Wilderness.

McKibben, B. From The End of Nature. 2007.

Wood, G. Moving Heaven and Earth. (no year).


Service recovery of Heathrow airport

Title: Service recovery of Heathrow airport
Introduction / aims and objectives
London Heathrow AirPort is as well referred to as Heathrow (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL. ‘It is located in London Borough of Hilling don’ (Sherwood 1990). It is one of the busiest Airports in the United Kingdom and has been said to be the third busiest airport in the world form the current statistics of 2011. This has been arrived after the consideration of the passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport in the whole world.
‘It is one of the busiest Airports in the European Union by passenger traffic’(Cotton, Mills & Clegg1986). And the third busiest in Europe after the Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport and Frankfurt Airport .Heathrow is the main Airport in London having replaced other air port in London which includes the RAF Northolt, Gatwick, Stansted, Luton, and the London City.
Current record indicates that more than 175 million passengers have travelled using the Heathrow airport making it the busiest Airport in the World and making London the busiest city in the world as well. .The air port has the following details illustrated here below.

Air port type
BAA limited
Heathrow Airport limited
Hilling don, UK
Hub for
British Airways, BMI
51o28’39”N 000o41’” W
Passangers 2011
75000, 000
Location within Greater London Run away Direction Length Surface m ft 09L/27R 3,901 12,799 Grooved Asphalt 09R/27L 3,660 12,008
Grooved asphalt Statistics (2010) Passengers 65,881,660
Passenger change  in 09-10  0.2%
Aircraft movements 454,823
Movements change 09-10  2.5%

Heathrow airport is used by over 90 airlines flying to 170 destinations all over the world. This air line fly to approximately 170 destinations of the whole world. It is a primary Hub for the BMI and the British Airways and virgin Atlantic has a base at the Heathrow.  67 M passengers travel annually of which 11% are abound for the destinations within the UK. 43% are short international travelers and 46% are long distance travellers.
It is from this understanding that the company needs a service charter for the customer handling and for the customers’ satisfaction. It is no wonder that the business keeps fluctuation and therefore, there is a needs to establish the challenges for the Heathrow air port and address each challenge in order to retain the customers in the airport and as well win occur their loyalty I terms of the services that is provided.
To find out solutions for the problems encountered by the clients of  Heathrow Airport.
To improve customer service, customer loyalty and customer retention and enhance customer satisfaction for the clients
Service blueprint
It is a systematic list of all the service functions that are performed and giving an averaged figure for the completion of the  service plan.
Heathrow is one big giant and sprawling airport divided into five terminals. T1,T2, T3, T4 and T5. Is a one big airport handling most of the international airport traffic. Due to the increased size, and as well associated increased demand for security requirements and as well the fact that the growth does not take place because of the busy schedule the whole airport is always in, there is is need to  keep the clients and ensure the their satisfaction . Most of the time there is overcrowding and this has as well developed a a reputation of very long queues, leading to inefficiency and delays. Some delays. However are justified especially if it involves the security of the clients and with regards to bad weather. Also the frequent closure of specific terminals for repair is a cause of major inconveniences and this need to be done for the long term basis. A specific instance is that involving the closure of terminal 2 and terminal five making all the airlines to relocate to new terminal position which halts all the logistics of the airline for the duration it is relocating. Terminal changes are being made and this will definitely cause very long queues at the time of resumption of the service. In this case, British Airways is being moved from terminal three to terminal five. Customers need to be well organized and guide throughout this because as big as the terminals are located, there will be confusion in all the terminals when location of the proper terminals. In the process, security need to be enhanced and luggages of the customers may disappear in the process.  This is the new location of the new airline s terminal for the airports.
Star alliance Airlines
One world , virgin Atlantic, British Airways, headed for Barcelona, Gibralter, Madrid, Lisbobon, Nice, Helsinki, Malaga, Vienna.
British Air ways and Qantas Flights to Bangkok, Singapore and Australia.
Star alliance.
T4All sky Team airlines.
All Team Airlines
Most British Airways flights

Getting at the airport has no problem because of the highly networked routes to the air port. Which are by car and train. This has enhanced road network to the extent of 24 hour accessibility. However, at peak hours, there is always road congestion traffic on the way and one may take long to get to the air port especially when one is late for the Airport. ‘There is also underground tunnel to the air port that serves to reduce the traffic at the entrance of the airport’ (Sherwood 1990).
The following represent the terminal at the Heathrow airport

Heathrow airport terminals
Customer care representatives need to be located at every terminal and fed by different road net works from the main road to avoid road congestion at the time they are getting in. ‘This should be followed by a well represented guideline maps of the places and the directions of the booking point for the verification of the tickets, check up/screening of people and the luggage point, and exit for boarding of the airlines’ (Bettencourt 2010). This maps need to be made online and as well provided along with the tickets to reduce wastage of time looking for direction.  As such time management would have been put into consideration.
Service blue print map.
Area of concern
Customer service.
They are regulated by BAA, HAAA
Installation of customers sensitive equipments (PSE), such as the Lifts, terminal track transit system
Arrival baggage reclaims belts, fixed electrical ground bulk, stands pre-conditioned air for guidance of the aircrafts.
This need to be installed afresh as it concerns the security for the customers.
Queuing at departure transfer area, security control posts, staff search, for catering the flight crews.
Passenger perception of availability for the sitting in the departure, the quality of information, directions, cleanliness of the toilets,

The security ought be increased and
Design the map of the service blueprint of the airport
Heathrow facts and figures.
Total size of Heathrow Airport: 1,227 hectares
Number of runways: 2
Length of runways: Northern 3,902m x 45m. Southern 3,658m x 45m.
Annual air transport movements in 2010: 449,220
Daily average air transport movements in 2010: 1,231

Destinations and airlines
Total number of  airlines: 89
Total number of destinations served are about 176 (in 90 countries)
Passenger numbers
The number of passengers arriving and departing per day on average is approximately  180,100 (split 50/50 between arriving and departing.
For 2010 the number of passengers arriving and departing  was 65.7 million
Busiest day ever recorded passenger numbers was on 18 July 2010 with 232,000
The most busiest month ever recorded passenger numbers July 2010 with 6.7 million
One of the most busiest year ever recorded passenger numbers 2007 with 67.86 million
The international passengers as percentage of 2010 is 93% (60.9 million)
domestic passengers in 2010 constitute 7% (4.8 million)
Percentages of domestic, European, North American and other long haul passengers in 2009
Domestic – 7.4%
Europe – 40.3%
North Atlantic – 22.3%
Other long haul – 30.0%
Passenger volume by terminal millions 2010
Terminal 1 – 13.6 million passengers on 118,318 flights
Terminal 2 – closed for reconstruction
Terminal 3 – 20.4 million passengers on 107,387 flights
Terminal 4 – 8.3 million passengers on 54,217 flights
Terminal 5 – 23.4 million passengers on 166,940 flights
Passenger profile: AB: 49%; C1: 41%, C2: 8%, DE: 2%

Cargo tonnage in 201o was approximately 1.47 million metric tonnes
Total BAA staff at Heathrow: 6,422
Total employment at Heathrow Airport: 76,500
Failure analysis
‘There have been several failures at their port before’ (Gallop 2005). This includes the following. First was about the check flight time and secondly it was on passengers loosing their luggage’s. ‘This destroys all the confidence and trust that clients have on Heathrow’ (El-Haji & Roy 2005). Nothing like it has happened before should ever be allowed again in history.

These incidences have occurred before such as:
Incidence                Date                    Event
Terrorism and security.
8th  June 1968,

26th November 1983

21st 1988


March 2002
‘The assassin of Martin Luther King Jn was captured at Heathrow while attempting to board and UK bound plane with a Canadian passport’ (Halpenny1992).
IRA planted several bombs at the terminal car park. Two people died.
Robbery occurred and 68000gold bars worth 26million pounds was stole and only a fraction was recovered
Pam Am Flight 103 from hearth throw was blown up killing 259 people on board.
On a six day period, Heathrow was targeted thrice.
Thieves stole US $#million that had arrived on a south African Airways flight.
Weather and natural effects.
15th April 2010,  to
22nd April 2010,

18th dec 2010,

Jet engines were damaged by volcanic ash in the upper atmosphere.
Heavy snow fall causing closure of the entire air port, considered one of the largest incidence of Heathrow. Flights cancelled for five days. 9500 passangers spend the night at Heathrow.
The snow also occupied the thecar park and on 198 parking stands which had all been occupied by aircrafts.

Pareto analysis  is the use charts that contain both a bar and a line where the individual values are represented in a descending order by the bars and the cumulative total is represented by the line
Customer retention
Process improvement –performance
Process improvement includes the flowing measures being conducted at the airport.
in order to reduce the loss of luggage of passengers and the fear of threats and death by terrorist. The Heathrow airport needs to increase the number of security personnel at the airport
Loss of luggage as well will be reduced utilization of the most currently technological screening equipments to check for bombs, and other dangerous weapons. ‘Security is a vital for passengers concern over their life’ (Bromn & Keely 2006).
The airport as well needs be to develop other run a ways so that there cannot be any delays in term of pacing on the run away. ‘Considerate amount of money should be invested in the run always to help develop the airport’ (Clark & Baker, 2004).
A railway hub should be constructed and inked to the fast speed electric rail, this will enable to reduce the congestion of the vehicles at the car park and also ease on the traffic on the road that lead o the airport. This will address the lack of accessibility of the south west of the Airport by connecting to the Guildford, reading and waterloo.
From the total for 180, 000 passengers, the total number passengers arriving and departing is 50/50 at the airport.

Customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer retention
Customers believe in quality service and security. When all this are guaranteed, the Heathrow will be the safest destination by foe everybody in the world.
Challenges can always be handled when approached from a customer point of view. From the statistics indicated here, it can b seen that as much as Heathrow is the busiest airport in the world, there are decreasing number of clients. There can only be one way of mitigating this challenge, by improving on customer satisfaction and then the customers will be retained.

Bettencourt, L. 2010. Service innovation: how to go from customer needs to breakthrough     services
Bromn, Mn and Keely 2006. Asking the right questions: a guide to critical thinking.O xford     university press.
Clark, M. & Baker, D 2004. Business success through excellence. Michigan.
Clark.G and Johnson 2008. Services operations management :Improving service     delivery.Elsevier
Cotton, Jonathan; Mills, John & Clegg, Gillian. (1986) Archaeology in West Middlesex.\     Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon
El-Hail and Roy2005. Service design for six sigma: how to use lean speed and six sigma quality     to improve services and transactions.
Gallop, A 2005 Time Flies: Heathrow At 60. Stroud: Sutton Publishing
Graham. C2003. Taking to the Skies: the Story of British Aviation 1903–1939. Countryside Halpenny, BB 1992 Action Stations Vol.8: Military Airfields of Greater London.
Sherwood, P1990. The History of Heathrow. Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon Smith,




(Your name)

(Your institution)

(Your instructor’s name)

(Your course)


Table of contents

Executive summary 3

Introduction 3

Business History 5

Description of business 6

Market and industry analysis 7

Description of the products 9

Objectives and goals of the company 10

Competition and competitive advantage 11

Operational plan 11

Marketing plan 13

SWOT Analysis 14

Ownership and Management structure 15

Benefits created by the company to the Canadian citizens 17

Financial plan 18

Revenue and cost estimation 18

Sales projections 18

Cost estimation 21

Implementation strategy 21

Internal control plan 22

Projected income statement 23

Cash flow forecast 25

Forecasted balance sheet 27

Ratio analysis 28

References 30

Executive summary

African food production companies are almost non-existent in the region of Quebec in Canada. On the other hand, the population of Africans living in Canada is increasing on a daily basis. One of the most treasured meal ingredients especially in West Africa is Gari which is a type of meal made from cassava, the other common ingredient is red palm oil which is used by Africans, South Americans as well Asians from the South East Asia as cooking oil and also for its medicinal qualities. Cassava and yams flour as well as Raw Cassava and yams are also among Africans’ favorite meals. Therefore the idea of manufacturing these products in Quebec and Canada as a whole provides a lucrative business opportunity as shown by this Business Proposal.

The proposed manufacturing company shall assume the name Divine Seal International and shall be setup at an initial cost of $400,000 in the Montreal metropolitan area of Canada. The company is expected to start its operations on January 1st 2012 and due to the large market for its products, it is expected to break even in the second year of operation. The company shall employ 30 members of staff at the initial stages and this number is expected to increase as the company’s operations expand and this and other operational areas of the company indicates that the benefits presented to the Canadian population are enormous.


Gari is a major staple food in West Africa and according to African foods 2011; it constitutes a daily meal to more than 150 million people across the world. Gari can be prepared in several ways and the end result can be a snack, a whole meal or a biting. For instance, Gari can be mixed with cold water and eaten as a snack on a very hot day, it can be cooked into dough like meal that is known as eba or gari foto and eaten with stew like fish stew, chicken stew or other African vegetable stews or soups. Gari is most popular in Ghana, Siera Leone, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Guinea as well as other West African states (African Foods, 2011)

Red Palm Oil is a traditional fat that is used as for its medicinal qualities and also as cooking oil. The red palm oil is commonly used in Egypt as a sacred food. The oil is also very common in West African countries especially Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea, Ivory Coast etc. The oil comes from a fruit that is referred to as oil palm whose scientific name is Elaesis Guineensis and it grows in West African Coast lines as well as other tropical areas in Africa. The oil palm also grows in South America and South East Asia where tropical climates are found (Bruce, 2010).The palm oil is used as cooking oil in preparation of foods and it is very common in West Africa where it is used as the main cooking oil and for its nutritional and healing properties, it is used to boost the immune system and health of the West African population as well as inhabitants of other areas where it is commonly used (Bruce, 2010).

Raw Cassava and Yam are also known for their nutritional value and are very common in the West African states. Cassava and Yam flour on the other hand is a very common staple food in West Africa and it is used to prepare dough like meal that is served with stew or African vegetable soup. It is also very common in East and Central African countries (Ciacco and Appolonia, 1978).

The region of Quebec had a total of over 7.5 million inhabitants as at the end of 2006, 25%of this population lives in Montreal due to its diverse cultural vitality, open society nature, economic strength and dynamism as well as low cost of living. Montreal city generates over 1.1 million jobs and as such it is home to a big proportion of immigrants into the Quebec region. According to the 2001 Census, over 70% of Quebec’s immigrants live in the Montreal area and they account for 28% of the total population of Quebec (Government of Quebec, 2006). Immigrants from Africa into Quebec account for 12.4% of the total immigrant population of Quebec according to the 2001 census. By January 2006, 28.7% of the total visas issued to immigrant individuals into Quebec were from Africa and the majority of those were from West Africa (Government of Quebec, 2006).

As a result of this huge immigrant population of West Africans and Africans in general into Quebec especially the Montreal region, this business proposal seeks to open a new business in Quebec’s Montreal region under the Entrepreneurial immigration program. The business shall be involved in the production of Gari which is a West African Tropicana corn flakes meal that is common among West Africans as mentioned above. The business shall also produce Red palm oil which is common cooking oil and is also used for its medicinal properties by West Africans; finally the business shall produce raw and processed Cassava and Yam flour which is a staple food of West Africans to be supplied to the growing population of West Africans and other Africans living in Quebec region of Canada. The business shall target the Africans living in Quebec and eventually shall spread to other regions of Canada and eventually to South America and the United States of America.

The business is already operational in Africa where it was incorporated in the year 2007 and a new branch was opened in Malaysia which was incorporated in the year 2011. The name of the business shall be ‘Divine Seal International’.

Business History

The proposed business of manufacturing Gari, red palm oil, raw and processed cassava and yam flour started in Africa when the company to manufacture the above mentioned products was incorporated in the year 2007. In 2011, the company expanded its network in 2011 by opening a branch in Malaysia a country that is located in the South East Asia where the tropical climate is also common and such, the population of Malaysia use the Palm Oil as cooking oil and also for its medicinal value. The Gari and cassava and yam flour is also a common meal in Malaysia and other South East Asia countries therefore the branch is expected to do very well in that region.

Gari is one of the most common meals or ingredients for meals in Africa, Gari and the food items it is used to prepare varies in names and ingredients among various African countries and its use goes back hundreds of years. In Eastern Africa, it is used to make a meal that is referred to as Ugali and it can be made from Gari, cassava and yams flour, sorghum flour, millet flour or corn flour, in West Africa it is commonly referred to as Eba or Gari foto and it is made from Gari or cassava and yams flour (African Foods, 2011).

Description of business

The proposed company shall take advantage of the business opportunity presented by the high number of West Africans in Quebec Canada and the rest of Canada as a whole. As a result of the Canadian Entrepreneurial Immigration program, the business is expected to have ready customers as a result of the West Africans’ love for their staple food and palm oil. The quality of products manufactured by Divine Seal International shall be unrivalled especially due to its attention to the African touch which Africans value more than anything in their food preparation processes. The business shall offer products that are known for their nutritional values and also medicinal values in the case of palm oil therefore boosting the health of the African Immigrants who’s main line of work in the Quebec region is labor intensive in nature thus requiring them to be strong enough physically and health wise (Government of Quebec, 2006). The business have been tried in Africa and Malaysia and proved to be a success especially due to the value placed on the products by their users.

The business shall have four major product lines namely; Gari Line that shall be involved in the production of Gari, Palm Oil product line that shall be involved in the production of palm oil, Raw Cassava and Yams product line and finally Cassava and Yams flour product which shall be involved in the production of cassava and yam flour.

Market and industry analysis

Quebec had a population of over 7.2 million based on the 2001 census and a population of over 7.5 million based on the 2006 population census. As mentioned above, more than 25% of this population lives in the Montreal area. Divine Seal International shall target the African community living in Quebec. The chart below shows the population of immigrants living in Quebec compared to the local population according to the 2001 population census, 2006 population census and the 2011 population estimates (Statistics Canada, 2011).

Based on chart above, the immigrant population of Quebec is equal to 28% of the total population based on the 2001 population census, this proportion increased to 31.4% based on the 2006 population census. Therefore the chart above indicates that among the over 7.2 million living in Quebec by the time the 2001 census was carried out, 2 million are immigrants (Government of Quebec, 2001). In the 2006 population census, the number of immigrants living in Quebec increased from 28% to 31.4% of total populations (Statistics Canada, 2006). This indicates that among the over 7.5 million people living in Quebec Canada by the time the 2006 census was carried out, over 2.35 million were immigrants (Statistics Canada, 2006). In April 2011, population estimates shows that the population of Quebec stood at over 7.9 million and around 35% of these are immigrants indicating that the total immigrant population in Quebec would be over 2.7 million (Statistics Canada 2011).

As shown in the table above, the proportion of Africans in the total immigrant population of Quebec was equal to 12.4% based on the population census of the year 2001. This indicates that since the total immigrants according to 2001 census were around 2 million in Quebec alone, the total Africans living in Quebec would be equal to 12.4% of 2 million which is equal to over 248,000. The 2006 population census indicated that the proportion of Africans in the Immigrants population increased to 28.7% meaning that among the over 2.35 million immigrants living in Quebec, over 670,000 are Africans (Statistics Canada, 2006). The 2011 population estimates indicates that the population of Africans among the Immigrants living in Quebec is over 32% indicating that among the over 2.9 million immigrants living in Quebec by April 2011, 32% were from Africa indicating that a total of over 900,000 Africans lived in Quebec and its environs (Statistics Canada, 2011).

The number of restaurants serving African cuisine in Quebec region most of which are located in the Montreal metropolitan area is around 10 with only two serving West African, Central and East African Cuisine. All the other restaurants focus on North African Cuisine which include Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt etc most of whom are Arabic and as such do not closely match the African choice of meals (World web travel, 2011). This indicates that most Africans living in Quebec and most of Canada find it difficult to find a restaurant where they can enjoy their African meals which would not be complete without Gari or Gari foto and other African ingredients such as Red palm oil, cassava and yams flour as well as raw cassava and yams which are all treasured in Africa because of their nutritional value. Therefore manufacturing these products with a sole purpose of targeting this population will provide Divine seal international with ready market for her products.

Description of the products

The company shall produce a total of four lines of products which shall be as follows;

Gari; this is the principle line of business and the produced end product known as Gari shall be packaged in four different packets that shall be differentiated by weight. The smallest packet shall be a 0.5 kg packet, the next one shall be a 1 kg packet, the next packet shall be a 2 kg packet and the largest packet shall be a 5 kg packet of gari. The pricing of these products shall be as shown in the revenues and cost estimates section which has been done on a per kilogram basis.

Red Palm Oil; the red palm oil shall be the second line of production and shall be packaged in four distinct packaging differentiated by their volume. The smallest packaging shall be a 0.5 litres jar of palm oil, the next one shall be a 1 litre jar, the third one shall be a 2 litre jar and the largest one shall be a 5 litre jar of red palm oil

Processed cassava and yams flour; this shall be the third line of production and shall be packaged in four distinct packets differentiated by their weight. The smallest packet shall be a 0.5 kg packet, the next one shall be a 1 kg packet, the next one shall be a 2kg packet and the largest packet shall be a five kg packet.

Raw Cassava and Yams; this shall be the final product line which shall require very little resources in terms of production. The raw cassava and yams shall be bought from the foodstuffs market and packaged in 1kg packs that shall be sold at $1.5 per pack.

Objectives and goals of the company

The company’s main objective is providing the population of African descent living in the Quebec region of Canada with products that they envy in the preparation of their meals therefore helping them find their traditional delicacies even when they are far away from home.

The company’s growth objective is open other production plants in other cities of Canada within the first 7 years of operation in order to serve the African population living in Canada. The company intends to open production plants in the United States to serve the African population living in the United States and finally the company intends to open branches in South America. These objectives shall be achieved by focusing on the need to provide quality products to a population that already has a need to the company’s products but cannot readily find them in the market.

The company’s main goal is to gain a market share of at least 30 percent by the end of the fifth year of operation which shall help the company in its objective of becoming one of the leading African food production companies in North and South American region.

To achieve the above objectives, the company intends to take advantage of the low penetration of African foodstuff products into the Canadian market and also offer quality products that would not be easily rivaled by her potential competitors.

The company’s intent to expand into United States and South American represents its long term objective whose time frame is from year 10 which shall be achieved by ensuring that the products manufactured by the company are accessible by such markets in the short term.

Competition and competitive advantage

The Agricultural food industry is the second largest manufacturing industry in Canada employing over 291,000 Canadians According to (Invest in Canada 2011). The industry accounts for 14% of all Canadian Manufacturing shipments which are worth $83.3 billion or 2% of Canada’s gross domestic product (Invest in Canada, 2011). The country has over 6,700 food and beverage processing firms located in vast areas across the country. However, none of the 6,700 firms specializes in African food processing thus providing the company with a good competitive advantage to tap the unutilized market of African Food Products such as Gari, Red Palm Oil, Raw cassava and Yams as well as processed cassava and Yams flour. Canadian government encourages investment in the Agri-Food business by offering friendly and streamlined corporate taxes and regulations, high quality food inspection systems and excellent transportation networks that help to ensure that the products produced reach their intended market on time and at their best quality (Invest in Canada, 2011).

Operational plan

The company intends top setup its manufacturing plant in Montreal on a rented space that shall cost around $30,000 per month and shall be sourced from lucratively and strategically located facilities in eligible locations in the city of Montreal but the exact location of the manufacturing plant is yet to be determined. The manufacturing facility shall be comprised of a processing plant and a warehouse that shall be used in the storage of the finished products awaiting transportation to the market.

To help in making its operations a success, the company shall setup an office that shall be at the manufacturing plant at the initial stages of operation and shall employ a team of 5 management staff that shall be comprised of the general manager, the Finance and administration manager, the sales and marketing manager, the production manager and Information technology manager. The finance and administration, sales and marketing and information technology departments shall each have a total of five employees while the operations and production department shall have a total of 10 employees.

After the initial stages when the company will have stabilized, it shall eventually acquire an office complex close to the manufacturing plant that shall be used for office operations in order to help in effective distribution of the products to the market.

The company shall seek the services of an Attorney to help in the legal process of the setting up the manufacturing plant, setting up the personnel payment structures as well as helping in acquiring the required licenses to enable the company effectively and legally produce its products which are classified as food stuffs and as such require special licenses (Invest in Canada, 2011).

The services of the Attorney are estimated to cost a one off fee of $5,000. The company shall also seek the help of an external accountant who shall help in the process of setting up the company’s accounting framework to help the finance department staff in efficient record keeping and financial reporting. The external accountant’s services are estimated to cost $10,000 per year in the initial stages of operation but this figure is expected to increase as the company’s operations expand. The company will also seek the services of a management consultant to help in designing management best practices within the organization so that the company leadership can operate at optimal capacity. The management consultant is expected to cost approximately $10,000 per year. Finally the company shall seek the help of a technology consultant to help in designing the manufacturing plant and linking it with a computerized system that shall help in running the manufacturing equipment. The technology consultant will help with yearly periodical maintenance of the manufacturing equipment and is expected to cost the company approximately $15,000 per year (Invest in Canada, 2011).

Marketing plan

The company’s main line of business shall be manufacture of Gari and Red Palm oil. Other products include processed cassava and yams flour and raw cassava and yams. These are popular African foodstuffs and as such the company shall start with the restaurants that serve African foods in Quebec to market its products. The African foods production market has a low penetration in Quebec and Canada as a whole especially due to the low number of Africans in those regions. However as shown by the population demographics in the market analysis section above, the number of Africans living in Quebec and Canada as a whole is increasing at a very high rate due to the skilled labor immigration program of that country. Therefore the potential that this market holds for production of African foods is quite enormous. As such, the company aims at targeting restaurants that specialize in African Cuisine. The most common of the restaurants that serve West African Cuisine including meals made from Gari and palm oil is Restaurant Chic Afric which is located on 1486 de I’Eglise in Montreal Quebec Canada. The restaurant is known for its wide range of dishes that feature Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Ghana and Burkina Faso delicacies that include Goat soup, Jollof rice, fufu which is dough like meal made from cassava and yam flour. Therefore this and other such restaurants will be the starting point in the marketing campaign of the company.

In addition to the restaurants mentioned above, the company shall vigorously employ other marketing methods using conservative cost estimates due to scarcity of funds. The company shall employ a marketing budget of $29,000 per month that shall comprise of marketing methods such as advertising through advertising agencies located in Quebec. The specific advertising agencies have not been identified but the cost of advertising using advertising agencies has been estimated at $5,000 per month for a conservative but visible advertising plan. The second advertising avenue that shall be used by the company is through its website where the cost of web design has been estimated at $5,000 per month, the third advertising avenue is through bill boards and merchandising displays in shops and supermarkets that has been estimated at $4,000 per month. The fourth advertising option is through media advertising where television, radio, online and print shall be used at an estimated cost of $5,500 per month. The company shall have a website that shall be designed and maintained at a monthly cost of $7,500 and finally the company shall use public relation avenues at a cost of $2,000 per month bringing the total marketing budget to $29,000 (Griffin, 2011)

SWOT Analysis

The company’s strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities and threats are as shown in the table below;



  • The company’s main strength is the concrete nature of its business proposition
  • The company has a superior customer service strategy
  • The organizational structure shall be function-based and each employee shall have a clearly defined strategy and goal plan
  • The business is a startup and the future is always uncertain for most startup companies
  • The initial stages of the business requires an enormous amount of investment
  • There is limited amount of funds to start and run the company



  • The Canadian African food production industry is still untapped
  • The Canadian government has an Entrepreneurial immigration program that is of great assistance to business startups
  • The population of Africans living in Quebec and Canada as a whole is increasing on a daily basis
  • This being a new entity there is a threat from new business entrants
  • There is a threat of other more established companies starting this line of business thus leading to stiff competition that the company might not be able to cope with.

The above strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats shall form part of the basis of evaluating the business performance of the company in future (Hartline & Ferrell, 2010).

Ownership and Management structure

The company shall assume the form of a corporation whose liability shall be limited by shares. This indicates that the company shall assume the name Divine Seal International Ltd. The Corporation shall therefore assume the following management and organizational structure.

Board of Directors

General Manager



Finance and Administration Manager

Operations and Production Manager

Information Technology Manager

Sales and Marketing Manager



Production Engineer and 9 Operations and Production staff

Accountant and 4 administrative staff

4 marketers and sales staff

4 Computer specialists



Commission based external sales force



As shown in the organizational chart above, at the initial stages of operation, the company shall have a total of 30 members of staff who shall be distributed among four departments. The general manager shall be the overall head of the company and shall be in charge of the overall operations of the company. He shall report to the board of directors and shall sit in the board as the company’s principle officer.

The finance and administration manager shall be in charge of the overall financial operations of the company as well as administrative aspects of the business, he shall be assisted by the Accountant who shall be in charge of accounting aspects of the business and 4 other support staff who shall be apportioned among finance and administrative roles depending on the work load in each of the two sections of the department. The finance and administration manager shall report to the General Manager and shall be expected to possess high skills in financial and analytical matters as well as management skills.

The Operation and Production manager shall be in charge of overall technical aspects of manufacturing and production, the individual charged with this responsibility shall be expected to possess production engineering skills and expertise as well as managerial skills to assist him to effectively manage his team of 10 support staff who shall be charged with production and operational roles. The production and operational manager shall report directly to the General Manager.

The information technology manager shall be in charge of the information technology department and it shall be his responsibility to ensure that the integrity of the company’s information systems is protected at all times. The individual is expected to possess high skills in computer science and information technology necessary to understand computerized industrial processes so that he can liaise with the production team to ensure that the manufacturing process is as smooth and effective as possible and also to ensure that other computerized systems in the organization are optimal and effective. He shall be assisted by a team of five computer specialists and he shall report to the General Manager.

The sales and marketing manager shall be in charge of the sales and marketing department. It shall be his responsibility to ensure that the company’s visibility in the market is at its optimal best. The manager shall be assisted by five employees who shall be charged with sales and marketing roles in proportions that shall be determined by the workload in each of the two sections of the department. Since the company shall have an external sales team who shall be responsible for an estimated 20% of the company’s sales and shall be remunerated on commission basis, the sales and marketing manager shall be responsible for this team as well as the commission based sales avenue (Griddin, 2011).

Benefits created by the company to the Canadian citizens

As shown in the organizational structure above, the company shall offer a large pool of job opportunities to the Canadian citizens because it shall at least require 30 full time members of staff who shall be working at the company’s premises. The company shall also create indirect job opportunities from its distribution channels that shall include the external sales team. The company’s products are also not limited to the African population living in Canada but can also be used by Canadian citizens who might be interested in exploring other cuisines. The company’s advertising and marketing campaigns shall also create job opportunities for Canadian citizens working in the advertising and marketing agencies. Finally the company shall be involved in the corporate social responsibility activities that shall help in improving the lives of Canadian citizens among other members of the society in which the company shall be operating in (Griffin, 2011).

Financial plan

Revenue and cost estimation

The company is expected to cost an estimated start up cost of $400,000. However this amount is not enough to ensure that the company is running smoothly, therefore a short term loan of $300,000 has been suggested based on the strength of the company’s assets to take care of the company’s Working capital to avoid a situation of running out of cash to finance the company’s sales growth.

Sales projections

The company’s revenue estimates expected to be derived from the sale of the five products are $100,000 from the sale of Gari which is expected to increase at the rate of 2% per month. The expected revenues from the sale of Red Palm oil is $175,000 with an increase of 2% per month. The revenue from the sale of processed cassava and yam flour is estimated at $50,000 per month with a monthly increase of 2%. Finally the expected revenue from sale of raw cassava and yams is $15,000 per month with a monthly increase of 2%. These estimates are conservative in nature and are estimated at those levels in order to allow the market to acclimatize with the new product thus helping the company’s sales revenues grow at the estimated monthly rates as the product penetrates the market. The five products are packaged in different packaging sizes as shown in the product description segment above.

The revenue estimates are based on the assumption that the company shall sell a total of $10,000 kilograms of Gari in the first of operation at a price of $10 per kilogram. The sales volume is expected to increase at the rate of 2% per month while the price remains constant in the initial stages of operation. The sales volume of red palm oil shall be 5000 litres for the first month of operation at the price of $35 per litre. The sales volume is expected to increase at the rate of 2% per month while the price remains constant in the initial stages of operation. The sales of processed cassava and yams flour are expected to be 10,000 kilograms at a price of $5 per kilogram. The volume of sales is expected to increase at the rate of 2% per month while the price remains constant at the initial stages of operation. Finally the company expects to sell a total of 5,000 kilograms of raw cassava and yams at a price of $3 dollars per kilogram. The volume of the raw cassava and yams is expected to increase at a monthly rate of 2% while the price remains constant at the initial stages of the operation.

The above indicates that the total sales for the first month of operation shall be equivalent to $340,000. The cost of sales for the Gari product is expected to be 50% of total sales of Gari, the cost of sales of red palm oil are expected to be 50% of red palm oil’s total sales. On the other hand, the cost of sales for processed cassava and yams flour and raw cassava and yams is expected to be 40% of the total sales of processed cassava and yams flour and raw cassava and yams respectively.

The gross sales forecast, the gross profit and the net profit for the first year of operation are as shown in the year 1 financials at a glance chart below.

The sales forecast, the gross profit and the net profit for the first five years are as shown in the 5 year financials at a glance chart below.

The charts shown above indicate that the company will break even in the second year of operation.

Cost estimation

The capital expenditure is estimated at $400,000 which shall comprise of Facilities that comprise of building upgrades in order to accommodate the production equipment, fixtures, and plant, Equipment which shall comprise of machinery, furniture and motor vehicles, Computer hardware and software and telecommunications equipment.

The facilities are estimated to cost $178,000, the equipment is estimated at $205,000, and computer hardware and software and telecommunication systems are estimated at $17,000.

The personnel budget is estimated at $93,750 per month for the 30 members of staff who shall comprise of the management whose total costs shall be $20,833 per month, finance and administration staff whose total costs shall be $14,583 per month, the sales and marketing staff whose total cost shall be $14,583 per month, the operation and production staff whose costs shall be $29,167 per month and the information technology staff whose cost shall be $14,583 per month. The estimated staff costs shall be comprised of salary, benefits and payroll taxes. The external sales force shall be remunerated on commission basis at the rate of 15% of the sales made (Griffin, 2011).

The total marketing budget as indicated in the marketing plan section shall be $29,000 per month in the initial stages of operation and is expected to increase as the company grows. The machinery rentals shall include any machines that can not be acquired due to high cost or due to scarcity of funds in the short run.

Implementation strategy

The company shall acquire the premises and set up the manufacturing plant as well as the offices during the three month period to January 2012. By January 2012 the premises are estimated to be ready to accommodate the staff and the production equipment. The company shall be launched on 1st January 2012 and start the production on the same day. The promotional and advertising campaign shall run concurrently with the production in order to ensure that the products being produced are visible and available in the market (Hartline and Ferrell, 2010).

The company shall have dedicated telephone lines and a website that shall ensure that orders are placed in real time and the customers are fed with information that they require about the products on a timely basis.

Once the company is operational, an interim audit shall be carried out after the first 6 months to determine if the company’s operations are going on as expected. Results of this audit shall be used to make necessary adjustments where they are required. After the first one year of operation, another audit shall be carried out to determine if the results of the first audit were sufficient and also adjustments shall be made using the results of this audit.

Internal control plan

The company shall employ a system of internal controls that shall ensure that the business is run smoothly and efficiently. The system of internal controls shall be designed to ensure that the responsibilities and duties assigned to each employee are carried out with optimal efficiency. A clear line of responsibility and departmental clearance requirements shall be drawn right from the General Manager down the organizational chart to the employees on the lowest levels of the chart.

The general manager in consultation with the respective manager and with the approval of the board shall be in charge of all capital acquisitions and changes in capital assets of the company. The general manager shall also be the custodian of company information meaning that the other employees are not authorized to speak on behalf of the company without direct authorization of the General Manager.

All payments exceeding $2,000 shall be authorized by the respective manager who is the head of the respective department. The amount that can be authorized by the head of department shall be reviewed from time to time by the board of directors depending on the level of transactions carried out by each department on a regular basis (Griffin, 2011).

The finance and administration department shall be responsible for the maintenance of proper books of account and with the assistance of the information technology manager shall design or acquire suitable accounting software that shall help in record keeping and ensure accounting errors are kept at the bare minimum or eliminated completely.

All the company’s computer systems and computer facilities shall be assigned to each employee by the information technology manager and he and the general manager shall be the custodians of all codes and passwords of the company’s systems (Griffin, 2011).

Projected income statement

The company’s projected income statement for the first year of operation on a month to month basis will be as shown in the table below.

As shown in the income statement above, the company’s sales shall increase at a rate of 2% per month indicating that the total sales for the first year of operation will be equal to $4,560,111; the total cost of sales will be equal to $2,192,877 indicating that the gross profit shall be equal to $2,230,431. The total expenses shall amount to $2,398,750 indicating that the company’s forecasted net loss shall be equal to $168,319 (Alvarez & Fridson, 2011).

The company’s five year forecasted income statements are as shown in the table below;

As shown in the income statements above, The Company will break even in the second year of operation and its sales and profits forecasts as well as expenses shall be as shown in the statements above. This indicates that the company will be making profits from the second year of operation onwards.

Cash flow forecast

The cash flow forecast for the first year of operation on a month to month basis is as shown in the cash flow statement below.

The forecasted cash flow statements for the first five years of operation shall be as shown in the table below.

Forecasted balance sheet

The company’s financial position as at the end of each quarter in the first year of operation shall be as shown in the balance sheet above.

The company’s forecast balance sheet as at the end of each of the first five years between year 2012 and year 2016 shall be as follows;

Ratio analysis

As shown in the ratio analysis table above, the company’s return on investment is expected to increase from -14.41% in first quarter of operation to 62.44% by the end of the fifth year of operation. The company’s return on sales is expected to increase from -8.9% in the first quarter of operation to 28.09% by the end of the fifth year of operation. The company’s return on assets is expected to increase from -14.41% in the first quarter of operation to 42.64% by the end of the fifth year of operation.

The company’s debt to equity ratio is expected to increase from 0.19 in year 2 to 0.46 by year 5. This is expected to increase the company’s leverage so as to take advantage of funds offered by lenders to expand its business as well as take advantage of the tax benefits associated with interest on debt to fund its capital structure.

The company’s current ratio is expected to decrease from 4.44 in year 2 to 2.99 in year 5 due to increased sales especially credit sales therefore reducing the company’s liquidity.

The cash turnover is expected to be high at the initial stages of operation but will reduce with time as shown in the table above and on the other hand the company’s working capital is expected to increase with the increase in sales (Alvarez and Fridson, 2011)


African Foods. (2011). African Foods: the home of African foods in the UK. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.africanfoods.co.uk/gari.html

Alvarez, F & Fridson, M, S. (2011). Financial Statement Analysis: A practitioner’s Guide. New York: John Wiley and Sons

Bruce, F. (2010). Red Palm Oil: A daily dose of vitamins from A cooking oil. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article%20red%20palm%20oil.htm

Ciacco, C, F. & Appolonia, B, L, D. (1978). Baking studies with cassava and yam flour.1: Biochemical composition of cassava and yam flour. Department of Cereal Chemistry and Technology, North Dakota State University Journal 55(3): 402-411

Government of Quebec. (2006). The Montreal region at a glance. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.immigration-quebec.gouv.qc.ca/en/settle/montreal.html

Griffin, R, W. (2011). Fundamentals of Management. Florence: Cengage Learning.

Hartline, M. & Ferrell, O, C. (2010). Marketing Strategy. Florence: Cengage Learning.

Invest in Canada. (2011). Canada’s Agri-Food Industry Advantages. Retrieved on 25th October from http://investincanada.gc.ca/eng/industry-sectors/agri-food.aspx

Statistics Canada. (2011). Quarterly demographic estimates. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/110622/t110622a2-eng.htm

Statistics Canada. (2001). Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2001 and 1996 censuses – 100% data. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/standard/popdwell/Table-PR.cfm

Statistics Canada. (2006). Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/hlt/97-550/Index.cfm?TPL=P1C&Page=RETR&LANG=Eng&T=101

World web travel. (2011). Travel restaurant guide to African cuisine in Montreal and the larger Quebec region. Retrieved on 24th November 2011 from http://www.montreal.worldweb.com/RestaurantsBars/African/


Macbeth imagery

In the year 1040, Macbeth and Banquo, two victorious generals, meet three, mysterious witches on a heath in Scotland (Leggatt). The witches predict that Macbeth will one day be King of Scotland. They tell Banquo that his son will also sit on the throne. Urged on by his wife, Macbeth kills King Duncan and is declared king. Fearing the second part of the witches’ prophecy, Macbeth has Banquo killed (Leggatt). When Duncan’s son Malcolm raises an army to oppose Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, tormented by guilt, commits suicide. Macbeth is then killed by Macduff, and Malcolm is crowned king.

Figurative language also adds to this development. Some prominent techniques in Macbeth include imagery, metaphor, simile, personification, antithesis and irony. All these techniques help us to expand the meaning beyond the literal level, connecting characters and actions to much larger cosmic and philosophical issues. Many passages, for example rely on images crafted into similes and metaphors that develop the theme of deception by articulating contrasts between appearance and realty (Leggatt). Lady Macbeth warns Macbeth before Duncan’s murder:

Your face, my name Thane, is a book, where men

May read strange matters. To beguile the time,

Look like the time; bear welcome in our eye,

Your hand, your tongue: look like th ’innocent flower,

But be the serpent under’ it.

Her references to books, serpents, and time convey the necessity for false appearances. Other metaphors help to express the mental struggles underlying this conflict between outward actions and inward intent. Lady Macbeth attempts to overcome Macbeth’s reservations about murder by invoking the image of a soldier screwing the cord of his crossbow for war: “But screw your courage t the sticking – place,/ And we’ll not fail” (1.7.61 – 62). Later Macbeth articulates his anguish and insecurity about Banquo by adapting the serpent metaphor:

We have scotch’d the snake, not kill’d it:

She’ll close, and be herself; whilst our poor malice

Remains in danger of her former tooth (3.2.13 – 15)

Animal images and personification appear frequently throughout the play to intensify the darkness, violence, uncertainty, and humanity surrounding the crimes of the two main characters. These and other figures of speech add richness and texture to the relentless, linear action of plot. Furthermore, dogs in this play emblematized ion renaissance for their loyalty are ironically appropriate animals for Macbeth, whose loyalty to his king has failed but who wants to evoke that emotion in the desperate men before him.

The clothes imagery runs throughout the passage; the body of the king is dressed in the most precious garments, the blood royal itself; and the daggers too are dressed – in the same garment. Clothing imagery has several implications in this play. Macbeth has to change from battle to battle behavior to civilian behavior. He finds this difficult. He brings his murderous ideas from war into peace. He has just unseamed or unstitched the rebel Macdowald. He should now change from his armor and sword and put on new clothes of peace (Leggatt). However, because of his success in battle, he is willing to try on clothes the witches offer him of being King of Scotland. After all, he has just saved Scotland from the enemy and rebel attack. In this scene, Macbeth’s thoughts are described as though they were bodies that could be dressed in new clothes. He is thinking about being a king, although he is not king: he is trying on new garments that he would like to have. It is also worth noting that the clothes they wear are supposed to be a disguise. This is because they have been carefully clothed to play a part. Banquo uses a clothing metaphor to explain Macbeth’s strange mood. New clothes feel odd.

Macbeth is full of imagery of light and darkness. From the first, the cover of night is invoked whenever anything terrible is going to happen. Lady Macbeth, for example asks “thick night” to come with the “smoke of hell,” so her knife might not see the wound it makes in the peaceful sleeping king. The lateral darkness Lady Macbeth calls for seems to correspond to the evil or “dark” act she plans to commit. Essentially, darkness itself is a symbol of powers of darkness, of which in her guiltiness Lady Macbeth is now terrified. Darkness is twice invoked during the hours before Duncan’s murder. In these invocations the context suggests awareness on the first of Macbeth, then Lady Macbeth, of the turpitude of what they plan to do by night. It speaks of plans which are evil and morally wrong. Lady Macbeth’s invocation is more violent as it sets heaven and hell in opposition, and declares her allegiance to the powers of darkness.

In conclusion, the value of imagery has been utilized in great depth with regard to literature. This enables the reader t be able to understand the concept in a clear and succinct way. In the case of Macbeth, the author enables the reader to understand what is happening. This is because the reader is able to utilize the images in a manner that adds flavor and pragmatism in the play.
















Works Cited

Leggatt, Alexander. William Shakespeare’s Macbeth: a sourcebook. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2006.





In “Man Caves and Mom Caves,” author Sally Raskoff observes the involvement of the society underlying the new marketing concept of Mom caves. Mom caves are the newest trend in home design, where moms have a place to rest and retreat. Raskoff (2011) compares this to the earlier idea of man caves to analyze the sociology involved in this marketing concept.

She points out three observations in the marketing strategy of mom caves and man caves that are directly linked to sociological factors of gender stereotype and gender inequality:

  1. Mom Caves’ marketing strategy indicates gender stereotyping.

The names Mom Caves and Man Caves both connote an aspect of gender. Mom caves

seem to be only for mothers, not for all women. This reinforces gender stereotyping by suggesting that only mothers are entitled to a personal space, and that women who fail to bear children are not fulfilling their role as nurturer, and therefore are not entitled to this privilege.

  1. Mom Caves’ and Man Caves’ designs indicate gender stereotyping.

Raskoff observes that the mom caves are noticeably designed with softer colors and materials that are for little girls’ rooms, like pink stuff and fluffy material. Meanwhile, man caves are designed with dark wood panels, and images of sports, porn, cigars, and loud music. She then associates this observation to traditional stereotyping that pink is to girl as blue is to boy.

  1. Mom Caves and Man Caves promote gender inequality.

Raskoff associates the difference in design of the caves to the social norm of the woman as passive and decorative, and the man as dominant and active. She points out that the designs reinforce the view that men are powerful and women are powerless. She argues that having mom caves and man caves reinforce the view that men and women are conflicting and very different from one another. She goes on to say that this reinforces the societal power structure in which men are dominant over women.


Sally Raskoff was able to identify the sociological trends involved in the mom caves and man caves. I agree with her descriptions, but disagree with some points she arrived at.

First, I am aware, and would agree that our consumer culture is driven by trends and that marketing strategies focus on the consumer. Consumers need to be able to identify with the thing that they are about to consume, so marketers would rely on this identification. Part of this identification is tapping the consumers’ viewed identity. Mothers who perceive themselves as nurturing and who have available resources will more likely buy mom caves than those women who do not have children.

Second, I agree that there is gender stereotyping in the design of mom caves and man caves. Marshall (1998) defines gender stereotype as one-sided and exaggerated images of men and women which are deployed repeatedly in everyday life. In this view, the design of caves indicates stereotyping by associating women with softer images and men with louder ones.

While I believe the two points above are true, I am disagreeing with Raskoff because the caves promote gender inequality. Seeing the design of the caves and associating them with societal norms, she referred to women being portrayed as powerless, and men being portrayed as powerful. I see this as an assumption being made on subjective interpretations of the differences between men and women.

I believe that there are gender stereotypes, but I am confident to say that men and women are different. There is a design, intricate in our nature, which cannot be explained fully by nurture, and how society would dictate us to act. If the current preferences are a product only of societal norms, why then do little girls prefer pink over blue? I’d bet that a three-year old girl, when placed in a room of toys, would pick a doll over a helicopter. I believe that on default mode, little girls would prefer dolls over cars, and little boys would prefer combat play over dollhouses. This is inherent in our nature as woman or man, and not only dictated by societal norms. There are exceptions, but the nurturing nature of woman and the providing nature of man is always traceable.

However, I do not agree with Raskoff that perceiving gender as two polar opposite categories reinforces the societal power structure in which men are powerful and women are powerless. I believe that men and women are different, but they are equal. To say that pink and fluffy is lesser than dark wood paneling is, I believe, coming from a subjective preference that the author or anybody can hold. As a woman, for instance, I prefer pink and do not see it as a weakness or as a sign that I am powerless. To me, it can even signify “girl power.” It is all with how one views it.

Woman is different from man, in her nature, preference, strength, and weakness, but she is of no lesser importance. I believe that women and men are different, but not conflicting. Instead, their strengths and weaknesses complement one another, and that is the beauty of it.









Marshall, G. (1998). A dictionary of sociology. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-genderstereotypes.html

Raskoff, S. (2011). Man caves and mom caves. Retrieved from http://www.everydaysociologyblog.com/2011/02/man-caves-and-mom-caves.html




Excel Public Relations Company is a traditional public relations company run by autocratic managers and supervisors who believe that employees are not there to work but are lazy and are only looking for the security the job provides. The company policy states that no employee is allowed to take more than three months leave; this includes maternity leave. Zainabu Mwanaisha is going to be a first time mother and is due anytime. She asks for leave and is denied. Her supervisor (Mr. Shah) tells her “If you wanted to make babies you should have stayed at home. This is not a baby factory. And please note: should you decide to take three months of leave for maternity, you will not be paid salary for those three months” Zainabu walks away in shock and disbelief. She has been slaving for the company is the best public relations officer the company has ever had. As she ponders on her situation, she realizes that she has never been rewarded for her good work. She is paid peanuts for her salary. Her salary is even lower than the one paid in the Public Relations Industry (Milagros, 2006).



Nakhaal Public Relations Company is a company in Muscat. The supervising officer is called Mr. Rudolf. He is a people person who allocates responsibility to his juniors in the public relations department. Last quarter, Mr. Luigi Materazzi was the employee who was ranked as the highest achiever in the department. Not only was he indicted on the company’s wall of fame; he was also promoted to junior manager for his hard work. Mr. Rudolf encourages subordinates to take responsibility and has created an exciting work environment (Milagros, 2007).




In 1959, Fredrick Herzberg concentrated his studies on satisfaction at work (Herzberg, 1957. In the initial research, some two hundred engineers and accountants were asked to recall when they had experienced satisfactory and unsatisfactory feelings about their jobs. Following the interviews, Herzberg’s team came to the conclusion that certain factors tended to lead to job satisfaction, while others frequently led to dissatisfaction. The factors leading to satisfaction were called motivators. Those giving rise to dissatisfaction were known as hygiene factors. This theory was also named the two factor theory of motivation.

Excel Public Relations Company practices bad motivator factors while Nakhaal Public Relations Company practices the good factors of motivation. These are two companies in the same industry yet their methods of motivation are very different.


Hertzberg asserted that the most important hygiene factors, or dissatisfiers, were as follows: company policy and administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. Herzberg noted that these factors were more related to the context, or environment, of work than its content. When in line with employee requirements, such factors could smooth the path of working life, but in a taken-for-granted way; when these factors were out of line with employees’ expectations, they could be a source of difficulty and complaint (Vroom & Deci, 1992).

Firstly, Excel Company’s policy and administration violates Zainabu’s rights because of its stringent policies and administration. The supervisor is not only rude; he is also insultive towards Zainabu. The hygiene factor of policy and administration therefore affects internal corporate relations because Excel’s policies and administration may be outdated and unfair to the well being of employees. Here, Excel policies should be revised in order to cater for employees like Zainanbu.

Mr. Shah’s supervision is a hygiene factor. He looks down upon Zainabu and has the audacity to insult her. This is a hygiene factor that belittles Zainabu. Therefore, this is a dissatisfier in the public relations company. All employees must be treated equal and well for this to cease being a dissatisfier.

Another factor that may affect internal public relations is the working conditions. The working Conditions at Excel Company are terrible. The managers and supervisors do not trust the subordinates to complete their work unsupervised. In addition, subordinates are insulted. This becomes a hygiene factor because with such conditions, employees are fearful and may not carry out their duties as required. It is recommended that a company must have favourable working conditions to have motivated workers.

Again, salary is a key hygiene factor. In Herzberg’s words “…when salary occurred as a factor in the lows (causes of dissatisfaction) it revolved around the unfairness of the wage system within the company… It was the system of salary administration that was being described… [or] it concerned an advancement that was not accompanied by a salary increase… In contrast to this, salary was mentioned in the high stories (events causing satisfaction) as something that went along with a person’s achievement on the job. It was a form of recognition; it meant more than money; it meant a job well done; it meant that the individual was progressing in his work…” Zainabu’s salary is lower than what the public relations industry pays; this is a dissatisfier in Excel Public Relations Comapany. This company should strive to compensate all employees equitably to eliminate dissatisfaction.

Employees thrive on the following motivators or satisfiers: achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement. Herzberg pointed out that these factors were intimately related to the content of work, that is, with its intrinsic challenge, interest and the individual responses by them. This is the field Nakhaal Public Relations Company thrives in.

It is the most satisfying thing to excel. Luigi’s achievement is being the best public relations officer. This is called achievement. This is a motivating factor that Nakhaal effectively implements. This factor involved Mr. Rudolf setting goals for Luigi and all that was left was for Luigi to achieve them. Goal setting is what was done right and the employee Luigi made an achievement.

In recognizing Luigi’s achievement, Nakhaal company practiced the motivating factor; recognition. This is the secret to success in the public relations industry and a motivating factor for the company’s employees; in this case Luigi.

The work at Nakhaal is described as exciting. In the public relations industry, work must be enticing to motivate employees. The interesting job descriptions and superb working conditions are Nakhaal’s motivator for its employees. This is the right approach for a motivator.

Each employee at Nakhaal is charged with a certain responsibility. This is a motivator because employees will be working towards self and company success. Doing the right thing here involves giving each employee a duty to perform on each normal working day.

The final motivating factor is advancement. Mr. Rudolf rewarded Luigi by indicting him on the wall of and promoting him to junior public relations officers. This is the highlight of the advancement motivator as portrayed by Nakhaal.

Herzberg concludes that the key distinction between the motivators and hygiene factors is that whereas motivators can bring about positive satisfaction, the hygiene factors can only serve to prevent dissatisfaction. To put it in another way, if motivators are absent from the job, the employee is likely to experience real dissatisfaction (Cole, 1995). However, even if the hygiene factors are provided for, they will not in themselves bring about substantial job satisfaction. Hygiene, in other words, does not positively promote good health, but only acts to prevent ill health. It is safe to conclude that Mr. Rudolf’s company practiced the positive aspects of motivation while Mr. Shah’s company practiced the negative or hygiene factors.



Cole, G.A. 1995, Organizational behavior, DP Publications

Herzberg, F. 1957, The Motivation to work, 2nd Edition, John Wiley,

Milagros, S. T, 2007, Theoretical cases of management I, diss., Suerte, M 2006, 43

Milagros, S. T, 2006, Theoretical cases of management II, diss., Suerte, M 2006, 29

Skinner, B, F. 1974, About Behaviourism, Random House

Vroom, V.H. & Deci, E. L. 1992, Management And Motivation, Wiley




Will the audio compact disc continue to exist?

According to the commonly used definition, Audio CD is a term used to refer to the standards or means of playing audio on a Compact Disc. The Compact Disc simply known as CD is actually an optical disc employed to store data in a digital form. It was initially developed for storage and recording playback sounds, but at later times grew to take into consideration data storage or CD-ROM, data storage (CD-R), write-once audio and Video Compact Discs (VCDs), rewritable media (CD-RW), Photo CD, Super Video Compact Discs, Picture CD, Enhanced CD and CD-I. It is important also to note that audio CD players and Audio CDs have been viably and commercially available since their inception in 1982 (Thompson and Martin,p.84). It terms of physical appearance, Standard CDs are 120 millimeters in diameter and can store to about 700 MB of data or eighty minutes of uncompressed audio.

The Mini CD, on the other hand, has various diameters that range from sixty to eighty millimeters, which is approximately 2.4 to 3.1 inch. They are at times employed for storing up to twenty four minutes of audio, CD singles or delivering device drivers. It is also important to note that CD-Rs and CD-ROMs remain widely utilized technologies in today’s computer industry. To be precise, the CDs and their extensions are highly successful. In the year 2004, global sales of CD-ROM, CD-R and CD audio reached approximately 30 billion discs. The record breaking sales were recorded in 2007. During this time, approximately 200 billion Compact Discs had been sold internationally. However, Compact Discs are more and more being supplemented or replaced by other forms of storage and digital distribution, such as flash drives and downloading, with the sales of audio CDs dropping almost 50 percent from their peak in 2009 (Baskerville and Baskerville,p.247). Given this brief introduction, its clear that audio compact discs have no future or rather they will not continue to exist. In order to successfully bring out the argument the paper will discuss also some form of modern storage forms.

Flash memory devices

These devices have actually been selected in order to give a glimpse of where the technology is going.

Flash Memory

This is a non-volatile storage device or memory in today’s computer technology that can be electrically erased or programmed. Flash memory devices that are commonly employed today comprise memory cards and USB flash drives.
USB Flash Drives

These are types of storage devices that comprise of NAND-type flash memory that is incorporated with Universal Serial Bus interface. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drives are actually rewritable as well as removable. Although they are much smaller when compared to floppy disks, their capacity of storage ranges from sixty four MB to one twenty eight GB. Besides, some USB drives permit as many as one million write cycles and erases, whilst some have a ten year information or data retention capability.
Memory Cards

These are solid electronic devices employed to store data or information in digital format. Routinely, these cards are frequently utilized in mobile computers and hand-held devices or gadgets. They are non-volatile and rewritable in nature. Although they are small, they actually have a high capability and can store data or information of around eight GB or even more.

Digital Versatile Disc

These devices are more commonly known as DVDs. The widely used device under this category is an optical device and it is employed for data or information storage in computer technology. Even-though, they share similar dimensions as the Compact Discs, DVDs have the capability to store or hold six times more information or data when compared to the compact discs (Meinders,p.1). Moreover, DVD-video is utilized to store or keep video content whilst DVD-audio is employed to store or keep the audio content. It is also important to note that the original DVD is frequently called the Standard Definition DVD. Also, it is essential to note that high-definition DVDs were actually terminated upon the introduction of Blu-ray optical disc into the market.
Blu-Ray Discs

These devices are also referred to as BD. They are optical discs produced by Sony Company for storing digital data or information. It is most commonly employed in high-definition video storing, gaming, etc. Although, it is almost similar in size as a DVD or CD, it can store or keep up to fifty GB data or information (Dhir,p.94). This technology employs blue-violet lasers to read the information, and hence its name, blu-ray disc. These devices have overshadowed or outshined other optical storage gadgets due to their superior storage capacities.
With the escalating utilizing of technology, employment of digital data or information has increased to no ends. Basically, in order for one to store this huge amount of data or information, he or she needs more secure and powerful data and information storage devices. In addition, development teams across the globe are working hard to come out with better devices that would be economical and small, but also the ones that have more security and capacity.

The above statement does no actually imply that CDs can not beat the above aspects, the different is that CDs are hard to erase and rewrite after burning. Besides, the storage capacity is too small hence can not be relied on especially in fields that deal with bulky information or data.

Some of the digital or flash storage device’s capacity is utilized for formatting and other purposes such as storage of data. These, certainly, are the roles that future data storage devices must hold. To expound on this point, when a Flash or any other digital storage device is produced, steps are usually taken to make sure that the device or gadget functions reliably and to allow the host device (digital camera, computer, cell phone, PDA etc.) to access the cells of memory— i.e., to retrieve or store data and information on the Flash or other digital storage devices. This organization is missing in CDs. These steps — commonly called “formatting” — employ some of the cells reserved for memory in the device and therefore decrease the capacity that is available for storage of data by the user. These aspects make these devices adaptable for the future compared to CDs which do not embrace the same.

Formatting comprises the following functions:

  • Testing memory cells in the Flash or other digital storage devices.

  • Identifying cells that are defective and taking necessary steps to make sure that no data or information will be read or written to from cells that are defective.

  • Keeping some cells to function as “auxiliary.” Flash or digital cells of memory have a long and finite lifetime. Thus, some cells are actually held in reserve to reinstate any memory cells that would fail to function over time.

  • Creating a directory or File Allocation Table (FAT) (Schoech,p.552). This process is to enable Flash or other digital storage devices to expediently access and store files of customers. Normally, a file storage system must be developed in order to allow computer or any device to identify the files kept in the digital storage devices.

  • Reserving some cells for utilization by the controller in the Flash storage device, e.g., for keeping firm controller-specific data and firm ware updates information.

The above information is simply meant to show the adaptability that future devices must embrace. In other words they must be flexible to the needs of users.

Besides, unlike the Dynamic Random Access Memory of CDs, Flash memory or digital devices memory is non-volatile. In other words, nonvolatile memory retains information or data for a very long time (Kingston Technology Corporation,pp.1-14). The ability to keep data for along time is vital for their applications like digital film, PDAs, cell phones and other portable devices. These aspect or CDs are not compatible with most transportable devices like smart phones. Since, the future is likely to rest on these devices, it is clear and without contradiction to state that CDs have no future.

The other aspect is that the future of the viability of the recorded or burned music business is undeniably in jeopardy.  As it has already been mentioned, people today are much concerned with value for money, time spend on acquiring particular products and their adaptability. When these factors are all put against the CDs, none of them seem to augur well with this these devices. Yet, the mentioned factors are set to drive the future. However, as sales have dropped to less than half at the fall of the 21st century, artists as well as their managers, attorneys and producers are looking to all means and ways possible of generating income both at the present and in the future. Certainly, CDs don’t seem to be the preferred storage devices that are best suited to help them meet their aims. Digital devices in all cases seem to be the preferred devices that have the capability to help them meet their objectives.

The technology of the day

Another argument in support of this is vested in the technology of the day. Innovations in digital technologies are staples of the contemporary world in terms of data storage. From the videos of “Total Recall” to the automated home of Jettisons to the touch screens or paintings of “Minority art,” outlandish technological developments are actually presented in films and TV shows. Well, this seems to be just but the beginning. As it takes place, these and other digital technologies now exist in many forms either on the shelves or in the laboratory of the local electronic stores. In addition, an additional lot are on the way (Bangia,p.548). Whilst such technological developments will make themselves evident in every setting especially where people live, play, work, maybe nowhere will they be closely or highly witnessed than in the prosaic of environments: the American society (Samsung,pp.1-4). This actually goes without saying that CDs in the near future are not going to be relied on. They utilize the analog technology. This technology in most countries has already been replaced with the digital technology. Those countries that have not yet adopted the technology, it might not take them long enough to adopt it. He this point implies that the CDs usability in the future is not known guaranteed.

Besides, the continued linking of the technologies together makes it complex to utilize CDs which are specifically adopted for a particular use only. The seamless assimilation of the technologies is part of an all-inclusive, information system and TV-based home entertainment. This aspect makes the digital storage devices much applicable than CDs which must be burned.

Besides, the convergence in the modern technology is coming at a faster speed than ever.

According to the President of Samsungs electronics Digital Media Business, Jongwoo Park, such a push to “interactive convergence, will or is set to ignite a “fast evolution” in end user electronic devices that will “not only attain the utmost performance levels,” but as well “blend together the experience of the user in a way that gives a meaning or simplifies life (Michell,p.182).” Xbox Live platform of Microsoft, which performs well on broadband Internet connectivity and HD television displays, might be an early model of this future (Martin,p.127). In addition, not only will gamers play games in similar hyper-realistic, real-time settings with teams all through the globe, but they will also be able to share stored information easily and talk to each other over headsets. Besides, the future of this technology is not restricted only to gamers. Other usages or applications are already on the horizon and will also employ interconnected, high-definition viewing settings to attract the zealous attention of an array of demographic groups.

The above statement purely indicates that the future information storage will be premised on intractability and sharing. Certainly, the only storage device that can be able to fit into this function is digital storage devices and not the CDs. This is simply because some CDs can not be easily read by many devices and are affected mostly by scratches. In fact, scratches alone risk losing the entire stored data. There it now clear that Compact Discs also known as the CDs have no future or will not be utilized in future for the purposes of storage of data and information.


The Compact Discs will not be employed for storing data in the future. This is because when it comes to data storage there are many things that are put into consideration. Some of these are time of information writing, rewriting, retrieval and adaptability. This statement, however, does not mean CDs do have this aspect. The differing point is that CDs take a lot of time to code or burn information when compared to other forms of storage. Besides, the future is premised on time saving, reliability and affordability. When these factors are well balanced, in business, can easily deliver or lead to a competitive edge. Furthermore, the technology is fast changing and today’s world need storage devices that can be used or applied to many devices. Digital storage devices can even be used in smart phones unlike the CDs, and because this is what will hold the future, CDs therefore are on their way to extinction.


















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