The economic long term impact of hosting the 2012 London Olympics

London was given the rights to hold the Olympics by the International Olympic Committee on 6th July 2005, after defeating Paris, New York, Moscow and Madrid through a series of voting. The summer Olympic Games also known as “the XXX Olympiad Games” are scheduled to take place from; 27th of July to the 12th of August of 2012.A lot of changes have currently taken place with the city of London currently undergoing massive rehabilitation in anticipation of the Summer Olympics.
The hosting of the Olympics is a gamble between losses and profits. The planning should accommodate the present and the future. Economic losses have been reported in a lot of countries that hosted previous Olympics.  In the 1972 Olympics held in Munich, Olympics held in 1976 in Montel made 178 and 678 million Euros in losses respectively.  In 1984 the Los Angeles Olympics and in 1992 Barcelona Olympics recorded a surplus of 215 and 2 million Euros in profits.
Planning will be essential to ensure that all sectors of the economy do not lag behind after the Olympics. As most of the resources used in renovation, building of stadiums and sporting expenses are expected to be compensated by the tourism sector, planning will enable the county allocate most of resources to profitable outcome.
The United Kingdom’s tourism is expected to outdo the world’s tourism growth close to 50%, extending its growth to the next four years after the Olympics. This is attributed to London’s athletics team auxiliary performance in the Beijing Olympics, the world will be curious on its performance in the Olympics. Survey shows that China and Russia would lead in number of tourists. The increase in tourism would in turn lead to increase in needs. This will mean that transport and hotel sector will be expected to give the economy major boost as the tourists will require accommodation, transport and other essential services. The United Kingdom will market itself through the variety of services that it will offer for the clients.
Infrastructure forms the backbone of every economy.  The government is also spending a lot of funds in building and rehabilitating infrastructure. This will still be there even after the Olympics.  This will weaning that the country’s economy is expected to improve with improvement of infrastructure. The countries   
The London Olympics will facilitate foreign relations with the countries opening new business opportunities with other countries. Trade between countries will open new venture and employment opportunities.
Hosting the London Olympics will lead to long term unemployment. After the sporting event, most job opportunities that arose as a resort of the games will have to close down, leading to enormous unemployment.
The Olympics are not as easy as it seems. Hosting the Olympics is a gamble.  If the country develops political instability may in turn affect the tourism sector crashing the economy. The country should factor in the delicate nature of the tourism sector. In cases like Munich and Montel Olympics, the countries are still struggling with the losses made from the Olympics.

Executive Summary

This business proposal is designed to guide a new firm that intends to join Malaysian Palm Oil Business. It has discussed the background, factors and challenges considered for a company to invest cross borders. These include legal requirements, supply chain management ability, human resource, technology, expertise, competition, political instability and governmental regulations through taxation. All these have been discussed in the context of Malaysian palm oil production.  This paper also focuses on the marketing plan that has the sole focus on providing quality service for company positioning and for the purposes of increasing sales.

 

Introduction

Globalization is the increasing economic transactions and interrelatedness between borders of different countries which are participating in various trades around the world. It is also the increasing interconnectedness of different nations which are participating in various activities that make the interconnections so close that may have some influence on each other Economic globalization in the modern business activities has resulted into the increase in the business and trade opportunities for different organization across the world. This has resulted into the widening of the opportunities in the international business and hence most businesses whether small or big are going global in order to cushion themselves against the hash trade conditions that they may experience in their mother nations.

The numbers of businesses that are currently moving passed borders have tremendously increased over the last few years. This is because economic globalization has leveled the business’s playing filed. Improved technology has made the world look like a village in which sourcing information from different parts is simple. Many businesses are therefore going passed their boarders to increase their operations and hence take the advantage of the increased market, less stringent regulations and low operational costs (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2010). However, doing business in the international market is very complex, dynamic and often accompanied by several uncertainties in the business environment. These uncertainties in the business environment are changing all the time and hence the managers have to think and focus ahead so as to put their business at a competitive level with the other companies.

One of the most important aspects of economic globalization is that it has leveled the grounds for business activities and there is equal opportunities even for small scale businesses to interact with both the customers and the other business and hence go global. This has increased competition in the international; business and the differences between companies and profitability is only realized as a result of proper planning and actions that are intended to help a company gain a competitive advantage. Going global has been an alternative option for most organization as they seek non competitive and reduced operational costs so that they would be able to strategize (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2010)

Background Information

Many organizations are currently finding it uneconomical to operate within one nation because of the competition from other organizations in those nations. The companies that often go global are mostly those that have developed and due to their strength in terms of capital, they are capable of mobilizing the resources that they have in foreign countries to take advantage of certain factors that may include cheap labor, available market, available raw materials among other advantages that they may lack. These factors therefore determine the direction of their decisions to go global. This includes where to invest internationally as well as how much to invest in the foreign nations. While globalization has made it possible to sell or purchase in any part of the world, it has also been accompanied by several challenges.

Some of the important factors to consider are human resource management issues as well as supply chain management. Going global has also presented its own challenges in terms of sourcing for human resources as well as a complex supply chain that is often difficult to manage if it is not analyzed properly. One has to consider several factors such as; how the company would get the raw materials, how the company would source for the relevant technology that would be used in the production, Human resources and expertise with the right technology as well as acquisition of premises and or land to locate the company; whether to purchase an existing one or to construct and the location of the company itself.

There is also increasing concern the close relationship between the organizational identity and the various forms of image that influences the conception of the company and other stake holders. This influences not only what other people thinks about the operational ways of an organization. The identity of the organization should not therefore be taken for granted as it impacts on how people perceive the members of the organization. This has the overall effect on the same perception on the products of that particular firm. It is therefore important to note that the treatment of the organization is often complex and dynamic hence require critical analysis and thinking to ensure proper conception by the stakeholders.

Familiarity with the cross border trade regulations as well as the foreign legal system is very important and is some of the issues that multinational companies are taking seriously. One has to understand the laws regulating products or those that legalize or illegalize certain products in order to know whether it is possible to perform business activities in that nation . It is also important to understand the taxation system of the nation one intends to invest. Labor laws as well as work systems available are also important since different countries have different laws that govern labor market. Lastly it is important to understand the licensing procedures for foreigners.

Political stability is vital for the operations of a new company in foreign country such as Malaysia. Since it operates in different nations in which it delivers oil through trucks for export, it is crucial for the management of the company to analyze the political stability of the nations in which it passes before opening their brunches in those nations. As outlined by Michael (2009), political unrests that are witnessed in other nations in the East have made it difficult for most companies to invest. In this context therefore investments in those nations are not possible and may be considered to be very poor or the company may loose the whole investment as a result of unrest. Unstable governments have made it impossible for most companies to invest in those nations in the Middle East which are often in wars. As observed by Michael (2009), political instability does not only affect the manufacturing of a product but also influences distribution and the whole supply chain management. It is therefore important for the company to analyze the political situation before venturing into those nations.

Economic environment is also another factor that affects the investments in different nations. Economic aspects include the taxes, duties as well levies that are charged on the products. Other aspects of economic business environment are operational costs which include the cost of labor, raw materials as well as the cost of manufacturing. Taxes have the impact of encouraging business investments or discouraging investors. As stated by Michael (2008), these taxes have the impact on the overall costs of the product and hence give a company at a less competitive advantage. A new company can be forced avoid other nations or partner with other companies in foreign nations because the cost of doing business in those nations is high.

The differences in the cross boarder legal system play an important role in the determination of the success of an international company in the world market. This is because some laws promote investment while others are mainly designed to make it difficult for the foreign investors to open businesses in those nations (Schaffer & Agusti, 2009). However can take advantage of the less stringent laws in the other nations such as Malaysia and hence take the advantage of the market as well as the availability of labor and cheap raw materials. As outlined by Schaffer & Agusti (2009), stringent labor laws, quality standards as well as the overall time and cost of starting new business enterprises are very important for a company that intends to go global. For example, a new company venturing into Malaysian market is not affected by the quality standards and hence it is capable of doing business in that nation.

Different cultures in different parts of the world influence the market size and the type of goods that are supplied to the market. It is important to note that people from different countries use the same product or service but differs in terms of the content or the processes of delivery or manufacture. As stated by Ahlstrom & Bruton (2010), critical analysis and understanding the market is very important for any company that intends to go past boarder. This is because culture is not homogenous in the world market and hence there is need to provide for all the needs of the target market if one is to stay in the market. It therefore means that the company has to diverse its products so as to meet the specific needs of the consumers of such products and hence compete well in the global market. This requires specific market world market research.

Competition threats and other risks are also important aspects of business environment and affect the company. As a manufacturer of edible oil products, the new company venturing into Malaysia faces stiff competition from the well established companies within Malaysia which determines its operations. Ability to deliver high quality products at the least cost possible is the key to the success of multinational company (Johnson & Turner, 2003). This is because the company will gain a competitive advantage against others and hence lead to increase in the market share. A new company investing in edible oils in Malaysia must develop strategies to counter challenges and competition from others in the market. It is therefore important to note that critical analysis of the international business environment is important before any company can invest globally.

Analysis of the Malaysian edible Oil Market

Over the past period of approximately ten years, the capacity of land that is under palm oil production in Malaysia has grown from an average of 640 hectares of land to almost five million Hectors according to the national statistics of Malaysia.  Sabah part of Malaysia has the greatest oil capacity standing at 30% of all the palm oil produced in Malaysia. Sabah is then followed closely by Sarawak. Other areas of potential oil production include the peninsular which has realized close to 1.6% in the last decade. By the year 2006, Malaysian oil plantations consisted of approximately 35 million hectors which is an average of 90% of all the plantations in the country. These figures show that Malaysia does not only have large plantations of palm oil, but the nation also has the greatest capacity of mature palm oil at any time of the year. This has singled Malaysia as the nation with the highest potential in the production of palm oil in the world.

Malaysia exports its oil to several nations across the world. Many companies in the United States America, Africa, Vietnam and Jordan are some of the major of Malaysian palm oil. It is important to note that the palm oil is not only utilized by these nations for their own consumptions, other re-export the same palm oil especially after processing. Jordan is a good example of a nation that imports a lot of palm oil from Malaysia and then exports the same to Iraqi market. This is an indication that there is great opportunity for a new firm entering into the business. Although there are many other firms from Malaysia, there is a large market that is still under supplied with palm oil. A good strategy will therefore put a new firma at a competitive advantage. With the introduction of trans-fat labeling law in the United States of America, U.S. has become one of the major importers of palm oil from Malaysia. This has opened large market in the western nations.

The continuous merging of the plantations such that which occurred in the year 2006 has resulted into large firms. This resulted into the greatest palm oil firms in the south East Asia and the world as a whole and the rest of the world. These are some of the strategies the existing companies are taking to continue controlling the world palm oil market. Moreover this was approved by the government of Malaysia because it is believed to reduce the production costs and ensure optimization of capital use. This is expected to drive the economies of scale and economic synergies.

Palm oil is slowly becoming source of bio-fuel in Malaysia further increasing the opportunities for development of palm oil plantations. As stated by (), Malaysian Palm oil Council has already approved the use of palm oil in the production of bio-fuel which have very little carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. The research conducted by Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) show that the fuel generated from palm oil has the capacity of reducing carbon dioxide to up to 80%.  However, this has not been produced in large quantities due to available large market for edible palm oil in the European Union, United States of America as well as Japan. The surge in the international oil prices has also contributed top the dizzy growth in bio-fuel production. However, experts have argued that if the government can put in subsidiaries then the bio-fuel production can grow as well.

It is projected that the demand for vegetable shall increase by the year 2012 in Malaysia by an average of three million tones to reach close to twenty one million tones. This is due to the campaign towards the use of bio-diesel fuel instead of petroleum. This projection is more than what is required for consumption by close to fifty percent. In this respect, the growing demand will not affect the supply of palm oil to the market because this can always be used as a biodiesel fuel. As most European nations are putting strategies to control environmental pollution, biodiesel may serve as one the other best alternative fuel.  This therefore provides a stable market across borders for the excesses that shall have been produced in Malaysia by the new firms. This is because whether used as edible oils or used to make bio-fuels, palm oil prices can still compete effectively in local as well as world market compared top other vegetable oils.

Key institutional & Business environmental Forces

The idea of a new firm to cross boarders and look for greener business in foreign nation such as Malaysia is not only a strategy to position itself but also bring great opportunity for that firm to expand. Currently it is becoming a trend in almost all multinational industries in the world. The companies are moving to the other countries in which they intend to expand their operations and hence increase their market and profitability. This has been influenced with the constant increases in the operational cost as well as stiff competitions in their mother nations. Companies often expand their operations to other nations in order to take the advantage of the favorable labor costs, cheap raw materials, market availability, available less stringent legal barriers and to look for market away from the stiff competition faced at home. However, for these companies to move to the international market and begin international operations, it is important and mandatory for these nations to meet certain boarder requirements before crossing such boarders.

Sourcing for the human resources as well as supply chain management issues is often important. The new company intending to invest in Malaysia will have to strategize well so that it is assured of the supply of the raw materials from a constant source. In the Malaysian palm oil industry, supply chain is often complex and requires earlier analysis and preparation. This is because sugar cane takes almost two years to mature and there would also be the issue of ensuring that there is constant supply of sugar cane. There would be prior arrangements by the company and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) in order to secure license from the government and good source of this raw material before establishing the company. This can be done through buying of the existing firms in and improving on them to increase their capacity and efficiency. The other alternative is to use the private suppliers of Palm oil or the farmers. However, which ever the alternative the new company chooses, it is important for the company to have its own supply of Palm Oil and not to depend on the other firms, partnering or just through private contractors. Ability to manage the supply chain is therefore very important for any company that wishes to cross the boarders.

Human resource management can be a barrier to the entry into the Algerian sugar market.  Whether a nation chooses to export from Mexico or to locate sugar milling plants in Algeria, the issue of human resources management is very important. This is because the regulation in this sector differs from one nation to the other and it is also important to look at the cost of labor. This is because while other nations pay higher labor costs others have stiffer regulations in the labor industry that may not be favorable. However, The Malaysian Ministry of labor do not have strict labor measures that discourages investors, most of the regulations aims at ensuring job security and better realistic pay.

Palm oil company is a highly labor intensive company and utilizes a lot of human resource in the process of its operations and to ensure that the operations are a success. The right expertise is also a barrier to expansion as the company may wish to move to world markets where there is large market for the product while it would not be able to find the right expertise in Malaysia to manage the production of the sugar. This may result importation of labor which is much costly. As stated by Michael (2008), the choice of the location of a company as well as the ability to get the right technological skills is very important

The cross boarder trade regulations may be a barrier for a new firm to go to the Malaysian market. It is important to look at the foreign legal frameworks with respect to your   product in the international market. Knowing the regulations that control the production of palm oil and it derivatives such as bio-fuel will be of great importance to a new firm. While most Firms are merging as mentioned earlier, new firms may find it difficult to do business in Malaysia due to high operational costs of individuals firms. Malaysia has strict legal measures that control the production of bio-fuel and this may be a barrier to the production or exportation of palm oil products from Malaysia. While other nations put barriers to the production and promotion of those products, others have made it illegal for some product to be manufactured, promoted, marketed or consumed in its lands. However, in Malaysia, Palm Oil production does not have such controls by the government. The labor laws as well as the legal issues that control the labor markets in those nations may be barriers if a particular firm will not be able to meet the legal requirements. Generally, there exist legal, human resources, supply chain management, and product marketing barriers to the foreign markets.

A new would strategize to overcome these barriers and venture into the Malaysian palm oil market. The company may adopt a human resource management system that would be very important in their international operations.  The application of a strategic human resource management system would be important in the international operations as it will ensure that the company keeps and retains accountable, credible, and transparent human resource. New company may also strategize to purchase the other existing and willing companies in Algeria. This will be effective because the company will eliminate the other logistical problems that would also reflect in the cost of investment. Purchasing the available firms in the international operations is important since it results into the reduction in the initial costs that are often incurred in the construction and initializations of the business operations in those countries. The search for the location of a company is often a bigger task that would be avoided through this strategy. It would also result into the company acquiring immediate customers, suppliers and hence maximize on the expansion rather than building a new firm

There would be need for research by the top managers of the new firm in Malaysian market in order to identify the potential location sites. There would be need to look at the feasibility of exporting as a strategy to cross border to other nations with potential markets or the need to locate new plants in those respective countries and just export crude oil and then refine abroad. It would be of importance for the new company to move to the nations with less stringent legal laws with respect to the palm oil refinery and its derivatives. Labor laws will also be analyzed so as to ensure that the company comply and acquire business licenses in prior to the beginning of the operations in those nations or Malaysia.

The analysis of the political environment in another nation determines the success of the business venture in that particular nation. AS outlined by Clemate (2007), a business venture in an otherwise volatile environment with respect to the political stability of nation may just be a game of gamble. It is therefore important for the companies with intensions of going to the international market to first analyze the political stability of the nation so as to determine if it would be possible for the company to make profits. For example, in case the government of the nation in which a company intends to venture is unstable, it would be very difficult for the company to do business or make profits. This may result into such investments being very poor.

However, political instability may not prevent a company from investing. One of the strategies that a new company can adopt in its international business is that of corporation and partnership with the others in the nation in which it is venturing. This is evident in the volatile country of Somali and the other nations in Africa in which the political situation is unpredictable. In this way, the new company investing in palm oil products in Malaysia can comfortably sell in volatile nations. This will reduce the losses that may occur as a result of the political unrest in those nations. This new company can also use the mother companies through assurance of the trade licenses to these companies to manufacture on its behalf while they just perform the distribution. This is evident in Kenya in which most companies have contracted domestic firms to manufacture on its behalf.

It is also important to note that there is diversity in the views of the nations with respect to the international business. Some nations across the world encourage investors while others do not and instead put harsh conditions that have to be met by the foreign investors. These are done through the regulatory constraints that make it almost impossible for the company to perform or operate businesses. As outlined by the World Bank report on the ease of doing business in the ten nations with the best practice, India is outlined as one of the nation that has opposed foreign investments. The report also asserts that India does these through imposing stringent regulatory measures on the foreign investors who intend to open businesses in India (Clemate, 2007. The process such as business registration, tax, property registration and the procedures for starting businesses in India are not just expensive, but have also proven to be time consuming. However, in Malaysia, company registration is not very hard as in India.

The new company being a multinational company with well established reputation in different parts of the world has developed a strategy to navigate these impacts. A multinational organization without proper structures may also use contacts persons in other nations to enable them open businesses and operate. This ensures the company receives reputation and loyalty in the international market. However, getting trustworthy contact persons may be a problem.  Through the contact parsons, the company can be able go through the processes as outlined by the regulations in those particular nations. Many companies especially in Asia and India are not registered under the name of their major companies but they are known to distribute the companies’ products (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2010). This will not just eliminate the cost and time of opening business enterprises but has also increased the effectiveness and the efficiency in the distribution channels.  The new company may also use the trustworthy partners to enable them get to know the customs, preferences and the laws which may impact on the business in one way or the other and hence they also forecast and plan on behalf of their client.

Economic aspects in the international business are those factors that determine the cost of business operations in those nations. These factors include the taxes and the duties levied on the imported products and hence have the impact of either increasing the prices or lowering the prices of such imported products depending on the impact of the taxes (Reid, 2009). It is important for the multinational companies to have a know how of these regulations and hence diverse a planning strategy that would increase the possibility of their investment being a success.

However, important to note that this is not a risk but has an impact on the distribution of the product as well as the supply chain management. It has the overall effect on putting the company at a non competitive advantage compared to the international companies due to the increased prices compared to the domestic products. These may discourage the consumption of the products. The reason for the imposing of the taxes on the imported products is some times meant to encourage the consumption of the domestic products or promote the natural products in a country.  However, in Malaysia, the government has always supported investment in Palm Oil production by giving subsidiaries. This is therefore seen as an opportunity for a new firm in Malaysia and not as a threat.

It is important for the new company to understand well the cost of distribution of the Palm oil product and determine its prices well so as to know whether it would be a loss to invest in those Malaysia or not. In this case it will be profitable.  This would ensure that the business company does not collapse due to inability to operate in the foreign market. With this regard, the company should the new firm managers should choose to locate the business within those nations. Most multinational companies usually do this by establishment of their manufacturing plants in those nations. In this way, the investor Company imports the crude palm oil from their headquarters in Malaysia and just does refining and distribution.

This is one of the widely used strategies by the multinational companies like Coca-Cola limited in the international market.  Various governments have also encouraged it because of the employments that it provides to the people. As outlined by Clemate (2007), the government restrictions on the importation number as well as the percentage of employees from the domestic market who may be employed are very important.  Hidden taxes are common in some nations but not in Malaysian palm oil industry. This is because it has the overall effect on the cost of business in that particular company. However, some companies have been very vigilant and the production, distribution and the supply chain management has been very effective and profitable.

Strategic Marketing plan

Marketing strategy is designed to introduce a product which is new to the market, promote an existing product or generally change the characteristics of the product to some favorable ones. When the characteristic of a product is enhanced or a strong strategy is put in introducing a new product in the market, there are all possibilities that the product would fair well in the market. Marketing strategies for a product are based on four major components generally referred to as 4 P’s. These are: product strategies, promotional strategies, pricing strategies and placement strategies. The focus in achieving the above 4 P’s is based on the objectives set by the organization on how best to conquer the market in terms of getting closer to the estimated profit generation. For this discussion we will discuss the marketing strategies for a new firm investing in Malaysian Palm oil market.

An effective and efficient marketing plan is very essential for an organization to increase sales as well as meet the expectations of the consumers. An international company faces a diverse and dynamic marketing challenge that has to be critically analyzed and evaluated at the beginning, during and after any trading period to ensure that it retains its customers for continual improvement of the sales. This is because the challenges it faces in terms of marketing and the targets are not homogenous across the world. However, an effective marketing plan is only possible through an effective audit of the marketing plan which gives the effectiveness and efficiency of such marketing strategies. This would then be useful for this new Company since it would give the insights on what needs to be changed.

Marketing audit is the key and the initial process to the development and the drafting of a marketing planning process. It is important to look at the external and internal influences on the planning for its marketing process. One of the auditing tools that would be relevant for use by the new oil company in the analysis of the organization’s marketing process before drafting a marketing process would be SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis means strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis. SWOT analysis would be the first stage for the development of a marketing process. It looks at both the internal and the external influences that are capable of impacting on the organization’s marketing process either negatively or positively and hence provides an insight of what the company needs to change in any marketing planning processes. The following marketing mix can e used by a new firm venturing into palm oil business in Malaysia not only to get market share but also to co0mpete well with the existing firms.

Product

Product differentiation is very important in selling new company products in the market. Some consumers are influenced to purchase a product just because of taste, color, smell etc. These brands are necessitated by the demands from the people of different nations as well as the culture and the changing lifestyles. The diversity of products also gives the consumers an opportunity to choose from a variety hence increases sales volumes. .

China is one of the countries that Malaysia rolled its operations in the early 1900s; however this country has then seen a lot of competition that has seen most Malaysian oil firms change and bring different brands. During the year 1990s, the company introduced a good number of vegetable oil brands the U.S. In Shanghai people of China also raised concerns with respect to nutrition and vitamins. This resulted to the provision of vitamin through fortification for this people. All these are marketing strategies that are meant to keep the sales and restore consumer confidence on the product. In this way, the Company will be capable of positioning itself and often survives all the turbulent market tides.

Pricing

Pricing is the most important element of marketing mix. This is because it is the price that determines the final turnover of the organizations and hence profitability or losses may be realized (Mooij 2009). The other three are just adding up to the cost of business operations. It is therefore important to note that for a company to be successful, price has to support all the elements of mix.  In the United States of America, a company such the one just about to join Malaysian palm oil can adopt the product line pricing in which different products with different qualities are priced differently. This is to cater for the demands and the needs of the people.

For example, fortified oil is priced different to the ordinary palm oil. This is to cater for the additional value that is added. This is possible because the people of America are ready to pay for such value additions. This can also be seen in the vitamined water in China. However in the republic of South Africa, there are different products that are priced at the same prices despite their differences. This is actually competition prices with which the company will try to set the prices below its competitors in order to keep the competitors away from all their products.

Place and distribution

The distribution of palm oil is another method that a new company ensures that it maintains its supply of products to the customers. The company may decide to manufacture its product only in the United States of America, Malaysia, and Japan then distribute to the other parts of the world. In Malaysia most palm oil firms are actually using several automated vendor machines to ensure that the products are reaching the local people in the villages and other rural and remote areas. There is also extensive development of palm oil refinery plants in the rural parts of Malaysia due to good performance. In most African nations, the new company may use the locally based companies bottle most of their products. There is also the distribution through containers at low costs to the retailer so as to ensure the products are delivered at the right quality required by the customers. In this way, the new palm oil company will be able to cut on the costs of distribution and hence maximizes on the profits. The opening up of new palm oil firms by the new company is also important in helping achieve proper distribution of the edible oil products. In this way, the company is capable of minimizing the cost of distribution especially in these areas where transport may be a problem. However, in the U.S. the distribution system can be different.

Promotion

One of the marketing opportunities that are available for the new palm oil company is promotion through event sponsorship. It is considered to be expensive since it would mean spending additional funds in marketing; however, the company may get a good opportunity to market new product. It is very difficult to market with a new brand name because it will take customers longer to get familiar with the product in the market (Mockler 2005). The recent sponsorship of the FIFA 2010 world cup by the coca cola company is an example of such sponsorship. This was just one among the other sponsorships that Coca-Cola is using to promote its products in South Africa (Haberer 2010). However, with branding, the new palm oil company will b capable of capable of familiarizing its products among the customers and hence meet a specific requirements of a market segment.

The second promotional opportunity for this company would be print advertising that would however reach just to a specific market segment. This may be through the print media such as the newspapers, or in an upcoming event that is popular. This type of promotion opportunity has been explored in the United States by many firms. Others do this by sponsoring certain beauty, athletic and football competitions. There is a unique feature of promotion that a new company going into Malaysian palm oil business can use to promote their products. This can be done through the media and advertisement. The company has partnered with the multi-choice and super sport to advertise in several sport shows aired in that media. In this way, the Company would attract public attention and recognition hence increased product awareness, sales and consumer confidence.

Conclusions

The Malaysian palm oil market is big and has never been exhausted by the foreign investors. There are several opportunities in this industry due to less stringent procedures for company registrations. This is generally an open market that is still on the exponential stage of growth with great opportunities to be tapped. In our discussion, we have noted that a marketing plan framework or the process of getting the goods and services of any company across to the customers is an all inclusive and requires much planning. There are eight plans or processes that are supposed to be achieved. These have been highlighted as definition of the vision and the goals, identification of the ideal clients and the prevailing competition, development of the core messages, identification of the brand identification, determination of the marketing strategies, identification of the tactics for each strategies, creation of the tools for sales and support tactics, and execution, tracking and measurement of the results.

 

References

Ahlstrom, D. & Bruton, G. (2010). “International management: Strategy and culture in the emerging world.” Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Clemate, Mark N. (2002). The marketing Glossary: Key Terms, Concepts and Applications. New Jersey: Clemente Communications Group

Haberer, J. (2010). “Disneyland International Marketing Mix: International marketing mix ofDisneyland Hong Kong Seminar Paper.” Norderstedt: Verlag publishers

Johnson, D. & Turner, C. (2003). “International Business: Themes and Issues in the Modern Global economy.” Oxon: Routledge.

Michael, J. M. (2008). “The global advantage: how world class organizations improve performance through globalization.” Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.

Mockler, R. J. (2002). “Multinational Strategic Management: An integrative entrepreneurial context-Specific process.” Binghamton: International Business Press

Mooij, M. K. (2009). “Global marketing and advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. (Third edition).” California: Sage Publications.

Reid ,Robert D. (2009). Hospitality Marketing Management. Canada: John Wiley & Sons

Schaffer R. & Agusti F. (2009). “International Business law and its environments.” Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.

 

 

 

 

Healthcare Management

 

Summary

Concern regarding patient safety has risen in the contemporary times as a result of the increased cases of high profile medical errors and failures that have led to harm on the patients across the globe. The paper draws a number of statistics and examples from selected countries to give an analysis the extent and effect of this matter as well as establishing some essential recommendations that can be used to enhance healthcare management. Systems that are more enhanced are required to report and investigate these errors and failures as well as ensuring a helpful implementation of the lessons that have been learned. Some of the issues such as professional protectionism, culture of secrecy, and defense to authority impact much on the major errors and failures and for effective protection of failures in the future, cultural and structural changes play a role in organizations as well as health care systems.

Introduction

One of the healthcare managerial practices that pose a sizeable challenge to this particular industry is the patient safety (Larsen et al 27). Lots of lives continue to be lost in different health institutions across the globe as a result issues that threaten the stability of patient safety. Patient safety as a health discipline deals with analysis, preclusion and coverage of major failures and medical errors within a healthcare institution. (Larsen et al 27). It is a process that involves the management as well as reduction of risk so as to ensure that the provision of care to patients is safe in all means. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes patient safety as an endemic disquiet due to the fact that it impacts over 10% of world’s patients through medical errors (No 5, October 2010, WHO Patient Safety Newsletter 61). Major failures or breakdowns in the healthcare provisions in different countries will be highlighted in this paper to establish the way healthcare organizations and systems deal with these issues. It is evident that not many countries have a database or a central register that records the different failures regarding the patient safety. In this case, most of the examples that will be cited in this paper come from journal articles, government reports news coverage and other relevant materials.

 Background and Literature Review

Recently, there has been an increase in the public realization in many nations that at times, healthcare facilities can be very dangerous. Different scholars have published a number of reports in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand laying focus on both policy and public attention regarding the safety of patients by highlighting the upsetting high rates of medical errors and unpleasant events that cause different harms and injuries. As a result, it has become necessary for healthcare organization administrators to start recognition of and use of models, techniques and ideas from safety science that were develop and applied in other commercial and industrial settings in which reliability and safety have been prioritized.

Major improvements in patient safety in some nations have been achieved after instances of high profile failures or errors. Such events may either involve an error made by the healthcare professionals in charge of a particular patient or may result out of a breakdown in the system of provision of services within the healthcare hence causing considerable harm to the patients. While the medical error may in most cases involve a single patience, such a breakdown in the provision of services involves things like catalogues of unremitting, uncured failure that may take months or even years.

Such a historical breakdown and one that hit the news at its days was the pediatric cardiac surgery failure in England at Bristol Royal Infirmary. Despite the fact there were constant warnings regarding the poor surgical outcomes in the hospital, cardiac surgeons continued to carry out operations on newborns from 1990 to 1995 when the Department of Health of the United Kingdom stepped in to stop them (Alaszewski 371). It was concluded through a subsequent public inquiry that around 35 deaths would have been avoided. As a result, two doctors lost the medical practice licenses while three of them were subjected to discipline by the General Medical Council. This Bristol matter turned out to be a very influential political force of change in regard to the National Health Service (NHS), and now it is argued that it has the most all-inclusive and integrated quality assurance healthcare systems as well as highly improved in the world (Alaszewski 378).

A similar case was witnessed in Perth (Australia) regarding some obstetric services at King Edward Memorial Hospital. In an investigation that was carried out in 2001 revealed a long stretch of constant complains, concern, dissent, and a stalk of litigation over a long period of time (Mclean 1). Also in California at Redding Medical Center, physicians embarked on large volumes of unfortunate and gratuitous procedures on basically healthy patients and it was evident that majority of the hospital’s staff knew about it (Wood 1).

There was a case in New Zealand where doctors in National Women’s Hospital allowed women suffering from cervical cancer to live untreated so as to study the disease’s progress for about twenty years; they went on until late 1980s irrespective of the widespread disquiet regarding what they were up to (ELLWOOD 309, Young 1). Harold Shipman, a physician in England murdered over 200 patients during his over two decades general practice and as this happened, there was a general concern regarding the pattern and number of deaths and some even reported this to the police (Gunn 190). In the United States, Robert Brewer, a Virginia Surgeon remained in practice for over a decade despite the gross errors as well as startling incompetence instances being known by the health institutions that he was working for (Gunn 196).

Such events are very serious and can only be compared to airplane clashes that may be caused by ‘pilot errors’. They are events of grave and dreadful demonstrations of failure or human error that result to concentrated and perceptible harm to human life. For instance, when an airplane tragedy happens, the aviation sector conducts a careful and painstaking analysis of the whole clash to determine the lessons that needs to be learned for future’s sake. Unfortunately, this is not usually the case in most healthcare institutions despite the fact that the two tragedies are very similar in that they pose threats to human life while others are fatal.

Failure to investigate so as to learn from such major healthcare failures, crucial opportunities for enhancement and upgrading of the healthcare provisions are missed and this means that chances of similar failures to happen in the future still remain high.

 

Research Questions

It is clear that there is a lot of concern on the patient safety due to the increased number of major failures in the healthcare institutions and the main research questions that forms the basis of this paper are: What are the possible reasons why major failures keep on causing harm on patients despite the fact that they are not new in the healthcare industry? And, what are the possible barriers to investigation and disclosure of major failures and how does this impact the quality of healthcare management?

Analysis

As a result of the above literature, it is clear that major failures in the healthcare institutions are issues that can never be overlooked though some of them involve some ethical issues in the way to handle them. One of the most outstanding major failures is medical errors. The term describes a stoppable horrible upshot of care irrespective of whether it is perceptible or injurious to the patient. Such things as flawed or half-done diagnosis or treatment of a known infection fall under medical errors. Generally, a medical error occurs when a medical expert chooses an unfit method of care or executes an accurate care wrongly. Nevertheless, the definition of a medical error is a topic of debate because there are various classifications of medical errors in respect to their intensity and undesirable effects they cause on patients. Based on the fact that an enormous fraction of fatalities and injuries happening in different healthcare institutions come from medical errors is a issue of concern in the healthcare management and this is why this paper is dedicated in analyzing the major failures or medical errors in these institutions and the possible recommendations that need to be put in consideration to reduce a reoccurrence of these unfortunate events in the future (Dietz et al, 2010). To analyze this issue in a more detailed manner, general themes that feature in the major failure instances involved in this study will be grouped together.

Major Failures

Some of the failures that pose threat to the patient safety are longstanding problems that have been existed with the knowledge of the healthcare problems but they don’t act accordingly for a long time before these issues are revealed. For instance, the New Zealand case is a good example. Also the case of Harold Shipman and Robert Brewer, a Virginia Surgeon can be classified under these types of failures.

The other classifications of the failures are those that despite being well-known, they are not solved. Cases of such cases have happened in the past and there is a lot that can be learned from such cases. It has been revealed in selected cases that despite the fact that the key management and stakeholders were aware that something was going wrong within their institutions, they took no action to contain it. For instance, the Bristol Royal hospital, general practitioners within the regions and even some Department of Health workers were well aware of the case regarding the poor practice and results in the pediatric cardiac surgery (Alaszewski 378). Unfortunately in most of these cases, it is only the unsuspecting and vulnerable patients as well as their families that do not know about these regrettable unfolding of events.

It is also important to note that some of these failures are capable of causing immense harm to the unwary victims. A good example is a case in Canada regarding a failure in the blood service leaving over thirty thousand patients wounded and increased the healthcare costs immensely. Such cases put the reputation of the healthcare institutions at risk based on the fact that they lead to huge claims of malpractice by patient groups as well as individuals against the institutions.

One of the things that can be pointed out regarding the occurrences of these kinds of failures and dangers is the lack of or faulty management systems within the healthcare institutions. It can be noted with a lot of conviction that most of these failures occur in dysfunctional institutions or organizations. Apparently, this issue can be looked upon on the perspective of a failure by a single medical professional or a particular medical team and as a result, it appears contradictory to the conservative belief that a great number of patient safety threats comes as a result of systems failure instead of the behavior of particular individuals. Nonetheless, elementary management systems regarding incident reporting, performance management and quality review lack in these organizations where these kinds of failures are usually witnessed. It is also possible that despite these systems being in place in these institutions, the staff there easily bypass them. These cases basically reveal disconnect between the management and medical professionals regarding collaboration as well as lack of rational clinical management in the entire institution. Such organizations can be classified as isolated and reluctant to learn from both history and other healthcare institutions. There is a high likelihood that both the staff as well as patients within them are susceptible, scantily placed, and not empowered enough to raise concerns whenever it is necessary.

Another thing that can be noted in the past failures and one that should be treated as prominent is the fact that some of these failures are repeated. They keep on occurring now and again and this can only mean that a lesson was not learned from the previous occurrences. For instance, difference cases have been reported involving healthcare professionals in different nations having deliberately caused harm on substantial number of patients (John Wright 138). Despite this happening, whenever a similar case reoccurs, it appears as though nothing was learnt from previous occurrences. This can only suggest that either healthcare institution have been ignorant despite experiencing complete proof that there was harm on patients, they have been slow in suspecting wrongdoing, and hesitant in addressing the issue.

Disclosure and Investigation Barriers

In the normal setting, major failures are usually not easy to investigate and expose, with much being left to chance. For instance, in the Bristol case, perhaps were it not for the strong-mindedness of Stephen Bolsin (anesthesiologist) in pursuing the hospital authorities to act, or if operations of babies by the two controversial surgeons had been ceased some time earlier, or even if the final operation in 1995 that was impulsive to an external review, it was unlikely that there would be some other external inquiries. In this regard, it becomes apparent that it is possible that the major failures that are made public are just but a portion. It is possible that most of them go unnoticed (Learning from Bristol 8).

In this regard, proper mechanisms can be put in place to ensure that any failures or medical errors are exposed and it is very necessary that these mechanisms operate together. Firstly, in case of an egregious occurrence, the organization can be forced to act based on the fact that this kind of event is totally acceptable. Secondly, any member of staff within a particular organization may act as a whistle blower both within and or outside hence exposing the person responsible to disciplinary action, victimization, or dismissal though in some countries, there are provisions of statutory protection. Thirdly, persistent complains or different complains emerging from different people may force the authority to take notice of the problem. Fourthly, the media contributes in creating discovery and in the past, major failures have been discovered through investigations by journalists.

Sadly, major failures in most cases are not exposed by the quality assurance systems that have been established within the healthcare organizations in different nations. Nonetheless, it is the exposure of such failures that have led to the improvements that are now apparent in different healthcares and these include; incident reporting, morbidity and mortality review, clinical profiling, claims and risk management, credentialing, as well as the external agreements for accreditation, inspection, regulation, and oversight. For instance, in the Bristol case, it was revealed that clinical audit systems were efficiently overlooked and bypassed. In the case involving Robert Brewer, a Virginia surgeon, he was credentialed by the hospital and allowed to continue practicing despite the devastating concerns and evidence of his poor performance. It is also notable that most of the institutions in which major failures have been reported are mostly endorsed through accreditation programs as well as being licensed by the respective government authorities (Learning from Bristol 34).

One of the important barriers to disclosure is the prevalent culture of protectionism and secrecy in healthcare facilities in different nations. One of the pervasive cultures in the healthcare institutions is one that doctors and other professionals in the healthcare put their interests first rather than that of patients. There have been cases where the management of healthcare organizations has attempted to defend the organization rather than care for the interest of the patients.

Another barrier to disclosure is the fact that important knowledge concerning these cases is usually known in patches. The knowledge regarding the problems as well as the responsibility to act in tackling them may be disjointed across a number of people who may know something about the failure but they feel that it is not sufficient to raise an alarm to the management. In other cases, the people knowing about the problem may not be having the authority or even the necessary incentives to act.

The capacity of organizations and individuals to deceive themselves and the issue of post hoc validation once there some unwelcome information habitually contributes to the inaction. To these people and organizations, they find it easy to refuse to accept the given data than believing what they consider as unwelcome truth and this brings to a situation where problems go unnoticed until it reaches a point where evidence is totally irrefutable.

The other disclosure barrier comes as a result of informal mechanisms that are used by some healthcare organizations in dealing with poor performance problems or failures. This usually involves finding a way in which the pin pointed individual is made to exit the institution without creating a fuss or taking any formal action. This results to a situation where problems are moved within the healthcare systems rather than tackling them and solving them once and for all.

It is also worth noting that in some nations, the civil actions that deal with medical negligence and which can signal any major failure are mostly resolved with obligatory agreements that require non-disclosure and this may prevent the problem to be analyzed as much as it ought to be. Such agreements can be looked upon as Faustian bargains meant to benefit only the individual patient involved and leaving other future patients exposed to a potential similar risk.

Lastly, to undertake a comprehensive investigation in such a matter is a very costly encounter and a lengthy one and not many healthcare institutions or concerned authorities would be willing to undertake it. For instance, the case involving Bristol Royal Infirmary cost over US$23.7 million and lasted for around three years (Alaszewski 378).  Furthermore, confusion may arise as a result of multiple investigations by different authorities and agencies and they can even reach some erroneous conclusions.

Conclusion

Major failures in the healthcare institutions contribute to a major cause of fatalities in the hospitals but it is an issue that has not been given the kind of publicity and address it deserves. Despite the fact that it is a major epidemic, it has not been accorded the attention given to other life threatening procedures. In this paper, patient safety forms the center stage but there is a lot of concern based on the increased cases of major failures that continues to cause harm to different patients. The paper has pointed out a number of major failures from different countries in a way to establish lessons that needs to be learned from these awful occurrences. Some of the major issues that have come out to be associated with these major failures are professional protectionism, culture of secrecy, issues of disclosure and defense by authority. There a lot of lessons that can be learned from what has happened in the past as a way of avoiding a reoccurrence of these major failures in the future. In this regard, each lesson and recommendation highlighted in this paper should be used in making the healthcare institutions safer and enhanced in protecting the lives of the vulnerable patients.

Recommendations and policy connotations

There are major recommendations as well as policy connotations touching on the healthcare institutions, clinicians, and health systems. It should be noted that despite the fact that the manner of organization and funding of different healthcare in different countries is not the same, major failures across the globe have had similar characteristics. This can only mean that these problems as well as their probable solutions are based on the healthcare organizations’ culture, healthcare professions, and clinical practice (John Wright et al 130).

Firstly, the system used in the identification and highlighting of failures and medical malpractice should be enhanced for them to work in a proper and more effective manner. This can be accomplished through establishment of attractive incentives for reporting and removal or reduction of barriers and de-motivators to report. In this regard, the healthcare management should be organized in such a manner that clinicians feel free to report any concerns that they may have regarding issues of quality and the earliest time possible and the management of the healthcare should make it appear that such reporting is highly valued and necessary. Such systems must be put at the front line of any healthcare management through such things as; clinical rounds safety reports, regular meetings of multidisciplinary team, close observation of patent safety data and trends and ensuring that immediate feedback is offered to clinical staff regarding safety and errors reports. Healthcare organizations should also ensure that they put in place unequivocal, suitably resourced internal systems that have the right capacity to investigate any quality concerns so that any serious problem can be accorded rapid and the right attention. It is also necessary that healthcare institutions put in place a clear policy regarding the conditions in which other agencies may called upon to investigate a particular issue or advice the healthcare management team on how to deal with a certain issue (Mclean & Walsh 10).

It has also been evident that the quality management systems put in charge by healthcare organizations where major failures have been realized is mostly defective in coping with those challenges. In such cases, alarm is not raised that all things are not working properly despite these systems being overlooked or sidestepped. Though this does not mean that such systems do not work in other circumstances, there is need to reevaluate them so as to ensure that they have the right capacity to deal with any major failure that might occur within the healthcare institution (Mclean & Walsh 10).

It is recommendable that unambiguous mechanism be put in place to ensure that any lesson learned from any major failure is translated into unequivocal and approved recommendations regarding changes in medical practice and that this is implemented. This calls for enhanced systems that facilitate dissemination and sharing of lessons learnt and a proactive and more vigorous approach in checking the implementation process within a particular healthcare institution.

There is need to reevaluate the manner in which investigations on major failures are dealt with whether it is internally or externally. In some countries, these kind of investigation and their discoveries have turned out to be chaotic and indecisive in some countries and instead of their results being used to be able to put in measures to avoid reoccurrences of such major failures in the future, they end up giving no lessons to be learned. There is need to establish policies that deal with the manner in which investigations and discoveries whether they are from external agencies or conducted within the healthcare institutions ought to be handled. Series failures should be prioritized through establishment of a triage process and more prominence should be accorded to the lessons that need to be learned from every major failure by the concerned organization as well as other healthcare institutions (Mclean & Walsh 10).

Implication

Major failures in the healthcare industry have resulted to numerous concerns in regard to the patient safety. Major failures have proved to be a key challenge in the healthcare management because one of its key responsibilities is to ensure that there is reduction of risk factors that may cause any kind of harm to patients. In this regard, there is need for healthcare reform to ensure basic systems are put in place to establish a long lasting solution to this problem.
Works Cited

“No 5, October 2010, WHO Patient Safety Newsletter.” International Journal of Risk &    Safety in Medicine 23.1 (2011): 51-61. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec.       2011.

Alaszewski, Andy. “The Impact of the Bristol Royal Infirmary Disaster and Inquiry on             Public Services in the UK.” Journal of Interprofessional Care 16.4 (2002): 371-            378. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.

ELLWOOD, David. “Is this the last word on ‘an unfortunate experiment’?” Australian &       New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Aug. 2010: 309+. Academic       Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.

Gunn, John. “Dr Harold Frederick Shipman: An Enigma.” Criminal Behavior & Mental        Health 20.3 (2010): 190-198. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.

John Wright, et al. “Patient Involvement In Patient Safety: Protocol For Developing An           Intervention Using Patient Reports Of Organizational Safety And Patient Incident            Reporting.” BMC Health Services Research 11.1 (2011): 130-139. Academic    Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.

Larsen, Debra, Hayley Peters, and John Keast. “Using Real Time Patient Feedback to           Introduce Safety Changes.” Nursing Management – UK 18.6 (2011): 27-31.       Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Dec. 2011.

Learning from Bristol. The Report of the Public Inquiry into Children’s Heart Surgery at          the Bristol Royal Infirmary 1984-1995. Retrieved on November 4,           2011    <http://www.bristol-inquiry.org.uk/final_report/the_report.pdf

Mclean, Jenny. & Walsh, Michael. Lessons from the Inquiry into Obstetrics and     Gynaecology Services at King Edward Memorial Hospital 1990-2000. Retrieved    on November 4,             2011<http://michaelmoodie.com.au/KEMHAHRLessonsLearnedfromtheDouglasI      nquiry.pdf

Wood, Shelley. Fraud investigation at Redding Medical Center highlights problems with            American healthcare system. Retrieved on November 4,      2011<http://www.theheart.org/article/244417.do

Young, Diony. “Will Exercising Informed Consent Stop “Unfortunate Experiments”?” Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care Mar. 2005: 1+. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4           Dec. 2011.

 

 

 

Women in Greek Literature and Society

This essay will compare the position that women have held in Greek literature and society in general as projected in A Jury of Her Peers, Antigone, Lysistrata and Against Naerea. The essay will look at character traits and themes brought out by the characters, the author and plot of A Jury of Her Peers and compare them to Against Neaera, Lysistrata and Antigone, which reveals the life in ancient Greece. It is also evidenced that there were many similarities as well as differences in the role and challenges facing women in these two societies. The essay’s standpoint is that women play many important roles both in ancient Greece and in more recent society.

In all cases, women are seen as being subordinate to men. In A Juror of Her Peers, Mrs. Wright gave up singing because Mr. Wright did not like it. Mrs. Hale comments that Mrs. Wright used to sing but her husband brought it to an end somehow “… She used to sing. He killed that too.” (Glaspell 158). In Antigone, women were not considered when it came to succession of power. When the two brothers of Antigone and Ismene die, it is Creone who succeeds the kingship and not either of the sisters. When he is first introduced in the play, he says that he succeeded leadership after the death of the brothers because he was the closest of their relatives.  Similarly, in Against Neaera, it is evident that Neaera is not involved in the proceedings against herself. Even when she is caught in the wrong side of the law; it is Stephanus who is sued in her place. This shows that a man is supposed to be answerable to his wife’s misdeeds, as it is believed that they are beneath men. This subordinate position of the women is further reveled in the Lysistrata when Calonice says “…. It’s hard for women, …. There’s so much to do; Husbands to be patted and put in good tempers..” (Aristophanes par. 5)

In all the books, women are brought out as spouses and companions. In A Jury of Her Peers, all the ladies involved in the story are the married to someone. There are the Hales, the Peters, the Wrights and the Gormans. Similarly, in ‘Antigone’, Antigone is betrothed to Haemon, Creone’s son. He loves her so much that he defends her before his father, braving the possible repercussions; and he takes his own life when he learns of her demise. There is also Eurydice who is Creones wife, whom he loves very much. This is evident at the manner in which he mourns when he learns that she had taken her own life “…Will no one strike
me the mortal blow with a double-edged sword?”  (Sophocles 1315). This shows that he was also tempted to take his own life at the pain of losing his wife. The position of wife as spouse is further enhanced in Lysistrata when Calonice talks of “Husbands to be patted and put in good tempers” (Aristophanes par 5)

In Against Neaera, Neaera was stephanus’s lover. The two met in Megara where stephanus had stayed at her house. She narrated to him her life story, and especially the trouble she had suffered when she was with Phrynion. He also came to know of her longing to live in Athens and of her fear of doing so because of Phrynion. We also see that phano, Neaera daughter formerly called Strybele, was married to Phrastor, an Athenian, for a year. This is before he divorced her because he found out  ‘…that she was not well-behaved nor willing to be guided by him, and at the same time he found out for certain that she was not the daughter of Stephanus…’ (Hamel 51). After divorce, she was also married to Theogenes from Cothocidae, who was the King-Archon, by trickery. In the beginning, Theogenes is described as a good man who was not rich and who did not have much business experience. Stephanus, however, helps him get the King-Archon office and then gives him Phano for marriage. She is also divorced by Theogenes when he discovers that she was not an actual Athenian citizen. This chain of relationships shows that the position of women as companionships is well grounded into this society.

In the society portrayed in A Jury of Her Own Peers, women are portrayed mainly as home-makers. At the beginning of the story, we find Martha Hale being interrupted from doing some cooking ‘…her bread all ready for mixing, half the floor sifted and half unsifted.’ (Glaspell 143).   When the Hales, the Peters and Mr. Henderson are at the Wright’s house, many comments are made about Mrs. Wright’s housekeeping. This is mainly negative criticism from the men and empathetic defense by the ladies. For instance, there is a point where Mr. Henderson is criticizing Mrs. Wright for having a dirty towel in the house “…I know there are some Dickson County farm-houses that do not have such roller towels.”  (Glaspell 149). To this statement, Mrs. Hale tries to explain that the towels get dirty very quickly “…Those towels get dirty awful quick. Men’s hands aren’t always as clean as they might be.” (Glaspell 149). Failure to mention Mr. Wright in the criticism indicates that the responsibility of housekeeping lies solely on Mrs. Wright. Throughout the plot of the story, it seen that the women keep concerning themselves only with the matters of the household while the men move up and down looking for clues. It is this attention to detail that leads them to uncover the real clues as to the death of Mr. Wright. Similarly in Lysistrata, women are brought out as home makers, as can be inferred from Calonice words  “Servants to be poked out: children washed  Or soothed with lullays or fed with mouthfuls of pap” (Aristophanes par5)

In A Jury of Her Own Peers, women are also brought out as breadwinners. At the point where Mr. Henderson first mentions the dirty roller towel, Mrs. Hale comments that there is usually a lot of work in the farms “…There’s a great deal of work to be done on a farm…” (Glaspell 146). From this, we can conclude that besides housekeeping, the women in this society are actively involved in breadwinning.

On the other hand, according to Against Neaera and Antigone, emphasis is not really laid on women being housekeepers. This is probably due to the existence of servants who took care of housework. In Against Neaera, women are brought out as breadwinners though. When Neaera makes Stephanus her protector, he takes her to Athens as his mistress. Here she continues with her profession (prostitution) ‘…that her profession would provide him with the necessaries of life and keep the household…’ (Hamel 14) The means used by the ladies highlighted in this narrative are not very wholesome as they involve abuse of either self in the case of Neaera or others in the case of Nicarete who raised Neaera and six other girls and recruited them into prostitution at a very young age ‘…Neaera, who was already working as a prostitute, though she was not yet of proper age.’ (Hamel 22)

In all the books, it is seen that the women characters rise above the challenges posed by people, especially men’ and situations. In A Jury of Her Peers, the two ladies are really taken by the accused woman’s situation, because they identify with the challenges they face. From the plot, they obviously did not approve of the attempt to pin Mr. Wright’s death on his wife. The men trivialize anything the women, Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters, suggest might be of importance. Their attention to details however leads them to discover two pieces of evidence that might have held a clue to the death of Mr. Wright. These include an unfinished piece of kilt and strangled bird. When asked about the disappearance of the cat, they falsely accuse a non-existent stray cat “… we think a cat got it…” “… They’re superstitious, you know; they leave.” (Glaspell 158) So despite the men belittling the women on all their interests being trivial and unimportant, it is they that discover the most important piece of evidence and hiding it from the men to protect one of their own. They prove true to the title and act as the prosecutor, judge and jury for the accused woman. Similarly, the women in Lysistrata are able to stand up to the task and push the men for push, using all the arsenals at their disposal, including sex strike, despite their subordinate position in the society.

Women are also brought out as being rebellious. The case is the same in Antigone. Antigone suffers because she is not able to give her brother a proper send off because Creone, the king had decreed about Polynices ‘…that no one may bury or mourn him, but must see him unlamented, unburied…’ (Sophocles 25) she decides that she would do it despite the consequences. She does rebel against the decree and as a result, she is confined to some underground cave and ends up killing herself as result.  On the same breath, women in the Lysistrata rebels against the men and goes for a sex boycott and a demonstration so as to push the men to act according to their expectations. They rebel against the men so that there can be peace in the society “We must refrain from every depth of love..”  (Aristophanes par.15).

In Neaera, when Neaera escapes from Phrinion and moves to Megara. The place is described as improper for her type of profession and she longs to move back to Athens, which she cannot do due to her fear of Phrinion. When Stephanus puts up at her place, she narrates to him her life story and explains her fear of going back to Athens. He falls for her and she makes him her protector. In this way, she is able to go back to Athens and carry out her profession of prostitution in Athens under the protection of Stephanus. This show that she has rebelled against the authorities that forbade her from prostitution.

From the foregoing analysis of A Jury of Her Peers, Antigone, Lysistrata and Against Naerea , it is evident that women play many roles in society: they are housekeepers; they are lovers and wives; they are breadwinners; and are a source of life. It is also evident that there are many similarities as well as differences in the qualities those women posses as well as the challenges that they face. They however rise over these challenges in their own ways in the end.