Death a master from Germany

Introduction
Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) was one of the most renowned European philosophers of all time. However, his admirers were bereaved about his Nazism and his role in the death of the European Jews. His works are still revered all over the world. Martin Heidegger as a person has been written about by many writers like Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jean-Paul Sartre, Emmanuel Levinas, Hannah Arendt, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Jurgen Habermas. Through their writings it has been underlined that the character of Martin Heidegger was shrouded in mystery. Among the writings the best known was Paul Celan’s ”Death Fugue.” The incidents depicted in the poem have underlined the general happenings of the German society during the period of Nazism. The political background of Germany and the society played a huge role in the development of Nazism. It has to be stated here that Nazism has been regarded as one of the darkest happenings in the 20th century. The paper will deal with the political and the social backgrounds of Germany that played a key role in the development of Nazism in the country. This is to be done in the background of Paul Celan’s ”Death Fugue.” The poem beautifully depicts the condition of the country at that time. Though it has been written keeping in mind the character of one person, the essence of the poem covers the sentiment of the whole of Germany at that point of time. (Porty, 3rd May, 1998).
Death a master
It has been stated earlier that the basis of the paper is the poem written by Paul Celan. The inspiration for the poem is Martin Heidegger. It was proved that Martin Heidegger was an activist of Nazism and thus the character and the incidents depicted in the poem are common to Nazism. Therefore, it forms a very important background for the study. In this regard it is necessary to have some parts of the poem in the paper. This can be depicted as follows:
“Black milk of daybreak we drink you at night
we drink you at noon death is a master from Germany
we drink you at sundown and in the morning we drink and we drink you
death is a master from Germany his eyes are blue
he strikes you with leaden bullets his aim is true
a man lives in the house your golden hair Margarete
he sets his pack on to us he grants us a grave in the air
he plays with the serpents and daydreams death is a master from Germany
your golden hair Margarete
your ashen hair Shulamith” (Hamburger, n.d.).
This is the last paragraph of the poem where the phrase “death is a master” has been used. The last paragraph alone can depict the character of the figure depicted in the poem. It can be found out that the character is a ferocious figure whose mere sight can bring in death. As this poem was depicted as one of the Nazis, it can be safely assumed that the condition of the society at that time was horrible. This cannot be brought about suddenly and huge political and social happenings should have played a role in the development of the movement. This will be dealt in the following paragraphs of the paper.  (Death in modern Germany, 2004)

Background of the Nazi party and Hitler
It has been widely accepted that Nazism has been one of the black spots of the modern day political world. To know the reason of the birth of the movement, the name Adolf Hitler has to be analyzed to full extent. Hitler was the principal architect of the birth of the Nazi party and the subsequent Nazism. Hitler was born in Austria and lived in Vienna during his childhood. He has an intense liking for art but was not given admission in an art school in Vienna. When the First World War started he was recruited by the German army. He impressed during his duties with the German army. Legend says that at one time he was responsible for catching 21 people at one instance. However, during the war he was injured and he had to be admitted to the hospital in Germany. Due to the brutalities of the war he was weakened to the extent that it took considerable amount of time for him to recover. However, when he recovered he got employment in a courier company in Munich. During his work he came in contact with the German Worker’s Party. He was influenced by the policies of the party and soon joined it. He was to become one of the most influential figures of the party in the later days. He gained prominent position in the party in 1919 and was one of the 7 executive committee members. Hitler was responsible for many policies to make the party larger. In one of his policies, Hitler prepared invitation cards for a meeting which was to be held in a beer cellar. The invitation cards were told to be provided to the friends and families of the members of the party. However, not many people came to the meeting. Hitler got the chance for the first time to speak in the meeting. To many people’s surprise, Hitler was one of the most passionate speakers in the meeting. In his autobiography Mein Kampf he writes, “I spoke for thirty minutes, and what before I had simply felt within me, without in any way knowing it, was now proved by reality: I could speak! After thirty minutes the people in the small room were electrified and the enthusiasm was first expressed by the fact that my appeal to the self-sacrifice of those present led to the donation of three hundred marks.”
In 1920, Hitler became the head of the party and carried the fortunes of the party in his shoulders. That he was a good speaker was already established and he began to organize meetings for the parties. The meetings of his parties were resented by the Marxist revolutionaries. However, Hitler never discouraged the Marxists in disrupting his meetings because he knew that this would increase the sympathy of the people for his party. In one of the meetings that took place in 24th February, 1920 a huge gathering took place. However, there were a considerable number of Marxist revolutionaries in the meeting too. But the support for Hitler grew and the applause of the supporters soon drowned the shouting from the Marxists. In this meeting, Hitler recommended the 25 points that went on to become the guideline of operations of his party in the days to come. According to Hitler, “When after nearly four hours the hall began to empty and the crowd, shoulder to shoulder, began to move, shove, press toward the exit like a slow stream, I knew that now the principles of a movement which could no longer be forgotten were moving out among the German people.” It was in 1920, that Hitler introduced the swastika as the symbol for the party and gave the new name of the party as National Socialist German Worker’s Party. In short this was called Nazi. After he went onto become the leader of the Nazi party he displayed his political skills that would engulf the country in the days to come. (Pust, n.d.; Bendersky, 2000:87; Scaife, 2004: 71).
Political reasons for the birth of Nazism
During the 1920s, the party leaders from all the parties in Germany realized that Hitler was the man that can overthrow the revolutionary Marxists in the country. Hitler also realized the fact and he went to Berlin in 1921 to talk with the other parties and discuss the terms and conditions. However, the other leaders were jealous of the popularity of Hitler and formed an alliance with each other. This was learnt by Hitler and he resigned from the Nazi. The leaders realized that resignation from Hitler would mean that the Nazi party would die a premature death and the sympathy of the public would go against them. Thus, Hitler was persuaded to join the party. However, Hitler stated that he should be given all the powers as the chairman of the party. A vote took place and Hitler was heralded as the new leader or the “Fuhrer” of the party. The popularity of Hitler made the number of members of the party grow in the days to come. Hitler and his party tried in vain to overthrow the Government in the Berlin. However, they were unsuccessful in the attempt. At the same time, the economic downturn set in Germany and most of the leaders of the Nazi party along with Hitler were imprisoned. The incident of imprisonment of the Nazi leaders made them iconic in the eyes of the people in Germany. (Pust, n.d.; The rise of the Nazi party, n.d.).
The economic downturn of the economy in the country also decreased the number of members of the Nazi party. As a result the percentage of the votes in the election of 1932 was lesser than expected in the Nazi party’s favor. The party gained 33% of the votes in the election. However, Hitler was the master of negotiations and the President of the country Paul von Hindenburg was taken into the aide of the party and Hitler was promptly named the chancellor of the country in 30th January, 1933. Hitler used his political skills to increase the powers of the Nazi party in the Government in the days to come. On 5th March, 1933 another election took place and the Nazi party got 44% of the votes in that election. It was assumed that Hitler used various tactics to increase the votes in the party’s favor. Despite the protests of the other parties, Hitler assumed the role of the chancellor of the country and strengthened the position of the Nazi party in the Government. The Enabling Act passed on March 23, 1933 made Hitler powerful to form rules and regulations that did not need the President to pass them. Thus, the Hitler Government assumed the role of the dictatorship Government in the country. On 14th July, 1933 with the help of the Enabling Act, Hitler stated that the party would be the only one in the political world in the country. He was considered as the leader of the country and Hitler organized the political conditions of the country as well as the party according to his liking. The officials in the higher positions of the Government were ordered to become the members of the Nazi party. In fact if they were not the members of the Nazi party they were not kept in the positions of the Government. As they become the members of the Nazi party they were to follow the rules and regulations of the party. The rules and regulations of the Nazi party and the popularity of Hitler gave rise to the “Hitler Myth” that underlined that Hitler was wise and powerful. However, it has to be stated that Hitler was helped in his operations and organizations by many of his Generals. The top officials of the Nazi party were given separate responsibilities that had to be fulfilled by them. The officials of the Nazi party were to report to Hitler but they were given freedom in the day to day activities in their field. (Kershaw, 2001: 253; Nazi party, n.d.).
In the case of the International policies, the Nazi party and Hitler were aggressive in establishing the German way of life all over the world. The country and the party made demands of the countries and threatened to go to war if the demands were not met. It has to be stated that the German army was headed by Hitler and was organized well. In fact it was one of the most developed armies in the whole of Europe. The country was able to conquer and enter into settlements with most of the countries in Europe. Hitler invaded Poland in 1939 which started the World War II. The whole world was divided for and against Germany. The country conquered most of the continent by 1942. However, the Nazis were defeated by Soviet Union in 1942. The World War II was one of the blackest points of the 20th century. It took the lives of 40 million people. (Del Testa,D,  Lemoine,F and  Strickland, J, 2003: 83).
One of the most disrupting images of the Nazi regime was the treatment meted out to the minorities in the country. The Jewish were considered as the secluded part of the society. They were to wear yellow badges in public from 1941. The “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” conference was headed by Reinhard Heydrich took into account the final treatment to be meted to the Jews. From 1941 to 1945 about 6 million Jews, 6 million Poles, Romanies, Slavs, Soviets were put to death. The countries and the provinces that were taken under control by the German forces were to go through ethnic cleansing. This was commonly called the holocaust. This incident increased the opposition of Hitler in the country as well in the other countries from the world. (Snyder, n.d.).
Hitler played a key role in the development of the German economy. It has to be remembered that when Hitler came to power, the German economy was in the down and most of the people were suffering from unemployment. However, the policies of Hitler helped the German economy to recover from the downs of the early part of the 1930s. For the development of the economy, the Nazi party took into account the mixed economy. The key parts of the Government were managed by the Government while the other avenues for opened for investments from the private parties. According to Richard Overy, a historian, “The German economy fell between two stools. It was not enough of a command economy to do what the Soviet system could do; yet it was not capitalist enough to rely, as America did, on the recruitment of private enterprise.”  (Overy, 1995: 205)
Thus, it can be stated that the Nazi party and Hitler played a key role in the poltical world of Germany. Though many facets of the Government of the Nazi party helped in the development of the country, there were some aspects like the Holocaust and the World War II that tarnished the image of the German Government. There were deaths everywhere and most of them were because of the policies of the German Government.
Social reasons for the birth of Nazism
The policies of Hitler in most of the aspects can be brought about by the political reasoning. However, the reason for the holocaust had traces in the social reasoning. Hitler had a special hatred for the Jews. However, the reason for this has not been inferred to this day. In his book, Hitler had written, “For the Jew was still characterized for me by nothing but his religion, and therefore, on grounds of human tolerance, I maintained my rejection of religious attacks in this case as in others. Consequently, the tone, particularly that of the Viennese anti-Semitic press, seemed to me unworthy of the cultural tradition of a great nation”. It has to be stated this was in the early part of his life and during that time he viewed the Jews as normal people in the society. (Lindsey, 2000: 201;Victor, 2007:18)
Dietrich (1988) studied the life of Hitler and found that there was no particular reason for Hitler or the Nazi party for the disliking of the Jews. However, he found out that the Nazi party was close to the German society. The disliking of the Jews was a common part of the people of the society in the 1930s. The Germans considered themselves as the prime component of the world. The holocaust was an incident that did not only involve Jews but the people of the other countries as well. Hitler and the Nazi party rose to the power and were popular because of their unconditioned love of the German people. This love translated in making them believe that they were superior to the other people in the world. They also believed that they have the responsibility to cleanse them of their deeds. In one of his speech, Hitler stated,
“During fourteen years the German nation has been at the mercy of decadent elements which have abused its confidence. During fourteen years those elements have done nothing but destroy, disintegrate and dissolve. Hence it is neither temerity nor presumption if, appearing before the nation today, I ask: German nation, give us four years time, after which you can arraign us before your tribunal and you can judge me! ….
“I cannot rid myself of my faith in my people, nor lose the conviction that this people will resuscitate again one day. I cannot be severed from the love of a people that I know to be my own. And I nourish the conviction that the hour will come when millions of men who now curse us will take their stand behind us to welcome the new Reich, our common creation born of a painful and laborious struggle and an arduous triumph—a Reich which is the symbol of greatness, honour, strength, honesty and justice.”(Why Hitler hated Jews, n.d.).
The speech clearly underlines the social sentiment during the time in Germany. Thus it can be stated that the incidents of the holocaust was because of the social upbringing of the people in Germany.
Holocaust
One of the worst incidents of the Nazism era was the holocaust. One of the major reasons for the holocaust was anti-semitism. It took the form of racial discrimination among the people in the country. The Jews were made responsible for the state of the economy at that time. In addition to this, the Jews were considered as a group of people that were ranked lower than that of the Germans. The Germans were held responsible for the start of the World War I. They were ordered to give back the land they had conquered in the World War according to the Treaty of Versailles. The loss of the World War II made the state of the economy of the country bad. This affected the pride of the people in the country and the Jews were held partly responsible. The Germans under Hitler developed into a brutal force and they found it apt to conquer more territories in the other countries. (Why did the holocaust happen, 2011; Zapotoczny, n.d.)
Several works have been published in the field of the holocaust that took place in Germany during the time of Nazism. It was univocally accepted that National Socialism was one of the main factors for the incidents of holocaust. This was brought forward by the works of Daniel Goldhagen in Hitler’s Willing Executioners (1996). According to Goldhagen, the holocaust took place because of the “eliminationist antisemitism” that was an unique feature of the German national identity. This type of “eliminationist antisemitism” developed in the medieval period when it was based on the religions. However, it took the form of secularism in the 20th century. According to Goldhagen most of the German population knew about the holocaust and supported the incidents. (Zank, 2008). According to Rogers Brubacker, Groupism exists in the modern world due to the “social constructivism”. This is not an evil for the society but the ability of the leaders like Hitler to make the people group under a certain objective and goal. According to him, the nation is “practical categories, situated actions, cultural idioms, cognitive schemas, discursive frames, organizational routines, institutional forms, political projects, and contingent events.” Thus, it cannot be denied that racism exists in the modern world. Nations are “perceiving, interpreting and representing the social world.” The social conditions in Germany at that time helped in the growth of groups in the society. (Goina, 2004). Van Der Berghe’s nepotism theory underlines the fact that the kin selection in the biological world is carried out among the relatives and their own genes. Thus, it is not surprising that the human beings will favor their relatives’ people of the same group and would look to eliminate the others.(Brigandt, n.d.). The psychology of evil suggests that men turn into killing beasts because of certain factors like social anonymity, knowledge of the evil, social happenings etc. These incidents transform a peaceful man into an evil person. In the case of Germany, knowledge about the Jews transformed them into killing machines and took the birth of holocaust. (Zimbardo, 2004). Hanna Arendt stated that the banality of the evil is a game of brain that is played by the man going in the path. (Hanna Arendt and Stanley Milgram, n.d.).
Wolffsohn in 1998 was against the general notion that the Germans were responsible for holocaust and debated that most of the Germans were not aware of the happenings. He stated that the world should stop blaming the Germans for it. The Jews were holocaust because of the conditions prevalent in the society and the economy at that time. (Rudolf, n.d.).  However, according to me the holocaust was a result of the “eliminationist antisemitism” described in the earlier paragraph. In addition to this, the groupism and the nepotism also played a role. Without these factors the holocaust would not have taken such a huge size and extent.
Conclusion
It has to be stated Hitler and the Nazi party played a key role in the history of Germany. The regime of the Nazi party helped in the development of the country but it also had some black points. The poem described in the early part of the paper was set in the Nazi Germany and portrays the life during that era. The period was market by deaths and fear of the people. This was because of the political agenda of the Nazi Government and the international relations meted out by the Hitler Government. The Nazi party was responsible for the start of the World War II. This took millions of lives all over the world. In addition to this, the holocaust activities were a shame to the German administration. This was because of the social upbringing of the people in the country. Thus it can be stated that the condition in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s cannot be brought about suddenly and huge political and social happenings should have played a role in the development of the movement.

References:
Pust, J. (n.d.). History of Nazism. Retreived on 1st January, 2012 from: http://www.angelfire.com/in/j4a/nehistory.html
The rise of the Nazi party. (n.d.). A teacher’s guide to the holocaust. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/nazirise.htm
Kershaw, I. (2001). The “Hitler Myth”: Image and Reality in the Third Reich.
Del Testa,D,  Lemoine,F and  Strickland, J.  (2003). Government leaders, military rulers and political activists. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Overy, R.  (1995) Why the allies won.  Random House.
Snyder, T. (n.d.). Holocaust. Eurozine. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2009-06-25-snyder-en.html
Nazi party. (n.d.). History. Retrieved on 1st Janaury, 2012 from: http://www.history.co.uk/encyclopedia/nazi-party.html
Why Hitler hated Jews. (n.d.). Majority rights.com. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://majorityrights.com/weblog/comments/why_hitler_hated_jews
Death in Modern Germany. (2004). GHI Bulletin No. 34.
Hamburger, M. (n.d.). Death Fugue. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://www.english.txstate.edu/cohen_p/postmodern/Literature/Celan/Hamburger.html
Porty, R. (3rd May, 1998). A master from Germany. Retrieved on 1st Janaury, 2012 from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/05/03/reviews/980503.03rortyt.html
Lindsey, D. (2000). The woman and the dragon. Pelican Publishing. USA.
Victor, G. (2007). Hitler. Potomac Books. Washington D.C.
Scaife, M. (2004). History.
Bendersky, J. (2000). A history of Nazi Germany. Cushing-Malloy Inc. Washington D.C.
Zapotoczny, W. (n.d.). Why the holocaust was possible.
Why did the holocaust happen? (2011). Your dictionary. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://answers.yourdictionary.com/history/why-did-the-holocaust-happen.html
Zank, M. (2008). Goldhagen in Germany. Retrieved on 1st January, 2012 from: http://www.bu.edu/mzank/Michael_Zank/gold.html
Goina, C. (2004). Ethnicity without Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.
Brigandt, I. (n.d.). The Homeopathy of kin selelction.
Zimbardo, P. (2004). A Situationist Perspective on the Psychology of Evil: Understanding How Good People Are Transformed into Perpetrators.
Hanna Arendt and Stanley Milgram. (n.d.) Psychology and more. Retrieved on 1st January, 2011 from: http://danaleighton.edublogs.org/2011/08/19/hanna-arendt-and-stanley-milgram/
Rudolf, G. (n.d.). Dissecting the holocaust.

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Global Crime Rates

Homicide is violence directed at an individual with injuries an intention of inflicting serious injuries or killing. The levels of homicides around the world vary widely. Even within a country, the homicide rate varies. In 2002, only 25 countries contributed to more than half of all homicides in the world. Mexico has one of the largest economy countries in the Latin America. It produces and exports a lot of oil which forms a major source of revenue for the government. However, crime rates in Mexico remain high. The increased homicide rates are as a result of organized criminal gangs. Drug trafficking has caused increased corruption and the government can not effectively deal with them. The judiciary system is infiltrated by corruption thus it is inefficient and can not effectively prosecute and punish the offenders. The police are also compromised by these gangs and therefore collude with them. Prosperity is far from many and the socio-economic gap is wide (UNODOC, 2011).

The social economic variables most commonly associated with homicide rates include the Age structure, urbanization, unemployment, population density, poverty and inequality, and education. Younger males are more likely to be involved in crime than females. Rural- urban migration result into urbanization and high population density in these areas. This puts a constraint in social amenities while unemployment levels rise due to the increased competition for resources. Income inequality becomes more pronounced and frustration sets in especially if the poor and the wealthy live side by side. Other differences such as religious, ethnic and language barriers can lead to increase in homicide levels due to political competition. Low education levels can lead to high rates of unemployment making people to engage more on crimes (Fajnzylber, Lenderman & Loayza, 2000).

The governance structure can also facilitate a rise or fall in homicide rates. The governance indicators include rule of law, political stability and control of corruption. China is rated among countries with low homicide rates because it has gained trust from its citizen. The government has in place stringent measures to reduce corruption. The Chinese justice presumes someone to be guilty until proven innocent. China still enforces death sentence to serious offenders, and this has ensured a low rate of homicide cases (UNODOC, 2011). Judiciary system which are not effective cannot prosecute and punish offenders thus cannot curb crimes.

References

Fajnzylber, P., Lenderman, D. & Loayza, N. (2000). Crime and victimization: An economic perspective. A Paper prepared for presentation at the 1st Meeting of the Latin America Economic Policy Review, New York, May 12 and 13.

UNODOC, (2011). 2011 global study on homicide. Retrieved 23 January 2012 from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/statistics/crime/global-study-on-homicide-2011.html

 

Global Crime Rates

Evidence from the official website of the U.S state of department indicates that Israel is one of the countries with high homicide rates in the world. Homicide in Israel has not been a surprise since it has been in existence since the time immemorial (Jones and Johnstone 2012). This is because killing was compensated by the members of the family whose member committed the crime. This can be seen from the outset that it creates enmity and the idea of revenge emanates. The high crime rate in Israel is as a result of political violence which has seen many youths of the age 15 to 24 dying since they are the most active during such events. This rate is considered the highest in the world seconded by the U. S which is followed by Scotland and New Zealand (Friedmann 1998).

One would expect a country with such high level of crime rate to be economically challenged, for Israel it is the contrary. The economy is regarded as the best with high GDP every year. There are however some wars now and then between Israel and the surrounding neighbors. This could be the reason for the cases of homicides. It is also good to note that economic indicators are not directly related to the rates of homicides. This is because technology is at the peak and thus economy is improving. In this case it is expected that people will settle and respect one another since the rate of employment is very low, but it is the contrary.

There are actually other indicators that demonstrate the continuity of the homicide trend. The discrimination against the non-Jewish population is a bad sign that hatred will suppress humane and thus more killings (Friedman 1998). If this is the case, then the new technology of advanced weapons which is as a result of the high level of scientific invention, will keep the trend of homicides at the same level or even higher.

 

 

References

Friedmann R. (1998). Criminal and criminal justice in Israel: assessing the knowledge base toward the twenty-first century. New York, USA: State University of New York.

Jones M& Johnstone P. (2012). History of Criminal Justice; homicide in Israel. Waltham, USA : Anderson publisher.

 

 

Having Hitler as a Father

Sylvia Plath’s “Daddy” is a poem about a daughter describing her feelings for her deceased father. This poem could be about the author’s father, as she’s also lost her dad at a young age. But rather than focusing on her relationship with, or her feelings for her father, it would be more interesting to talk about having Hitler as a father. Although it’s not directly stated in the poem, there are certain references to Hitler and his reign of terror. A lot of things have already been written about him, from his childhood to his death, especially on his horrible crimes against humanity. But despite all that, not a lot is known about the intimate details of his life. One could only assume what it was like having Hitler as a relative, especially if he’s the paternal figure that a kid would grow up with and look up to. The theme of the poem is having Hitler as a father, and from the poem, it seems that it is a very complicated relationship. There’s a conflict between feelings of animosity and attachment, of hatred and love.

Even from the start of the poem, it is already evident that having Hitler as a father is quite complicated. The opening stanza states immediately tells the readers that it was a restrictive relationship, like a foot stuck in a shoo “for thirty years, poor and white, barely daring to breathe or Achoo (Plath).” From the first stanza alone, one could understand that having a powerful man for a father could really take a toll on one’s freedom.

But having Hitler play the paternal role in one’s life would also mean that there’s a great deal of admiration for such a man. The statement “every woman adores a Fascist, the boot in the face, the brute, brute heart of a brute like you,” shows that it’s hard not to look up to a powerful man like Hitler (Plath). For a child of Hitler, the abuse and the torment that he or she may receive from his or her father is overwhelmed by his achievements, or by his stature as a man who could possibly rule the world.

At the end of the day, having Hitler as a father would always be a frightening experience and an inescapable fact. One stanza states that the author has always been afraid of her father. But unfortunately, the presence of her father overwhelms her. Hitler is “not God but a swastika so black no sky could squeak through (Plath).” Hitler is a symbol of authority, and his power transcends even that of a god or a deity. He’s a real person who can inflict real damage and pose real threats. His child would surely fear him more than anything else, even more than his fear of God.

But again, having Hitler as a father really complicates things. It would be impossible for that child not hold him in high regard. That could clearly affect a child’s perspective. Even when Hitler is gone, his hold on the emotions of his child would still be very great. Despite all the fear and all the hatred that he’s brought upon his offspring, Hitler would always be remembered even after he passes on. This is evident in the poem, when the author said, “I was ten when they buried you. At twenty I tried to die and get back, back, back at you (Plath).” This only means that even for the ten short years of living with a man like Hitler, the impact on the child’s life is so great that death was a welcomed idea to reunite with her father. Also, Hitler’s death left a gaping hole in his child’s heart. Because of this, she was forced to seek someone who could fill that void, someone that’s very much similar to her father.

Indeed, having Hitler as a father is really complicated. Sylvia Plath’s poem “Daddy” is a testament to this complication, although she wasn’t really talking about Hitler. For the author, her father is very much like Hitler, because with him, she felt love, hatred, attachment, and animosity. In the end, she looked for someone like her dad, but then she realized that it was a very bad decision. She had to “kill” her dad and her husband from her life and from her memories so that she could finally move on and live a fuller life.

Work Cited:

Plath, Sylvia. “Daddy.” Ariel: Poems by Sylvia Plath. Faber and Faber, 1965.

Differences and Similarities between Corporate and Organized Crime

Corporate crime is a form of fraud that is closely related to “white-collar crime,” which takes place in business organizations and other corporate institutions such as banks, manufacturing industries, and non-governmental organizations. Unlike organized crime which may involve illegal street activities such as kidnappings and cross-border operations like drug trafficking, corporate crime involves “clean jobs” like manipulation of accounting records by finance officers, insider trading, misappropriation of funds, tax evasion, etc. However, both forms of crime require some degree of financial, social or political influence to be successfully carried out. This is because although organized crime is not exclusive to a specific race, profession or class,  “many studies have shown that those with power, influence, and respectability in local, regional, national, or international society have tended to organize crime more successfully and securely than those without” (Woodwiss, 2001, p. 3). Further, as Edwin Sutherland (1939) once observed, corporate crime is a large-scale version of white collar crime, because it involves people of high-class society, committed in the course of their occupation. Thus, the two forms of crime (white-collar and corporate) overlap each other because they all happen within similar environments, in which the incentives are high for an individual or group of individuals to engage in bribery, money laundering, insider trading, forgery, and embezzlement. As in organized crime, the market is similar in both cases, since “the same market forces and factors that apply to legitimate (corporate) business markets are also mirrored in crime markets” (Dean, et al., 2010, p. 144). This paper discusses the similarities and differences between corporate and organized crime.
Perhaps the common denominator in both corporate and organized crime is the influence of money as the ultimate goal. As Jeffrey Sachs, Professor of Economics at Columbia University notes in The Global Economy’s Corporate Crime Wave, money talks, and it is the vice that corrupts politics and markets around the world. In the world’s big economies where mega-scandals thrive, such as in the U.S., “Every Wall Street firm has paid significant fines during the past decade for phony accounting, insider trading, securities fraud, Ponzi schemes, or outright embezzlement by CEOs” (Sachs, 2011, p. 1). It is corporate crime involving insider trading and manipulation of financial records that is presently shaking Wall Street, beginning with ENRON’s concealing of a staggering$50 billion debt in 2001. Similarly, it was the same kind of fraud that, in 2007, saw a number of supermarkets and dairy companies in the UK get fined $116 million for price fixing so as to artificially keep milk and cheese prices and profits high amidst a collapsing economy (Browne, 2011, p. 225). In this regard, the pursuit of financial gains through illegal means is what essentially ties corporate and organized crime together. Organized crime, such as mafias, engages in illegal activities such as drug and human trafficking for the sole purpose of making money. Likewise, companies engage in fraud in situations when keeping to the book rules will minimize profits, or lead to losses and, eventually, bankruptcy. Without money, the incentive of taking the risk will be absent, thereby eliminating the need for undertaking a venture that, if caught, is punishable by the law.
Both corporate and organized crime operates at a global level, thereby making it difficult for governments to adequately deal with their illegal activities. Big companies operate as multinationals, which allows them to carry out their activities in several countries. Consequently, it is not easy to monitor each of every financial transaction that is conducted by a multinational company. In a similar situation, organized crime can operate across international borders, making it equally difficult to track their activities. For instance, the trafficking of drugs from Mexico and Colombia into the U.S. has been a persistent problem despite efforts by the U.S. authorities to curb it. In addition, their financial muscle affords corporate and organized crimes legal protections against state authorities. More often, they both have access to unlimited financial resources, which help them to hire the best legal services to challenge any charges against them. Moreover, corporate and organized crime thrive because they sometimes buy political connections by funding election campaigns of favorite candidates. In some cases, politicians hold shares in companies that later get involved in scandals, and their power connections shield them from prosecution.  Thus, the close connections that exist between wealth and power on the one hand, and the law on the other, make it impossible for state authorities to rein in corporate and organized crime.
Another point of similarity between corporate and organized crime is on the source of capital for some corporate organizations. In certain circumstances, whereby perpetrators of organized crime may need to “clean” ill-gotten wealth, such as drug trafficking money, they may set up legitimate corporations for the purpose of money laundering. Therefore, corporate crime may relate with organized crime in that sometimes the former benefits financially from the latter (such as using mafia money as business capital), while corporate activities are used as a front to legitimize illegal wealth through money laundering.
Organized crime involves an association of individuals with close social ties, who cooperate in carrying out illegal activities for the purpose of achieving power and financial gains. Generally, organized crime involve “the illegal activities carried out by structured groups of three or more persons existing for a prolonged period of time and having the aim of committing serious crimes through concerted action by using intimidation, violence, corruption or other means in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit” (Council of Europe, 2002, p. 6). The purpose of organized crime is to exploit illegal markets for monetary gains at the expense of society. In this regard, organized crime is similar to corporate crime in that no specific individuals are singled out as victims. However, organized crime is so dynamic that it can involve almost any illegal undertaking from street drug peddling, to murders and kidnappings for ransom. Consequently, corporate crime requires may require exceptional planning and organizational skills as well as extensive networks of participants, and this is what enables organized crime mobs to be versatile and dynamic in their activities (Kirby & Penna, 2010, p. 195)
Additionally, informal hierarchies exist in organized crime, whereby members, usually family members, occupy ranks that determine their duties. Mafias, such as the Sicilian Nosa Costra in Italy are the perfect example of organized crime. The common consensus is that
Organized crime functions as a continuing enterprise that rationally works to make a profit through illicit activities, and that it insures its existence through the use of threats or force and through corruption of public officials to maintain a degree of immunity from law enforcement, and more often than not, specialize in profitable yet illegal goods (Albanese, 2000, p. 411).
The functioning of organized crime differs from corporate crime in the secretive manner in which they carry out their activities. While corporations are usually legitimate and publicly known businesses engaging in legal activities, organized crime, on the other hand, include secret groups whose members remain strive to remain anonymous. Their activities and members are secretive in nature because their success entirely depends on the ability to evade detection by law enforcers. In contrast, corporate crime such as price fixing may be committed openly in the guise of a legitimate activity, using fraud and deception (Bologna & Shaw, 1997, p. 93).
While financial gain is the end result in both corporate and organized crime, they both often use different means to achieve their goals. Organized crime aims to establish a monopoly and market control of a given industry or territory. Thus, rivalry and competition may emerge between different mobs fighting for territorial or industry control. For instance, a gang may intend to control the drug market, or a given town. On its part, corporate crime almost always involve “inside job,” in which employees or investors make decisions or take actions that influence the stock value in desired ways. Additionally, the term “organized crime” does not necessarily imply the existence of rigid structures of command and responsibility as in corporate enterprises, but refers to a loose coalition of individuals who operate on mutual understanding and explicit rules, often enforced by sanctions and death threats (Abadinsky, 1990, p. 6).
There are a number of feature that make organized crime distinctly different from corporate crime. Organized crime is uniquely hierarchical, whereby decisions are made by mafia bosses, commonly referred to as “godfathers,” and executed by the ground soldiers, the individuals who operate at the street level. A notable similarity between corporate and organized crime is what Edwin Sutherland identified as the desire to avoid making one’s hand dirty. Organized crime achieves this by employing several go-betweens so as to distance the top leadership from a criminal activity. For example, mafias often use unsuspecting individuals to transport drugs, or “henchmen” to carry out a murder. The foot soldiers know little or nothing at all about the organization’s activities, hence little risk of exposing the inner circle in case of arrests or betrayals
Secondly, organized crimes rarely have political goals or connections. This is because they are illegal from the very beginning, and usually make efforts to avoid recognition. In contrast, business companies do not specialize in illegal activities as their core activities, but break the law occasionally when the need arises. For example, a company may tamper with financial records once in a while so as to evade paying tax. As such, business companies may seek political connections as a lobbying tool and business strategy, especially in securing lucrative government contracts. Moreover, some political leaders are former executives who retire to seek political office, but maintain their former business contacts. These ties help business companies to engage in fraudulent activities with impunity, with the knowledge that legal prosecution is an unlikely eventuality.
Membership in corporate crime is exclusive and limited. Accordingly, one does not get into organized crime on the basis of merit as in corporate occupation, but rather on the basis of kinship or friendship (Abadinsky, 2010). This is because as a venture that engages in long term illegal activities, organized crime depends on the trust and loyalty of its members to survive. As a result, most organized crimes are run by families or close relatives, who can be relied upon to keep important secrets. As a further precaution, organized crime maintains underground networks that help in performing activities.
Perhaps the most remarkable distinction between corporate and organized crime is the prevalence for violence and intimidation in the latter. Sometimes, organized crimes earn impunity by corrupting/buying out government officials, threatening and instilling fear in potential informants and law enforcers.  This may be in the form of death threats targeting individuals, close family members, or attack on one’s financial assets as revenge for betraying or compromising the organization’s illegal activities.
Gilbert Kelland observes that one of the challenges in dealing with organized crime is recognizing its existence, given that secrecy is a vital feature of most underground, illegal ventures. He states that “While the majority of crimes are poorly planned, frequently violent and generally not enormously financially rewarding, organized crime, committed by rational and intelligent individuals, is well planned and always aimed at an immense financial gain” (Kelland 1987, 356). The same characteristic is also common in corporate crime, where activities like insider trading and manipulation of financial records are carried out quietly and discreetly, and taking utmost care not to alert the relevant authorities.
In this respect, the Rational Choice and Routine Activity theories apply to both corporate and organized crime in terms of their motivations. The rational choice theory posits that individuals weigh the risks and rewards of a criminal offense before carrying it out. As noted before, corporate crime overlaps with white-collar crime as it involves individuals who commit offences in the course of their duties. As rational beings, the people involved make judgments regarding the nature of the risk involved and the gains to be made (Briggs, 2009, p. 177). Thus, even with the knowledge that insider trading or tax evasion is illegal and punishable, the associated financial gains overshadow such considerations. Moreover, corporate crime may take place after the company’s executives had determined that any fines to be paid are just a tiny fraction of the proceeds to be gained from a fraudulent activity. Similarly, organized crime such as mafia activities are often motivated by the knowledge that part of the accrued profits can be used either in hiring legal services or bribing law enforcers to subvert the course of justice.
The Routine Activity Theory argues that favorable conditions must exist to compel individuals into committing a criminal offense. Chief among them include the opportunity to commit an offence and absence of deterrents, such as law enforcers (Felson, 2009). Corporate and organized crime take place largely because perpetrators are presented with the opportunities to jump the law. For instance, a porous international border can encourage drug trafficking, while the safety and privacy of work place environments, such as personal offices, makes it possible for employees to secretly carry out corporate crimes without attracting suspicion.

In conclusion, both corporate and organized crime is motivated by financial gains. They are perpetrated by people with influence, either through their occupational positions or class in society. Similar motivational and environmental factors such as absence of law enforcers and rewards also play a role in influencing corporate and organized crime. Nevertheless, the two forms of crime differ in terms of the nature of activities the means employed to achieve their goals. While corporate crime takes place within a legitimate context and employs treachery, organized crime is secretive and “underground-based,” in addition to relying on violence, threats and bribery to evade the law.

References
Abadinsky, H., 2010, Organized Crime, 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Albanese, J., 2000, The Causes of Organized Crime: Do Criminals Organize Around
Opportunities for Crime or Do Criminal Opportunities Create New Offenders?, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 16 (4), 409-423.
Bologna, J., & Shaw, P., 1997, Corporate Crime Investigation. London: Butterworth-
Heinemann.
Briggs, S., 2009, Criminology for Dummies. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Browne, K., 2011, An Introduction to Sociology. London: Polity.
Council of Europe, 2002, Crime Analysis: Organised crime – Best practice survey no. 4,
Strasbourg, France.
Dean, G., at al, 2010, Organized Crime: Policing Illegal Business Entrepreneurism. London:
Oxford University Press.
Felson, G., 2009, Crime and Everyday Life. London: SAGE.
Kelland, G., 1987. Crime in London: From Postwar Soho to Present-Day ‘Supergrasses’,
London: Grafton.
Kirby, & Penna, S., 2010, Policing mobile criminality: towards a situational crime prevention
Approach to Organized crime, in: K. Bullock, R.V. Clarke, N. Tilley (eds.), Situational Prevention of Organized Crimes. UK: Cullompton
Woodiwiss, M., 2001, Organized Crime and American Power. Toronto: University of Toronto
Press.

Marketing High Quality 18k Italian Gold Jewelry

 

The product to be developed for marketing will constitute high quality 18k Italian gold jewelry. The choice of gold specification for this jewelry product is based on the premise that 18k gold jewelry constitutes approximately 75 percent of pure gold which is standard for consumer and designer jewelry4. This will ensure development of high quality jewelry products for the target market.

The high quality Italian gold jewelry portfolio to be developed will feature products such as earrings, pendants, necklaces and bracelets. Each of this product offering will meet the 18k gold measure while ensuring that each is completely handmade by experienced and talented goldsmiths. To enhance the ability of the produced jewelry to withstand daily wear and for high shine, metal alloys such as copper, palladium, nickel, zinc and silver will be blended with gold. Besides improving luster and durability of the gold jewelry, blending of gold with these metals will assist in enhancing the color of the product4.

Production of the high quality 18k Italian gold jewelry will be entrusted to a renowned jewelry company situated in Italy. This will allow exploitation of the outstanding craftsmanship of the experienced goldsmiths employed by the firm to produce high quality jewelry products that are handmade 1. Production of handmade jewelry will enable the goldsmiths to observe quality of each and every jewelry product besides ensuring consistency in design. This will also allow for the customizing of the gold jewelry where customers can recommend personalized engravings on the products.

The 18k gold jewelry will be suited to the need for quality and genuine products among gold jewelry consumers in the United States. Value proposition will be created as part of the strategic marketing plan for the product through assuring clients of genuine and high quality 18k Italian gold jewelry. This will assist in the differentiation of the product from those offered by competitors in the market thereby enhancing the competitive edge of the product3. The market segment that will targeted during marketing of the product will therefore constitute affluent clientele who seek to mark occasions such as anniversaries, weddings, birthdays, and births among others with high quality gold jewelry either through commissioning a piece or direct purchase.

The strategic marketing plan for the product will also entail creation of employees, partners and suppliers value. Value proposition for partners will be aimed at demonstrating to the firm contracted to develop the product of the value and benefits it stands to derive from the partnership2. Additionally, value proposition for the suppliers and employees will show how each stands to benefits from their input in distribution and production of the high quality gold products.

Internal strengths and weakness of the firm may affect product development and marketing. The firm may benefit from availability of highly skilled and experienced goldsmiths and its strong financial capital in the development of 18k gold jewelry. Internal organizational factors such as location of production center far from the target market and dependence on a single market may affect product sales and marketing efforts. Similarly, the environment external to the organization offers opportunities and threats for the new product2. Factors external to the organization such as ready market for genuine and high quality 18k gold jewelry globally can be exploited by the firm to boost its revenues. The firm can also seek to diversify its jewelry products by venturing into gold watch production. However, the new product faces threats such as well established and trusted gold jewelry manufacturers whose may offer stiff competition to the developed product. Development of substitute either genuine or counterfeit jewelry may also threaten the success of the new gold jewelry products offered by the firm.

 

 

 

References

  1. Disqus. (2011). Fine Italian gold jewelry made in Florence. Retrieved from http://www.visitflorence.com/florence-typical-products/gold-jewelry-florence.html
  2. Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2011). Marketing management (13th Edition). New York: Prentice Hall.
  3. McKinley, M. (2002). Marketing alignment: Breakthrough strategies for growth and profitability. Tucson: Wheatmark, Inc.
  4. Simona. (n.d). 18k Gold Jewelry at Simona Fine Italian Jewelry. Retrieved from http://www.simonaitalianjewelry.com/18kgold.aspx

 

Curriculum development

 

Abstract

This paper is a curriculum development on the teaching approaches to be employed in teaching languages to students at the beginner level. The paper outlines ten keys areas which will be the central focus and each area is allocated a week of its own. These areas are; a general introduction of the various activities, talent, health, fitness, tourism, sports, shopping, arts, media and an assessment respectively.


Introduction

Historical concerns that were at the centre of discussion on how to teach foreign languages are the same ones that have encouraged innovations in modern teaching methods. Changes in teaching methods throughout the world have been informed by a shift in the needs of the learner such as a move toward oral proficiency rather that reading comprehension as the goal of study (Rodgers & Croft, 2007). Although significant gains have been realized from the study of a number of teaching methods, its appropriateness has not passed without criticism (Diane, 2001). This paper is a typical curriculum development on language teaching approaches for students at beginner level.

Weekly Focuses:

 

By the end of the week students will be able to:

Content: Language features such as grammar (G), Functions (F), Notions (N), Vocabulary (V) Specific student activities:

 

Students will:

Resources

 

Week 1: Introduction

  • Engage in discussions on different topics of the study with confidence
  • Be able to write research papers, journals and diaries about the subjects to be covered
  • Make a presentation on the different topics

 

  • Discussion (N)
  • Journal (N)
  • Enquiring about the role of each of each of the different topics (F)
  • Making presentations demonstrates our ability to understand different subject matters (F)

 

  • Involve themselves in team activities-discussing matters related to talents, health, tourism, fitness shopping, sports and the impacts of all these topics
  • Fill forms based on basic vocabularies and grammar
  •  Read and critically analyze information from various resources of the different topics
  • Apply the information in different settings that they will be in

 

  • Role cards
  • brochures
  • worksheets
  • Catalogues
  • Videotapes
  • Internet
  • Pamphlets
  • Books
  • Magazines
  • Journal articles

 

 

Week 2: Talent

  • Write a journal about talent; its nature and development (Sriraman, 2008)
  • Discuss the importance of talent growth in  the lives of people
  • Use charts and tables to represent how a person can progress in his or her talents
  • Journal (N)
  • Talent (N)
  • Some people are multi-talented (G)
  • Discussing about talent advancement (F)
  • Talent vocabulary
  • Participate in demonstrating our talents as a group
  • Explain the different  ways in which students can enhance their abilities
  • Work in pairs to develop articles on various talents
 
  • Talent information sheets
  • Talent catalogues
  • Talent videotapes
Week 3: Health

  • Discuss about health
  • Research on technology and health
  • Write a report on Health information
  • Technology (N)
  • Health (N)
  • Technology is essential in the advancement of health
  • Health vocabulary
  • Watch a video on health and how technology can be used in the treatment of chronic diseases like cancer
  • Identify procedures on how to improve health practices so as to reduce health problems
  • Discuss the connection between good health and healthy living
   

  • Video tape conference
  • Worksheets
  • Cancer brochures
  • Health physician talk
Week 4: Fitness

  • Explain orally  the mind-body fitness of ladies and gentlemen
  • Discuss about the relationship between nutrition and fitness with a friend
  • Give a presentation in a forum in relation to physical and mental fitness (Jones & Debra, 2005)

 

 

  • Fitness (N)
  • Nutrition (N)
  • Discussing about weight management (F)
  • Giving a presentation about physical fitness
  • Fitness vocabulary
  • Brainstorm the link between good nutritional practices and physical fitness and answer questions on the same
  • Discuss fitness related issues with a medical officer from a nearby hospital
  • Discuss the ways of keeping our bodies fit from a health brochure
  • Internet-fitness related websites
  • Maintaining mental fitness- physician talk
  • Pamphlets on how to enhance mental fitness for the young people
 
Week 5: Tourism

  • Discuss about tourism and the  importance of it  in our nation and the whole world
  • write how to protect our tourism attraction sites
  • Argue about the social and economic impacts of tourism
  • Talk about the social disadvantages of tourism especially those caused by foreign tourism
 

  • Tourism (N)
  • Tourists (N)
  • Checking understanding
  • I am from a tourism attraction site(F)
  • Arguing about domestic tourism (F)
  • Discuss with friends about tourism management
  • List the best attraction sites in the world
  • Participate in information gap activities about domestic and foreign tourism
  • Debate on the role of tourism in our economy
 

  • Tourism information sheets
  • Internet
  • Domestic and foreign tourism catalogues
Week 6: Sports

  • Talk about sport related issues with classmates and friends
  • Write a research paper about sports  and its role in promoting the living standards of ladies and gentlemen (Bloyce & Smith, 2009)
  • Make a presentation on their favourite sport
  • Write a diary about football in the western countries
 

  • Proper keeping of a diary
  • Sports (N)
  • Football (N)
  • Sports training (F)
  • Field (N)
  • I have to investigate about modern football tactics (F)
 

  • Engage in team activities-discussing sports related matters
  • Fill forms based on basic vocabularies and grammar
  •  Read and critically analyze a sports brochure
  • Use progressions for teaching  throwing methods
 

  • Role cards
  •  Sports brochures
  • Sports worksheets
  • Football magazines
Week 7: Shopping

  • Developed skills on various shopping practices
  • Discuss effective shopping techniques
  • Write a journal on “shopping and budgeting ’’
  • Discuss the different methods sellers use to fix the prices of goods and services (Papen, 2007)

 

 

  • Shopping(N)
  • Budgeting(N)
  • Discussing the economic role of budgeting  (F)
  • Enquiring about price setting(F)
  • Proper budgeting procedures that have helped me save on my expenses  (G)
  • Keeping a journal
 

  • Suggest the importance of comparing prices before budgeting
  • Complete worksheets based on crucial grammar and vocabulary
  • Read books on proper shopping practices
  • Discuss on the various ways of shopping through the internet
 

  • Books
  • Worksheets
  • Journals
  • Internet- companies advertisement websites
Week 8: Arts

  • Discuss artistic activities
  • Write a report on critical artistic analysis
  • Utilize facts and opinions in relation to artistic work

 

 

  • Art (N)
  • Criticism (N)
  • Analyzing arts (F)
  • Criticism and creative vocabulary
  • Giving opinions in relation to artistic performances (F)
 

  • Discuss fine art, drawing, painting and sculpture making
  • Analyze the different forms of art critically
  • Go for a field trip to discuss how artists can augment their performances
  • Involve in a discussion about the famous artists who ever lived and their contribution to the artistic work
 

  • Case studies-art analysis
  • Videos on the different forms of art
  • Books on artistic work
Week 9: Media

  • Discuss on media and its role in enhancing education with a friend
  • Plan for a media presentation
  • Write a journal on mass communication and how it has helped in the advancement of education in the 21st century
 

  • Media (N)
  • Education (N)
  • Discussing on make a media presentation (F)
  • Maintenance of a journal
  • I can effectively make a television presentation (G)
 

  • Read a mass communication brochure and answer questions
  • Complete media worksheets based on grammar and vocabulary
  • Discuss on how to make presentations using various forms of media
  • Participate in a discussion on how the media can be utilized to positively transform the education curriculum in the future
 

  • Media videotapes
  • Journals
  • Worksheets
  • Media exhibitions
  • Mass communication conferences
Week 10: Assessment

  • Demonstrate the impacts arising out of the various issues in relation to curriculum development
  • Discuss with friends the effects of skills gained in the various topics discussed
  • Engage in the  critical analysis of the manner in which the issues discussed can be put into practice
 

  • Assessment (N)
  • Analysis (N)
  • Analyzing the  topics discussed in depth(F)
  • Orienting friends on the different training practices (F)
  • The topics discussed have various impacts (G)
  • Participate in discussions in relation to the subjects discussed particularly in health, sports and art
  • Orient the other students about their understanding on the various topics discussed
  • Read different brochures, watch videotapes and research on any gaps that may be different from the ones discussed in class. Make criticisms and evaluation on the information obtained
   

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Listing

Discussion 

Week 1: Introduction

Task based language teaching is currently widespread in many institutions and education ministries around the globe (Nunan, 1992). The first week will be an introduction of the various activities that will be performed for a period of nine weeks. By the end of the week, the students ought to have gained knowledge on the different topics that are going to be discussed and have confidence when engaging in discussions, debates and arguments with the other classmates. They should have the ability to write journals, diaries, research papers and make presentations in relation to the topics to be covered because they will be the techniques that are going to be utilized as a means of assessment of the work to be performed (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2011).

Familiarizing themselves with team activities, filling forms based on vocabularies and grammar, engaging in critical analysis and application of the information will be essential for the students because it will form the basis of the activities that they will be involved in.  The students will know where to research information from a variety of resources like catalogues, magazines, journal articles, worksheets, pamphlets, brochures, books, role cards videotapes and the Internet which provides almost all the information that will be required (Kelly, 2009).

Week 2: Talents

While it self-evident that student learn from the interaction between them and their teachers, research has also pointed that the interaction between students and their peers is also significant in the learning process (Freeman & Richards, 1996). In the second week, the students will write a journal on talents and how they can be developed since its growth is quite essential in the promotion of better living in their future. They will do this by the use of charts and tables so as to demonstrate the manner in which people could progress in their different talents. The information in the charts will be useful as it will be a challenge for them to know the various ways which they can involve themselves in so as to advance their talents. This will be a great step to enhancing their creativity and the manner in which they will perform in the exercise that will be utilized as a means of assessment (Diane, 2001).

By writing the journal, they will gain writing skills hence be able to apply the same in other learning processes in future. Discussing about the importance of team cooperation in talent development will give them an insight about the whole process of team work. The resources that will be utilized such as the talent information sheets, catalogues and videotapes will be critical for meeting the needs of the student as different individuals have diverse talents (Dam, 2007).

Week 3: Health

By the third week, students ought to discuss issues relating to health. This is because health is of concern as its effects are adverse when compared to any other subject of discussion. In particular, the manner in which technology can be utilized to get some useful information on some disorders is crucial at present. The students should be able to communicate effectively about health. This will be through the processes that they will be engaged in such as watching a video on health and how technology can be used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer. After which, they will research and come up with practices geared to demonstrating how problems related to health could be reduced.

Since there are many disorders that have become rampant in the developing nations such as diabetes, heart problems and cancer, they will be able to engage in a debate on the best nutritional procedures that people should adopt in order to reduce the rate of increase of these disorders. This is attributed to the connection that exists between good health and health living (Diane, 2001). The resources that will be used by the students such as brochures, worksheets and the talk with a physician will be able to provide up to date information on the disorders. In particular, the talk from the physician will provide them with a good experience since the clinical professionals have experience on the health problems affecting people. The students will have an opportunity to ask questions to the health physician and then discuss with their friends on the health talk which will serve as the means of assessment (Kiguli-Malwadde & Kijambu, 2006).

Week 4: Fitness

The activities to be performed in this week will serve as a turning point to the students, understanding the manner in which they have known about proper mental and physical fitness. To begin with, they will discuss about mind-body fitness of ladies and gentlemen as the practice is different for the two genders. After this, each of the students will engage in a discussion with his or her friend about the relationship between nutrition and fitness. Through these discussions, they will be able to advance their knowledge about the importance of both intellectual and physical fitness and how the same assists in the making of various decisions regarding their life issues.

Giving a presentation in an open forum about fitness, in particular how individuals ought to control their weight in order to be physically fit will serve as the method of assessment for the students by the end of the fourth week. This will happen after the practices that they will be involved in the course of the week such as brainstorming about fitness related matters with a medical officer from a nearby hospital and reading about the methods of keeping our bodies fit from a physical fitness brochure. The resources to be utilized will include internet fitness related websites particularly those dealing with the different ways of having mental fitness and pamphlets with information about the ways of enhancing mental fitness for the young people (Lund & Tannehill, 2009).

Week 5: Tourism

The activities in week 5 will enable the students to advance their skills and thus have the ability to educate others in the same way. They will discuss about tourism and its importance in our nation and the whole world. From this, they will gain information and use it to educate their friends on the different ways of maintaining the fascinating sites that are there in our country. This will be advantageous for them as it will show the level at which they have been able to grasp all what they will have discussed. Educating their friends will serve as an evaluation of their communication proficiency on how they can be able to deliver the information to other people (Black & Crabtree, 2007).

Their critical and analysis strengths will be verified after examining their arguments on the social and economic impacts of tourism and the talk about the social effects of foreign tourism in the developing world. The activities of the students in this topic will entail taking a trip to a tourist attraction site in order to be knowledgeable about tourism management in that site, debate on the role of tourism in the economy and research information from the internet on the management of some of the best tourism attraction sites of the world. All these activities will enable them to be assessed on whether there existed any gap on the information acquired from both domestic and foreign tourism. The tourism information sheets, the Internet and the catalogues of the domestic and foreign tourism will provide the necessary information required (Hsu, 2006).

Week 6: Sports

Students ought to participate in activities dealing with sports such as going to the field to play because practical activities make more impact than theory. By the end of the week, they should be able to write a research paper on sports and how it promotes the living standards of those who engage in it. This is because sports have been proven to play an important role in enhancing the economic growth and development of many different nations of the world. In addition, they should be capable of making a presentation on their favourite sporting activity to other students. This process will be essential in improving the communication skills of the students which is critical in education and in our daily activities.  The students will engage themselves in team work in order to discuss issues related to sports; read and critically analyse sports brochures that mostly deal with the manner in which the young people could advance their sporting skills; and fill forms in relation to basic vocabularies and grammar. The resources to be utilized by the students include role cards, sport brochures and football magazines. The benefit of these resources is they give more detailed information that can be used as a reference in the future (Coalter, 2008)

Week 7: Shopping

As there are diverse shopping procedures, the students ought to be aware of them together with the effectiveness on how to perform in each of the activities as there are skills essential for good shopping. The importance of budgeting before having any shopping practice will be useful as it reduces the expenses involved when shopping. Therefore, the students must discuss about the economic role of budgeting and inquire their classmates how price setting is done for different goods and services. Suggesting on the importance of price comparison before doing shopping, completing worksheets on grammar and vocabulary, engaging in a discussion on the various ways of shopping through the internet, reading books related to appropriate shopping practices and discussing on the different techniques of doing shopping through the internet will be some of the activities to be performed by the students in this topic.

All the discussions and the information that will be extracted from the different sources used will be helpful for the students in writing and updating a journal with any new information. This will be a great boost to their creativity as they will apply what they have investigated about. It will also have a positive impact on their writing skills which is a vital exercise for any learner. The resources to be utilized will mostly be books and information from the advertisement websites of different companies as they provide adequate information for the subject (Craft, 2000).

 

 

Week 8: Art

In this week, the students will do a critical analysis in order to enhance their understanding on the subject as well as develop their creativity through facts and opinions. At the end of the topic, they ought to have a high level of creativity in relation to various artistic activities such as painting, sculpture making, fine art and drawing. By way of discussing with other students, listening to news and going for a field day to critically analyze various forms of art in groups, they will have an in-depth understanding of the topic in general (Day & Hurwitz, 2011). The main activities in the same include appraising different forms of art and engaging in a discussion on how the work of some of the famous artists is contributing to artistic practices today.

The students will also go for a field day and in the process discuss the various techniques of improving artistic work.  Real case studies, news and videotapes will serve as essential resources in gaining such information. The case studies of different authors will give them an insight on how critical analysis can be used to improve the information the students have in regard to art. The assessment of the students will be according to their ability to engage in the critical analysis and how they apply their opinions considering what they already know about arts (Joubert, 2008).

Week 9: The Media

This will be the ninth week and the students will discuss about the media and its role in the enhancement of education. Since there are several categories of media, they will form groups and then plan for a media presentation of their choice. Even though this will serve as a method of assessing them, the students will also write a journal on their own about mass communication and how it has contributed to the advancement of education in the 21st century (future lab, 2011).

This assessment will be used to gauge the understanding of the students unlike in the other assessment which will be general for the different groups. Comprehension is regarded as an active process of constructing psychological representation of meanings by anticipating message contents (Nunan, 1992). The activities of the students will be answering questions after reading a mass communication brochure, completing media worksheets based on grammar and vocabulary, discussing the forms of making presentations using various types of media and participating in a debate on how the media can be utilized to positively transform the future curriculum of education. In spite of the many resources that can provide information relating to media, the students will use information from a variety of journals, attend mass communication conferences and exhibitions, watch videotapes and use information from worksheets (Rhys, 2010).

Week 10: Assessment

This week will involve activities to be done with the students demonstrating the impacts that arise out of the different topics discussed for the past nine weeks and how they relate to the curriculum development. By the end of the week, the students ought to discuss with their classmates about the skills that they have gained from various topics. This will entail a critical analysis of the issues discussed and how they can be applied in practise. This will be a great step in order to identify the gaps that exist among the students.

Their engagement in the critical analysis will be used to assess them on their understanding of the various topics that they have discussed since the term began (Nunan, 1992). They will thus involve themselves in discussions and answer questions particularly in sports, health and art. They will also read brochures, watch videotapes, research from various resources and thereafter make criticisms and evaluation on the information obtained from the topics discussed. In order to have knowledge on the impacts, they will utilize many resources depending on their preferences and then provide a summary of the best resources that provide the required information out of the several resources that have been suggested for each of the topics.

Conclusion

            The development of a curriculum is essential in education. Through it, the students will be able to know the activities they have and what they are expected to accomplish by the end of a defined period of time. The first week will entail an introduction of the various topics to be covered in the entire period. It will include a summary of the resources that will be utilized when covering the topics, the activities the students will involve themselves in and what will be expected of them. This is important as the students will have the opportunity of set goals to enable them to achieve the requirements of each of the topic. Talent will be discussed in the second week and after which, the students will write a journal in relation to it. The discussion about health, fitness, tourism, sports, shopping and art will give the students a chance to enhance their knowledge on the topics, engage in a critical analysis of the issues discussed and be assessed on their understanding. This will establish any gaps that exist among the students in relation to their levels of understanding.

 

 

 

 

 

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