Curriculum development

 

Abstract

This paper is a curriculum development on the teaching approaches to be employed in teaching languages to students at the beginner level. The paper outlines ten keys areas which will be the central focus and each area is allocated a week of its own. These areas are; a general introduction of the various activities, talent, health, fitness, tourism, sports, shopping, arts, media and an assessment respectively.


Introduction

Historical concerns that were at the centre of discussion on how to teach foreign languages are the same ones that have encouraged innovations in modern teaching methods. Changes in teaching methods throughout the world have been informed by a shift in the needs of the learner such as a move toward oral proficiency rather that reading comprehension as the goal of study (Rodgers & Croft, 2007). Although significant gains have been realized from the study of a number of teaching methods, its appropriateness has not passed without criticism (Diane, 2001). This paper is a typical curriculum development on language teaching approaches for students at beginner level.

Weekly Focuses:

 

By the end of the week students will be able to:

Content: Language features such as grammar (G), Functions (F), Notions (N), Vocabulary (V) Specific student activities:

 

Students will:

Resources

 

Week 1: Introduction

  • Engage in discussions on different topics of the study with confidence
  • Be able to write research papers, journals and diaries about the subjects to be covered
  • Make a presentation on the different topics

 

  • Discussion (N)
  • Journal (N)
  • Enquiring about the role of each of each of the different topics (F)
  • Making presentations demonstrates our ability to understand different subject matters (F)

 

  • Involve themselves in team activities-discussing matters related to talents, health, tourism, fitness shopping, sports and the impacts of all these topics
  • Fill forms based on basic vocabularies and grammar
  •  Read and critically analyze information from various resources of the different topics
  • Apply the information in different settings that they will be in

 

  • Role cards
  • brochures
  • worksheets
  • Catalogues
  • Videotapes
  • Internet
  • Pamphlets
  • Books
  • Magazines
  • Journal articles

 

 

Week 2: Talent

  • Write a journal about talent; its nature and development (Sriraman, 2008)
  • Discuss the importance of talent growth in  the lives of people
  • Use charts and tables to represent how a person can progress in his or her talents
  • Journal (N)
  • Talent (N)
  • Some people are multi-talented (G)
  • Discussing about talent advancement (F)
  • Talent vocabulary
  • Participate in demonstrating our talents as a group
  • Explain the different  ways in which students can enhance their abilities
  • Work in pairs to develop articles on various talents
 
  • Talent information sheets
  • Talent catalogues
  • Talent videotapes
Week 3: Health

  • Discuss about health
  • Research on technology and health
  • Write a report on Health information
  • Technology (N)
  • Health (N)
  • Technology is essential in the advancement of health
  • Health vocabulary
  • Watch a video on health and how technology can be used in the treatment of chronic diseases like cancer
  • Identify procedures on how to improve health practices so as to reduce health problems
  • Discuss the connection between good health and healthy living
   

  • Video tape conference
  • Worksheets
  • Cancer brochures
  • Health physician talk
Week 4: Fitness

  • Explain orally  the mind-body fitness of ladies and gentlemen
  • Discuss about the relationship between nutrition and fitness with a friend
  • Give a presentation in a forum in relation to physical and mental fitness (Jones & Debra, 2005)

 

 

  • Fitness (N)
  • Nutrition (N)
  • Discussing about weight management (F)
  • Giving a presentation about physical fitness
  • Fitness vocabulary
  • Brainstorm the link between good nutritional practices and physical fitness and answer questions on the same
  • Discuss fitness related issues with a medical officer from a nearby hospital
  • Discuss the ways of keeping our bodies fit from a health brochure
  • Internet-fitness related websites
  • Maintaining mental fitness- physician talk
  • Pamphlets on how to enhance mental fitness for the young people
 
Week 5: Tourism

  • Discuss about tourism and the  importance of it  in our nation and the whole world
  • write how to protect our tourism attraction sites
  • Argue about the social and economic impacts of tourism
  • Talk about the social disadvantages of tourism especially those caused by foreign tourism
 

  • Tourism (N)
  • Tourists (N)
  • Checking understanding
  • I am from a tourism attraction site(F)
  • Arguing about domestic tourism (F)
  • Discuss with friends about tourism management
  • List the best attraction sites in the world
  • Participate in information gap activities about domestic and foreign tourism
  • Debate on the role of tourism in our economy
 

  • Tourism information sheets
  • Internet
  • Domestic and foreign tourism catalogues
Week 6: Sports

  • Talk about sport related issues with classmates and friends
  • Write a research paper about sports  and its role in promoting the living standards of ladies and gentlemen (Bloyce & Smith, 2009)
  • Make a presentation on their favourite sport
  • Write a diary about football in the western countries
 

  • Proper keeping of a diary
  • Sports (N)
  • Football (N)
  • Sports training (F)
  • Field (N)
  • I have to investigate about modern football tactics (F)
 

  • Engage in team activities-discussing sports related matters
  • Fill forms based on basic vocabularies and grammar
  •  Read and critically analyze a sports brochure
  • Use progressions for teaching  throwing methods
 

  • Role cards
  •  Sports brochures
  • Sports worksheets
  • Football magazines
Week 7: Shopping

  • Developed skills on various shopping practices
  • Discuss effective shopping techniques
  • Write a journal on “shopping and budgeting ’’
  • Discuss the different methods sellers use to fix the prices of goods and services (Papen, 2007)

 

 

  • Shopping(N)
  • Budgeting(N)
  • Discussing the economic role of budgeting  (F)
  • Enquiring about price setting(F)
  • Proper budgeting procedures that have helped me save on my expenses  (G)
  • Keeping a journal
 

  • Suggest the importance of comparing prices before budgeting
  • Complete worksheets based on crucial grammar and vocabulary
  • Read books on proper shopping practices
  • Discuss on the various ways of shopping through the internet
 

  • Books
  • Worksheets
  • Journals
  • Internet- companies advertisement websites
Week 8: Arts

  • Discuss artistic activities
  • Write a report on critical artistic analysis
  • Utilize facts and opinions in relation to artistic work

 

 

  • Art (N)
  • Criticism (N)
  • Analyzing arts (F)
  • Criticism and creative vocabulary
  • Giving opinions in relation to artistic performances (F)
 

  • Discuss fine art, drawing, painting and sculpture making
  • Analyze the different forms of art critically
  • Go for a field trip to discuss how artists can augment their performances
  • Involve in a discussion about the famous artists who ever lived and their contribution to the artistic work
 

  • Case studies-art analysis
  • Videos on the different forms of art
  • Books on artistic work
Week 9: Media

  • Discuss on media and its role in enhancing education with a friend
  • Plan for a media presentation
  • Write a journal on mass communication and how it has helped in the advancement of education in the 21st century
 

  • Media (N)
  • Education (N)
  • Discussing on make a media presentation (F)
  • Maintenance of a journal
  • I can effectively make a television presentation (G)
 

  • Read a mass communication brochure and answer questions
  • Complete media worksheets based on grammar and vocabulary
  • Discuss on how to make presentations using various forms of media
  • Participate in a discussion on how the media can be utilized to positively transform the education curriculum in the future
 

  • Media videotapes
  • Journals
  • Worksheets
  • Media exhibitions
  • Mass communication conferences
Week 10: Assessment

  • Demonstrate the impacts arising out of the various issues in relation to curriculum development
  • Discuss with friends the effects of skills gained in the various topics discussed
  • Engage in the  critical analysis of the manner in which the issues discussed can be put into practice
 

  • Assessment (N)
  • Analysis (N)
  • Analyzing the  topics discussed in depth(F)
  • Orienting friends on the different training practices (F)
  • The topics discussed have various impacts (G)
  • Participate in discussions in relation to the subjects discussed particularly in health, sports and art
  • Orient the other students about their understanding on the various topics discussed
  • Read different brochures, watch videotapes and research on any gaps that may be different from the ones discussed in class. Make criticisms and evaluation on the information obtained
   

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Listing

Discussion 

Week 1: Introduction

Task based language teaching is currently widespread in many institutions and education ministries around the globe (Nunan, 1992). The first week will be an introduction of the various activities that will be performed for a period of nine weeks. By the end of the week, the students ought to have gained knowledge on the different topics that are going to be discussed and have confidence when engaging in discussions, debates and arguments with the other classmates. They should have the ability to write journals, diaries, research papers and make presentations in relation to the topics to be covered because they will be the techniques that are going to be utilized as a means of assessment of the work to be performed (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2011).

Familiarizing themselves with team activities, filling forms based on vocabularies and grammar, engaging in critical analysis and application of the information will be essential for the students because it will form the basis of the activities that they will be involved in.  The students will know where to research information from a variety of resources like catalogues, magazines, journal articles, worksheets, pamphlets, brochures, books, role cards videotapes and the Internet which provides almost all the information that will be required (Kelly, 2009).

Week 2: Talents

While it self-evident that student learn from the interaction between them and their teachers, research has also pointed that the interaction between students and their peers is also significant in the learning process (Freeman & Richards, 1996). In the second week, the students will write a journal on talents and how they can be developed since its growth is quite essential in the promotion of better living in their future. They will do this by the use of charts and tables so as to demonstrate the manner in which people could progress in their different talents. The information in the charts will be useful as it will be a challenge for them to know the various ways which they can involve themselves in so as to advance their talents. This will be a great step to enhancing their creativity and the manner in which they will perform in the exercise that will be utilized as a means of assessment (Diane, 2001).

By writing the journal, they will gain writing skills hence be able to apply the same in other learning processes in future. Discussing about the importance of team cooperation in talent development will give them an insight about the whole process of team work. The resources that will be utilized such as the talent information sheets, catalogues and videotapes will be critical for meeting the needs of the student as different individuals have diverse talents (Dam, 2007).

Week 3: Health

By the third week, students ought to discuss issues relating to health. This is because health is of concern as its effects are adverse when compared to any other subject of discussion. In particular, the manner in which technology can be utilized to get some useful information on some disorders is crucial at present. The students should be able to communicate effectively about health. This will be through the processes that they will be engaged in such as watching a video on health and how technology can be used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as cancer. After which, they will research and come up with practices geared to demonstrating how problems related to health could be reduced.

Since there are many disorders that have become rampant in the developing nations such as diabetes, heart problems and cancer, they will be able to engage in a debate on the best nutritional procedures that people should adopt in order to reduce the rate of increase of these disorders. This is attributed to the connection that exists between good health and health living (Diane, 2001). The resources that will be used by the students such as brochures, worksheets and the talk with a physician will be able to provide up to date information on the disorders. In particular, the talk from the physician will provide them with a good experience since the clinical professionals have experience on the health problems affecting people. The students will have an opportunity to ask questions to the health physician and then discuss with their friends on the health talk which will serve as the means of assessment (Kiguli-Malwadde & Kijambu, 2006).

Week 4: Fitness

The activities to be performed in this week will serve as a turning point to the students, understanding the manner in which they have known about proper mental and physical fitness. To begin with, they will discuss about mind-body fitness of ladies and gentlemen as the practice is different for the two genders. After this, each of the students will engage in a discussion with his or her friend about the relationship between nutrition and fitness. Through these discussions, they will be able to advance their knowledge about the importance of both intellectual and physical fitness and how the same assists in the making of various decisions regarding their life issues.

Giving a presentation in an open forum about fitness, in particular how individuals ought to control their weight in order to be physically fit will serve as the method of assessment for the students by the end of the fourth week. This will happen after the practices that they will be involved in the course of the week such as brainstorming about fitness related matters with a medical officer from a nearby hospital and reading about the methods of keeping our bodies fit from a physical fitness brochure. The resources to be utilized will include internet fitness related websites particularly those dealing with the different ways of having mental fitness and pamphlets with information about the ways of enhancing mental fitness for the young people (Lund & Tannehill, 2009).

Week 5: Tourism

The activities in week 5 will enable the students to advance their skills and thus have the ability to educate others in the same way. They will discuss about tourism and its importance in our nation and the whole world. From this, they will gain information and use it to educate their friends on the different ways of maintaining the fascinating sites that are there in our country. This will be advantageous for them as it will show the level at which they have been able to grasp all what they will have discussed. Educating their friends will serve as an evaluation of their communication proficiency on how they can be able to deliver the information to other people (Black & Crabtree, 2007).

Their critical and analysis strengths will be verified after examining their arguments on the social and economic impacts of tourism and the talk about the social effects of foreign tourism in the developing world. The activities of the students in this topic will entail taking a trip to a tourist attraction site in order to be knowledgeable about tourism management in that site, debate on the role of tourism in the economy and research information from the internet on the management of some of the best tourism attraction sites of the world. All these activities will enable them to be assessed on whether there existed any gap on the information acquired from both domestic and foreign tourism. The tourism information sheets, the Internet and the catalogues of the domestic and foreign tourism will provide the necessary information required (Hsu, 2006).

Week 6: Sports

Students ought to participate in activities dealing with sports such as going to the field to play because practical activities make more impact than theory. By the end of the week, they should be able to write a research paper on sports and how it promotes the living standards of those who engage in it. This is because sports have been proven to play an important role in enhancing the economic growth and development of many different nations of the world. In addition, they should be capable of making a presentation on their favourite sporting activity to other students. This process will be essential in improving the communication skills of the students which is critical in education and in our daily activities.  The students will engage themselves in team work in order to discuss issues related to sports; read and critically analyse sports brochures that mostly deal with the manner in which the young people could advance their sporting skills; and fill forms in relation to basic vocabularies and grammar. The resources to be utilized by the students include role cards, sport brochures and football magazines. The benefit of these resources is they give more detailed information that can be used as a reference in the future (Coalter, 2008)

Week 7: Shopping

As there are diverse shopping procedures, the students ought to be aware of them together with the effectiveness on how to perform in each of the activities as there are skills essential for good shopping. The importance of budgeting before having any shopping practice will be useful as it reduces the expenses involved when shopping. Therefore, the students must discuss about the economic role of budgeting and inquire their classmates how price setting is done for different goods and services. Suggesting on the importance of price comparison before doing shopping, completing worksheets on grammar and vocabulary, engaging in a discussion on the various ways of shopping through the internet, reading books related to appropriate shopping practices and discussing on the different techniques of doing shopping through the internet will be some of the activities to be performed by the students in this topic.

All the discussions and the information that will be extracted from the different sources used will be helpful for the students in writing and updating a journal with any new information. This will be a great boost to their creativity as they will apply what they have investigated about. It will also have a positive impact on their writing skills which is a vital exercise for any learner. The resources to be utilized will mostly be books and information from the advertisement websites of different companies as they provide adequate information for the subject (Craft, 2000).

 

 

Week 8: Art

In this week, the students will do a critical analysis in order to enhance their understanding on the subject as well as develop their creativity through facts and opinions. At the end of the topic, they ought to have a high level of creativity in relation to various artistic activities such as painting, sculpture making, fine art and drawing. By way of discussing with other students, listening to news and going for a field day to critically analyze various forms of art in groups, they will have an in-depth understanding of the topic in general (Day & Hurwitz, 2011). The main activities in the same include appraising different forms of art and engaging in a discussion on how the work of some of the famous artists is contributing to artistic practices today.

The students will also go for a field day and in the process discuss the various techniques of improving artistic work.  Real case studies, news and videotapes will serve as essential resources in gaining such information. The case studies of different authors will give them an insight on how critical analysis can be used to improve the information the students have in regard to art. The assessment of the students will be according to their ability to engage in the critical analysis and how they apply their opinions considering what they already know about arts (Joubert, 2008).

Week 9: The Media

This will be the ninth week and the students will discuss about the media and its role in the enhancement of education. Since there are several categories of media, they will form groups and then plan for a media presentation of their choice. Even though this will serve as a method of assessing them, the students will also write a journal on their own about mass communication and how it has contributed to the advancement of education in the 21st century (future lab, 2011).

This assessment will be used to gauge the understanding of the students unlike in the other assessment which will be general for the different groups. Comprehension is regarded as an active process of constructing psychological representation of meanings by anticipating message contents (Nunan, 1992). The activities of the students will be answering questions after reading a mass communication brochure, completing media worksheets based on grammar and vocabulary, discussing the forms of making presentations using various types of media and participating in a debate on how the media can be utilized to positively transform the future curriculum of education. In spite of the many resources that can provide information relating to media, the students will use information from a variety of journals, attend mass communication conferences and exhibitions, watch videotapes and use information from worksheets (Rhys, 2010).

Week 10: Assessment

This week will involve activities to be done with the students demonstrating the impacts that arise out of the different topics discussed for the past nine weeks and how they relate to the curriculum development. By the end of the week, the students ought to discuss with their classmates about the skills that they have gained from various topics. This will entail a critical analysis of the issues discussed and how they can be applied in practise. This will be a great step in order to identify the gaps that exist among the students.

Their engagement in the critical analysis will be used to assess them on their understanding of the various topics that they have discussed since the term began (Nunan, 1992). They will thus involve themselves in discussions and answer questions particularly in sports, health and art. They will also read brochures, watch videotapes, research from various resources and thereafter make criticisms and evaluation on the information obtained from the topics discussed. In order to have knowledge on the impacts, they will utilize many resources depending on their preferences and then provide a summary of the best resources that provide the required information out of the several resources that have been suggested for each of the topics.

Conclusion

            The development of a curriculum is essential in education. Through it, the students will be able to know the activities they have and what they are expected to accomplish by the end of a defined period of time. The first week will entail an introduction of the various topics to be covered in the entire period. It will include a summary of the resources that will be utilized when covering the topics, the activities the students will involve themselves in and what will be expected of them. This is important as the students will have the opportunity of set goals to enable them to achieve the requirements of each of the topic. Talent will be discussed in the second week and after which, the students will write a journal in relation to it. The discussion about health, fitness, tourism, sports, shopping and art will give the students a chance to enhance their knowledge on the topics, engage in a critical analysis of the issues discussed and be assessed on their understanding. This will establish any gaps that exist among the students in relation to their levels of understanding.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Black, R., & Crabtree, A. (2007). Quality assurance and certification in ecotourism. Wallingford: CABI.

Bloyce, D., & Smith, A. (2009). Sport, policy, and development: an introduction. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Coalter, F. (2008). A wider social role for sport: who’s keeping the score? New York: Taylor & Francis .

Craft, A. ( 2000). Creativity across the primary curriculum: framing and developing practice. New York: Routledge.

Dam, N. v. (2007). 25 Best Practices in Learning & Talent Development. S.l.: Lulu.com.

Day, M., & Hurwitz, A. ( 2011). Children and Their Art: Art Education for Elementary and Middle Schools. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Diane, L.-F. (2001). Techniques and principles in language teaching. New York : Oxford University Press.

Freeman, D., & Richards, J. C. (1996). Teacher learning in language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

futurelab. (2011). Curriculum Development and Youth Media. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/curriculum-development-and-youth-media

Hsu, C. H. (2006). Global tourism higher education: past, present, and future. New York: Routledge.

Jones, J. C., & Debra, R. J. ( 2005). Physical activity instruction of older adults. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Joubert, L. (2008). Educating in the Arts: The Asian Experience, Twenty-four Essays. Dordrecht : Springer.

Kelly, A. V. (2009). The Curriculum: Theory and Practice. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kiguli-Malwadde, E., & Kijjambu, S. (2006). Problem Based Learning, curriculum development and change process at Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University, Uganda. African Health Sciences , 127-130.

Lund, J., & Tannehill, D. ( 2009). Standards-Based Physical Education Curriculum Development. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. ( 2011). Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices. Belmont: Cengage Learning.

Nunan, D. (1992). Collaborative language learning and teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Papen, U. ( 2007). Literacy and globalization: reading and writing in times of social and cultural change. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Rhys. ( 2010, June). curriculum development. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://themediaspot.org/tags/curriculum_development

Rodgers, T. S., & Croft, J. R. (2007). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sriraman, B. ( 2008). Creativity, giftedness, and talent development in mathematics. Charlotte: IAP.

 

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