Influence of Image on Business

According to Birdwell (2008), image of a business is a major factor that influences the behavior of customers. The quantity of a product demanded from a particular business depends heavily on its public image. In marketing, one of the problems experienced by researchers is the understanding of why people prefer to consume a specific product from a list of close substitutes (Birdwell, 2008, p. 35). Managements of different companies have worked hard to improve the quality of their brands but the customers have failed to respond as expected. In addition, innovative entrepreneurs have been disappointed by minimal or no demand of their products in the market. Reports from experts indicate that business image is one of the factors that have contributed to failure of some brands in the market (Birdwell, 2008, p. 36).

According to Whetherly (2010), for a manager to have good relations with the clients and business colleagues, s/he needs to do more than just presenting his/her case. It is important for a business person to have a professional personal contact to coordinate people with elegance and ease, in all aspects. This elusive quality is only possessed by a few (Whetherly, 2010, p. 10). Image has a significant impact on personal value and leadership. This is because it builds more on an individual’s personality (Birdwell, 2008, p. 36).

The outward representation of a person or thing in drawing or in a sculpture communicates to the outside world about that person or thing (Harod, 2002, p. 75). It is the tendency of people to feel attracted to good looking images. Good adverts for a certain product attract a large number of customers (Qin, 2009, p. 29). This is advantageous to the business since the sales volume increases as well. This has the effect of increasing the profits for the benefit of shareholders. In addition, customers are satisfied with the products or services they get from such a business. Having a good image is not only determined by the brands of products and pictures portrayed in adverts. Reputation of management and other members of staff in a business contribute to the building of the business image (Blythe & Zimmerman, 2005, p. 292). The quality of services offered to the customers also reflects the business image.

According to Whetherly (2010), international business organizations that have succeeded in global markets have approached image consultants for advice on the kinds of images to use on their brands. These include Barclays Bank plc, P&O, IBM, ExxonMobil, Nokia, Aon Consulting, B&Q, Cable & Wireless and PWC (Whetherly, 2010, p. 1). These organizations conduct business in different parts of the World including the United Kingdom. The use of good attracting images designed by experts has contributed significantly to their success.

According to Norwood (2010), places with good images in the United Kingdom continue to attract investors. These investors have perceptions that consumers will be attracted to the good looking environments. Examples of these places include Kent, Milton Keynes, Exeter, Aberdeenshire, Corby, Yorkshire market towns, Basingstoke, Oxford, Newport and Central Birmingham (Norwood, 2011, para 1). Good images have positive impact on business since they attract more customers. Moreover, the images build more on the confidence of consumers on the brands of the company.

Image as Prejudice

According to Humphry (2011), society in the United Kingdom has built pressure on people to conform to certain standards of beauty. Women are advised to be thin with related prejudice against overweight people in the society. There are many people living on earth and each person has his/her own uniqueness in personality, color, features and size (Humphrey, 2011, p. 1). In addition, some people are big, some are small, others are boys, others are girls, some are dark and some are fair. This implies that every person in the world is unique in a way. The small percentage of people in the media therefore creates prejudice by explaining that good looking people should portray certain images (Humphrey, 2011, p. 1).

According to Abrams (2011), prejudice is a bias that degrades some people based on perceptions that they belong to a certain social group in the society. In the intergroup context prejudice refers to the ways in which people in a certain social group view others from different social groups. In the United Kingdom, the image portrayed about overweight people is prejudice (Abrams, 2011, p. 4). Images have been drawn in magazines and newspapers in the United Kingdom to show that people should conform to certain standards of beauty.

Before the 20th century, North Americans and Europeans had interests in larger women since they appeared healthier and stronger (Humphrey, 2011, p. 2). However in the modern world, thinness is the most admired trait and people want to be thin. Statistics shows that 80% of people in the United Kingdom including the 11 year olds want to be thin (Humphrey, 2011, p. 2). This has resulted to stigmatization of the overweight people.

In the United Kingdom and North America, obesity is considered as one of the social prejudices. At the age of six years, children have already started to relate obesity with stupidity, laziness and unworthiness (Humphrey, 2011, p. 3). Pictures have been drawn to show that thin women have the figure that a beautiful woman should portray (Brontė & Francis, 2009, p. 7). This has separated people in to different social classes within the societies of the United Kingdom. Thin women have high self esteem (Heatherton, 2003, p. 174).

The fat and the overweight persons have been stigmatized which has isolated them from the society (Kennedy & Markula, 2010, p. 85). People do not want to be associated with the overweight which has separated the community in to groups of the thin, the medium sized and the overweight. This has increased enmity among the people in the societies of the United Kingdom.

According to Chall (2003), the image of a person has an impact on his/her personality in the society. In addition, people have clear understanding of their outlook and appearance in the society. Images of thin people in magazines and books have created social groups in the United Kingdom (Chall, 2003, p. 112). Spread of the prejudice is based on failure of people to understand that every person is unique in one way or the other.

Statistics shows that 80% of women in the United Kingdom dislike their bodies (Humphrey, 2011, p. 4). In addition, dieting has become a major issue among 90% women of all ages in the United Kingdom. This has created perceptions that overweight women eat too much and hence their condition. This has increased hatred among people thereby creating different social classes.

Psychological effects of Image

According to Lockwood (2009), self image is an integral part in sexuality and psyche of a person. The way people see themselves affect their feelings and actions for example if a person feels “ugly” it would be difficult for her to give response to overtures of affection (Lockwood, 2009, p. 209). Psychologists have found that treatment of some diseases for example breast cancer has significant impact on the image of women. The scars left after surgery reminds women of what cancer have done to their bodies and lives. This makes them to feel less self-confident and unattractive (Lockwood, 2009, p. 210).

According to Javidi and Okano (2002), images that are stereoscopic have a stronger sense of reality based on the depth of information they give. People have developed perceptions that 3-D images provide deep information than 2-D images (Javidi & Okano, 2002, p. 7). This has increased the confidence of scientists who use 3-D images in their presentations. On the other hand, the scientists who use 2-D images in their presentations feel less confident and defeated. This implies that images affect the psychology of people in all fields whether humanities, social sciences or technological fields.

According to Russell (2012), horror movies disgust and also inspire terror to the viewers. The adults are able to tolerate the images in horror movies but children are affected psychologically. This is mainly because their minds are not fully developed and therefore they cannot differentiate between reality and fiction (Russell, 2012, para 1). Images from horror movies create disturbances in the minds of children which further evokes violence. Other images may cause sleeplessness or facilitate development of phobias for example a child may fear to sleep in dark rooms or very quiet environments. Moreover, other images can cause autism and fainting incidences.

According to Manome (2011), image reflects the natural color in the modern world. Manome further expresses that color contains a lot of information in an image. The color of images have different psychological effects in the lives of people for example these effects have been used to determine the colors used on road signs. In addition, psychological effects of colors of images have been used to determine the colors used in rooms and magazines or newspapers (Manome, 2008, p. 1).

People associate some colors with danger, others with happiness, and others with nature depending on the image that the colors put in their minds. This is a reflection of psychological effects for example the Red color is associated with danger, Green is associated with nature while white is associated with happiness (Manome, 2008, p. 2). This explains why people are selective when they choose the colors of their business premises, adverts, clothes and gifts. They associate certain colors of images with their psychological effects to the people. Colors have effects on emotional processing of information in the minds of people (Patrick, 2006, p. 95). Movie producers and publishers of magazines and newspapers understand the psychological impacts of images in the minds of people. This determines why they use some images and colors for the background and specific colors for some scenes to capture the minds of people.

Physical effects of image

Images have physical effects on people for example anorexia. According to Rumney (2009), anorexia is a mental illness in which a person starves willfully to remain thin. Anorexia ranks the third of the chronic illnesses that are affecting the teenage girls (Halse, Honey, & Boughtwood, 2008, p. 15). Emotional feelings, hunger and fatigue are major symptoms of anorexia (Rumney, 2009, p. 16). The teenage girls and other young people in the society are affected by anorexia in their attempts to have bodies similar to those of celebrities.

Images in the televisions, magazines and movies show thin women as the preferred characters and beauty consultants. In addition, the fat women are advised to undertake exercises and diet controls to become thin (Trudeau, 2006, p. 56). This has facilitated development of anorexia among the teenage girls in the United Kingdom in fear of gaining more weight. This problem is also developing in other parts of the world and soon it will become a global problem.

Women have developed perceptions that being fat is being “ugly” to the extent that overweight women are discriminated by the society. Women at all ages have also started a program of becoming thin by undertaking physical exercises and controlling their diet habits. In addition, some women have reduced their working hours to attend gyms with the ultimate aim being reduction of body weights.

According to Sharp (2011), images determine the physical gains that a woman can enjoy in a day. An experiment was conducted to test how the physical appearance of a woman affected her probability of getting free services and commodities such as cab drives and ice creams. The woman dressed in two different ways to test which of the two ways was pleasant to the public. The research revealed that the woman received more free services when she conformed to the standards of beauty from a feminine approach (Sharp, 2011, p.1). The images were published in a magazine to advice women on how their bodies should look like. This created perceptions that fat women were undesirable in the society and as such they should react to their condition. This increased the number of people with anorexia. There was also increase in the number of women in the gyms to cut weights.

Domestic violence has also increased in homes especially when the men talk to their women about the issue of losing weight (Olds & London, 2004, p. 84). Most of the women may feel as if their husbands do not appreciate their looks and femininity. This may facilitate development of low self esteem and violence in homes. The men can also consider having mistresses if their wives do not have the thin bodies. They are accused of promiscuity which further increases domestic violence in homes. It has also led to marriage break ups in some societies. Images of all forms have an implication in any society and therefore measures should be taken to avoid the negative physical effects. Parents have punished their children for portraying images that are displayed in the media especially if such images are associated with immoral characters in the society. These may include the images that show membership to a gang group, use of a certain drug or following a certain religion or cult.

Pros and Cons of use of Image in a Society


According to Aubert and Kornprobst (2006), society can be described as an information society or an image society. The image is a tool of communication that can be understood by many people. In addition, the image presents a simplified way of explaining the features of the physical world (Lew, Sebe, & Eakins, 2002, p. 101). In schools, teachers make use of images to explain concepts to the learners in a simplified way. In the medical, field, the use of images started in the early days through devices such as scanners, ultrasounds and X-rays to increase efficiency of medical services (Aubert & Kornprobst, 2006, p. 1).

According to Ruby (2000), images have been used to represent the cultures of different communities in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world. Images are used by designers to advice people on the dress codes of certain seasons depending on their culture (Ruby, 2000, p. 178). In addition, images are used to distinguish between the brands of closely related products through trade marks (Weitz & Wensley, 2002, p. 158). A certain company has a specific image that is used by its customers as the trade mark in the market. The use of such image by another business entity is illegal.

According to Campilho (2010), the use of images on roads is inevitable for safety of travelers. Images relay certain information that determines the actions taken by drivers while on the roads. This minimizes probability of accidents in the roads to save human life. Road signs have different images and colors depending on the kind of information they contain. The importance of information contained in the road signs is that any one who can see can understand even if they cannot hear. High resolution images have been used to increase the efficiency of communication to the road users (Campilho, 2010, p. 420).


According to Carol (2010), images are currently spread at a very high with the increase in use of social networking sites such as the Facebook and Twitter. This has the effect of increasing immorality among the youths in the United Kingdom for example pornographic images in you tube and other sites in the internet facilitate faster spread of immorality among the young people. Funny images in internet and magazines shorten attention span of students in learning institutions, promote narcissism and also lower productivity of workers (Carol, 2011, para 1).

According to Hanson, Venturelli and Fleckenstein (2011), the use of image can increase the number of people vulnerable to drugs in the society. Drug traffickers use some images that are only recognized by the users. This is because their actions are illegal and therefore they use certain images to avoid attention of authorities. It may take a long time before the government authorities understands the essence of a particular image. This promotes usage of drugs especially among the teenagers (Hanson, Venturelli, & Fleckenstein, 2011, p. 78).

Hanson, Venturelli and Fleckenstein (2011) developed the labeling theory in which the perceptions that people have on a particular person creates an image of that person in the society. For example people can exaggerate the amount of drug taken by a person which can evoke more use of drugs by that person. Use of images has also facilitated development of disorders such as anorexia in the society (Rumney, 2009, p. 43). This has happened mainly because images have been all over the media that thinness is the style for women. The young teenage girls have therefore restricted themselves from eating which have affected them in a negative manner. Images have also facilitated low self esteem among some people in the society.

Media and Fashion as big promoters of Image

According to Geneva (2008), the media is the channel through which images are spread to most people in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world. In addition, the media is relied upon by the young people as the channel that determines the current trends in life. In the recent times, the media has advocated for certain styles to make people fit in the society. For example it has been argued that women should be thin (Ganeva, 2008, p. 98). Images have then been displayed over in televisions, movies newspapers and magazines about this issue. On the other hand, fashion designers have used thin women as models for their products. Movie directors have selected thin women as the characters in the most conspicuous scenes.

People want to be in fashion in order to fit in the current society (Hortulanus, Machielse, & Meeuwesen, 2006, p. 85). This has increased their reliance on the media and fashion houses to determine the new lifestyles. The media and fashion are therefore the avenues that set the image of the society in the United Kingdom. Workers in the media and fashion houses lead as examples by living to the current standards of life. This influences other people in the society hence creating a new image. Celebrities such as David Beckham have inspired people through their bodies and fashion (McBride, 2012, para 1). People relate his success with his fashion.

There are several ways through which media and fashion promotes image in the United Kingdom and other societies in the world. One of the ways is that the media conducts most of advertisements in the United Kingdom (Gallagher, 2001, p. 94). Companies and businesses enterprises use the media to advertise their products. The media channels used include the television, the radio, newspapers and the magazines. This implies that all images that are intended to reach the entire community are spread through the media. The media has experts that advice people on the best of ways of life. The experts are from different fields of specialization for example the health expertise advice people on how to feed. They use images of well fed people and poorly fed. People admire the well fed and therefore they adjust accordingly.

Most of the adverts are presented by celebrities who are the most admired people in the society. These people are highly demanded by the powerful companies to market their brands through advertisement in different media channels such as the television, newspapers and magazines. The image they present is taken positively by the entire community. Celebrities are always dressed in the new fashion (Steele, 2010, p. 127). In addition, their fashion designers advice them on the best images they should present to the public. High profile people consider getting their brands from the best fashion designers to maintain their public image. Fashion therefore promotes image by attracting celebrities and other high profile people in the society. This attracts attention of the people to certain designs of products.

Reference List

Abrams, D 2011, Process of prejudice: Theory, evidence and intervention. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Aubert, G, & Kornprobst, P 2006, Mathematical Problems in Image Processing: Partial Differential Equations And the Calculus of Variations. New York: Springer.

Birdwell, E 2008, A Study of the Influence of Image Congruence on Consumer Choice. Journal of International Business , 27 (3), pp34-56.

Blythe, J, & Zimmerman, AS 2005, Business-to-business marketing management: a global perspective. New York: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Brontė, B, & Francis, P 2009, Jane Eyre. London: Windmill Books.

Campilho, A 2010, Image Analysis and Recognition: 7th International Conference, Iciar 2010, Povoa De Varzim, Portugal, June 21-23, 2010, Proceedings. New York: Springer.

Carol, L 2011, Are social networking sites good for our society? Retrieved April 11, 2012, from

Chall, LP 2003, Sociological abstracts, Volume 51, Issue 4. Columbia: Sociological Abstracts.

Gallagher, M 2001, Gender Setting: New Agendas for Media Monitoring and Advocacy. London: Zed Books.

Ganeva, M 2008, Women in Weimar Fashion: Discourses and Displays in German Culture, 1918-1933. Sydney: Camden House.

Halse, C, Honey, A, & Boughtwood, D 2008, Inside Anorexia: The Experiences of Girls and Their Families. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Hanson, GR, Venturelli, PJ, & Fleckenstein, AE 2011, Drugs and Society. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Harod, P 2002, Arts magazine, Volume 42. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Heatherton, TF 2003, The Social Psychology of Stigma. New York : Guilford Press.

Hortulanus, RP, Machielse, A, & Meeuwesen, L 2006, Social Isolation in Modern Society. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

Humphrey, J 2011, Prejudice and Body Image. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Javidi, B, & Okano, F 2002, Three-Dimensional Television, Video and Display Technology. New York: Springer.

Kennedy, E, & Markula, P 2010, Women and Exercise: The Body, Health and Consumerism. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.

Lew, MS, Sebe, N, & Eakins, JP 2002, Image and Video Retrieval: International Conference, CIVR 2002, London, UK, July 18-19, 2002 : Proceedings. New York: Springer.

Lockwood, S 2009, Contemporary Issues in Women’s Cancers. Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Manome, M 2008, Psychological effects of color and its application to expression of an image. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

McBride, HC 2012, The Media Told Me I’m Fat! How Celebrity Figures Promote an Unhealthy Body Image. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from

Norwood, G 2011, Top 10 places to buy in the UK. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Olds, SB, & London, ML 2004, Maternal-newborn nursing and women’s health care, Volume 1. London: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Patrick, J 2006, Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response. psychological effects of image , 43 (1), 93–103.

Qin, Z 2009, Introduction to E-Commerce. New York: Springer.

Ruby, J 2000, Picturing Culture: Explorations of Film & Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rumney, A 2009, Dying to Please: Anorexia, Treatment and Recovery. McFarland: McFarland.

Russell, S 2012, Psychological Effects of Horror Movie Images on Kids. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Sharp, G 2011, The Effects of Physical Appearance. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Steele, V 2010, The Berg Companion to Fashion. Moselle: Berg.

Trudeau, K 2006, Natural Cures “They” Don’t Want You To Know About. Birmingham: Alliance Publishing Group.

Weitz, BA, & Wensley, R 2002, Handbook of Marketing. New York: SAGE.

Whetherly, L 2010, Omage Impact and Influence in Business. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from

Effective Teamwork

Effective Teamwork

Finalist students from Edith Cowan University were to acquire adequate design and development managing expertise and skills for customer websites. Effectively, to undertake the project they had to unite to groups. Among other teams, the team which was working on creating a superior product successfully achieved its target.

The group had various positive characteristics, which fueled its success. To start with, shared goals and commitment to its success was high in every stage. The team members not only commit themselves but also shared their goals which fostered effectiveness and efficiency. They mainly focused on establishing a superior product rather than focus on their personal interests, which could have imposed some challenges in the process. While maintaining healthy working linkages, the leadership ensured that creation of a product that will be attractive both to the clients and their tutor was the main target of each group member. According to John Adair’s leadership theory, this was very crucial for the success of the team (The Teambuilding Company, 2012). Like the way business organizations compete in the market to emerge the winner in terms of marketing, each group member performed to their own capabilities to beat the other groups. It is very crucial for the team members to be able to evaluate their roles and goals to achieve the group’s mission.

In undertaking the processes, there was a lot of interdependence. The team members in most cases had to rely on each other to accomplish a certain task. Through application of the group development and team effectiveness theory, the attributes for the team’s success was analyzed (Coetzer, & Bushe, 2007). There is a great need to establish a working environment that encourages every individual contribution for the achievement of the team’s success (Tarricone & Luca, 2002). Creation of effective team environment facilitates the achievement of the team’s goals in far superior manner than what the team members could be expecting. Through this, some team members find it easy to motivate and encourage their other colleagues towards the achievement of stipulated targets. Since a group consists of various members who have different personalities and expectations, interdependence is very crucial. Through this, group members get to improve their expertise and skills since they have an opportunity to learn from their colleagues (West, 2012). Most importantly, each group member should understand that the success cannot arise due to individual success. Through sharing the group can achieve more than what its members could have achieved if they were working individually. Each group member felt an obligation of supporting and helping each other whenever challenges came across. Due to this, accomplishment of group as well as personal tasks appeared easy. Consequently, the group members were motivated to perform even beyond their capabilities through support of each other. They could work as a group to recognize any individual problem that could be facing any of the group member and come up with a solution to ensure that every individual was contented to effectively achieve the set target.

Interpersonal skills were other attributes that favored the group’s success. This entails open, honest and trustworthy discussion with other members while providing necessary support whenever required. It also involves provision of enabling environment to not forget the ability and willingness to work with other team members to achieve a common target. The group members had a great concern about the welfare of each other and also offered a great support to each other (West, 2012). They did this through first understanding that each group member posse’s different personality from each other and provision support whenever there was a need. In addition, there was a free expression of feelings which facilitated trust among the group members. Therefore, group members had faith on each other either on consulting or accomplishing any assigned task.

Not only the group had effective communication but also ensured positive feedback was present at any given moment. Effective communication is very essential for the smooth run of any project. This entails an ability to listen to others and value each other’s contribution and creation of effective and enabling working environment (Tarricone & Luca, 2002). In order for this to be successful, the team members should also be wiling to receive constructive criticisms while providing reliable response to others. Through this, the group members were able to understand each other better as well as various activities within the group. Most importantly, effective communication facilitates easy recognition and solution to any problem that might occur down the road. The group greatly emphasized on open dialogue that enabled better understanding and resolving of any issue that might be arising within the group (Centre for Teaching Excellence, 2012). Therefore, through this, the group members were able to keep their activities in the right track. The group members paid a great attention on each other’s contribution before they make any recommendation. This was to ensure that each recommendation was made accordingly but not to the extent that it would hurt the other. In addition, if there were any criticism, the group members ensured it is made constructively.

After a clear analysis, it there was a great commitment to the group’s processes, accountability as well as leadership. This involves being accountable for each contribution made within the group. Through adhering to this, the team members ensure that they make a contribution aimed at promoting the wellbeing of the group for the achievement of efficiency and effectiveness within the entire project (Tarricone & Luca, 2002). Most importantly, is argued that each team member should clearly understand best practices as well as ideas to apply through understanding the entire team processes. Another important attribute for the success of any teamwork including large business organizations is effective and potential leadership. Through the use of John Adair’s theory in leadership, the effectiveness of the group’s leadership was determined (The Teambuilding Company, 2012). Such kind of leadership should be able to encourage not only shared decision making but also group problem solving (The General Council of the Assemblies of God, 2012). Through this, the leadership ensures that every team member has a clear understanding of each group activity. It also contributes to better learning and expansion of knowledge as members correct each other whenever they face a challenge. In addition, such leadership should be able to provide alternatives whenever the group members tend to face a challenge in their tasks. The group member had a clear understanding about everyone’s contribution, team processes, as well as time schedules designed. Through understanding this, the team members were able to accomplish their tasks according to the set timeframe. Moreover, the team members had an outstanding respect to the team manager. Regardless of being the head of the group, the team manager ensured that he engaged into consultations before making any vital decision. To effectively monitor each individual activities as well as accountabilities, the team had established a quality assurance mechanism (West, 2012). In addition to this, the team had set post-project analyses to evaluate the success of its activities. Through this, they were able determine whenever they had deviated from the required track; thus, help avoid such a mistake in future.

Since there was a lot of evaluation in making the group, this ensured that the group had the appropriate composition. This is a great element for the success of any group undertaking a certain project. There is a great need for each group member to have a clear understanding of their roles and obligations and of what is expected from them for the accomplishment of the project (Tarricone & Luca, 2002). Even successful organization who wish to promote effectiveness for better performance carry out individual evaluation, not only work skills and expertise but also ability to work in group (Centre for Teaching Excellence, 2012). Therefore, in forming the group, they valued different personal skills and expertise needed to accomplish the task. Moreover, they also considered different personalities to avoid bringing difficult people who could be a challenge in the group. Through these evaluations, the group was able to get the right people who easily adjust and cope up with any change that might occur. Having qualified and flexible group members make tasks easy to manage. Though the group leader appeared younger than some of the group members, each individual express a great respect and obeyed instructions whenever offered. Having the right people in a group encourages effective contribution, thus, success and easy problem solving whenever they occur. This ensured that each group member clearly understood their own roles and obligations to accomplish even without a watch from anywhere.


Bushe, G.R. & Coetzer, H.G. (2007). Group development and team effectiveness. Retrieved from

Centre for Teaching Excellence. (2012). Teamwork skills: Being an effective group member. Retrieved from

Tarricone, P. & Luca, J. (2002). Successful teamwork: A case study. Retrieved from

The General Council of the Assemblies of God. (2012). Effective and ineffective team characteristics. Retrieved from

The Teambuilding Company. (2012). John Adair-Action Leadership. Retrieved from

West, A.M. (2012). Effective teamwork: Practical Lessons from organizational research. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.

The JOBS Act

American entrepreneurship received a major boost this month when President Obama signed the JOBS Act. The creation f this act was informed by the need to reduce the number of regulation barriers that makes it hard for investors to solicit for funds and capitals for investments. Before the signing of this act, the existing legislations had made it difficult for new entrepreneurs to start and run new business, especially with regard to the ability of such entrepreneurs to source for funds. Based on this act, new entrepreneurs are now able to raise as much as $1 million in a span of one year (Gerber). Besides, the scope of finances has been expanded to non conventional sources of capital such as through the internet and other network-based platforms. Even with other legislations, such as the congressional amendment for protecting investors from fraud, the senate and the congress still went a head to pass this legislation. Although to most people, particularly American entrepreneurs, the signing of this act was an indication that the America government believes in entrepreneurship and values it contribution to the economy, it impact will perhaps be felt in supply management.

The most outstanding companies across the globe are embracing a different source that will give them a competitive edge. However, gaining a competitive edge by using supply chain management has been something that is almost impossible for new ventures. However, based on this legislation, managers of new companies will now be able to design and implement new strategies for competitiveness by using their supply chain management. The limited ability of new companies to source for funds has been a major deterrent on their ability of new companies to come up with effective supply chain managements.

This legislation will provide managers of new companies with the ability of availing goods to customers at a faster rate compared to the competition will enhance the competitive edge of a company. In a bid to maintain the competitive edge, these companies will be able embrace new methods to tackle significant supply chain management problem, such as load planning, distribution network design and modal evaluation and analysis. Most new companies are faced with corporate hurdles and impediments that affect supply chain management, such as overhauling globalization and the process of outsourcing, due to their inability to attract more funds needed for implementing such programs. It is of great significance that companies deliver products at the convenient time to their customers. Product availability is paramount to guaranteeing the escalation of sales. Further, there is a significant profit margin for the additional time one spends in the market in the absence of their competitors.

As a result of this Act, the supply chain management is expected to escalate its chain of roles, more so in relation to the perception that ascertains the order attainment process as a single integrated set of operations. This therefore implies that the roles dominantly seen as planning to officially incorporate in the supply chain management sector are; supply chain management budget determination, customer service and customer service operation evaluation. However, this act will not be able to change everything relating to supply chain management. Some aspects of the supply chain are not dependent on the ability of an organization secure more funds for the running of such organizations. There are services that may be an uphill task to influence using improved sources of financing. These services include services that are related to the supply chain management such as sales determination and forecasting, overall production planning and the third party invoice payment. Varied opinions submit the dominant edge of what other supply chain management are into. They include among others triggering change control for the purposes of packaging, executing SCM software, writing national supply chain management levels and custom design packaging.

The perfect news however is the fact that companies still wield significant opportunities to cut down on their supply chain barriers and risks, whether they oversee all the activities in-house or acquire important roles for the assembly, manufacture of even the delivery of the goods and products. As a matter of fact, some might be of the opinion that, in the global corporate governance climate in which different companies undertake their operations, these companies has a sole task to the stakeholders to pursue such chances and opportunities. But the question that begs for an answer is how the firms and corporations manage the risks and barriers to which current supply chains are deemed vulnerable, more so when this supply chain can expand from one end of the globe to the next. The JOBS Act appears to have answered these questions precisely. It has made sure that finance will cease to be a problem in supply chain management.

Works Cited

Gerber, Scott. The JOBS Act Signing: A Giant Step for Entrepreneurship in America. Time Business. April 16, 2012. Web.

Time to expand out views on Education

Time to Expand our Views on Education

Every year, millions of Vietnamese students sit for university entrance exams as they look forward to joining public universities for various degree courses. However, there is one serious problem. There are few public universities in Vietnam, availing only a few hundred thousand places for degree entrance. Therefore, every year it is like a war. Although there are some private universities available for Vietnamese students, the high demand for tertiary education has made them hike their fees, putting them well beyond the reach of many bright students. To aggravate matters, many of them offer poor quality services, hence, cheating students out of their hard-earned money.

The principle of demand and supply should not be allowed to work in the education system. This is because it would lead to exploitation of the citizens. The high demand for university education forces students to pay exorbitantly for a degree. To help save the situation, the government could consider increasing funding to public universities so as to increase the facilities and hence make it possible to accommodate more students. In this regard, the Ministry of Education and training has to find ways of increasing the number of public universities as well as upgrading and improving the existing ones. Private universities offering substandard services would have to be closed down in order to restore sanity in the education sector. There is also need to focus on alternative forms of training to reduce the pressure on universities. This can be done through vocational training.

The government of Vietnam needs to muster enough political will to be able to institute measures that would address the education problem in the country. To prevent market forces of demand and supply, the government needs to invest more in the education of its citizens by setting up more universities and middle level colleges. By so doing, private institutions would receive fewer students and hence, would not charge them exorbitantly. Proper legislation also needs to be enacted in order to put a limit on the amount of university fees that private institutions could charge their clients. Middle level colleges are a sure way of easing the pressure on universities as many students can be encouraged to join them and then later on go to the university for further education.

Emphasis also needs to be laid on vocational training. This would begin by shifting attention away from the universities. To make such institutions more attractive, a considerable percentage of lucrative employment positions should be set aside for those undertaking their education in vocational training centers. The people of Vietnam must be made to understand that a degree is not necessarily what is needed by an individual in order to make it in life.

In conclusion, the government of Vietnam needs to take urgent measures to address the educational situation in the country. The government would need to come up with appropriate policies that aim towards enhancement of existing universities in order to increase their capacities. Building more universities in the country is quite essential. The government must also clamp down on irresponsible private universities out to make financial gain without delivering on their services. Radical action need to be taken against those found to be operating below the required standards. Such institutions should be shut down, rather imposing fines on them.








Immigration vs. Migration

It is natural to fear the unknown and the desire to control that fear. The unknown reflects the plight of illegal immigrants. Throughout history, there have been copious efforts to control the emigration of illegal immigrants into the homeland. In Bill Keller’s article, “Show Me Your Papers,” he argues against the Arizona Laws which include various methods to control the current illegal immigration. Bill Keller notes some flaws in the current system and offers an alternative method to help control illegal immigration. This is by forcing everyone to have a national ID card that is on a database and to prove one’s residency, among other things. At first glance, Keller’s ideas on the national ID card seem reasonable. However, there are three reasons one can use to illustrate the flaws in this idea, therefore, disagreeing with his ideas on the alternative ways to control illegal immigration.

At first, Keller’s view over the ID card looked to be good enough to help deal with the problem of illegal immigration. To begin with, the ID card could look heartless as it does not consider each individual’s reason to move into a given territory. His views, through his article, were even less considerate of humanity than the Arizona laws which he was against (Keller, 2012). In other words, this is extremely heartless and actually more demeaning than the Arizona laws. However, its failure tends to take into account the individual’s story for illegal immigration. Therefore, there must be a reason an illegal immigrant would to come to this country.

On the other hand, Keller assumes that it is for various opportunities, or maybe to escape death from poverty or government corruption. Furthermore, it is heartless to make a system completely impossible for individuals to migrate to the U.S. Meanwhile, the U.S. is part of an initiative that creates many funds to help people around the world who do not have the means to access human rights.

Keller never looked into the individual’s story and the reason of the illegal immigrant. As per his article, these people move for the purpose of opportunities or, as a result of deaths due to their government’s instability.

These people’s problems and woes should be addressed carefully as dictated by their human rights and get a lasting solution for them, in contrast to Keller’s system of ID cards (Keller, 2012). For instance, the Arizona laws of the first line of defense, the police, are not necessarily effective at preventing illegal immigrants. Therefore, illegal immigrants hope to perhaps seek shelter in the US. Furthermore, these people are jobless and without shelter.

The national ID card eliminates illegal immigrants from having access to any resources, such as job opportunities. This was like being the Nazis in 1940 Germany who did not allow the Jews “who were forced to wear the star on their coats” access to anything. Jews could not even ride bikes because they were discriminated against. Similarly, the national ID card is a form of discrimination. Illegal immigrants who do not have the ID card stand out as opposed to those who do.

The first and most important reason against Keller’s belief that everyone should have a national ID card, in particular, was the national ID card has the potential to completely prevent the presence of illegal immigrants in the US even though this is extremely heartless and actually more demeaning than the Arizona Laws. As a result, failure takes into account the individual story of the illegal immigrant’s meaning. Therefore, there must be a good reason why an illegal immigrant would want to come to a different country. In fact, it is not just for jobs, as Keller assumes it in his article, but for various opportunities, such as to escape death from poverty or government corruption. In other words, it seems to make the system completely impossible for illegal immigrants to emigrate into the U.S. It is also counterintuitive, especially since the United Nations which the U.S. is a part of those donors funding so many projects to help people around the world, who do not have the core access to human rights.

The second reason to disagree with Keller’s alternative way of controlling illegal immigration is that there are far too many people to keep track of. Breaking down information on an individual basis could mean that there would not be a big enough database to hold all the information. With today’s technology, it could be possible that information can be altered or miss-stored over the database. This could lead to wrong information about individuals (Laham, 2000). Some of the more sophisticated criminals could use the ID card as a basis for cheating as they could hack into the database and alter certain information. They could also implant some individual’s information that could be destructive to their identity. This means that criminals and other law breakers could be hiding behind the faces of innocent immigrants.

Finally, the human Genome project was tasked with the sequencing of thirty thousand different genes that was carried out for several years. The process could seem similar to inputting data into a database but there will always be the possibility of errors popping up. In short, it can be said that the ID card system will be time consuming besides being costly as it will include the identification of every citizen within the United States’ soil.


In short, the ID card system will be time consuming besides being costly as it will include the vetting and scrutinizing of every citizen within the United States’ territory. The exercise will be tedious and would not be encouraged by many locals who already have many things to accomplish with the limited time they have (Laham, 2000). Hence, there should be more practical measures that could address the issue of immigration without going out of the context of human welfare.


Keller, B. (201). Show me your papers. The New York Times The Opinion Pages. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from
Laham, N. (2000). Ronald Reagan and the politics of immigration reform. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.

A General Hypothesis of Thinking and Knowing


The human mind is one of the most intriguing features of the human body. Despite the fact that only a certain segment of the mind’s capacity is normally put to task, if put into good use it serves the human individual effectively. Thinking skills are very fundamental for any individual, whether they are scholars or not. The two fundamental forms of thinking are the creative and critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are those that necessitate for a person to analyze a certain subject or event in detail. This might involve the fragmentation of the topic in question so as to ensure an engrossing analysis. The creative thinking skill, on the other hand, is very individualistic. It involves the skills of imagination, innovation and originality in coming up with interesting ideas, evaluations or descriptions. For any language and literature student, the skills of critical and creative thinking are very invaluable. This is due to the fact that at one time or the other, a learner may find themselves confronted by a literary text that needs disambiguation so as to comprehend the thematic concerns addressed by the author. According to Ferrall (2012, p. 1) for one to be able to think it is very important that they first of all have some knowledge on what they are expected to think about. Nevertheless, care should be taken to avoid substituting the process of thinking with knowledge.

Systems of Thinking

There are different systems of thinking. Transformative thinking, is an all-inclusive system of thinking involving both the body, the mind, the spirit, the heart and even higher levels. this thinking includes all that we know as constructive, desirable, happy, positive and also those that we regard as undesirable, negative, shadow and self-critical selves.

Transformative thinking is an integration of many schools of thought and combines opinions from many of such spiritual traditions, interpersonal communication, modern psychology, mediation and negotiation having the intention to be peaceable and create tranquility.

We often value and take cognizance of abundance, interconnectedness and creativity as our natural state. We also value uniqueness of talents and the various gifts that every individual has and the deeply engraved desire to give that is in us. These are helpful in making us live in peace with ourselves and others. It is also helpful in making us to handle conflict better when it arises, and diverting its force into more creative activities which assist the course of harmony. in Hasta la Vista , Arnie, Scott Miller handles a psychotic with delusions of grandeur in such a new and intelligible way that the patient does not stay in the facility for long. here is an excerpt, ”And I said, you have to leave this room. You have to start engaging the people running aroundhere that are pretending to be the staff.” (This American Life 55)

In Wiesenthal (1976, p. 64) the mental state of Wiesenthal is depicted as being very disturbed. This is why he approaches two of his friends, Arthur and Adam, and reveals to them the confessions of the Nazi soldier. Rather than sympathize with Wiesenthal for the confusion and mental torment he is going through as regards whether he should forgive the Nazi soldier or not, his friends are more intrigued by imagining how excited they would feel to watch a Nazi soldier die. As Wiesenthal continues to wonder whether he did the right thing to ignore the dying soldier’s pleas for forgiveness or not, his friend Josek tries to comfort him by stating that You would have no right to do this in the name of people who had not authorized you to do so……But it would have been a terrible sin to burden our conscience with other people’s sufferings (Wiesenthal, 1976, p. 65). The implication here is that Wiesenthal had no right to forgive the soldier on behalf of all the other people who suffered at the hands of Nazi Germans.

As stated by Fredrickson (n.d, p. 2) the process of forgiveness begins when decides that they are ready to forgive. Normally, this involves a myriad of emotions and feelings, many of which are not pleasant to deal with. As illustrated by the case of Wiesenthal and the Nazi soldier, a person who has been wronged may experiences strong feelings of anger, pain and a lot of resentment. Nevertheless, the hostility and thirst for revenge only makes the situation worse and brings feelings of emptiness and remorse. The reactions of addressees in the second part of the Sunflower depicts that many are convinced that Wiesenthal had no right to forgive the Nazi Soldier. Despite the fact that many of them were not present at the holocaust, they feel a strong hatred towards the Nazis.

The process of forgiveness can never take place if the people who were wronged or hurt are not willing to forgive. Since it is difficult to forgive that which one does not fully comprehend, there is a need for the injured party to identify the damage done to them, those who did it and the feelings that they are experiencing as a consequence (Fredrickson, n.d, p. 2). Wiesenthal is depicted as going through the emotions of fear, confusion, anger and irresolution of whether or not he is ready to forgive. That is why he does not say a word to the dying Nazi solder. He is uncertain of what to do (Wiesenthal, 1976, p. 55). Another similar example of a real life issue in which the affected person behaves unusually in their process of forgiveness is the case of Rais Bhuyian. Bhuyian, a survivor of hate crime autocracies behaves in a very extraordinary manner when his attacker is incarcerated. Rather than show the thirst for revenge, Bhuyian decided to forgive his attacker and even went out of his way to try and save him from the hangman’s noose (Bhuyian, 2009).

In conclusion, despite the fact no one can really judge Wiesenthal on how reacts to Karl’s plea for forgiveness, it would have been better for both of then if Wiesenthal had said something. Fredrickson (n.d, p. 2) asserts that it is healthy for both the aggressor and the victim to express their feelings. Keeping quiet like Wiesenthal did, just delays the forgiveness process and encourages feelings of remorse. The only requirement for forgiveness is repentance from the aggressor and a heart willing to forgive from the victim. In this case, if Wiesenthal and Bhuyian were to be compared, Bhuyian is obviously a more forgiving person; and the famous saying by an anonymous person goes, ‘….he who asks for forgiveness first is the bravest and he who forgives and forgets first is the bravest.’

Work cited

Bhuyian, Rais. An Eye for an Eye. Snap Judgment Studios. Retrieved on 6th July 2012 from 2009

Kim Fredrickson: The Process of Forgiveness. Retrieved on July 6th from (n.d) pp. 1-4

Victor E. Ferrall: Thinking vs. Knowing: When Facts Get in the Way. Pacific Standard (2012) Paragraph 1-9

Wiesenthal, Simon. The Sunflower. New York: Schocken (1976) Print pp.