Archive for October, 2012

Nursing

October 12, 2012

It took me time to choose nursing as my profession. The decision concerning this was not an easy one.  None of my family members is a nurse, and I will be the first person to be one from the family I come from. Since I was young, it has been my desire to pursue a career in any medical field. Drive as well as craving for excellence in the nursing profession is all that has made me pursue the nursing profession.

My strong wish to help other individuals has made me pursue nursing. I would like to become one since I like to be around other individuals when they may be in need and through serving other individuals I always get internal satisfaction. This is what mainly made me consider pursuing nursing as my profession.

I have several goals, both personal as well as professional goals. First, I am aiming at passing my nursing course and after I shall have accomplished this, it will be my wish to train myself so as to hone the skills. I am planning to become a very strong member in the nursing profession. I am planning to join the American Nurses Association as well as Oncology Nursing Society. I am also planning to attend seminars organized by the association as well as other associations dealing with nursing. I am greatly aiming at successfully going for my clinical internship, passing my nursing exams and also passing the licensing examination so as to be a full nurse.

I have very humble personal goals. To me, getting money from nursing has never motivated me. On the contrary, I would like to pursue a nursing profession just to enrich my soul. As I stated earlier, I love helping other individualsI always feel very happy when I help other individuals. This is my motivation to pursue the nursing career.

I am planning to continue learning nursing even after finishing my nursing course. My learning will not stop after graduating or after I shall have passed licensing exams, but it will continue even after acquiring a nursing job. I am planning to attend conferences, to obtain certifications, and also to read trade journals such as Nurse Management Magazine among other nursing journals.

I am planning to be a very competent nurse. My individual mission statement will be to comprehend the reason behind all things that I will be doing as a nurse. Nurses have to be highly responsible as well as competent in providing patient care in every aspect of the nursing profession. I will strive to ensure that I do not make medication errors.

I am also planning to advocate for patients. I will help them to obtain the care that they need. I am planning to be very responsible in conducting as well as managing patient care. I am also planning to work together with other healthcare professionals. I will apply the theoretical knowledge that I will acquire in the classroom. I am planning to comprehend the nursing theories. I will thereafter apply them in the nursing process like evaluation, diagnosis and implementation. It is highly essential to do this since nursing process is applicable across every practice settings.

I am also planning to make significant contributions towards nursing. There is an evident crisis in the medical field (Kohn, Corrigan, Donaldson, 2000). Having noted the crisis within the field of medicine like shortage of nurses as well as the stretching of doctors, I would like to pursue the course to add on the few professionals there. Again, having noted that medicine is areas where there is a dire need for teamwork, as a nurse I will link the doctors with patients for effective and efficient provision of services to patients.

 

Reference

Kohn, K.T., Corrigan, J.M., Donaldson, M.S. (2000). To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health

System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.

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Methodology & Triangulation

October 12, 2012

3.0.1 Validity and Reliability

This section will address issues on validity where the researcher will discuss different types of triangulations and their application to the design.

Triangulation can be defined as the approach used in the investigation of research with the aim of increasing confidence in the subsequent findings. A greater part of work in social research is based on the use of a single research method. For this reason limitations associated with such an approach are likely to be encountered from the specific application of it. Triangulation in this case provides views that enhance confidence of the researcher Triangulation is one of the underlying principles for multi method research. This term is drawn from surveys where it underscores the application of series of triangles in mapping out a given area (Bryman, 2006; Patton, 2002).

In the 1970, Denzin worked on the idea of triangulation and his research surpassed the association triangulation has with research methods and designs. The following are the five types of triangulation namely:

  1. Data triangulation – this form of design involves collection of data by use of several sampling strategies. This ensures that data is collected at different times and social periods as well as across a diverse group of people (Burr, 1998).
  2. Investigator triangulation – this refers to the use of several researches in the field of collecting and interpreting data.
  3. Theoretical triangulation – this is the use of more than one theoretical position in interpreting data.
  4. Methodological triangulation – this involves gathering of data through use of more than one method (Thurmond, 2001).

This current project applied both data and methodological triangulation. Therefore, the application of the latter method was because the researcher relied upon secondary sources but then provided more data through primary data collection method. It is also important to indicate that the study applied some techniques under theoretical triangulation in the sense in which there was use of several theorizations in the interpretation of data.

Therefore, use of data triangulation may be traced by the extent to which the researcher developed a design that used a cross section of sources in a bid to enhance the validity of the study. Additionally, the researcher applied techniques of methodological triangulation although this did not involve multiple usages of qualitative/quantitative approaches in addressing the research design for the current project. However, it was important to include in the design a number of multiple perspectives towards interpretation of a given set of data. Therefore, the researcher sought opinion of professionals which enhanced validity and reliability of the study.

All the above-stated methods of triangulation enabled the proposed design to succeed in achieving valid results thus increasing confidence of the overall research data. Moreover, the researcher was able to come up with innovative criteria for understanding the subject of the study (or phenomenon) at the same time establishing unique findings. The other benefit derived from this application included integrating theories of the overall study and establishing a better comprehension of the problem.

References

Bryman, A. (2006) Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done?

Qualitative Research, 6(1), 97-113

Burr, G. (1998). Contextualizing critical care family needs through triangulation: An

Australian study. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, 14(4), 161–169

Denzin, N. K. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology. Chicago: Aldine.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications

Thurmond, V. (2001). The point of triangulation. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(3),

254–256

Awakening

October 12, 2012

What is the author’s opinion about the novel The Awakening?

The writer in this article contends that the said novel deserved more credit than it received. She attributes the initial failure to mischaracterizations by book reviewers who painted the book as grossly obscene. She is positive about Chopin’s book, which is why she praises efforts made by Chopin’s friend to revitalize the book and make it make sense to readers.

What is the theme of The Awakening?

It is evident from this article that the said novel was about female sexuality. It revolved around a female character who was estranged in sexual matters. To this end, the book explicates sexual desires of women towards men and ties this to naturalistic approaches.

Did Chopin’s Book Influence Later Generation of Female Writers?

At first, the book received negative publicity from reviewers because it did not impact as effectively on future generation of writers as it ought to have. This was primarily because it was deemed too trivial and the writer was disappointed.

What was John’s Role in ‘Resurrecting’ The Awakening?

John, a close friend of Chopin’s, believed that his friend’s book had received negative review unjustly. He, thus, embarked on what can be rightly referred to as ‘a resurrection mission’ for The Awakening. To this end, he wrote positive reviews and talked to his fellow writers about the good things about Chopin’s novel. This greatly influenced some people (for example, Kelley) to believe that Awakening was not as bad after all. This explains why Kelly’s book ‘Weeds’ demonstrates obvious influence from Chopin’s The Awakening.

Describe the effects of John’s press reviews on Chopin’s influence on the next generation of American women novelists?

John and fellow writers wrote various positive reviews praising Chopin’s novel and urging fellow writers to appreciate her work, opining that it was one of the finest literary works from any woman novelist at the time. This coupled with his discussion with other writers in the writing circles resulted in appreciation of Chopin’s novel. This culminated in Kelly’s novel which was influenced by Chopin’s work in Awakening.

Based on the article, what motivated John to campaign for the ‘resurrection’ of Chopin’s book?

As explained in the given article, Chopin and John were good friends since John was part of Chopin’s social circle. As such, it may be argued that he saw the disappointment suffered by his colleague. This motivated him to write positive reviews and articles praising the book and urging people to embrace it since it was worth it.

From the article, do you think John influenced Kelley in writing her book, ‘Weeds’?

Yes. According to the writer of the article, John and Kelley had been interacting with in New York for three years between 1911 and 1914. It is during this time that John wrote an article in the St. Louis Mirror detailing Chopin’s legacy, a move which possibly influenced Kelley’s work, borrowing from Awakening.

Is there evidence that Kelley was influenced Chopin’s novel?

Yes. Upon reading the novel, it is evident that Kelley’s work borrows extensively from Chopin’s. This is seen in the parallel seen in the two novels’ character description, plots and the fates of some of the characters. The themes are also related as they revolve around female sexuality.

Summarize the purpose of the article.

The writer of the articles sets out to show how John contributed to the appreciation of the novel The Awakening following its failure to get the attention of readers and critics and the subsequent influence it had on the next generation of American female novelists.

What is your opinion on the novel Wakening?

In my opinion, the said book influenced future writers as is evidenced by Kelley’s and Cather’s works. Its theme was also relevant and should have been received better than it did.

References

Linda, K. (2011). Orrick Johns and the Influence of Kate Chopin’s

The Awakening on Edith Summers Kelley’s Weeds. Studies in American Naturalism, 6(2):

Tectonics and Materiality

October 12, 2012

Architectural tectonics is requirement in the building industry in which specific knowledge and skills are required for construction. When skills, processes and materials are used in a certain way, they result to a recommended practice in the industry. It is apparent that when constructor want to put up a structure of a certain kind, they have to combine material, procedures and skills in a similar way to get a specific kind of structure. The set construction has been practiced for quite a long time (Roth, 1993). This is vital in construction with great emphasis being put on superiority of resources, how the resources are combined and the idea of the building that constructor intend to put up. The aspects of details in designing a building refers to the way the client makes the designer understand the idea of kind of structure he or she intends to have. It also defines the designer’s effort to make an attractive structure fit for the purpose. Looking at both resources and designers expertise, we can decide whether there has been a change in architectural tectonic or not (Ford, n.d). We examine architectural details and tectonic in this study in order to draw a conclusion as to whether the construction standards are still observed.

In the modern society, the builders focus on current trend of appearance of building they intend to erect. This is pushed by upcoming materials, techniques and skills in the industry. The desire of the architecture has come up with buildings which are physically attractive and strong in relation to equipment as well as construction skills (Ford, n.d). The need for house has changed from what was initially a simple structure to accommodate family members to modern complex structures that bring people from different communities together.

In the early period of construction, people used to construct simple structure for their own needs. They lived with their families in simple structure without specific requirement on construction procedure or materials (Roth, 1993). There was no expertise known in building. People did not use specific equipments or procedure in building. They used to build houses anyhow to meet personal needs (Ford, n.d). However, as need for better structures arose, the style changed with more complex structures and new skills coming up. Therefore, today many architects have observed economics of construction and better skills. Even the society needs are now prevalent in structures as opposed to early period.

Tectonic application in construction can be clarified fully from the assessment of skills, methodologies and modern building materials. This integrates the progression of traditional tall structures and enlarging of construction sites. Tectonics also takes into consideration construction skills which results to structures that have value for money. Therefore, constructors should always consider the kind of resources that they use to ensure they meet a high standard of value as well as make the structure attractive. These modern skills in construction is essential to meet the increasing demand for complicated structures as well as improving the worth and attractiveness to the community. The change in construction need has resulted to opposition by some building engineers while others have walked out of the career (Roth, 1993). This was because they found it hard to meet the high demand for high quality and complicated modern structures which are both appealing and economical.

Since there was no specific known method of construction in the early period, people used to rely on trial and error method as a way of discovering best methods and materials for construction (Read, 2000). Later, more complicated structures continued to shoot up. Today, architects have developed and more appealing building to the community. Over time, the procedure and materials have improved and superior designs established to guide the future building requirements (Ford, n.d). these have been documented to simplify the construction work.

The emergence of industrial era created a greater demand for standardized building skills. There was need for less human labor to lower cost of production. Specific procedures and materials were essentially used to ensure both aspects of low cost and high value are attained at the same time. As a result, this became a very expensive ordeal hence need for a standardized procedure. Industrialization also created a need to improve construction sites and emphasized on use for outsourcing construction equipments (Read, 2000). As a consequence of industrialization, massive people moved to towns to look for job in industries. This also increased demand for residential houses (Ford, n.d). To ease congestion and clustering of small simple structures, there was a need for more complicated and huge buildings that could be used for commercial purposes. The architects demonstrate their expertise in construction through improved equipments and skills.

For a long period of time, constructors faced difficulties to meet set standards for architectural designs and meet modern building requirements at the same time. This remained a major issue in the construction industry for along period of time. However, the introduction of computing technology in building was a lasting solution. This was achieved through automated tectonics (Read, 2000). This resulted to both appealing structures as well as improved sharing of architectural knowledge among the constructors.

The emerging skills and knowledge is construction is having a profound influence on the required standards for construction. The emergence of modern building skills has resulted to intensive use of steel metals in construction of tall building. Also, the skills of using window panes in construction have reduced the difference between internal and external atmosphere of the house or building (Porter, 2000). Therefore, increase in technology has resulted to an improvement in the physical appearance of the buildings.

The tectonics of construction has been altered and in fact, there is an improvement due to increasing knowledge and skills. The use modern equipments and procedures are focused on improving tectonics. The art of building has continued to experience exponential advancement in procedure and skills resulting to more improved designs and equipments. The industrial revolution has resulted to low cost houses which are affordable to most people. It is clear that the houses are now of high standard which have taken into consideration equipment usage representational characteristics.

There is a shift of tectonics in the office where by all construction processes are carried out in the office rather than on the construction location. This is unlike before whereby all arrangement for construction was done at the selected location. The constructors’ only follow laid down plan which may not apply well in specific locations since normally planners are far away from construction location. The distance between constructors and planners result to communication breakdown.

Before, the constructors used to make decision concerning the material to be used for a selected site. Today, there is difficulty in deciding the value of material to be used in construction by the engineers. This is because; the manufacturers are in different place with constructors. Therefore, constructors have no authority to decide on the value of equipments they will use in each specific case (Porter, 2000). This becomes even more problematic since manufacturers and constructors cannot communicate effectively with each other due to distance between them.

Tectonic is subdivided into ontological in which means the structures are built to conserve the culture and important historical aspects. It is representational which implies that it is symbol factor for invisible components. It is true that the way resources are used has cultural, spiritual and economic or political implications (Nesbitt, 1984). The building components used differ across the community background. These represent important aspects of the society in terms of their values and practices. The tectonics of the structure utilizes items of different sizes. They also have mass and when combined they make a space by bringing together items of similar measurements. These items could be timber or stones shaped to represent something else. They are placed to form a structure that will not succumb to the forces of nature (Nesbitt, 1984).

Constructors take precaution of the light and darkness of the structure as architecture tectonic. When building a house, the direction of light is considered so that those who will be dwelling in it will not be adversely affected. The shadow itself has to be considered because it has impact on those who will dwell in the house. All these aspects should be taken care of because they will affect the lives of occupants in one way or the other.

The method in which different structure are put up has an Implication on the community that dwells there. Institutionally, the way structures are erected has a symbolic representation of the class of the community or individual. However, it is conflicting because sometimes people imitate the structure without any consideration for community who will be living there. So in this case, it does not portray the class or community values of the people living in that place. Instead this is just a mere imitation of another community’s way of life (Miles & Hall, 2003).

The laying of base and the preparing ground for construction has implications depending on the communities. It has both spiritual and moral implications on the society. In some communities, the types of structures they erect have a tie with their ancestors. It could also represent the nature of transformation society has undergone from simple to complex structures. This may symbolize the wealth of the community and individuals.

The buildings constructed represented the level of knowledge and skills of a community. This is based on the equipments used in construction and the potential to make proper use of the available location and other equipments in the building activities (Miles & Hall, 2003). For example, the way borders of various items are joined by different people portrays their skills and knowledge in architecture.

The historical sites represented by structures and the geographical elements of the buildings forms important aspects of the architecture. Therefore, architecture exposes the past about the community through geographical changes in terms of constructions that have ever been erected from time to time. The trend for architectural structures depicts the community changes in building skills (Nesbitt, 1984).

Details enables client to describe what he or she wants to the architecture. The designer has top work on the client’s details to produce his or her request (Macy, 2003). Once the final product is completed, the customer will accept it as long at it meets requirement or specifications. As long as the designer follows the details of the client to the latter, client is obliged to take the product. The details in this architectural context refer flawless product. As for the building, the location should be well utilized as part of the client’s detail. Also the attraction that clients intended to get should be portrayed while other aspects like borders should be done well (Miles & Hall, 2003).

Designing the product or a building is based on description of the purpose for which the products is to be used. The details of the customer’s product depict purpose of that product. The designer should ensure the designs he makes will serve customer more efficiently and be appealing physically and economically. It should therefore be complete in every nature as the client perceives it (Macy, 2003). However, by just satisfying the purpose does not mean it is all right. The purpose for which client intended to satisfy must be satisfied while taking other important aspects like economic, moral and political aspects into consideration.

In an architectural work, the detail could involve the use of the right procedure for the right purpose. When dealing with construction, the architects should ensure that resources and expertise are blended well. Even if the structure is attractive and serves the purpose efficiently and economically, it may not have capacity to last long (Macy, 2003). To ensure this is achieved, architects should use right materials and processes for safe and secure structures.

The constructors should combine various components of the structure to make one whole unit which appears nice and attractive. It may also be economical in nature in terms of utilization resources and intended purpose. However, to achieve a strong building depends on how various elements were put together (Sennort, 2004). The architects should therefore work on every detail to ensure all borders are well combined to form a strong structure.

The architect should exercise his or her skills to make most attractive form of construction. This may involve using some shapes and forms. For example, the architect may design structure with animal figures or coil some frames of the structure to make it more appealing. This varies from designer to another and it purpose will be more fulfilling depending on the designers expertise (Frampton, 1990). This detail may not necessarily impinge on the client but will demonstrate the experience and skills of the designer.

Tectonic expression is informative about construction skills and purpose for which the structure is going to be put into use. The way a building is detailed and trimmed pass information about the community, clients and the skills or expertise of the architects. Beauty of the structure lies on how the boundaries are combined (Sennort, 2004). The overall ornament is dependent on how well the site and other resources have been utilized in the activity.

The client’s coordination with designer helps in making details whereby they wishes are shared effectively. It is through their effective communication that the designer will be able to capture the image structure in clients mind. Details should correspond to the purpose, attractiveness and economic value of the structure. Beyond, it is the difference between the clients desires and architects final products (Frampton, 1990).

Tectonic defines the history of construction standards and its implications in the community. The procedures and designs dominating the building industry are incorporated in the architectural designs, the material used and the process itself. Erecting a building requires the designer to take consideration of several factors including the need fort he client, economic factors and safety for the purpose intended by the client. They should utilize available resources in a more economical way and make use of their expertise to make the structure more attractive and strong (Miles & Hall, 2003). The clients communicate their wishes to the designers in a more clear way so that designer can act according to their expectations. Detailing is the process of removing unnecessary part of the structure and adding what s missing to obtain an excellent quality structure. Details occur at various levels such as purpose for which the structure is going to be used. It also involves utilization of the right procedure by the designer to achieve high quality structure (Sennort, 2004). For effective combination of various elements of the structure, architects expertise to make excellent designs, it requires effective communication channel between clients and designer. The designer should exercise his or her knowledge to ensure clients satisfaction. It is clear that after transformations in the industry, the stands for construction have improved and resulted to better construction designs. This has been improved by use of computerized architectural designs.

References

Ford,E,R.,(n.d). The Architectural Detail.

Frampton,K., (1990). Labour, Work and Architecture: Architecture Design, Vol. 60, (3),

Macy, C. (2003). Architecture and Nature: Creating the American Landscape. London: Routledge

Miles, M. & Hall, T. (2003). Urban Futures: Critical commentaries on Shaping the City. London: Routledge

Nesbitt,K. (1984). Theorizing Architecture Theory; The building of Architecture : Princeton Architectural Press.

Porter, T. (2000). Selling Architectural Ideas. London: Routledge

Read, A. (2000). Architecturally Speaking: Practices of Art, Architecture, and the Everyday. London: Routledge

Roth, L. (1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning. New York: Westview

Sennort, T. (2004) . Encyclopedia of 20th Century Architecture. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn

Fetishes

October 12, 2012

Summary

Fetishes can be viewed to bear numerous definitions in various lines. However the definition associated with sexual arousal seems to be the most common. Sexual fetishism can be traced in the early years probably in the 19th century. Though, Sigmund Freud developed the sexual fetishism’s concept, it was also noted in the writings of several individuals including Alfred Binet, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Havelock elis, and Magnus Hirschfeld.Inside the 2nd edition of the DSM, fetishism was incorporated as a sexual deviation. In the DSM’s 3rd edition, Fetishism’s definition was abridged and a more defined analytical criterion A for fetishism was operationally defined. Heterosexual men’s fetishtic objects and interests may be divided into 3 categories: female body parts, female attire articles, and special materials like velvet, fur and silk. Of late leather and rubber have been the mainly liked special objects. Finger nails or hair, are also necessary fetish objects. Other body parts example include, urine (urophilia, urolagnia), or undinism, sweat, blood, vampirism, necrophilia and feces. Fetishistic individuals look for close physical contact with these objects, fondle them, gaze at them, suck on them, rub against them, insert them into cavities of the body, cut, or burn them.Transvestism is one of the common forms of fetishism. It refers to cross dressing which was related to sexual arousal. It is the wearing of the opposite sex’s clothes mainly to acquire sexual arousal and to come up with the appearance of the opposite sex’s person. It is generally limited to heterosexual-males. Other than in sexual fetishism, Fetish was a term that was also used by historians and anthropologists in shedding light on the relations between individuals and material objects in traditional societies. The fetishes anthropological view gave rise to the thought that material objects may be having the ability to alter or cause events and is innate in protective charms discussions like amulet and hex signs. The Marx view gave rise to the idea that an object manufactured can have power greater compared to the ordinary human’s power and that it has the potential to grant that particular power to its owner.

Introduction

Fetishes has various definitions, psychologically, fetish may be defined as an object offering sexual satisfaction. It is a perversion form in which sexual satisfaction is attained from other than the body’s genital parts. Broadly and comprehensively, fetishism is a situation where non living things are deployed as the absolutely or consistently preferred way of stimulating sexual excitement. There exist various distinct types of fetishisms majority of them being socially acceptable. These include the use of seductive clothes, perfumes and mementos. Normally the fetishist acquires sexual excitation through, smelling the object, kissing, fondling or tasting the object. It is believed that majority of the fetishists make use of these objects while masturbating or with another. Often is applied as kind of foreplay which then advances to coitus. This paper intends to illustrate various literatures regarding the history of sexual fetishism, the particular categories of sexual fetishism, transvestism as a form of fetishism and also another application of fetishes especially in consumer research.

The history of Fetishism

Fetishism being a typical sexual behavior’s technical descriptor was noted in the Alfred Binet’s writings from 1857-1911(Alfred Binets was a famous French psychologist of the 19th century), Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s writings from 1840-1902 (well-known European sexologist), Havelock elis from 1859-1939 and Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935).In their seminal writings each of the abovementioned sexologists applied the terms fetishism and fetish to particularly describe a strong eroticization of non living objects or specific parts of the body which were symbolically related to a person. Fetishes may be non clinical signs of an eroticization’s normal spectrum or clinical disorders leading to considerable interpersonal difficulties. According to Kafka (2010), body products or body secretions may also become erotic symbolism’s fetishistic expression. In addition, body parts like the foot may be related to the body as fetish objects (Kafka, 2010).

Inside the 2nd edition of the DSM (Mental Disorder’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual), fetishism was incorporated as a sexual deviation, however is not particularly operationally defined. In the category of sexual deviation, sexual interests of individuals were directed principally to objects instead of the individuals of the opposite sex, to sexual actions that are not normally related to coitus, or to coitus carried out under bizarre situations as in pedophilia, necrophilia, sexual sadism as well as fetishism. Although majority found their acts distasteful, they were still incapable of surrogating normal sexual actions for them. This finding is not suitable for people who carry out deviant sexual deeds since normal sexual objects are unavailable for them (Kafka, 2010).

In the DSM’s 3rd edition, Fetishism’s definition was abridged and a more defined analytical criterion A for fetishism was operationally defined: The non living objects application is a frequently preferred or selected technique of attaining sexual excitement; The fetishes are never restricted to female clothing’s articles deployed in cross dressing or the objects designed for the sole reason of sexual stimulation like vibrator (Kafka, 2010).The DSM III notes that; Fetishes tend as clothing articles like shoes, boots, female undergarments, or more rarely body parts like nails and hair (Lawrence, 2009). Technically nails and hair are body parts of the body. However, they are still non living objects which are consistent with Fetishism’s DSM III definition. Hands, Feet or any other naturally non sexualized body parts are never non living objects. No diagnostic entity was provided in DSM in accounting for individuals whose fetishism such as clinical disorder was enclosed by an exclusive concentration on body parts like feet and hands which are non sexual. This diagnosis partialism was incorporated in the DSM III R publication (Lawrence, 2009).

Fetishism’s development history is totally understood. According to Lawrence (2009), fetishism gets to develop in response to anxiety of castration in the development’s oedipal phase, which typically starts at around the age between 5 and 6. Lately, psychoanalytically inclined theorists have suggested that fetishism gets to typically develop during early babyhood before the oedipal period. Prior to puberty, majority of rubber fetishists recognized their paraphilic interest: their average awareness age is ten and almost a quarter know their interests by the age of five. For majority of fetishists, powerful gratifying feelings to the fetish object get to develop during childhood with such feelings becoming sexually stimulating at puberty (Lawrence, 2009).

Categories of Fetish objects

According toLawrence (2009), Heterosexual men’s fetish objects and interests may be divided into 3 categories: female body parts, female attire articles, and special materials like velvet, fur and silk. Recent fetishistic interest’s surveys, carried out amongst mainly heterosexual men, imply that these categories remain significant, although leather and rubber have lately been the mainly well-liked special materials. In some studies the mainly frequent fetish categories that are not equally exclusive involved, clothing, footwear, rubber items, and body parts. Fetish objects pointed out majorly in the internet alternative–sex-forums are rubber objects, underwear, leather objects, body parts and outer clothing. The materials which typically became the center of fetishistic interest frequently have a visual olfactory or tactile semblance to human hair or skin (Lawrence). Therefore, majority of fetishistic objects replicate a broad erotic orientation to the body of human, but entail erotic interests’ misdirection toward body characteristics which are peripheral or inessential. Individuals who exhibit fetishism for clothing items usually are aroused when such items are worn by their preferred sex individuals. Beyond this, fetishistic individuals frequently take care of their fetish objects in similar ways which non-fetishistic individuals would take care of human sexual partners. Fetishistic individuals look for close physical contact with these objects, fondle them, gaze at them, suck on them, rub against them, insert them into cavities of the body, cut, and burn them(Kafka, 2010).

As noted above body products like finger nails or hair, may become necessary fetish objects. Other body parts examples which have been illustrated and categorized to be fetishes include urine (urophilia, urolagnia), or undinism, sweat, blood, vampirism, necrophilia and feces. However, there exists inadequate existing clinical data, to definitively distinguish these uncommon paraphilias as fetishes (Kafka, 2010).

According to Scorolli et al (2007) majority of sexual preferences are directly associated with human body (such as feet) or to objects witnessed in close relation to the body (like pieces of clothing).preferences for external objects, individual’s own behaviors together with events which do not entail individuals are instead rare. The knowledge database in fetishism is limited. Though just observational in nature, the data permit some speculations in a region in high need of clarification and research. The shortage of epidemiological data together with lack of a shared categorization for illustrating Paraphilic conducts is amongst the prime factor which has hindered the fetishism’s scientific scrutiny and the etiological mechanism’s search. Though most theories have been progressed to account for the growth of both the typical together with atypical sexual-behavior, no one has been completely convincing. By the application of evolutionary biology towards human sexuality, various authors intended to illustrate an innate mechanism in order to demonstrate sexual preferences (Scorolli et al, 2007).

Fetishistic Transvestism

This term refers to cross dressing for various purposes. Particularly it denotes cross dressing which was related to sexual arousal. Fetishistic transvestism is the wearing of the opposite sex’s clothes mainly to acquire sexual arousal and to come up with the appearance of the opposite sex’s person. Within the DSM-IV-TR transvestic fetishism is generally limited to heterosexual-males; a convention which is broadly accepted. Transvestism in general develops well prior to puberty. According to Lawrence (2009), a particular case report showed that some boys aged below 3 years showed the desire to put on cross sex clothing and as a result they experienced penile erection whenever they did so. As regards to Lawrence (2009), a survey conducted involving 36 men with transvestism showed that 22% of them reported cross dressing prior to the age of 7, and 28% reported the beginning after the age of 12.Another survey involving 85 transvestic, showed that almost 50% reported cross dressing prior to age 7, and almost all reported doing so prior to age 13.In a survey comprising slightly over 1000 heterosexual cross dressers, 66% reported doing so before age 10 (Kafka, 2010).

It is challenging to differentiate between fetishism and transvestism for female clothing items, specifically in the fetishists case (who fancy wearing fetish items).The desire to totally cross dress was the fundamental feature which differentiated transvestites from fetishists regarding female clothing. Though transvestism normally starts with female clothing’s single items like stockings or undergarments, there is nearly always advancement to complete cross dressing whenever circumstances allow (Lawrence, 2009). Fetishists together with transvestites are individuals who have a particular form of immaturity. As results they feel like they are less of a man. As a result, they in all ways try to transfer masculinity to themselves from other people. Although most transfers are from women, others also make attempts to transfer from men. Though fetishism may mostly be described in terms of heterosexual, homosexual fetishism also exists where circumcised penis is treated as a fetish (Lawrence, 2009).

Fetishes in consumer research

Fetishes are found in pre-modern as well as contemporary cultures. As regards toFERNANDEZ (2011), Fetish is a term etymologically rooted within the Latin factitious. It was a term that was at first used by historians and anthropologists in shedding light on the relations between individuals and material objects in traditional societies. The fetishes anthropological view gave rise to the thought that material objects may be inferred to be having the ability to alter or cause events and is innate in protective charm’s discussion like amulets and hex signs. Consequently, Karl Marx, seeing that individuals within contemporary capitalist societies also instilled material objects with supernatural powers, applied the term in referring to commodity fetishism (FERNANDEZ, & LASTOVICKA, 2011). The Marx view gave rise to the idea that an object manufactured can have power greater compared to the ordinary human’s power and that it has the potential to grant that particular power to its owner. Sigmund Freud afterwards developed the sexual fetishism’s concept, where a non-living body part or object, turns into an object which engenders sexual arousal. The psycho sexual perception of fetishes depends on the thought that a part may metonymically represent the whole. The other example in which a part metonymically signifies the whole is the saint’s relics. These relics are understood to contain the saint’s total power. The fetishes metonymic power has been discussed within the visual consumption together with advertising’s context. The 3 overlapping viewpoints of fetishes were synthesized to summarize 4 fundamental cognitive elements that are common to every view of fetishes namely, animation, conflation, concretization, as well as ambiguity of control. Animation entails projecting living character onto objects, therefore allowing them to be easily animated. Concretization entails representation of an abstract idea in material form. Conflation entails amalgamation of the concrete representing object with the abstract concept it signifies. Ambiguity of control occurs from the progressively ambiguous power relation between possession and owner (FERNANDEZ, & LASTOVICKA, 2011).

The fetish girls’ colonial photo graphs support a fetish discourse which was embedded within an extensive historical tradition. There was a requirement to identify and maintain perceptions of difference between individuals in the colony and individuals within the metropile with an aim of justifying the colonial project; the fetish role is firmly positioned at the vanguard within the colonial forms production of knowledge by, for and concerning Europeans regarding West Africa. The “fetish girls” photographs in the colonial period offer adequate material evidence in giving rise to the counter narrative that these interpretations are the British colonial-male imagination’s product. This highlights the fact that the officials of the British colonial had their own form of fetishization (Engmann, 2012).

Conclusion

Fetish behavior is associated within the minds of the uninformed having paedophile. An amalgamation of cognitive together with behavior therapy and rational emotive therapy is able to improve most of people’s fetish. It is important for individuals associated with fetishism to find a partner that would accept him or her in spite of the fetish. This gives the individual the opportunity to make a follow of the fetish as he or she still enjoys total relationship including sexual relationship. More often, there is integration of worry, anxiety, feelings of guilty and paranoid ideation together with self destructive related to fetishism. Therefore, proper and effective mechanism must be applied in dealing with the problem of fetishism.

References

Engmann, R. (2012). Under Imperial Eyes, Black Bodies, Buttocks, and Breasts: British Colonial Photography and Asante “Fetish Girls”. African Arts, 45(2), 46-57.

FERNANDEZ, K. V., & LASTOVICKA, J. L. (2011). Making Magic: Fetishes in Contemporary Consumption. Journal Of Consumer Research, 38(2), 278-299.

Kafka, M. P. (2010). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Fetishism. Archives Of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 357-362. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9558-7.

Lawrence, A. A. (2009). Erotic Target Location Errors: An Underappreciated Paraphilic Dimension. Journal Of Sex Research, 46(2/3).

Scorolli, C. C., Ghirlanda, S. S., Enquist, M. M., Zattoni, S. S., & Jannini, E. A. (2007). Relative prevalence of different fetishes. International Journal Of Impotence Research, 19(4), 432-437.

Business Plan

October 12, 2012

SMART objectives (Profit, market share and customer satisfaction)

Our business idea is to start an ecofriendly business where five girls of UAE nationality will start a kiosk. We plan to start sell some eco-friendly items which include stationary, furniture, playground boxes and accessories. The business will also be providing services such as playground services.

Profit

The objective of the business is to provide ecofriendly goods and services that are best suitable for teenagers and young adults in the area. The business is object to make profit as follows: End of 1st month the business will break even. End of the 2nd month, the business will make profits amounting to 300$ while end of the 3rd month it will make 550$. We do not expect high profits during the first month as the business will not have been well established. We will still be trying to win customer. We will therefore sell our goods at a low price. 50% of the profits achieved at the end of the second month will be put back in the business to ensure growth.

Market share

We have an objective of growing our business by 50% of our original stock at the end of the second month. This is because of investing back profits and customer satisfaction, which will enable us to achieve our 80% market share objective. To ensure minimum cost and maximum profits, we will carry out a research on manufacturers who are going to sell us goods at the minimum possible prices and offer us after sales services such as transport. By the end of first month, the business is expected to have at least 40%. The end of the second month, the business is expected to have acquired a larger market share of 60% and 80% by the end of the 3rd month. Our high projection on market is acquisition is because our plan is to target the young population.

Customer Satisfaction.

Success of any business is based on the customers who will come back every day. The product of our business will therefore be produced with the interest of customer in mind. The main idea is maintaining sustainability in making sure the customers get access to high quality products. This is ensured by a research department whose main job is to conduct research in endeavour of getting all customers need (Hougaard, 2004).

SMART objective for the ecofriendly business

Our business will be designed in a stylish way. We will make our business well known by advertising it in the nearby college. To ensure that our objectives are smart, we have laid out are a specific plan which is to provide ecofriendly goods and services that are best suitable for teenagers and young adults in the area and grow our business from a kiosk into a big goods and services shop. We ensure that our objectives are measurable by attaching an amount of what we want to achieve on each goal. For instance we plan to achieve $300 in profits at the end of the second month. Our objectives are achievable. We have ensured this by coming up with a good strategy to carry out our business. For example to increase our market share, we will put notices on the college’s notice board and by giving out fliers to ensure the students get to know about our business. We will do that three times a week for the first month. For the second month we will only do it twice. We hope to achieve 40% of our customers through this method of advertising. We will give our customer gifts for their friends so that they can tell them about us. We are going to get our customers’ loyalty by giving the free services and gifts. We are also going to employ young likable employees as they will be able to relate well with our young potential market. We are going to have celebrity wall papers on the walls and always play good current music, which is the favorite to young adults. We will strive to achieve 100% customer satisfaction. We will achieve this by documenting well laid down procedures on how to treat our customers.

We will always put our customers first and we will have a weekly evaluation on customer satisfaction achieved by each employee (Pinson, 2001). This will be effective as from the second month as we will have acquired a large number of customers by then. We will encourage our employees to be nice to our customers by rewarding our best employees each week. We expect sales of 700$ after one month, 900$ at the end of the second month and 140$ at the end of the third month (Kleiner & Rhonda 2003). To ensure our business is ecofriendly, we will make accessories from recycled items such as plastics. We will also use recycled items to make jewelry and greeting cards. We will also mobilize students for town cleaning days and other activities such as tree planting. We have also set out realistic goals. For example we our profits are realistic; we expect to break even at the end of the first month. Another realistic objective is our business growth which is only 50% at the end of the three months. To each objective we have attached a time frame, for instance after two months of operation we plan to have made $300 in profits. This will make it possible for us to measure and evaluate our objectives

Research to Support our Business Idea

To support our business and to ensure achievement of our objectives, we need to carry out several researches (Bangs, 2002). First, we will tour to our potential area and find out how many other similar businesses are there, what they stock and what they miss, what has the highest sales. We will prepare questionnaires, which we will give the owners of similar businesses. We will also compare different suppliers, their prices and other services such as the after sale services (Kleiner & Rhonda 2003).

This way we will establish the best and most convenient supplier. We will also carry out interviews to the potential customers to our business in order to find what they desire most, which product or service is usually not available yet they would need it (Bangs, 2002). We will also collect data from the school student so that we can be able to find out what their ideal services are. We will analyze the data from other businesses in order to find out what has the highest sales. We expect that there is a high demand of stationaries and accessories. We will also carry out a research on how to ensure our business is eco-friendly (Berry, 2004). We will collect ideas from our fellow students and friends. One of us is going to carry out an online research on ideas that are related to our business that are ecofriendly. We will carry a research on how ecofriendly other businesses in the location are. We will also visit a recycling company to learn how to make things out of recycled materials.

Evaluating the Idea

The idea of offering playground services if not utilized so we expect to obtain 100% market share however, we will be required to let customers know that we are providing the service. We expect the business to grow rapidly especially when it becomes well established. At the 30th of each month, we will be analyzing how much we have achieved each objective. We will be doing this by comparing our objectives to the actual performance. Any deviation will be critically analyzed and the right action taken to ensure we perform as planned. We will also be evaluating how well we are following our goal to ensure that our business is eco friendly. This will be accomplished by collecting data from other companies who are doing the same thing. Therefore, we can understand our progress by comparison, either negatively or positively.

References

Bangs, B., (2002). Business Planning Guide.London: Kaplan Publishing

Kleiner, K., & Rhonda, A., (2003).The Successful Business Plan: Secrets & Strategies. CA: Planning Shop.

Berry, T., (2004). Hurdle: The Book on Business Planning. NY: Palo Alto Software.

Pinson, L., (2001). Anatomy of a Business Plan: A Step-By-Step Guide to Building a Business and Securinicag Your Company’s Future. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Publishing.

Hougaard, S., (2004). The Business Idea: The Early Stages of Entrepreneurship. LA: Springer

How lucrative is Investment into Renewable Energy vs. Non-renewables?” The long run trends in the Energy market of USA and China

October 12, 2012

Introduction

The world energy market is full of challenges and great innovations. The development of energy resources was a key factor that made civilisation to change dramatically and to build a modern society in which we live in. We fuel planes and cars for transportation, power computers and phones to communicate, warm houses and easily cool refrigerators to keep food fresh. Nowadays it would be impossible to manufacture anything without using electricity.

Like a plant needs sun light to grow, the modern technology needs to consume energy to perform its work. The revolutionary progress in this sector made a gradual transition from heavy to light energy resources, substituting coal to oil since Industrialization; we now can apply many alternatives for traditional energy resources. The investment into renewable energy market is significant for Government not only in solving environmental problems but providing a security in oil dependent countries.

Whereas the oil and gas companies continue to dominate the stock market for decades with high prices and double return, there is a new trend of investment into renewable energy which accounts for around 20% of total energy today.

Background of the study

The climate change and public policy affects the demand in energy market. It brings new trend in our technology, transportation and household to use more environmentally friendly resources. The cost of the renewable projects are opposite to oil when the price is cheaper in the beginning but reaches high peaks in the end. One of the benefits of the renewable-energy devices is in their long term profitability, compensating consumers for the early installation cost, but by lower rate while usage and paying users for every extra unit of electricity they generated per watt (ref) .

Problem Statement

The Middle east crisis drastically affected oil prices in the World market.

By the early 1970s, there was a decline in the production of oil in US consequently leading to the dependance on imported oil from Middle East. Because of the panic caused by Mideast Oil Crisis Arab countries declared embargo to the Netherlands and United States as a punishment for participating in Arab-Israeli conflict. Prices increased almost by 70% and overnight, the price of a barrel of oil to these nations rose from $3 to $5.11 (In January 1974, they raised it further to $11.65) (ref) producing shortage in supply. Although helped to resolve this conflict on the Middle East, they withdraw their support of Israel. Still, it had a negative impact on the price of oil which continued to inflate over the next two decades. While the Iran shah was displaced, the price for oil export fall to insignificantly low level, after which oil prices again grew extremely high. Moreover , the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq made prices to volatile one more time but only for awhile. The dependence of the World on the Middle Eastern oil creates unfavourable condition for the global economy. (ref)The debate on finding new sources of energy continues to stop dependance on the reserves of other countries.

Research Questions

Can sustainable energy be a good Investment? (financial view)

What are the advantages and risks of Investment into Renewable-energy market?

How to achieve economies of scale for renewable energy market with high cost of AMI (Advanced meter Infrastructure) ?

How does Government policy affect the competitiveness of the manufacturer?

Hypotheses:

If the US Government will reduce the taxes on Renewable companies, can American solar/wind companies compete with Chinese counterparts?

If the R&D and innovation are so significant in the renewables market, but costly for Chinese companies how it will benefit American companies?

Aims and objectives

Whereas, the fossil fuels are considered to be traditional resources, the aim of this research is to explore a new investment opportunities in the energy market of United States, China and India. It also aims to discuss the threats/dangers of using non renewable energy and to discuss various options how to cope with oil scarcity and the benefits of renewables market.

Significance of study

This study is significant due to its objective to examine the long term Investment opportunities versus short term in the energy market. Hence, majority of investment portfolios are only intended to get a quick return, the study investigates the emerging energy market opportunities and their sustainability in the long run. It will try to identify the real costs of energy in comparison with fossil fuels and analyse the global demand for energy over the next decade.

Literature review

The recent rapid growth of energy use all over the world has drawn concern over the supply and sustainability of the current energy resources. This has led many countries to seek alternative sources of energy that are renewably (Iwaro & Mwasha, 2010). According to Renewable Energy World (2012), most of the countries still heavily rely on coal, oil and natural gas energy. These forms of resources are finite and will eventually end. Additionally, they are too expensive and pose a huge threat to the environment due to their pollution. It is in this regard that most developed countries have started to implement energy standards for extraction and consumption of the existing energy resources. Likewise, they are investing heavily in renewable energy resources such as wind and solar, which are replenish able and will never run out (Diana, 2011).

The concept of sustainable development over the last two decades has generated a heated debate on how to realize it. According to Diana (2011), different authors have written intensively about the potential problems associated with the depletion of world’s resources, and their economic, social and ecological effect. Yumkella (2012) concurs with this, citing the need to act cohesively towards global issues on sustainable development. Much of this is contributed by great economic uncertainty, great inequity, high urbanization and high levels of youth unemployment. In light of this, many scholars have come up with numerous definition of renewable energy. According to (Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association (TREIA), 2012), renewable energy is any form of energy resource that is naturally generated over a short period of time and derived directly from the sun, indirectly from the sun such as wind power or from other natural movements and mechanisms. Clean Energy (2012) on the other hand defines renewable energy as natural energy which does not have a limited supply.

The future of global energy lies in the use of sustainable energy. It is apparent that energy from renewable resources is clean and inexhaustible. In this regard, investing in this form of energy not only improve energy security but also create new jobs thus fostering economic growth (United Nation Foundation, 2012). Likewise, the use of renewable energy mitigates global climatic change and facilitates the independence in energy. The rationale behind this is that the current modes of energy production generate the emission of greenhouse gas that depletes the ozone layer (Culley, et al., 2011). To save the future of the universe against such consequences as destructive storms, floods, drought, coastal erosion and outbreak of infectious diseases, the world must agree on the use of sustainable energy. Lastly, Debbage & Kidd (2011) asserts that the use of renewable energy helps to conserve the natural resources. Since the future is always uncertain, the conservation of natural resources ensures that the future generations will also have resources at their disposal.

It is apparent that most countries face the challenge of assuring reliable and secure energy sources to its citizens in the future. It is also good to pinpoint that the use of sustainable energy has its advantages as well as risks (Khalil, 2012). Balancing the two is critical so as to determine whether investing in renewable energy market is worthwhile. US president, Barrack Obama in March 19, 2009 challenged the people to make a choice on whether to remain one of the world’s importers of foreign oil or make an investment that would enable the country to become the leading exporter of renewable energy (Debbage & Kidd, 2011). Such a statement fostered the US government as well as other governments to rethink on the policies affecting the competitiveness of sustainable energy production.

Research design and methodology

Research is undertaken in most disciplines, subjects and professions to critically scrutinize, analyze, and evaluate various issues. As research is usually carried out in a structured framework a research process has to be followed (Dawson, 2002). One critical stage in the research process is the research paradigm and methodology stage. The research methodology is the pathway through which the objectives of the research are arrived at. It is through this conceptual framework that the researcher aims at achieving the research goals within the given timeframe and budget amongst other constraints (Kumar, 2005).

In coming up with an appropriate research methodology a researcher has to consider a number of factors. These factors include the research objectives, the literature review, information source, population and type of data needed amongst others. In this study the research methodology has been constructed after a thorough examination and consideration of all these factors. It is through this methodology that the study was set to achieve the objectives identified in the introduction chapters. Second, the chosen framework also assisted in answering the research questions. The researcher crafted the research methodology to highlight on various pertinent issues such as the research paradigm, population of the study, sampling, data collection and analysis amongst other issues (Kothari, 2008).

Research design

Research design is also referred to as research paradigm and it is the theoretical framework through which the research is carried. Research paradigm generally is a set of basic laws or beliefs that will be followed throughout the study. In every research there has to be an inherent research design that will guide the researcher along the research process (Wisker, 2009). It assists the researcher to concentrate on the objectives of the study with the minimal chances of any deviations. Thus, it is very pertinent that a researcher chooses a research design very cautiously as it influences the end results of the whole study (Wahyuni, 2012). This implies that a research design may lead to valid, ethical and reliable study results or otherwise (Vogt, Gardner, & Haeffele, 2002).

This research was set to follow a descriptive, explanatory and exploratory research design or paradigm. First, it was a descriptive study because it aimed to exemplify the research problem at hand very analytically. This is due to the fact that the situation at hand had to be described so that it was comprehensively understood. Second, the study was explanatory as it also endeavored to explain whether there is relationship between the Chinese and the American renewable industry. Additionally, this approach was used to find whether there existed relationships amongst other issues such as taxes and performance of the companies in the renewable energy sector amongst others (Creswell, 2011).

Lastly, the study also targeted to explore the whole renewable energy sector with an aim of understanding it better. Subsequently, it will also be pertinent to recommend whether more study should be carried out on this research problem. In order to achieve these objectives under the stated research design the study used both the qualitative and quantitive approaches. Qualitative research paradigm becomes a choice because it enables researches to better understand their research problems or objectives (Merriam, 2009).

It became a researcher’s choice in the early beginning of the twentieth century after researchers felt that the quantitive approach was not thorough enough. The qualitative philosophy of study enables researchers to study things or people in their natural settings and thus better understand them (Denzin, 1994). Additionally, the approach is better because it is a multifaceted technique that uses many tools and instruments. The qualitative paradigm also allows the use of many linked and collaborating methods. Thus, the approach helped in better analyzing, interpreting and understanding the issues behind the renewable energy industry (Szyjka, 2012).

Secondly, it also enabled the researcher to use a myriad of research methods and tools while at the same time getting the real views of people in the research problem at hand. On the other hand the quantitive research paradigm is both a deductive and objective approach. It attempts to study objects under controlled conditions and it helps in the testing and validating of hypothesis. Additionally, the quantitive paradigm helps the study to gather quantitive data that will assist in the creation of statistical reports. The approach therefore assisted in the measuring of variables so that they can give accurate hypothesis testing (Grady, 1998).

Variables

Variables can be defined as measurable concepts in any research or study. Thus it can be said that variables are concepts behind a research area or problem that have to be measured. In turn the variables are used to get the respondents in a research problem gauge their perceptions and the same time reduce the variance of such findings. Variables hence being measurable use different measurement scales such as rankings scale, nominal scale and interval scales among others (Woods, 2002).

However, variables can either be independent or dependent variables depending on the purpose of the research (Mitchell & Jolley, 2012). In this research the concept behind the research area is the profitability of renewable energy sector as compared to the non renewable energy sector. Profitability can be measured using many parameters such as operating income, Return on Assets (ROA), net income, Return on Equity (ROE) and costs to income ratio among others. Thus, in this study the dependent variables can be identified as operating income, net income, ROA, ROE and cost to income ratio. On the other hand the independent variables can be identified as the market capitalization base and government taxes (Damodaran, 2011).

Data collection

This study employed the use of data triangulation so that weaknesses in one data collection method were complemented by another approach. Data triangulation is especially used in the qualitative approach and it helps in the validation of information from different sources. It thus centers on collecting information from many different sources and was therefore helpful in this study. Data collection for the study was geared towards gathering both primary and secondary data. In this study primary data was collected for the very first time while secondary data was gathered from the already analyzed data. In the endeavor to gather these data the most time and cost effective data collection techniques were utilized. However data accuracy, validity and reliability were of outmost priority (Kumar, 2008).

Data collection methods

Primary data collection methods

This study process engaged the use of survey investigation. This is due to the reason that surveys help to answer questions about research problems in an extensive way. Secondly, surveys help in gathering data from large populations in a very efficient and effective manner. Thirdly, the surveys method can be structured or unstructured, direct or indirect, verbal or written and are thus very flexible and dynamic. Therefore, the researcher in this study was able to probe more opinions from the participants in many varied and investigative procedures. The tools available under the surveys approach include various types of interviews and questionnaires (Panneerselvam, 2004).

The questionnaire is a list or schedule of questions written down and administered to the participants of the research. The participants read the questions and analyze what is needed of them before writing down their answers. Second, the researcher may choose to read the questions to the participants and elaborate on some issues before filing the answers on behalf of the respondents. In this study both the above explained questionnaire administration approaches were employed (Beiske, 2002).

The questionnaires were used in this study because they allowed the collection of data from the participants in a very cost effective manner. The questionnaires were administered using approaches such as face to face, mail, telephone and the internet. Mail and internet questionnaires were preferred because they were able to reach respondents who either have busy schedules or in far away location such as China. Secondly, the approach was preferred as it elicits more honest answers from respondents as regards personal or sensitive questions. Thirdly, the approach was also preferred as it helped to avoid the bias of the researcher in situations where answers given were not as expected (Azzara, 2010).

The questionnaires used were structured and contained both open ended and close ended questions. They were structured to allow the study to take a formal academic stance and thus make the participants feel at ease. Open ended questions were used because they helped in soliciting more insight into the subject or research problem as the respondents gave answers in their own dictum. However, data gathered from open ended questions proved difficult to analyze as it was not standardized. On the other hand close ended questions were used because they assisted in describing the research problem as well as testing the knowledge of the respondents on the subject (Browne & Keeley, 1998).

Before the questionnaire was used in this research it was tested for its effectiveness, reliability and relevance. In addition the questions in the questionnaires were crafted such that they were unambiguous, clear, ethical and unbiased. This is informed by the fact that questions which do not conform to these standards may be subject to misinterpretations or incomprehension. Lastly, before a participant was administered a questionnaire their consent was sought and no coercion was used (Brace, 2008).

Interviews were also used in this study to a large extent to allow for the insightful and firsthand answers into this research problem. Interviews are used because they elicit a lot of information from respondents within short durations of time. Secondly, interviews are very flexible as the interviewer may opt to ask the questionnaire questions in any way based on the responses of the respondent. The interviewer also has the flexibility to exemplify some questions for the respondent to better understand the question. Thirdly, interviews are sometimes instantaneous as they can take place anywhere whether at home, in the office or in a café and thus they favor respondents (Holstein & Gubrium, 2001).

Many types of interviews were used in this study ranging from online interviews, telephone interviews to personal interviews. Online interviews and telephone interviews were used to reach participants in far away locations and those that had busy schedules. These two types of interviews were preferred because they are very fast, flexible, interactive and they elicit a lot of pertinent information. On the other hand personal interviews were also used to reach well-informed people in this research area as well as get answers from the participants in the public (Gillham, 2000).

The personal interviews were preferred because they were more interactive and any clarifications took place instantly. In addition the interviewer was also able to observe the respondents and thus learn more from the reactions and facial expressions of the respondents. The personal interviews used for this study were interceptive interviews as well as focus groups. Interceptive interviews involved only one respondent while focus groups involved a group of around ten people at a time. Focus groups were used on students who are knowledgeable and familiar with this research area and who could be reached easily (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

Secondary data on the other hand was collected from the already published or written materials. It therefore entailed the use of an extensive literature review approach so as to get reliable data. Secondary data was thus collected from financial websites such as yahoo finance, nasdaq and Nikkei. It was also collected from other online sites such as the company and government websites amongst others. Most importantly secondary data was also gathered from scholarly literature, books, journals, magazines, newsletters, newspapers and published reports on renewable energy amongst others (Cooper & Schindler, 2006).

The population and the representative sample

The aim of this research was to collect data from all the stakeholders in the renewable energy sector, financial analysts, environmentalists, governments, green movements’ members and the general public amongst others. From this list of all possible participants it is evident to see that the targeted population was quite large. It was thus not possible to reach all these probable respondents due to costs, time, distance, language barriers and other factors. The researcher therefore opted to pick representative samples of this entire population that would enable the attainment of reliable and accurate results.

A sample can be said to be a certain percentage of the population that is fully representative of the entire population. To come up with the sample the researcher had to bear in mind who was to be interviewed, the size of the sample and the way to go about to get the sample. This was important because of the kind of the information and the accuracy of the study the researcher required. Secondly, it was also necessary for the researcher to decide the number of people to be involved in the study. In addition this was vital as care has to be taken in choosing a sample from the population if representation was to be attained (Levy & Lemeshow, 1999).

The research used a combination of both probability and non probability sampling methods. The probability sampling technique used was stratified sampling whereby the whole target population was divided into mutually exclusive and homogenous strata or groups. In coming up with the strata the researcher divided the target population according to various attributes such as China situated or America situated amongst others. The mutual exclusiveness was paramount so that no target member of the population would fit into more than one homogenous stratum (Zikmund & Babin, 2010).

Subsequently, the researcher used non probability techniques such as judgment sampling and quota sampling to get the final representative samples. Judgment sampling was used because the researcher had to decide which members of the strata were more insightful into this research area. This was to ensure that most reliable and accurate data was gathered from the resulting sample. It was also necessary for the researcher to decide the number of people to select from each stratum and thus form the representative samples. Lastly, the researcher also had the responsibility to select representative samples from which information would be solicited from conveniently. This was paramount because there is no need to select samples from which information is difficult to extract (Zikmund & Babin, 2010).

Data analysis

Data analysis is a very critical stage in any research process as it impacts seriously the accuracy of the research results. In data analysis it is vital that various methods are used together in conjunction with each other so as to help in interpreting the data correctly. However, before data analysis it is fundamental that the collected data is processed first. Processing of data in this study involved editing the collected data so that all the mistakes, oversights and errors were rectified. Secondly, the collected data was classified according to its attributes. This was to help in the grouping of data according to the various strata arrived at in the sampling process. Lastly, data was tabulated to allow for ease in analyzing the same and at the same time to aid in statistical calculations. However, all the collected data was processed and analyzed from one central location to allow for effective, proficient and accurate analysis of data (Bryman & Hardy, Handbook of Data Analysis, 2009).

Qualitative data collected was analyzed through the multivariate method and the content analysis method. The multivariate method was used as it allows for many approaches into data analysis. However, the content analysis approach was used so that the responses from the questionnaires and the interviews were thoroughly scrutinized. Content analysis enabled the researcher to identify the core themes given by the respondents and subsequently assign them codes as appropriate (Cooper & Schindler, 2006).

Secondly, the approach enabled the researcher to classify the responses into the various themes and hence be able to integrate them in the results of the study. Quantitive data on the other hand was analyzed using the constant method and computers. The computers were used to give statistical information and at the same time give graphical results for easy interpretation of the data. The constant method was used to give frequencies and inter data tables’ comparison or tabulation (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2007).

Ethics

In any research there are both inherent and stipulated ethics to be followed by the researcher. These ethics may be professional, societal, religious or academic amongst others and they may be explicit or implicit. However, they apply to both the researcher and the participants and vice versa. In this study the ethics of research and other kinds of ethics as applies to participants and the researcher were adhered to consistently and to the letter. This was informed by a strong sense of what can be considered right or wrong (Smith, 2003).

First and foremost all the participants participated in this research out of their own free will without any form of coercion or manipulation. They gave their consents after being sufficiently informed of the purposes of the study, the type of information required from them, other participation required from them, their rights and the way they may exit if they are no longer interested in the research. This step was taken as the researcher was aware that collecting information from respondents without their consents is unethical (Pimple, 2008).

Secondly, the privacy and confidentiality of the participants was highly observed at all the stages of the study. Therefore, in this research no participants was called or referred to by name unless the participant gave express permission. In addition all the responses from the participants were kept anonymous and not mentioned to other respondents for ill motives. As such all the responses from the participants were assigned specific kinds of codes or numbers for identification purposes in case they needed to be referred to (Wilson, 2010).

In regard to their privacy the participants were not in any way obliged or to divulge any personal private details. As such the interviewer elaborated to the respondent the sensitivity of any question in a polite manner and no response was demanded. If any response was given by the respondent it was on their informed free will and consent and such was kept very confidential. Lastly, the privacy of all the participants was upheld as their wishes were granted. In case a participant felt afraid to speak in an open place the interview was conducted in sound proof rooms (Burns & Burns, 2008).

On the part of the researcher ethics was also observed as required. As such the researcher did not in any way use a wrong research methodology so as to favor results already premeditated. Secondly, the researcher at all times avoided bias which would lead into inaccurate research results. Therefore, the researcher reported all the information as it was collected without any alterations or omissions. Lastly, the researcher did not in any way use the information collected to foster harm to any participant (Gregory, 2003).

Reliability and validity

Any research findings and results must be both reliable and valid for it to be considered quality work. Reliability however seems to be more challenging to attain than the validity of research. Reliability means that the findings and results of any study can be achieved by other researchers if given near similar conditions. Circumstances regarding a research change from time to time and hence repetition of the same exact study is not possible. This research aimed at being both reliable and valid and thus it took all the precautions and measures to make sure that was achieved. The researcher therefore used the actual data and information collected from the field of study to make the final report of the results. Hence, no alterations were carried out on the original data and neither where there any omissions occasioned (Leedy & Ormrod, 2012).

Conversely, validity of research means that the correct research methodology was used so as to accurately analyze the objectives of the study. Validity issues arise from both within and without the study process. As such this study ensured validity was observed by making sure that the indentified paradigm and tools in the research methodology were the ones used in the research process. In doing so the study observed content, predictive, con current and construct validity. These types of validity all relate to internal validity of the research process. Secondly, external validity has been addressed by the fact the samples taken by the researcher were fully representative of the entire population. Thus, the results arrived at can be generalized to the whole population (Smallbone & Quinton, 2006).

References

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Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S., 2006. Business Research Methods. London: The Mc Graw Hill Comapnies, Inc.

Creswell, J. W., 2011. Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

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Gregory, I., 2003. Ethics in Research. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

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A Defining Moment

October 12, 2012

Amber Smith is the epitome of hope, perseverance and strength. At only twenty-three years old, she has overcome life’s hurdles and is standing tall at the end of the tunnel. This is the story of a beautiful extraordinary girl, doing extraordinary things and has become a force to reckon with showing creativity, strength, courage and humility, having triumphed over challenges, inspiring many and proving that disability is not inability.

It was a cold evening and Amber was going to receive the State Humanitarian Award of the year. Everyone was elegantly dressed for the occasion, but Amber stole the show, after all, it was her night. Even though, she was confined to a wheelchair she looked beautiful with her dark hair pinned back and wore a gorgeous blue dress that complemented her piercing blue eyes. The room for the event, in the city’s auditorium, was warm, with many people who supported Amber and celebrate her achievements. Everything was in place and was perfect from the décor, to the flower arrangement, to the selection of the music for the evening.

Amber is not your everyday girl as she reminds me of the likes of Beethoven and Vincent Van Gogh, great people who have accomplished great things despite their disabilities; one cannot help but marvel at their lives. She was born as cerebral palsy victim, hence, her incapability of proper speech (although she can manage) and hindered the deliberate movement of her legs. Despite these challenges, at a young age, she is an excellent journalist, and a great poet and above all her astounding work and efforts of helping others with cerebral palsy and educating the society on the matter are impeccable.

The event was turning out great everyone was staring at Amber more than usual, this time, not because of her condition, but because she was at the podium giving her acceptance speech. The whole room was quiet as everyone listened to her attentively despite her slight problem in the speech she was as eloquent as she could be. She ended her speech showing that she had a sense of humor by quoting the famous children’s book author Dr. Seuss (2003), stating; “Why fit it, when you were created to stand out.” Amber tried to fit in with everyone else, but she realized that she was different, and she was made to stand out because she was special and that she could accomplish a lot with that power.

I wanted to know if she had always been this self driven and determined and if she was not, what was her turning point to becoming who she is today. Amber is the only child to Michael and Anna Smith to have cerebral palsy and grow up in a large, middle class family in Oakland. She has six brothers and sisters who all adore each other, and they see her as their family jewel. She attended school in her hometown at Middleton Academy but was always taught separately in a special class.

While growing up, she never understood why she was different, and why she would constantly get stares from strangers and had a severe case of depression. As a teenager, the constant reminder that she had the condition and that she will always have it was painful as she was always overlooked, discouraged and patronized because she was not “normal”. Meeting people was never in her agenda as she was never eager to see the uneasy reactions of people when they first meet her. Amber constantly felt sorry for herself despite the love and support from her parents. The depression continued to get worse and began to harbor suicidal thoughts.

The turning point of her life was at the age of sixteen. She remembers the day vividly as if it was yesterday, when she picked up the newspaper from the table and saw a picture of the young girl in a swimming pool with a rather unusual but cute smile. She was holding a trophy with a man next to her assuming it was his father, coach or principle. The caption below the photo read, “Despite having cerebral palsy and being in a wheelchair, little Suzy is Hillcrest Academy’s swimming champ”. Her curiosity got the best of her and read the story of a young girl Susan, at the tender age of seven, going through what Amber was going through but instead she chose to accept herself and live her life. Susan was the school’s swimming champion as she loved the water and did not let her disability stop her from doing what she loved. Amber was in awe and could not believe it, and she realized she has been making so many excuses and wasted so much time being upset rather than accepting herself. She described that moment as having an epiphany and she knew what she had to do, change.

Amber realized that the change had to come from within her if she wanted to be happy and she should not wait on miracles or anyone to change her situation. This reminded me of a quote by the current US president Barrack Obama stating, “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we have been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.” (Mazloomi, 2010) For a person to be truly happy, he or she has to change his life accordingly to how he or she sees fit and not wait on anyone to do what he can do.

After quite a long time, Amber’s life turned around. It was very difficult for her to finally accept herself and her condition. That milestone enabled her open opportunities and be the person she was meant to be. She realized that she could also have friends who look beyond her disability and sometimes even forget that she has it or can even have a laugh about it occasionally. She said while looking at the leg braces wrapped around her legs pointing out that they looked funny.

The hardest thing she discovered that she had to deal with was people reactions. Most of the time she would get uneasy reactions rather than the normal reactions from people who either took pity on her or saw her as an inspiration, simply because she has cerebral palsy. At first, she hated it, but she later saw it as a chance for those who viewed her as an inspiration, to bring hope to those who suffer similar conditions or just to inspire everyone. She finally felt she had a purpose for her life and speaking in the words of Elizabeth Cady Stanton with the famous quote that “The moment we begin to fear the opinions of others and hesitate to tell the truth that is in us, and from motives of policy are silent, then we should speak, the divine floods of light and life no longer flow into our souls.” (Stanton, 2001)This clearly and simply explains that when we think about what others think, then it hinders us from doing what we can, and we will not be able to achieve our life’s goals and dreams.

One of the most important achievements she has made, leading to the event was that she has been working with several hospitals in the state and various nongovernmental organizations that aid the patients of the disease cope with it and enable them to lead a normal life. She is also the face and founder of Happy Life Foundation that seeks to help young children with disabilities, providing an education for them and nurturing their talents so that they can be productive citizens in the future. The foundation has been quite successful, with about three hundred children under its belt, helping and assuring their growth and development.

Amber being an extraordinary girl, accomplishing so much at young age, despite having cerebral palsy, is truly remarkable as she faced her difficulties with accepting herself and pushed through becoming an inspiration to many. Winning the award, proved to her and others that no matter how large or small life’s hurdles may be, no matter what the odds are, with determination and perseverance, anything is possible.

Reference

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SMITH, AMBER. Personal Interview. 14TH JUNE, 2012.

Stanton, E. C. (2001). Solitude of self. Ashfield, Mass.: Paris Press.

American history: Imperialism

October 12, 2012

Imperialism is the strategy through which a country extends its territorial boundaries and influence through diplomacy and/or military power and force. There are people who do not think that America was, and is not an empire. In order to understand imperialism in the history of America, consider the wars in the Middle East and the Spanish-American wars. Since the American Revolution, imperialism has been part of the history of America. This essay looks at the history of the United States and aims at justifying the theme of imperialism.

The need for trade activated the US to engage in the world affairs. In the period between 1880 and 1900, the world imperialism influenced the United States foreign policies, and made the United States be one of the world’s most significant industrial powers1. This developed because of the need to secure market for the industrial goods, besides seeking territories for raw materials. The development for imperialism was also due to seeking for areas in the world, who would be potential customers for the industrial products. This led to the development of the leagues, which later compelled America to becoming imperialistic. However, there were anti-imperialists, who opposed the idea of imperialism.

In 1899, there was a massive formation of leagues of nations and led to introduction of imperialism to the American people. The pro-imperialism leaders believed that the country would be united and peaceful under one government and an ultimate ruler2. However, there was strong opposition from anti-imperialists, who thought that the supreme ruler would have excessive power, and were opposed to the idea of interfering with other countries powers and territories. Questions arose about the United States policy dominance after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The imperialists wanted one super power in order to eradicate inter-country conflicts. The imperialists wanted to have influence over all the other nations in the world, with the belief that the American way was the best and should be adopted by all the nations. America tasted imperialism when Christopher Columbus came to America close to five hundred years ago3.

In the struggle to spread its imperialism to other parts of the world, America sparked conflicts with other territories like Japan in 1853 and other countries in the 1900s. In the late 1980s, William Bryan became the United States secretary of state and signed a political peace agreement with 31 other states. The countries had a proposal that would ensure the end of political conflicts. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was enlisted by the then president, Roosevelt. This defined the United States foreign policy for the 19th century, where the United States declared its interest in the western hemisphere and restricted the European powers from interfering with the process of any rising nations. However, the Americans did not have the ability to sustain the policy since it was then a young nation4.

Another case that cites imperialism was the steady rise in the manufacturing industry in the USA. The rate of manufacture was higher than the rate of consumption. Therefore, this led to development of the need to acquire new markets. This forced the United States to expand to other territories where they could sell their industrial goods5. After this, there was the rise of the Spanish American war, which came about due to the insistence by the Americans to help the insisting to control Cuba. The Americans came into war with the idea of helping the Cubans from the way the Spaniards treated them. This war made the United States more imperialistic than before the war. America increased its international power after it gained power over Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Cuba. In order to understand the gaining of influence by the American nation, it gained control of these nations by giving twenty million dollars and signing the Paris treaty in 19896. The war with Spain was declared in 1898 after the bombing of a US battleship. The American army defeated the Spanish army and gained control over the territories surrounding Cuba. America expanded its territory while Spain resorted to concentrating in building its interior.

In 1845, it became obvious that it was inevitable that America was destined to be a world superpower through expansion of its territorial control. By the 19th century, there was seizure of the Caribbean Sea and pacific islands.

Another instance of imperialism in the history of United States is the Philippine conflict. After the defeat of the Spaniards in Philippine, the Filipinos were glad and thought that the Americans would grand them power and autonomy in comparison to what the Spaniards gave them. However, this was not the case since America engaged in jungle wars with Filipino guerilla fighters for close to six years.

In the Latin America, American imperialism was exceedingly manifested in the 20th century under the guise of the 1823 Monroe doctrine. In 1903, the United States signed a treaty with the Panama after backing its independence. This was to aid its trade progress since it later built the Panama Canal. In Nicaragua, the United States government led in overthrowing Jose Santos Zelaya in 1909 and occupied the state from 1912 to 1933, hence more control and power acquisition. Additionally, the United States backed the Platt Amendment that granted America Cuba as its protectorate. The United States government occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934.

In the Second World War, America played a chief role in the downfall of the Nazis7. After the Second World War, the United States occupied western Germany for close to ten years, and occupied Japan between 1945 and 1951 by force and restructured it in order to deter any emergence of its military strength8.

In the course of the cold war, the United States upheld an active presence in many third world countries in the form of spy groups and intelligence agencies. These groups retained a reputation of maintaining a close and active intrusion in the country’s internal affairs. In most cases, they have orchestrated revolutions and assassinations of political leaders in the third world countries9.

Cultural imperialism has also been characterized in the history of America. In American music and movie industries, experts argue that they aim at inculcating American values and principalities across the sphere and at the same time terminating the indigenous cultures. It is a serious concern in the first world countries like Canada and France.

Conclusion

Throughout history, emerging and powerful nations have expanded and exerted their influence on the world affairs. The United States is one of such nations, which have tried to expand its territories. America has had a noteworthy impact in the history of the world. Imperialistic forces of America have influenced the political situations of most nations of the world. The motives have varied from country to country, although the main idea has been to gain power and control. Back from the 1899 when there was the establishment of the Alliance of Nations, imperialistic ideas emerged in the American society with the desire to rule the world.

Bibliography

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American empire orientalism and imperialism in the Philippines, 89. Chicago: University

of Chicago Press, 2010.

Kaplan, Edward S. “The Beginnings of a Latin American Policy.” In U.S. imperialism in Latin

America: Bryan’s challenges and contributions, 1900-1920, 23-87. Westport, Conn.:

Greenwood Press, 1998.

Lens, Sidney. “Transcontinental Conquest.” In The forging of the American empire: [from the

revolution to Vietnam, a history of U.S. imperialism, 111-134. London: Pluto Press;,

2003.

Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159. Chapel Hill: University of

North Carolina Press, 2004.

Scriabine, Christine Brendel. “Contending with the American Empire.” In American

Imperialism, 1-23. Amawalk, N.Y.: Jackdaw Publications, 2005.

Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51. London: Routledge, 2010.

1 Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159.

2 Scriabine, Christine Brendel. “Contending with the American Empire.” In American

Imperialism, 1-23.

3 Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159.

4 Lens, Sidney. “Transcontinental Conquest.” In The forging of the American empire: [from the

revolution to Vietnam, a history of U.S. imperialism, 111-134.

5 Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51

6 Kaplan, Edward S. “The Beginnings of a Latin American Policy.” In U.S. imperialism in Latin

America: Bryan’s challenges and contributions, 1900-1920, 23-87.

7 Terkel, S. (1984). “The good war”: an oral history of World War Two. New York: New Press.

8 Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51.

9 Brody, David. “Cartography and American Imperialism in the Philippines.” In Visualizing

American empire orientalism and imperialism in the Philippines, 89.

SOCIAL JUSTICE RESEARCH PAPER 5

October 12, 2012

Introduction

In his book, The Animal Farm, George Orwell depicts the 20th century political arena in which he focuses much on two central political principles. These political principles, on which most countries were run, are capitalism and communism. Up to the early 20th century, most nations were run on the principle of capitalism.

Capitalism is characterised by a few people having power. That is, it is a political system in which power is in the hands of a few, usually referred to us the upper class, whereas the majority of the people in the society have little or no opportunities to improve their lives.

The other political principle, which is the opposite of capitalism, is communism. Communism was first introduced by Karl Marx, who was a German writer. He stated in his book entitled, The Communist Manifesto that the only means of assisting people out of capitalism was to create a socialist state through revolution. These states would be regarded as classless, and characterized with equality of all people.

Capitalism and communism are similar, however they differ in that communism is far more politically active and revolutionary in nature. Besides, communism stresses a common ownership of all means of production, which include land, industries among others. In addition, communism is also characterized by its stance on capitalism, that is, a free market economy in which people own properties and are entitled to own properties and employ people and make profit (Gosher, Orwell, Gosher, & Hendry, 2005). Among the themes in The Animal Farm that will be discussed in this paper, include violence and revolution.

Violence

In the Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, violence is used as a political tool to thwart any resistance that is perceived from the rest of the animals. As one reads the novel, one notices the actual violence that is used in order to kill and exile enemies o f the leadership, but equally significant the threat of violence. In case an animal, in The Animal Firm, questions the pigs’ leadership or rebels, the animal expects to be faced with unfathomable punishment and violence.

Orwell criticizes the manner in which dictators use terror and violence in order to frighten their subjects, and force them to submission. Violence is one of the challenges that animals need to avoid being subjected to, and as a result, they prepared a rebellion. Not only does Jones, steal from them their products, as well as, the fruits of their labor, but he also slaughters and whips them at will. Meanwhile, one of the pigs gain control of the animals, and organizes for a revolution (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

The animals, just like Jones, finds out that terror and violence can also be beneficial. They then use this knowledge to their own benefit. Orwell’s utilization of allegory genre serves him well in the process of execution scene. It also is important to note that in the current political arena, quite a number of people have become desensitized to the same. The allegorical executioners in the Orwell’s novel, which are the dogs. These dogs kill cruelly, depicts a bloody and inescapably animalistic side of the killings.

As the animals outside gazed at the scene, it seemed to them that some strange thing was happening. What was it that had altered in the face of the pig? Clover’s old dim eyes filtered from one face to another. Some of them had five chins, some had four, and some had three. Nevertheless, what was it that seemed to be melting and changing? Then, applause having come to an end, the company took up their cards and the animals crept silently away,” (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

But they had not gone twenty yards when they stopped short. An uproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse. They rushed back and looked through the windows again. Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress. There were shootings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious denials,” (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

Revolution

In Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, animals arise up in arms, figuratively, as well as, literally to through the yoke of human oppression. At first, the animals are inspired by the communist ideology of Marxism, which is embodied in their inspiring national anthem, beasts of England. Orwell tells us that the revolution was successfully executed and soon after things turned sour. The old animal leaders who championed for the revolution dies shortly after the animals took over power of The Animal Farm (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

In connection to the current political climate, The Middle East revolution is wide spread. For instance, the rise of the Egyptians against Gaddafi’s dictatorial leadership. In the Middle East, Egypt is the most populous country and its revolution that took place in February 2011 was a capstone incident of what is referred to us the Arab Spring, which inspired and still inspires revolutionary demonstration in other parts of the Arab world, like in Syria and Libya (CNN, 2012). Besides, a huge number of demonstrators turned up on the first anniversary of the Egyptian revolution in celebration of the unpopular rule, among the Egyptian, of Hosni Mubarak (Kirkpatrick, 2012).

In General, George Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, is a perfect depiction and prediction of the current political turmoil that is being witnessed in various parts of the world, especially in the Middle East. More significantly is the fact that the antagonism is between the poor and majority of these states who revolt in protest to autocratic rules of the capitalist dictators who only want to be in power for life.

These protestors are seen to emulate the animals in The Animal Farm, in using violence and thereby revolt against dictatorial leadership and, thus, bring about a revolution. Orwell was part of a younger generation of young European intellectuals who were drawn into Marxism between the year 1920s and 1930s. Nonetheless, he soon becomes disillusioned with the opportunistic and dictatorial policies that he criticizes in his books.

References

CNN. (2012, June 24). The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from Egypt News — Presidential Elections: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index. html

Gosher, S., Orwell, G., Gosher, B., & Hendry, J. O. (2005). Animal farm. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa.

Hauss, C., & Haussman, M. (2012). Comparative Politics Domestic Responses to Global Challenges. Boston MA: Wadsworth Pub Co.

Kirkpatrick, D. D. (2012, June 24). Egypt. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Egyptians Gather on First Anniversary of Revolt: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/egyptians mark-anniversary of-revolt-in-tahrir-square.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all