A Defining Moment

Amber Smith is the epitome of hope, perseverance and strength. At only twenty-three years old, she has overcome life’s hurdles and is standing tall at the end of the tunnel. This is the story of a beautiful extraordinary girl, doing extraordinary things and has become a force to reckon with showing creativity, strength, courage and humility, having triumphed over challenges, inspiring many and proving that disability is not inability.

It was a cold evening and Amber was going to receive the State Humanitarian Award of the year. Everyone was elegantly dressed for the occasion, but Amber stole the show, after all, it was her night. Even though, she was confined to a wheelchair she looked beautiful with her dark hair pinned back and wore a gorgeous blue dress that complemented her piercing blue eyes. The room for the event, in the city’s auditorium, was warm, with many people who supported Amber and celebrate her achievements. Everything was in place and was perfect from the décor, to the flower arrangement, to the selection of the music for the evening.

Amber is not your everyday girl as she reminds me of the likes of Beethoven and Vincent Van Gogh, great people who have accomplished great things despite their disabilities; one cannot help but marvel at their lives. She was born as cerebral palsy victim, hence, her incapability of proper speech (although she can manage) and hindered the deliberate movement of her legs. Despite these challenges, at a young age, she is an excellent journalist, and a great poet and above all her astounding work and efforts of helping others with cerebral palsy and educating the society on the matter are impeccable.

The event was turning out great everyone was staring at Amber more than usual, this time, not because of her condition, but because she was at the podium giving her acceptance speech. The whole room was quiet as everyone listened to her attentively despite her slight problem in the speech she was as eloquent as she could be. She ended her speech showing that she had a sense of humor by quoting the famous children’s book author Dr. Seuss (2003), stating; “Why fit it, when you were created to stand out.” Amber tried to fit in with everyone else, but she realized that she was different, and she was made to stand out because she was special and that she could accomplish a lot with that power.

I wanted to know if she had always been this self driven and determined and if she was not, what was her turning point to becoming who she is today. Amber is the only child to Michael and Anna Smith to have cerebral palsy and grow up in a large, middle class family in Oakland. She has six brothers and sisters who all adore each other, and they see her as their family jewel. She attended school in her hometown at Middleton Academy but was always taught separately in a special class.

While growing up, she never understood why she was different, and why she would constantly get stares from strangers and had a severe case of depression. As a teenager, the constant reminder that she had the condition and that she will always have it was painful as she was always overlooked, discouraged and patronized because she was not “normal”. Meeting people was never in her agenda as she was never eager to see the uneasy reactions of people when they first meet her. Amber constantly felt sorry for herself despite the love and support from her parents. The depression continued to get worse and began to harbor suicidal thoughts.

The turning point of her life was at the age of sixteen. She remembers the day vividly as if it was yesterday, when she picked up the newspaper from the table and saw a picture of the young girl in a swimming pool with a rather unusual but cute smile. She was holding a trophy with a man next to her assuming it was his father, coach or principle. The caption below the photo read, “Despite having cerebral palsy and being in a wheelchair, little Suzy is Hillcrest Academy’s swimming champ”. Her curiosity got the best of her and read the story of a young girl Susan, at the tender age of seven, going through what Amber was going through but instead she chose to accept herself and live her life. Susan was the school’s swimming champion as she loved the water and did not let her disability stop her from doing what she loved. Amber was in awe and could not believe it, and she realized she has been making so many excuses and wasted so much time being upset rather than accepting herself. She described that moment as having an epiphany and she knew what she had to do, change.

Amber realized that the change had to come from within her if she wanted to be happy and she should not wait on miracles or anyone to change her situation. This reminded me of a quote by the current US president Barrack Obama stating, “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we have been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.” (Mazloomi, 2010) For a person to be truly happy, he or she has to change his life accordingly to how he or she sees fit and not wait on anyone to do what he can do.

After quite a long time, Amber’s life turned around. It was very difficult for her to finally accept herself and her condition. That milestone enabled her open opportunities and be the person she was meant to be. She realized that she could also have friends who look beyond her disability and sometimes even forget that she has it or can even have a laugh about it occasionally. She said while looking at the leg braces wrapped around her legs pointing out that they looked funny.

The hardest thing she discovered that she had to deal with was people reactions. Most of the time she would get uneasy reactions rather than the normal reactions from people who either took pity on her or saw her as an inspiration, simply because she has cerebral palsy. At first, she hated it, but she later saw it as a chance for those who viewed her as an inspiration, to bring hope to those who suffer similar conditions or just to inspire everyone. She finally felt she had a purpose for her life and speaking in the words of Elizabeth Cady Stanton with the famous quote that “The moment we begin to fear the opinions of others and hesitate to tell the truth that is in us, and from motives of policy are silent, then we should speak, the divine floods of light and life no longer flow into our souls.” (Stanton, 2001)This clearly and simply explains that when we think about what others think, then it hinders us from doing what we can, and we will not be able to achieve our life’s goals and dreams.

One of the most important achievements she has made, leading to the event was that she has been working with several hospitals in the state and various nongovernmental organizations that aid the patients of the disease cope with it and enable them to lead a normal life. She is also the face and founder of Happy Life Foundation that seeks to help young children with disabilities, providing an education for them and nurturing their talents so that they can be productive citizens in the future. The foundation has been quite successful, with about three hundred children under its belt, helping and assuring their growth and development.

Amber being an extraordinary girl, accomplishing so much at young age, despite having cerebral palsy, is truly remarkable as she faced her difficulties with accepting herself and pushed through becoming an inspiration to many. Winning the award, proved to her and others that no matter how large or small life’s hurdles may be, no matter what the odds are, with determination and perseverance, anything is possible.


Mazloomi, C. (2010). Journey of hope quilts inspired by President Barack Obama. Minneapolis:

MBI Pub. Co..

Oh, the places you’ll go!. (2003). London: Collins Picture Lions.

SMITH, AMBER. Personal Interview. 14TH JUNE, 2012.

Stanton, E. C. (2001). Solitude of self. Ashfield, Mass.: Paris Press.


American history: Imperialism

Imperialism is the strategy through which a country extends its territorial boundaries and influence through diplomacy and/or military power and force. There are people who do not think that America was, and is not an empire. In order to understand imperialism in the history of America, consider the wars in the Middle East and the Spanish-American wars. Since the American Revolution, imperialism has been part of the history of America. This essay looks at the history of the United States and aims at justifying the theme of imperialism.

The need for trade activated the US to engage in the world affairs. In the period between 1880 and 1900, the world imperialism influenced the United States foreign policies, and made the United States be one of the world’s most significant industrial powers1. This developed because of the need to secure market for the industrial goods, besides seeking territories for raw materials. The development for imperialism was also due to seeking for areas in the world, who would be potential customers for the industrial products. This led to the development of the leagues, which later compelled America to becoming imperialistic. However, there were anti-imperialists, who opposed the idea of imperialism.

In 1899, there was a massive formation of leagues of nations and led to introduction of imperialism to the American people. The pro-imperialism leaders believed that the country would be united and peaceful under one government and an ultimate ruler2. However, there was strong opposition from anti-imperialists, who thought that the supreme ruler would have excessive power, and were opposed to the idea of interfering with other countries powers and territories. Questions arose about the United States policy dominance after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The imperialists wanted one super power in order to eradicate inter-country conflicts. The imperialists wanted to have influence over all the other nations in the world, with the belief that the American way was the best and should be adopted by all the nations. America tasted imperialism when Christopher Columbus came to America close to five hundred years ago3.

In the struggle to spread its imperialism to other parts of the world, America sparked conflicts with other territories like Japan in 1853 and other countries in the 1900s. In the late 1980s, William Bryan became the United States secretary of state and signed a political peace agreement with 31 other states. The countries had a proposal that would ensure the end of political conflicts. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was enlisted by the then president, Roosevelt. This defined the United States foreign policy for the 19th century, where the United States declared its interest in the western hemisphere and restricted the European powers from interfering with the process of any rising nations. However, the Americans did not have the ability to sustain the policy since it was then a young nation4.

Another case that cites imperialism was the steady rise in the manufacturing industry in the USA. The rate of manufacture was higher than the rate of consumption. Therefore, this led to development of the need to acquire new markets. This forced the United States to expand to other territories where they could sell their industrial goods5. After this, there was the rise of the Spanish American war, which came about due to the insistence by the Americans to help the insisting to control Cuba. The Americans came into war with the idea of helping the Cubans from the way the Spaniards treated them. This war made the United States more imperialistic than before the war. America increased its international power after it gained power over Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and Cuba. In order to understand the gaining of influence by the American nation, it gained control of these nations by giving twenty million dollars and signing the Paris treaty in 19896. The war with Spain was declared in 1898 after the bombing of a US battleship. The American army defeated the Spanish army and gained control over the territories surrounding Cuba. America expanded its territory while Spain resorted to concentrating in building its interior.

In 1845, it became obvious that it was inevitable that America was destined to be a world superpower through expansion of its territorial control. By the 19th century, there was seizure of the Caribbean Sea and pacific islands.

Another instance of imperialism in the history of United States is the Philippine conflict. After the defeat of the Spaniards in Philippine, the Filipinos were glad and thought that the Americans would grand them power and autonomy in comparison to what the Spaniards gave them. However, this was not the case since America engaged in jungle wars with Filipino guerilla fighters for close to six years.

In the Latin America, American imperialism was exceedingly manifested in the 20th century under the guise of the 1823 Monroe doctrine. In 1903, the United States signed a treaty with the Panama after backing its independence. This was to aid its trade progress since it later built the Panama Canal. In Nicaragua, the United States government led in overthrowing Jose Santos Zelaya in 1909 and occupied the state from 1912 to 1933, hence more control and power acquisition. Additionally, the United States backed the Platt Amendment that granted America Cuba as its protectorate. The United States government occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934.

In the Second World War, America played a chief role in the downfall of the Nazis7. After the Second World War, the United States occupied western Germany for close to ten years, and occupied Japan between 1945 and 1951 by force and restructured it in order to deter any emergence of its military strength8.

In the course of the cold war, the United States upheld an active presence in many third world countries in the form of spy groups and intelligence agencies. These groups retained a reputation of maintaining a close and active intrusion in the country’s internal affairs. In most cases, they have orchestrated revolutions and assassinations of political leaders in the third world countries9.

Cultural imperialism has also been characterized in the history of America. In American music and movie industries, experts argue that they aim at inculcating American values and principalities across the sphere and at the same time terminating the indigenous cultures. It is a serious concern in the first world countries like Canada and France.


Throughout history, emerging and powerful nations have expanded and exerted their influence on the world affairs. The United States is one of such nations, which have tried to expand its territories. America has had a noteworthy impact in the history of the world. Imperialistic forces of America have influenced the political situations of most nations of the world. The motives have varied from country to country, although the main idea has been to gain power and control. Back from the 1899 when there was the establishment of the Alliance of Nations, imperialistic ideas emerged in the American society with the desire to rule the world.


Brody, David. “Cartography and American Imperialism in the Philippines.” In Visualizing

American empire orientalism and imperialism in the Philippines, 89. Chicago: University

of Chicago Press, 2010.

Kaplan, Edward S. “The Beginnings of a Latin American Policy.” In U.S. imperialism in Latin

America: Bryan’s challenges and contributions, 1900-1920, 23-87. Westport, Conn.:

Greenwood Press, 1998.

Lens, Sidney. “Transcontinental Conquest.” In The forging of the American empire: [from the

revolution to Vietnam, a history of U.S. imperialism, 111-134. London: Pluto Press;,


Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159. Chapel Hill: University of

North Carolina Press, 2004.

Scriabine, Christine Brendel. “Contending with the American Empire.” In American

Imperialism, 1-23. Amawalk, N.Y.: Jackdaw Publications, 2005.

Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51. London: Routledge, 2010.

1 Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159.

2 Scriabine, Christine Brendel. “Contending with the American Empire.” In American

Imperialism, 1-23.

3 Love, Eric Tyrone Lowery. “American Imperialism and the Racial Mountain.” In Race over

empire: racism and U.S. imperialism, 1865-1900, 1-159.

4 Lens, Sidney. “Transcontinental Conquest.” In The forging of the American empire: [from the

revolution to Vietnam, a history of U.S. imperialism, 111-134.

5 Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51

6 Kaplan, Edward S. “The Beginnings of a Latin American Policy.” In U.S. imperialism in Latin

America: Bryan’s challenges and contributions, 1900-1920, 23-87.

7 Terkel, S. (1984). “The good war”: an oral history of World War Two. New York: New Press.

8 Shor, Francis Robert. “Imperial constructions and deconstructions.” In Dying Empire U.S.

imperialism and global resistance, 9-51.

9 Brody, David. “Cartography and American Imperialism in the Philippines.” In Visualizing

American empire orientalism and imperialism in the Philippines, 89.



In his book, The Animal Farm, George Orwell depicts the 20th century political arena in which he focuses much on two central political principles. These political principles, on which most countries were run, are capitalism and communism. Up to the early 20th century, most nations were run on the principle of capitalism.

Capitalism is characterised by a few people having power. That is, it is a political system in which power is in the hands of a few, usually referred to us the upper class, whereas the majority of the people in the society have little or no opportunities to improve their lives.

The other political principle, which is the opposite of capitalism, is communism. Communism was first introduced by Karl Marx, who was a German writer. He stated in his book entitled, The Communist Manifesto that the only means of assisting people out of capitalism was to create a socialist state through revolution. These states would be regarded as classless, and characterized with equality of all people.

Capitalism and communism are similar, however they differ in that communism is far more politically active and revolutionary in nature. Besides, communism stresses a common ownership of all means of production, which include land, industries among others. In addition, communism is also characterized by its stance on capitalism, that is, a free market economy in which people own properties and are entitled to own properties and employ people and make profit (Gosher, Orwell, Gosher, & Hendry, 2005). Among the themes in The Animal Farm that will be discussed in this paper, include violence and revolution.


In the Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, violence is used as a political tool to thwart any resistance that is perceived from the rest of the animals. As one reads the novel, one notices the actual violence that is used in order to kill and exile enemies o f the leadership, but equally significant the threat of violence. In case an animal, in The Animal Firm, questions the pigs’ leadership or rebels, the animal expects to be faced with unfathomable punishment and violence.

Orwell criticizes the manner in which dictators use terror and violence in order to frighten their subjects, and force them to submission. Violence is one of the challenges that animals need to avoid being subjected to, and as a result, they prepared a rebellion. Not only does Jones, steal from them their products, as well as, the fruits of their labor, but he also slaughters and whips them at will. Meanwhile, one of the pigs gain control of the animals, and organizes for a revolution (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

The animals, just like Jones, finds out that terror and violence can also be beneficial. They then use this knowledge to their own benefit. Orwell’s utilization of allegory genre serves him well in the process of execution scene. It also is important to note that in the current political arena, quite a number of people have become desensitized to the same. The allegorical executioners in the Orwell’s novel, which are the dogs. These dogs kill cruelly, depicts a bloody and inescapably animalistic side of the killings.

As the animals outside gazed at the scene, it seemed to them that some strange thing was happening. What was it that had altered in the face of the pig? Clover’s old dim eyes filtered from one face to another. Some of them had five chins, some had four, and some had three. Nevertheless, what was it that seemed to be melting and changing? Then, applause having come to an end, the company took up their cards and the animals crept silently away,” (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

But they had not gone twenty yards when they stopped short. An uproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse. They rushed back and looked through the windows again. Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress. There were shootings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious denials,” (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).


In Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, animals arise up in arms, figuratively, as well as, literally to through the yoke of human oppression. At first, the animals are inspired by the communist ideology of Marxism, which is embodied in their inspiring national anthem, beasts of England. Orwell tells us that the revolution was successfully executed and soon after things turned sour. The old animal leaders who championed for the revolution dies shortly after the animals took over power of The Animal Farm (Hauss & Haussman, 2012).

In connection to the current political climate, The Middle East revolution is wide spread. For instance, the rise of the Egyptians against Gaddafi’s dictatorial leadership. In the Middle East, Egypt is the most populous country and its revolution that took place in February 2011 was a capstone incident of what is referred to us the Arab Spring, which inspired and still inspires revolutionary demonstration in other parts of the Arab world, like in Syria and Libya (CNN, 2012). Besides, a huge number of demonstrators turned up on the first anniversary of the Egyptian revolution in celebration of the unpopular rule, among the Egyptian, of Hosni Mubarak (Kirkpatrick, 2012).

In General, George Orwell’s novel, The Animal Farm, is a perfect depiction and prediction of the current political turmoil that is being witnessed in various parts of the world, especially in the Middle East. More significantly is the fact that the antagonism is between the poor and majority of these states who revolt in protest to autocratic rules of the capitalist dictators who only want to be in power for life.

These protestors are seen to emulate the animals in The Animal Farm, in using violence and thereby revolt against dictatorial leadership and, thus, bring about a revolution. Orwell was part of a younger generation of young European intellectuals who were drawn into Marxism between the year 1920s and 1930s. Nonetheless, he soon becomes disillusioned with the opportunistic and dictatorial policies that he criticizes in his books.


CNN. (2012, June 24). The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from Egypt News — Presidential Elections: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index. html

Gosher, S., Orwell, G., Gosher, B., & Hendry, J. O. (2005). Animal farm. Cape Town: Pearson Education South Africa.

Hauss, C., & Haussman, M. (2012). Comparative Politics Domestic Responses to Global Challenges. Boston MA: Wadsworth Pub Co.

Kirkpatrick, D. D. (2012, June 24). Egypt. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Egyptians Gather on First Anniversary of Revolt: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/egyptians mark-anniversary of-revolt-in-tahrir-square.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

Changing the Stigma Against Tattoos


Tattooing is the earliest as well as most frequently used type of body modification. Cultures and societies throughout the globe developed distinctive body alteration practices over time which carried religious and ritual significance. However, the historical advancement, significance, and meaning of tattooing art are neither unified nor smooth (Oksanen and Turtiainen 113). Despite their long-standing existence and growing popularity, tattoos carry with them stigma. The bearers as seen as drug users, gang members, promiscuous, troublemakers and school dropouts. Tattooing was growingly related to criminality with the coming of Christianity, which saw tattooing as threat to its teachings and expansion. Persons who have done body modification or tattooing art are discriminated as well as labeled negatively. For example, tattoos are associated with gangs, ex-convicts and bikers

The message or meaning that an individual intends to convey via a tattoo is not often the information others receive. The multifaceted motivations of persons who are tattooed are sieved through cultural and historical lenses that frequently impose unwanted and unintended definitions on the modified bodies. By themselves, tattoos cannot change social meanings and conditions ascribed them as long as media persist to objectify and demean tattooed bodies.

In Western society, tattoos were used to mark bodies of prostitutes, criminals, primitive cultures, deviant sub-cultures and slaves.

It is inquisitive that although tattooing popularity is growing, that generalized beliefs about personal traits and lives of tattooed person persist .Since tattooing practice is widespread historically as well as presently, those opposed to it should ask themselves whether body modification is revelation of global man necessity for beautification, rather than a rebellious behavior (Sticke19). People should stop relating bad stereotypes against people with tattoos and rather spend that time on getting to know them before making a critical judgment

Ancient Cultures and Tattoo Practice

As an ancient practice, tattooing has been in existence for centuries. Cultures throughout the global looked to tattooing as away of displaying spiritual and religious commitment, expressing emotions, honoring their past as well as embodying the future. Generally, “body modification in non-European cultures signified the religious rituals, rites of passage, and social identification” (Ross and Martin 243). In ancient culture of Egypt, modification of body was a common practice. Anthropologic studies indicate that Egyptians participated in body tattooing and piercing. The Coptic Christians tattooed a cross symbol on their hands as away of demonstrating. This tattooing served as a symbol of unity and identity of their religious faith. . Tattoos of mythical creatures, important phrases, and animals have been discovered on mummified cadavers. Long-standing Egyptians appeared to adorn or love their jewelry-modified bodies. The Mayans practice tongue piercing in successive generations. Tattooing among women Mayans is importance because it marks the transition of girls to strong, sexually active, adorable women. in modern times, body modification is done for decoration, expression, and pleasure. Any society seeing tattooing as not normal should ask itself why culture almost all world’s cultures embraced body modification practices for centuries

Tattooing started gaining fame in U.S during Civil War and Reconstruction. Patriotic pictures on veterans and soldiers handed out the initial acceptance of tattoos in American culture serve. One way to construe this mass body modification is that the war was a phenomenon in which persons were grappling with their standing in a politically perplexing time (Fisher 94).

Tattoos are associated with many negative generalized beliefs that result in discrimination and stigmatization of persons with tattoos. Individuals with tattoos are referred as bikes and tattoos are being linked with criminality. As of 1880 there were significant changes in social tattooing practices for prisoners. Criminologists in Italy and France became more concerned with tattoo cryptography that they believed tattoos were physical inscriptions of offenses and crimes of deviants and criminals. Consequently, they started to decode the significance of the imagery (Fisher 94).

Why people are interested in tattoos

In modern society, people modify their body with tattoos to embody their life, beliefs and interest. Tattoos represent something unique for everyone. However, in Western culture the greatest variation in embodiment occurs between persons without and those with tattoos. It is an emblem that depicts individual’s matchless self-image and identity to the public. In addition, tattoos connote a type of non-verbal communication among individuals with tattooed body. For example, persons frequently use body modifications as expressions of personal independence, quietness, and freedom in the midst of mainstream society/culture that is typified by firm belief systems and cultural standards.

The youth (adolescents) and middle-class citizens are have become popular fans of tattooing. Youth use tattoo as away to assert their autonomy, because tattoos provide a means to ground sense of determination and self (Sticke 18). Tattooing as well as tattooing experience provides youth withy sense of greater authority and control over their lives (Atkinson 43). In addition youth may use tattoos to signify as well as cement group memberships/identities as they transition between communities and schools. Young people often give numerous interpretations, including the definitions of independence and maturity (Rush 55). The belief is that tattoos give some veneer of security and belonging in a changing universe.

Today, women constitute nearly half the population of tattooed persons. Tattooing or body modification provides women with control and independence over their bodies. Some women use body modification to challenge restricted roles of mother and wife and to discover other fashions to delineate themselves (Atkinson 44). However, the media due to sheer ignorance portray such women as lower-class and sexually promiscuous. Some use tattoo to implement their conventional femininity. In addition, women have initiated the tattoo use to repossess their own bodies from hurtful experience, including abuse and disease. Recently, ladies recovering from cancer have wanted tattoos to create a novel artistic for mastectomy blemish as well as to express devastating consequences of the traumatic disease. Modifying their bodies helps such women to feel or experience like they are repossessing violated or lost parts of “themselves”. Besides reclaiming their bodies from illnesses, women also use tattoos to regain their bodies from everyday feeling experiences of weak and unattractive. Tattooing gives them sense of pride and community to which they can exchange their shared experiences.

Tattooing is now commonplace among athletes and young actresses. What is surprising, tattooing is no longer buried behind clothing, but has taken off to include navels and nipples. Numerous models, musicians, and celebrities have overt tattoos and this inspires young people to emulate these celebrities (Sticke 19).

Media and Tattooing

Many people always lean to take a chance and associate with persons with tattoos because of the fact of stereotyping that were sold to them by the media. The media has always been associated the people with tattoos with criminal activity and the public are sold to always assumed that. Tattoos still carry a deep stigma in our culture due to the fact that it was negatively portrait by the media. Media portray tattooed people in a manner that make society look down upon such people in a discriminatory fashion. Newspapers, magazines and other media vehicles perpetuate tattooed people has subhuman objects and sideshow attractions on display. Thus, media have help reinforce tattooed persons in public perception as freakish, deformed and salvage (Ross and Martin 245). The media make tattooing to look like an issue of marginalized people that is those associated with sexual promiscuity and criminality. Thus, anyone with tattooed body is seen as related to violent and illegal societal elements. The powerful and prominent media embodiment of tattooing stereotypically associates body modification with organized gangs. The media portray body modification of hands, genitals, nipples, neck and face as extreme forms of tattooing that depict deviant behaviors in the bearers.

Media stereotypes serve to diminish modified bodies to “one-dimensional caricatures” (Ross and Martin, 247). Media continually relate body alteration with sexual and criminal deviance via their stereotypic portrayal of characters. Body alteration stereotypes cause harm to characters via overt gender assignment. The media sexualize modified women in away that subjugate women to general standard of adoration. Although most women view their modification as a refusal of a larger society values, media portrayals serve to diminish this power.

Magazine depicts tattooed pictures of men and women in manner that suggest deviance. In the depictions both men and women display their modified bodies covered with pictures of devils, dragons and other creatures whose imagery gives negative interpretation of the tattoo. Media depict some forms of tattooing as health risks. According to media, tattooing convey message of dirtiness, poor hygiene as well prospective disease. In addition, non-tattooed individuals regard tattooed people as belonging to low social status. Stigmatization negatively impacts aspects of a person’s life, including health outcomes and self-esteem.

How to change the attitude

The negative stigma against tattoos will not come to an end so long as non-tattooed people persist to make wrong judgments about tattooed without getting to know who these people that modify their bodies are. Tattooing practice has been in existence since the evolution of human race. Judging persons based on phenotypic appearances just strengthens stereotypes. It is advisable to hold back judgment until one has the opportunity to get to know a person rather than jumping to premature conclusions that are inaccurate. It is inappropriate to conceive that an individual with a tattoo is not a good person merely based on outward appearances. When one starts thinking along that line, it becomes easier to believe that all persons with tattoos are bad people. With such perceptions, one will never get to know tattooed people better or attempt to work with them. By getting to know tattooed person, one will realize that such people have not changed the previous behavior merely by modifying their behavior. In fact one will come to realize that tattooing is nothing but a fine art.

People should understand that tattoos speak to the continuing, multifaceted need for men to express via the look of their own bodies. The popularity and fame of tattoos prove to their authority as media for commemoration, self-expression, and community building. Individuals modify their bodies to memorialize life markers, to recall their heritage, to tell themselves they are able to be best versions/stories of themselves or to speak with art of body modification what they cannot speak verbally. Owing to its profound penetration in society, the media ought to delineate tattooing as a positive, lawful icon of expression.


Tattooing is the longest-standing type of body alteration. It is becoming common icon in a larger society as a positive, genuine symbol of expression. People use body modification as expression of personal independence, freedom, uniqueness, reclaiming own bodies and for beautification. The media portrayal of tattoos contributes to stigma, thereby provoking discrimination against tattooed persons. For example, media associate tattoos to offense and crime to signify elements of deviance and criminality. This stigmatization has greater negative implications on the bearers.

Work Cited

Atkinson, Michael. “Tattooed: The Sociogenesis of a Body Art.” Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2003.

Fisher, A. Jill. “Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture”. Body and Society 8, 4(2002), 91-106.

Oksanen, Atte and Jussi Turtiainen. A Life Told in Ink: Tattoo Narratives and the Problem of the Self in Late Modern Society. Auto/Biography, 13(2005), 111–130. 10.1191/0967550705ab021oa

Ross, Susan Dente and Paul Martin Lester. Images that injure: pictorial stereotypes in the media. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, 2011.

Rush, John A. Spiritual tattoo: a cultural history of tattooing, piercing, scarification, branding, and implants. Berkeley, California: Frog, 2007.

Sticke, Tiffany Lynn. Tattooing and High-risk Behavior Among Adolescents. Ann Abhor: ProQuest, 2007.

Eligibility Rules


Eligibility rules are used by different organizations when determining how services and benefits should be distributed among clients or consumers in the society. The main purpose of using eligibility rules is to ensure that there is equitable distribution of services and benefits to the society (Chambers & Wedel, 2005). The Salvation Army has come up with different set of rules that are used to determine who gets their services or benefits, how much benefit a person receives, and the conditions to be met by the beneficiaries. The types of eligibility rules that are used by Salvation Army are discussed below.

Prior contribution

This is a type of eligibility rule that is based on the prior contributions that have been made to an organization that will pay the benefits. The Salvation Army will base its social welfare benefits on the established legislations or rules regarding the extent of individuals’ prior contributions to the organization. The basic principle behind the eligibility rule based on prior contribution is that payment in advance will provide for the future benefits and that the protection against losses is best achieved when risks are spread to a large group of individuals (Chambers & Wedel, 2005).

Administrative rule

This is a type of eligibility rule that is contained in the rule of law. In this case, the details of the eligibility rules should be well spelled out in the law within a country. The administrative eligibility rule will ensure that all the people are similarly situated to benefit from a particular social program. The Salvation Army uses this type of eligibility rule so as to ensure that all beneficiaries of their social services are treated similarly and reliably.

Private contract

Eligibility by private contact is a case where individuals are entitled to social benefits through private contract provisions. The Salvation Army as an organization is involved in a number of private contracts agreement with a number of institutions that provides social benefits scheme to its employees. The organization has private contracts with some of the private insurance firms so as to help provide insurance policies to its employees. Other social services that Salvation Army has acquired through private contract include legal services, counseling, transport services, special education and day care among other professional services.

Professional discretion

The eligibility by professional discretion is one the most widely used eligibility rules by the Salvation Army. The organization has contracted different individual professional practitioners to provide their services to its employees. One of the best examples where eligibility by professional discretion rule has been used by the Salvation Army is the provisions for medical benefits (Chambers & Wedel, 2005).

Administrative discretion

This is another kind of eligibility rule that is used by the Salvation Army. The eligibility rule by administrative discretion is a source of social welfare benefits. In this case, people will contribute or donate food or cash to help the needy persons in the society. The social benefits is primarily aimed at assisting the poor and vulnerable groups in any given country or society.

Judicial decision

The Salvation Army uses eligibility by judicial decision to rule applicants out or in a program of social services and benefits. This type of eligibility rule is determined by the decision made in courts. The organization will therefore, work in accordance with a decision made in courts regarding a social benefit program.

Means of testing

This is where assets and incomes of individuals are totaled so as to determine whether a person deserves to receive social benefit. The Salvation Army uses this type of eligibility rule to determine the amount of benefits that each beneficiary should receive. The organization compares the total assets and income of different applicants with a standard level set in determining the need of the applicants.

Attachment to the workforce

This is a type of eligibility rule where a social welfare benefit or service is aimed only to the workforce. The eligibility criteria should be able to qualify only the working populace. Only people who are part of the workforce are able to benefit from the welfare program.

There are no possible stigmatization or off targeted benefits noticed in the eligibility rules used by the Salvation Army (Chambers & Wedel, 2005). The social benefit programs under different eligibility rules are able to reach the targeted beneficiaries. Different eligibility rules are able to benefit only the targeted population.

The eligibility rules used by the Salvation Army have no tradeoffs such as overwhelming cost, overutilization, or underutilization. This is because various eligibility rules that the organization uses has clear policies that determines how the resources are to be distributed to the various applicants. Each of the eligibility rules used by Salvation Army has clear laws and regulations that determine how the social benefit program should be administered to the targeted groups.

The weakness noticed in the eligibility rules used by the Salvation Army is in the type of eligibility rule that is attached to the workforce. This type of eligibility rule only ensures that working people are the beneficiary of a social benefit program. The rule is not fair to the rest of the population who are not employed. The eligibility rule promotes inequitable distribution of social services to the society (Chambers & Wedel, 2005).

Eligibility rules are fair and sufficient. The eligibility rules will ensure that the only part of the population that are in need of a social benefit program are able to receive the benefits. The eligibility rules also ensure that the entire social benefit program is distributed equitably to the entire population within a society.


Chambers, D. E., & Wedel, K. R. (2005). Social Policy and Social programs: A method for practical public policy analyst (4th ed.).Pearson Education INC.

Freedom Riders

Freedom Riders, a documentary that showcases a case of racism, racial segregation, and social inequality defines efforts that a group of riders in trains and buses underwent in their quest to demonstrate a sense of nonviolent activism against racial segregation. As a result of their actions to advocate for a racial free nation, they faced ruthless beatings and imprisonment. This is despite the fact the the Supreme Court of the United States had ruled against racial segregation and discrimination. Around 1961, there was a radical change in the Civil Rights Movement due to the action of these brave students. The fact their actions attracted physical harm and beatings only serves to depict views of human rights and privileges during this period.

The documentary by Stanley Nelson (2010) is a platform of crucial human rights and an awakening of the civil rights movements. Its cruel pictures of racial segregation encroach on the perceptions of the American Society around the globe. On board Greyhound and Trailways buses the group of “Freedom Riders” both whites and African American students seeks to tour Washington to New Orleans in a quest to explore the extensive south. This was in contravention of Jim Cows laws that exclusively separated the interaction of whites and blacks in public places such as bus stations and restrooms. The rider’s purpose in the contrary demonstrated a sense of friendship and companionship.

The film explores and showcases John F. Kennedy government disinclination and intended unwillingness’ to subdue the issue of racial discrimination. This is depicted not by the riders, but by John Seigenthaler, an agent from the Justice of Department who instead of investigating this gruesome matter gets encroached in hatred against the African American Race. With the progressing movie, it is depicted that he views the Blacks as invisible and indiscernible. Freedom Riders unreservedly and skillfully portray the subjection of positive law in the face of toxic emotionalism. Tentatively, when the Supreme Court made their ruling in Morgan Vs Virginia and Boynton Vs Virginia they had acknowledged the segregation on buses and train a contravention of interstate commerce laws.

Work Cited

Nelson, Stanley (Director). Freedom Riders. New York: True Moving Pictures, 2010

Leadership and management at Tesco Incorporated


In this piece of work I am going to discuss leadership and management at Tesco Inc. Tesco is considered as the largest retail chain store business in Great Britain. The mission of the company is to ensure that values are created for the customers so that long lasting customer loyalty is built. Tesco incorporated relies on two major business decisions .The first decisions is that it is always wise to treat customers they way someone would like to be treated. Secondly is the fact that it is always good to try and be soft to customers (Hillary & Jolly, 2001, p.87).The objective of Tesco is based on the philosophical thought that effective and efficient of the business is founded on the customer. The main aim of this piece of work is to discuss the leadership, management, managerial integration, organizational culture and the authority style in Tesco.

Leadership in Tesco

As stated above, Tesco incorporated has been found to be the most successive retail chain store company in United Kingdom. The sign up of its chief executive officer Mr.Tery Leahy has been the driving force towards the company’s success. The CEO has been identified as a leader who is visionary as he has directed the company towards a strategic organizational change.Reserach shows that Leahy is an excellent leader as he is motivating to his working team (Managing Organizational Change, 2010, p.30). This is due to the fact that he focuses more on customer. He therefore does not failure to recognize the close link between employees and customers. His philosophy is based on the fact that if employees are treated well then quality production will be enhanced. The company’s CEO strongly trusts that when employees are happy the leadership style is thriving as there are no oppositions. He therefore deems that as a leader it is necessary to give your employees a task that they are interested in doing. In addition they should be accorded due respect with the leader extending the necessary help in solving problems.

Leahy was delegated a formal authority the moment he joined Tesco .As a result he has been able to lead his team by exercising the powers granted unto him by the company. The leadership of the company is therefore participatory as all the employees take part in the decision making process. This motivates them as they feel that they are part and parcel of a great family manning the business. The CEO has therefore been able to appoint leaders to aid in the organizational change and this has increased effectiveness in the management process (Managing Organizational Change, 2010, p.35).

Management in Tesco

Tesco’s vision is to open more business opportunities in Great Britain and across Europe. The management of the company is based on organizational structure that consists of five functional departments. The departments are classified as the finance, adminstartion, human resource, marketing and the research, and development. Each department is managed differently as it has distinct offices that are separate from those of the rest (Tesco staff keeps hands on the wheel, 2009). Tesco therefore utilizes the concept of management by objectives .This is because the objectives of the company are time bound meaning that they are dependent on performance appraisal of the employees. As a result each manager is given distinct duties by the line manager in duty .For example at a particular time the line manager might set an objective that the number of customers should increased to a certain proportion during that defined period of time (Tesco staff keeps hands on the wheel, 2009).

Tesco Managerial Integration

Tesco incorporated focuses its efforts on satisfying the needs of its clients. The aim is to build customer loyalty so that its clients are retained for a long time. Tesco has adopted a better logistic system known as the Integrated Logistic management .This form of management strategy has aided in reducing the costs and expenses while at the same time enhancing the performance of the business (Hillary & Jolly, 2001). Integrated logistics management has been considered as a best practice strategy that ensures sustainable distribution of the company’s products (Hillary & Jolly, 2001).

Initially Tesco relied on the primary distribution channel that aided in the transfer of goods from the chain stores to the distribution stores. This is achieved by the use of rental cars or supplier vehicles. Alternatively this can be achieved via secondary distribution that ensures that goods are ferried from the warehouse to the chain stores using the company’s fleet. Since the return journey means that the vehicles would be empty, a supplier collection strategy is employed. This is reinforced by the onward supply to ensure that at both trips the vehicles are full so that no energy is wasted (Hillary & Jolly, 2001).

Tesco’s Integrated Logistics management system

Figure 1: Supplier collection and onward supply at Tesco (Adopted from Hillary & Jolly, 2001).

Difference between management and leadership at Tesco

A difference exists between management and leadership .Management is described as the act of ensuring that things are done correctly. On the other hand leadership is all about inspiring people. The leadership of Tesco ensures that employees are inspired so that a good working environment is created (Managing Organizational Change, 2010).This is what enhances production and quality services. On the other hand the management of the Tesco is autocratic as the employees are constantly being monitored. The management of Tesco believes that the employees are being coerced to undertake their tasks therefore a need to be supervised (Tesco staff keeps hands on the wheel, 2009).

Link between management and leadership at Tesco

The link between management and leadership Tesco is that in both scenarios performance appraisal is constantly carried out. In the case of leadership it is carried out with an aim of rewarding the best performing workers .This in turn motivates the rest of the employees to work towards success. On the other hand performance is constantly monitored via supervision. This ensures that those employees who are not performing to the expected standards are fired .Alternatively they can be induced to training and development programs within the company for the sake of performance improvement (Managing Organizational Change, 2010).

Organizational culture

The culture of Tesco Company is market oriented. This means that throughout the operation of Tesco it strains to ensure respect, integrity and responsibility are maintained. In the real sense, corporate social responsibility is highly taken into consideration. This is because it is believed that all stake holders are paramount to the business success. As stated earlier Tesco believes that we should treat customers they way we would be happy when treated. Besides, it is the believe of Tesco that customers are approached softly since they are the key to the business success (Sandikci & Rice, 2011). These are the two major values that govern the culture of Tesco .In addition the management of Tesco utilizes a model of steering that ensures balance in management. As a result management of employees, customers, operations, finance and the community are all balanced. This is the culture that drives Tesco forward (Sandikci & Rice, 2011).

Authority style at Tesco

Tesco exercises a democratic form of Authority. This is due to the fact that all employees are encouraged to take part in decision making. Whatever the leaders do is governed by the decision that makes employees of Tesco to be motivated. The form of motivation is intrinsic and results to higher returns on investment (Managing Organizational Change, 2010, p.45).


Hillary, R., & Jolly, A., Eds. (2001). The CBI Environmental Management Handbook: Challenges for Business: Earthscan, p.87-89

Managing Organizational Change. (2010). Leadership, Tesco and Leahy’s Resignation. E Journal of Organizational Learning & Leadership, 8(2), 30-52.

Sandikci, O., & Rice, G., Eds. (2011).Handbook of Islamic Marketing: Elgar Original Series; Edward Elgar Publishing, p.196-197

Tesco staff keeps hands on the wheel. (2009). Objectives managed and steered to appraisal. Strategic Direction, 25(9), 5-8.