Technological Solution to Business

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Proposal ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

Milestone 1 ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4

Benefits of VOIP for Businesses ………………………………………………………… 5

Milestone 2 ………………………………………………………………………………. 9

Milestone 3 ………………………………………………………………………………. 11

Proposal

Increasing fuel prices are putting an added pressure on business to keep their cost affordable to their employees. Fuel prices and other economic conditions are, day by day, increasing the cost of doing business and making businesses less competitive in international markets. That’s why businesses, now more than ever before, need to focus their attention on bringing their cost of doing business down, simply by making the business processes more efficient using the latest technology. Telecommunication costs are one of the major cost businesses incur in their day to day operations, representing a considerable amount in business expenditure.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) refers to the technologies, methodologies, communication protocols and transmission techniques which are involved to deliver multi-media and voice communications session over IP (Internet Protocol) networks, such as Internet. Businesses are increasingly using VoIP as an alternate to traditional phones/mobiles to bring their telecommunication cost down, as well as increase the collaboration among employees, which eventually translate to improved productivity. Organizational structures have gone through an evolution in the last two decades which has shifted their focus from centralization to decentralization. Most of the organizations have decentralized the power by using teams to increase the cooperation and liaison among employees so that they can collaborate with each other and unify their efforts towards personal, as well as organizational goals. Communication is the most important factor in getting the employees or team members to collaborate effectively. The biggest advantage VoIP offers in this regard is that it can be used anywhere and anytime, which is allowing flexibility to employees in performing their jobs effectively and efficiently. This flexibility which employees are enjoying through VoIP is translating into improved productivity and reduced cost for the organizations throughout the world (Liu, 2000).

The economist group hired the service of Nortel to develop a full-scale converged voice-data network infrastructure. The Economist is one of the major publishers of a weekly newspaper that’s why the company needs the system that can accommodate their business model, which relies heavily on its ability to share and access timely, accurate information from remote locations. The core technology for the new VoIP system of The Economist was provided by Nortal. Nortel’s state-of-the-art WLAN access points and Ethernet routing switches support seamless wireless connectivity for data and voice. Network’s reliability and security is ensured by WLAN security switches. The highly mobile workforce of The Economist heavily relies on the remote access features of VoIP and gets their needs easily accommodated by using Nortel Softphones and the unified messaging features. In a nutshell, The Economist has reduced its total cost of ownership due to converged network and simplified maintenance (Thomsen & Jani, 2000)

Milestone 1

Manager through VoIP can receive important calls on the laptop, on their mobiles (using VoIP software like Skype) on the road, and receive an urgent voice mail in the box. This is offering managers a great flexibility in performing their jobs. They can collaborate with other employees in their organization instantly upon hatching a great idea or giving them instructions about their work without even stepping out of their beds. This is also possible in using mobile phone services but VoIP is not just limited to voice, it’s a multi-media thing which means managers can do video conferencing with the people sitting in other countries without even incurring an expense of going there actually (Mehta & Udani, 2001).

Your phone calls travel over internet using (VoIP service like Skype) just like your emails which dramatically decrease the telecommunication cost of a business while increase the productivity. VoIP also offers some other benefits in the form of useful capabilities and features which traditional phone technology cannot offer. Some business users are of the opinion that VoIP still need to do more in order to replace the traditional telephony. In their opinion, voice quality is sub-standard and need to be improved, technology is somehow now user-friendly that’s why difficult to implement, besides some other disadvantages like the interruption of phone service if electricity goes out.

It is true, however, that the benefits of VoIP for the businesses, especially small and medium enterprises, far outweigh its potential drawbacks.

Benefits of VoIP for Businesses

The core advantages business can have by using Voice over IP for their communication needs are increased productivity and decreased cost, a win-win situation for a business. This claim has its basis in the capability of VoIP which has converged data and voice into a single unified network. VoIP not only offers voice services, but offers multimedia services (particularly data) on the same network. Which means employees can have an easier access to information, more advanced functionality and greater flexibility. The infrastructure of VoIP is cheaper and easier to maintain unlike other data network which are highly cost to maintain and operate (Schwarz, 2004).

Increased Productivity

VoIP offers more agility than traditional telephony, specially wired phone circuitry. This efficiency is only offered by VoIP which eventually results in significant and meaningful productivity gains for the employees in the following ways.

Access

Employees with the help of using VoIP services can take their office with them at home or anywhere they go and can access the system using internet connection. This anywhere, anytime access is very crucial for a mobile workforce as it can accommodate employees who are in transit, stationed abroad or telecommuting while sitting at their homes. Using VoIP, employees can check their email and voice mail, place calls and access project data.

Integration

One of the best advantages of using VoIP is its capability to integrate with other communication devices or technology, such as email software like outlook or Customer Relationship Management Software (CRM). Empirical studies have shown that Integration of CRM with VoIP has resulted in increased productivity in sales and support functions. For instance, CRM integration will result in automatic retrieval of customer data on an upcoming call – thus provides them with all the necessary information which can help the sales people target a pitch or track customer’s order history by bringing all the relevant information and history of the customer at the fingertips of sales and support representative. VoIP can also be used to develop unified messaging system which delivers the voicemail directly in user’s email inbox. For instance:

1) Flexibility

Business VoIP–especially hosted service–scales immediately to a business’ needs. Without any reliance on specialized IT support, employees can make the necessary changes in the system by themselves. Employees can do it by either making changes directly in an internet dashboard or by placing a call to a hosted service provider. Employees by using online interface can set their preferences in call-routing, add new functionality or even install new phones. Desktop phones can be rearranged by simply unplugging them and moving them to another outlet. Which means there is no need of time consuming PBX re-wiring or circuit switching. This functionality results in the efficiency of customer and eliminates the need to host a specialized IT department consist of specialist who take care of all these apparently technical functions.

2) Functionality

Many advanced function which are not available on PBX systems and considered luxury come standard with VoIP. These features includes but not limited to electronic messaging, advanced call forwarding, three-way conferencing, custom auto-attendant, advanced call distribution, skill based call routing and video conferencing.

3) Lower Total Cost of Ownership

According to the estimates by US telecommunication industry, businesses can reduce their telecommunication cost up to 50% if they switch to VoIP. Some of the factors which contribute in cost reduction are as follows.

4) Lower startup costs

VoIP system does not require the heavy initial investment in other expensive telecommunication equipment like PBX. Hosted service providers offer the businesses the lowest possible cost of entry. Vendors like Speakeasy and Packet8 offer monthly subscriptions which are designed for growing and small businesses.

5) Lower maintenance costs

The maintenance costs can be dramatically reduced by a streamlined communications infrastructure. Businesses not only can benefit with the consolidation of communications into a single network, but they will incur significantly less cost by maintaining a cheaper and more flexible data network than phone lines and circuitry. Hosted service providers offer their services to take care of the VoIP hardware off-premises, and overall system offers a user-friendly web interfaces which can be maintained quite cheaply and easily.

6) Lower monthly phone bills

In VoIP, calls do not travel over the PSTN, rather over the broadband connection which eliminates the difference between the cost of long-distance and short distance calls. BluTrack Inc. reduced 77% of its cost on its monthly telecom bills when company switch to VoIP by using the services of Vocalcity (Hong, 2000).

VoIP is certainly the future of communication, especially business communication. Given the advantages it offers to the business. Businesses are not only reducing their costs, but also increasing their productivity and giving peace of mind to their employees by allowing them more flexibility in performing their jobs. The technology is used to augment business solutions in various ways.

Milestone 2:

Call Center and Voice Over IP (VOIP)

A call centre is a place where people and employees pick calls. This a simplistic form of the explanation but Pankaj (2005) enhances the description by stating that while a call centre is like any other office environment the primary job of people or staff operating in a call centre is to pick and make calls. From the explanation we can deduce that the call centre is a heavy user of the telephone. (Connell, 2006) Urges that a call centre is an ICT-based business to serve customers and supply services to them in an electronic media. In a call centre the main resource is a phone. Many services before was just offered at the Headquarters today these services are being taken outside the company to other companies (Connell, 2006).

In the industry the term contact centre is being used to indicate that web/email and other modes of communication is being used to offer services to customers (Connell, 2006). She continues to state that as long as the ICT requirements are met a call centre can be said to be set up. A call centre “is a hub of information collection and exchange” (Pankaj, 2005).

Call centre Services

The services offered by a call centre are of two types handling incoming calls and outgoing calls. For incoming call centers handle customer orders, customer care services, and other related services while in outgoing calls they are used for managing advertisements, selling of goods and services, reservation, political poling, customer satisfaction surveys etc (Pankaj, 2005). These services are offered via an ICT infrastructure.

The role of ICT in a Call Centre

A call centre’s first and most important tool is a computer terminal. The computer is used mostly to access customer information or product information. In the fields of medicine to computers are used to services the doctor with drug and other patient information. Some, or in the case today, call centers accept emails from customers and therefore making the computer the tool of contact. The internet is another ICT service that a call centre needs. Most of the communication in the call centre will be done via the internet.

Cost reduction by use of VoIP

Today there are many call centers that are web-based. Many sales agents will send web pages to customers to assist in placing an order and processing payments. Voice over IP has lower cost than conventional voice applications (Swale).

Elimination of Banking Halls

Companies operating banking halls to attend to their clients are eliminating them by introducing call centers using VoIP. Mainly these are routine items that can be resolved by instruction. Many companies reduce the cost of having a customer centre where they attend to clients directly. Many of these problems that arise can be resolved online and therefore do not need the customer to appear in a banking hall. This is a major cost cutting measure introduced by using call centers and VoIP.

Minimizing Travelling Cost

Sales agents reduce the time they use on the road and the cost associated with it by using call centers. The call centers become an area where the agents make pitches and also by extension respond to clients needs. Sale of intangible items does not need on to be on site with the client. Clients can get the services provided in real time without moving from where they are.

Multinationals do not need to spend millions in sending executive trainers abroad to train their staff. They only need a good internet connection and a call centre to conduct the training. Travelling and training being one of the leading costs in the services sector implementation of VoIP and use of call centres for this purpose can help improve profitability of an organization.

Training Cost

Customers using products can be trained to use the services from a call centre by VoIP. This usually eliminates the need for physical facilities and cost of housing a class in one point. The increase in webinars as caused this need. The capabilities of VoIP are on the increase and the multiple location training can be done by one tutor. This has an effect of reducing the number of hours a tutor uses on the road from one site to the next. Call centers in most economies are becoming an important tool of trade since full implementation will assist the client to cut down the cost associated to the business. Training is of particular importance.

Milestone 3:

Mobile Devices

Apart from adopting and implementing VOIP in businesses, most businesses in the current world find it easier to communicate with a wider target audience using smart phones, laptops, PDAs and tablet computers. Most of these being portable, employees in businesses can always stay connected while ensuring that there is continued and cheaper communication. Some of the frequently used applications in theses devices are GPS locators, productivity analysis and report writing. Both small and big businesses are able to acquire and use these types of technology because of its affordability, brands, prices and models (Aspect Software 2009).

Conclusions and Overall Recommendations

VOIP has emerged to be a more cost effective alternative to traditional phones and other fuel devices. It has come to offer considerable opportunities towards saving on costs while ensuring resource sharing and distribution. Application of technology and telecommunication in businesses has continued to evolve from fuel used devices, traditional phones/mobiles voice to the present multimodal (Aspect Software 2009). Thus it is no longer just going to be on how to preserve the revenues and costs but the lifetime of businesses in their operations and customer retention. Businesses that focus on implementing different kinds of telecommunication technologies will be able to manage costs and profits better. The inevitability and adoption of VOIP and mobile devices become pretty important in business succession. Operators in VOIP should treat voices as a platform that provides various functionalities, features, affordability along side empowering streams of revenue in businesses.

Properly designed VOIP and other mobile device technologies in the business environment will not just create an impact on network costs but also on diminishing traditional revenues. As discussed in the three milestones, adoption of VOIP will ensure heavy use of voice and data while yielding high margins and staying longer with the network service providers. There is a need to analyze and plan various communication technologies beyond traditional voice services.

High Level Implementation Plan

Completion into setting of up of a network plan is only half-way towards ensuring value addition for sellers and system integrations. In order for network migration to be more effective and successful, it must be based on long-term while remaining cost effective on its entire lifecycle. Migrating from the traditional telephone to VOIP should take considerable planning and implementation, which involves five key stages. This will ensure that companies and businesses are able to realize benefits as soon as implementation is completed.

  1. Completion of network assessment

Before moving, time and budget should be allocated. Vendor incorporation and infrastructure understanding will save on costs. Assessment is done by simulating the load in relation to maximum SIP call numbers on network together with delays. This is essential due to VOIP requirement of voice and data packets for network transfer and bandwidth completion. Besides, assessment should evaluate quality concerning service, (QoS) for voice packet precedence over data packets. All these assessments are corrective measures to the network before implementation.

  1. Provide agents with the right phones

This stage involves selection of types of phones to use security and conversation transmission over IP. Soft phones use software in Personal Computers (PC) to make calls. Such computers must have speakers/headphones for information transmission and hearing. Unlike the software in PC, hard phones use software and hardware to handle VOIP calls through plugging into Ethernet ports found on routers.

  1. Implement proper security measures

Proper security measures require an appropriate authentication, encryption and security. In addition to encrypted audio channels, controlling signals through the media will enable that all contact centers are identified.

  1. Prepare for redundancy to prevent data connection failure

Upon deployment of any network, it is also essential during planning time to put into consideration any failures. Point-to-point connectivity in two parties during data connectivity is a key point of failures. Such failures require movement of connectivity office to a different location or server. Which should be kept running for a shorter period of time. They should adopt multiple carriers, spare (N+) redundancy towards important components. Alongside this, backup network has to be employed incase of power failures for data network viability.

  1. Connect to the IP network: then get started

Deployment of VoIP may require implementation of IP private Branch exchange (PBX). This ensures that companies move peacefully to IP immediately or gradually. Also, a company may select an already established IP PBX or one that is an open source. An open source IP PBX is software that can easily be downloaded by businesses through a code. With more cost saving and rich features, it is more viable for organizations as contact centers in handling various customer interactions.

Project Summary

It is more imperative that the future towards convergence seem to beckon on consumers, businesses, and technology. Reduced expenses for telecommunication, streamlining of all resource managers in businesses, efficient adoption and implementation of cheap and easily available bandwidths and final development of a high-valued voice and data applications are all essential in the current business world.

References

Aspect Software, (2009). Five Steps to Successfully Implementing VoIP in Your Contact Center (and Everything Else You Wanted to Know but Were Afraid to Ask). Retrieved on 14 June 2012, from http://aspect.com/whitepapers/Aspect_VoIPDeploymentStepsStrategy_WP.pdf

Connell, J. (2006). Developments in the Call Centre Industry: Anaysis, Changes and Challenges. Taylro and Francis.

Hong, L. (2000). “Voice over IP signaling: H.323 and beyond”. IEEE Communications Magazine. Vol. 38 Issue: 10 .

Liu, H. (2000). “Voice over IP Signaling: H. 323 and Beyond”. IEEE Communications Magazine.

Mehta, P. & Udani, S. (2001). “Voice over IP. IEEE Potentials. Vol. 20 Issue: 4.

Pankaj, S. (2005). Call Centre. New Delhi: Kul Bhushan Nangia – APH Publishing Corporation.

Schwarz, B. (2004). “Asterisk open-source PBX system”. Linux Journal.

Swale, R. (Ed.). Voice Over Ip: Systems and Solutions.

Thomsen, G. & Jani, Y. (2000). “Internet telephony: going like crazy”. IEEE Spectrum. Vol. 37 Issue: 5

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An annotated bibliography on Las Vegas and how it became the city it is today

For this particular research study on the history Las Vegas, factual information on its rapid growth will be collected using qualitative and quantitative research methods based on primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data will be collected through surveys, interviews, and questionnaires while secondary data will be sampled from the following peer-viewed academic sources. On May 1905, Las Vegas was founded with only a few dwelling houses and some saloons. The first article, “An exploration of population retention factors in Las Vegas casino resort properties” by Petrillose and Brewer article will provide a historical background on how gambling played a very crucial role in the rapid growth of Las Vegas. It will provide useful evidence on how gambling stimulated the economic growth of the city and its environs. In addition, this article will provide the researcher with information on how the small dusty City that was formally seen by developers as a stopover for trains has grown into a 24 hour economy.

The second article, “Successful Meetings” by Heidi will offer a distinctive analysis of how gambling paved the way for the growth of Las Vegas. In this, the article contains details related to the architectural development of this City in addition to tracing back all events that shaped Las Vegas as it is known today. In essence, the entertainment sector played a very major role in the rapid growth of the City. In addition, shopping malls, residential estates, and different modes of transportation developed as complementary infrastructures to serve the needs of the growing population working in the entertainment sector. On its part, the article “A seminal American public works project created more than jobs and energy; it incited one of our nation’s greatest transformations” by Michael Hiltzik details Hoover Dam’s contribution to the growth of Las Vegas. In this, it provides implicit details on how the construction of the Hoover’s dam enhanced the growth of the population in this area. In essence, the dam created employment, source of cheap electric power, and water for irrigation.

In their book titled “The Rise of the Biggest Little City: An Encyclopedic History of Reno Gaming, 1931-1981” by Dwayne Kling and Rollan Metron documented activities of the major parties and persons involved in Las Vegas’s history. In this, it outlines how few powerful investors transformed the economic, social, and cultural lifestyle of residents of Las Vegas. They introduced political and economic projects that propagated rise of Las Vegas as the entertainment Mecca of the world. In addition, it offers a valid account of how the actions of great men such as C.P. Squires, Walter Bracken, Helen Stewart, Moe Daliz, Jay Sarno, and Kirk Kerkorian shaped the economic, social, and political landscape of this magnificent State.

Dirk Vanderwilt in his book “A Comprehensive Guide to Resorts, Casinos, and Attractions” describes how the casino culture in Las Vegas transformed the economic status of this State. This article tries to offer insight on other major facilities ,apart from casinos, that over the years have shaped the history of Las Vegas. The book is relevant to this project since it provides information on how gambling in Las Vegas city was started, how it became legalized, and its impact on the development of the city. Lastly, Davis Hudson’s article “Las Vegas” attributes the rapid growth of Las Vegas to the development of the local media. The world came to learn about facilities available in this city through the Las Vegas television that promotes them. People from other nations have moved to las Vegas causing changes in cultural diversity and promoting economic growth.

Annotated Bibliography

Heidi, Bay., Terri, Hardini., Alonzo, Vincent., and Sara, Welch. “Las Vegas.” Successful Meetings 52.12(2004): 64-90.

The article contains information about the history of the Las Vegas and its growth. The article presents the developments which have taken place in the Las Vegas city. It traces back 100 years when the city was young as the article celebrates the marking of the City’s 100th birthday. The article introduces the city as one which is doing well in all market segments. It covers the history of hotels from how they were started to their current status where they have gained recognition as the best hotels in America. The entertainment sector enhanced the rapid growth of the entertainment sector. Las Vegas city is not left behind with the shopping, transportation and safeguard. Generally the article traces back where Las Vegas started and describes the rapid growth which have been witnessed in various sectors and the city itself.

The article provides information on the Las Vegas City as it looks at its History and growth. It analyzes various steps of developments since its foundation in 1906. The article covers a wide field of study providing factual data about the cultural, social and economic growth of this City. Finally, the article is relevant to the research project as it offers valid information with supportive materials which will help the researcher to document in full the history of the growth Las Vegas.

Michael, Petrillose J. and Pearl, K. Brewer. “An exploration of population retention factors in Las Vegas casino resort properties.” Gaming Research & Review Journal. 5.2. (2000): 1-13.

This article covers the expansion of casino resort hotels in Las Vegas detailing economic benefits the city gained through the development of this vital sector. It outlines some of the reasons why some individuals moved to Las Vegas in the 19th century when the economy was still growing The article makes analyses of population retention within the city and its surrounding. This includes a comprehensive literature review of factors that influenced population retention in various counties, which were conducted earlier. It offers intricate details on how several motions were passed by politicians to stimulate its economic growth in the 19th century. The author provides information that offers insight into population’s perceptions at that time that shaped the development of the gambling business in this city. It contains all the steps which must be included in a research report and hence the reader is able to learn. The article makes a practical analysis of the hotel performance in Las Vegas after making analysis through research. The article will be useful for this research study as the author provides a conclusive literature review on how technology and innovations such as the internet enhanced the growth of the economy at the beginning of the 20th century. The article is relevant to this research as it gives guidelines on research and provide material which are necessary in project development. This includes development of attraction centers in Las Vegas.

Hiltzik, Michael. “Hoover Dam’s Perpetual Power; A seminal American public works project created more than jobs and energy–it incited one of our nation’s greatest transformations.”Wall street Journal. 1.1. (2010): 1-4.

The article traces the history of Las Vegas since the construction of the Hoovers dam. In essence, the construction of the dam contributed a lot to the growth of the economy of the United State of America, especially Las Vegas. The dam created employment, cheap electric power, and reliable irrigation. The article covers information related to the building and dedication of the dam by resident Roosevelt as a pioneer project to stimulate the economy of the U.S. This was Roosevelt’s new strategy of transforming the economy and social changes in America. Most of the development and advantages which arose as a result of the dam are covered in the article.

The article contains materials about the the Hoover’s dam ranging from its construction to the benefits and is represented in an orderly manner which makes it easier to study. The article is well-organized as information is layout in a simple way easy to derive points from it.

The author carried out intensive research for this article as it pioneers information related to the Hoover dam. The research is intended to look at the role of Hoover’s dam in stimulating the economic development of las Vegas.

Dwayne, Kling., and Rollan, Melton. The Rise of the Biggest Little City: An Encyclopedic History of Reno Gaming, 1931-1981. Nevada: University of Nevada Press. 2010. Print.

The book covers the history of Las Vegas, as it details sequential developments in the entertainment sector of Las Vegas. Most of entertainment establishments that are discussed include the Reno gaming in addition to its development history ranging between 1931 and 1981. The book sets the pace of how games were introduced in the city and how they spread at a very high rate. The book present how entertainment was started in Reno earlier before it was adopted in Las Vegas, but ironically Las Vegas grew to be the center of entertainment. In this, the book shows the humble background of entertainment in Las Vegas. The author covers comprehensively about the entertainment activities in Reno than in Las Vegas but introduces a little of information on how Las Vegas challenged Reno in the twentieth century.

The credibility of the author is that he is consistent and good at delivering points. He analytically covers the entertainment in Reno and how cities like Las Vegas and New Jersey grew in the twentieth century. The book is relevant for this research project as it gives details on how Las Vegas entertainment rose in the 20th century.

Dirk, Vanderwilt. Las Vegas: A Comprehensive Guide to Resorts, Casinos, and Attractions. New York: Channel Lake, Inc.2007. Print.

The author of the book makes a review of the La Vegas city. He covers all the activities and recreation facilities which are contained in the city. This includes exploration of the Resorts, Casinos and other attraction centers. The books act a guide to discover the Las Vegas city and praises it as the best city to live in the world so far. Mostly, people think of Las Vegas as the city with only Casinos, but this book tries to expound and explore other sectors of the economy that have shaped the history of this great City. These facilities include best hotels, attractions, live shows, resorts and gourmet restaurants. The book covers activities like gambling and how they became legalized in Las Vegas city. The book is rich in information related to entertainment facilities such as casinos, resorts in the city. This includes all the activities that are carried out in such areas like gambling. The only limitation is that the book covers only a few specific areas a guide to accessing the Las Vegas city. The book is relevant to this project for it provides materials to cover gambling in Las Vegas city which includes how it started, how it became legalized and its impact on the development of the city.

Davis, Hudson E. “Las Vegas.” Media week. 16.1.(2006):21-24.

The article present Vegas strip with Mecca high rollers, quick marriage seekers, and convection goers. It shows that there is a dynamic market shift on the local media outlets in order to make adjustments according to their strategic plan for effective competition. The Greenspun family is the one that’s owns large swatch media and real estate holding, and they made a drastic shift by the year 2005. In 2006 Las Vegas television jumped from position 51 to 48 largest in the whole of America which indicated a fresh market growth. The article provides information related to performance of facilities in Las Vegas in the market. It shows the development of major facilities in this City and how they are currently performing after the recent economic meltdown. The information provided in this article is helpful in explaining the rapid growth of the Las Vegas city from the market performance. Contributors such local TV stations are shown how they assisted the development of Las Vegas as the world’s best entertainment city. It is relevant to this study as it provides valid information that help the researcher to explore the growth of the Las Vegas city from an educated point of view.

Works cited

Heidi, Bay., Terri, Hardini., Alonzo, Vincent., and Sara, Welch. “Las Vegas.” Successful Meetings 52.12(2004): 64-90.

Davis, Hudson E. “Las Vegas.” Media week. 16.1.(2006):21-24.

Dirk, Vanderwilt. Las Vegas: A Comprehensive Guide to Resorts, Casinos, and Attractions. New York: Channel Lake, Inc.2007. Print.

Dwayne, Kling., and Rollan, Melton. The Rise of the Biggest Little City: An Encyclopedic History of Reno Gaming, 1931-1981. Nevada: University of Nevada Press. 2010. Print.

Hiltzik, Michael. “Hoover Dam’s Perpetual Power; A seminal American public works project created more than jobs and energy–it incited one of our nation’s greatest transformations.”Wall street Journal. 1.1. (2010): 1-4.

Michael, Petrillose J. and Pearl, K. Brewer. “An exploration of customer retention factors in Las Vegas casino resort properties.” Gaming Research & Review Journal. 5.2. (2000): 1-13.

Pressure Distribution around a Cylinder

Pressure Distribution around a Cylinder
Introduction
Flow over a cylinder is a fundamental fluid mechanics problem with practical importance. The flow field over the cylinder is symmetric at low values of Reynolds number. An increase in the Reynolds number causes the flow to separate behind the cylinder which in turn causes unsteady phenomenon – vortex shedding. In figure 1 below, pressure distribution around the cylinder is shown using contour line and colours. Warm colours are used to represent high pressure. Vectors represent the direction and magnitude of pressure gradient.

Figure 1: Flow over a cylinder
Objective of the Experiment
(a) To measure the pressure distribution on the surface of a smooth cylinder placed with its axis perpendicular to the flow and to compare it with the distribution predicted for frictionless flow.
(b) To calculate the drag coefficient for the cylinder

Procedure
The cylinder was oriented such that pressure tapping 1 was facing the oncoming flow and the angular indicator set at zero degrees. The cylinder was tested in both smooth flow and turbulent flow.
In smooth flow, the velocity of the wind tunnel was increased gradually until the Betz manometer read 15. Tiny adjustments were made to maintain this velocity. From the multi-tube manometer, the 12 tubes fluid heights (corresponding to the surface pressure at angular locations of were measured. The table anticlockwise was turned by 10 degrees. The Betz manometer was checked as to whether it still read 15. The 12 tubes fluid heights (now corresponding to the surface pressure at angular locations of  were measured again. The table anticlockwise was turned by another 10 degrees. The Betz manometer was checked as to whether it still read 15(tiny adjustments were necessary to maintain the same reading). The 12 tubes fluid heights (corresponding to the surface pressure at angular locations of              were measured.
For the Turbulent flow, a grid was inserted into the air flow and the velocity increased until the Betz manometer read 35. The set of procedure done for the smooth flow was repeated.

Results and Discussion
Smooth Flow
Cylinder angle: Zero incidence (Tapping 1 at

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Cylinder angle: 10 degrees incidence (Tapping 1 at

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Cylinder angle: 20 degrees incidence (Tapping 1 at

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Turbulent Flow
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Cylinder angle: 10 degrees incidence (Tapping 1 at

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7.8
9.4

Cylinder angle: 20 degrees incidence (Tapping 1 at

Tube
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
34

20
50
80
110
140
170
200
230
260
290
320
350

h
7.8
16.3
20.9
16.4
14.0
13.9
14.1
14.3
19.1
20.5
13.1
6.1
9.4

Calculations of Results
Tunnel calibration constant
Smooth flow
From equation 3, we have

Replacing the value of Pms, Pwater, hfinal and h1
We get,
((10.8 – 8.4) 809 sin 10) /1000 (10.4-8.4)
(2.4*809 sin 10)/ (1000)2.4
=-1.056
Turbulent flow

Replacing the value of Pms, Pwater, hfinal and h1
We get,
(9.4 -5.7) 809 sin 10) /1000 (9.4-6.1)
(3.7*809* sin 10)/3300
=-0.493

Smooth, Turbulent, and Theoretical
Smooth Flow
Turbulent Flow
Theoretical

0
8.4
1
0
5.7
1
1

1
10
8.6
0.917
10
6.1
0.892
0.879
20
9.2
0.667
20
7.8
0.432
0.532
30
10.2
0.25
30
10.1
-0.189
0
40
11.3
-0.208
40
13.0
-0.972
-0.653
50
12.4
-0.667
50
16.3
-1.864
-1.347
60
13.1
-0.958
60
18.2
-2.378
-2
70
13.4
-1.083
70
20.0
-2.864
-2.532
80
13.0
-0.917
80
20.9
-3.108
-2.879
90
13.0
-0.917
90
19.9
-2.837
-3
100
13.1
-0.958
100
19.4
-2.702
-2.879
110
13.2
-1.0
110
16.4
-1.891
-2.532
120
13.2
-1.0
120
14.6
-1.405
-2
130
13.2
-1.0
130
14.1
-1.270
-1.347
140
13.3
-1.042
140
14.0
-1.243
-0.653
150
13.4
-1.083
150
14.1
-1.270
0
160
13.5
-1.125
160
13.9
-1.216
0.532
170
13.5
-1.125
170
13.9
-1.216
0.879
180
13.5
-1.125
180
13.8
-1.189
1
190
13.6
-1.167
190
13.9
-1.216
0.879
200
13.4
-1.083
200
14.1
-1.270
0.532
210
13.4
-1.083
210
14.0
-1.243
0
220
13.3
-1.042
220
14.0
-1.243
-0.653
230
13.2
-1.0
230
14.3
-1.324
-1.347
240
13.1
-0.958
240
14.6
-1.405
-2
250
13.2
-1.0
250
15.9
-1.757
-2.532
260
13.1
-0.958
260
19.1
-2.622
-2.879
270
13.0
-0.917
270
20.0
-2.865
-3
280
13.1
-0.958
280
20.9
-3.108
-2.879
290
13.5
-1.125
290
20.5
-3
-2.532
300
13.3
-1.042
300
19.0
-2.595
-2
310
12.9
-0.875
310
16.2
-1.838
-1.347
320
11.3
-0.208
320
13.1
-1
-0.653
330
13.2
-1.0
330
10.4
-0.270
0
340
9.2
0.667
340
7.8
0.432
0.532
350
8.6
0.917
350
6.1
0.892
0.879
360
10.8
0
360
9.4
0
1

From the table of results for smooth, turbulent and theoretical values, the graph shown below provides a visual comparison of the flows:

As seen from the values and the graph, the theoretical values for Cp match the measured values at low angles on the leading face of the cylinder. The flow separates 50 degrees. This correlates to the value of 55 degrees which is anticipated from empirical charts.

ENTERPRISING MANAGEMENT

ENTERPRISING MANAGEMENT

An analysis of external and internal environments of a business is a decisive approach of the strategic planning mechanism. Every business has its own internal strengths despite the challenges it faces. A firm’s internal strength is the capability and resources which results to a competitive edge over the others. Examples of these strengths are; patents, favourable access to distribution networks, strong brand names, exclusive access to high grade natural resources, e.t.c.

Before marketing starts, we must identify the target group. Our target group is that age group which is between 17 and 34 years. According to a recent survey, the findings were that six percent of the people in this age group drank wine daily, 26 percent drank several times a week, and another 19 percent drank on a weekly basis on average (Woollard, 2011). The survey further states that 41 percent of core drinkers are on social sites and own a smart phone. This works in ones favor as the chief marketing exercise will be conducted on social sites and through a new marketing mobile application platform.

For us to use the minimum cost possible in marketing. We are going to use sampling as a tool for marketing. It gives the first hand experience with the product when placed in the hands of key opinion-makers. This strategy in effect tends to create a buzz within and outside social circles. When worked effectively, it will yield tremendous results in terms of sales.

Considering the fair range of pricing in the bar, this influences people to buy our wine and come to the wine making classes. This will result to people having the same quality of wine if not better but at a favourable cost and their utility maximized. While we maintain an acceptable margin of profit and better it with time. Our relationship with distributors and customers is symbiotic. That is we depend on each with the intention of each of us benefiting from the relationship.

References

Frank, E.J. (1983). Professional Wine Reference. Beverage Media, New York.

Pressure on Companies to be Socially Responsible on Energy Consumption

There has been great need and motivation by all nations in the entire world to work towards industrialization and adoption of new technologies into their system. This has resulted to several industries and companies coming up. The real truth is that changes which bring development are significant to the nation. For it is through such development that people can get employment and also there can be general improvement in the entire economy. But one thing that people have forgotten is the consequences of increasing the numbers of industries and companies to the environment (Roberts 1995). The more the number of companies and industries, the higher the consumption of energy and consequently the long term effects are on the environment which is now overstrained. It is this that has resulted to pressure on companies to be socially responsible on the energy consumption. Energy consumed by this companies are basically from oil, coal, and natural gas which itself is not enough (Brown 2005). The ever increasing demand for more energy by companies has resulted to development of greenhouses which has to a great deal impacted negatively to the environment with its emissions which is on the increase every year (Stern 1985). This paper explores how companies can be socially responsible on energy consumption.

Literature Review

If there are things that companies should not think about, then environment sustainability, climate change, and energy efficiency. These are issues that should not be considered extraneous as they are very relevant to their daily duties (Anderson 1989). As change in climate is not only disruptive to human beings populations, but also it affects availability of common goods together with their prices. Thus, social responsibility on energy consumption should not be considered as an afterthought in the business, but is to be part of profitable business operations. It is also worth working on projects which are environment friendly, but are efficient and profitable (Dlaybay, Burrow & Kleindl 2011).

In addressing the sensitivity about consumer concern about ecological issues, some companies have embarked on green marketing. This entails producing, promoting, and reclaiming for those products which are sensitive to the environment. Following the green market revolution which took place in 1990, good percentage of companies has tied their products with ecological themes. And many consumers have shown their great interest in those products by purchasing and selling them. This has been witnessed by manufactures such as Toyota and Honda, who are making their products to be friendly to the environment. Instance, Honda FCX which neither uses gasoline nor fossil fuels is driven by hydrogen gas (Kurtz & Boone 2010).

Companies which are socially responsible are to ensure that as part of their mission statement is to initiate programs that will help in the cutting the rate of energy consumption and t consequently reducing the rate of emissions of green house gases. They should adventure in renewal and cost effective reliance energy sources (Peterson 2012).

According to Jones (1993), there should be heavy taxation scheme to the companies which encourage burning of fossil fuels. This will be able to discourage them and at the same time promoting the energy saving products of the company. Companies producing products like fuel guzzling vehicles, energy wasting production, and packaging process, should b heavily taxed.

Conclusion

Following the rising concern and the research which has been made other researchers, the need for companies to be act in a socially responsible way in the energy consumption should be given more weight. Since the trend of exhausting and polluting environmental resources is on the rise as new companies are emerging up, there should global laws enacted to govern these industries. This can be heavy taxation on the industries which use energy in a destructive manner. Advocacy for use of renewable energy sources should also be done to promote use of hybrid generation autos.

Bibliography

Anderson, JW 1989, Corporate social responsibility guidelines for top management, Quorum Books, New York.

Brown, CS 2005, The sustainable enterprise: profiting from best practice, Kogan Page, London.

Dlabay, LR, Burrow, J & Kleindl, B 2011, Principles of business. South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Jones, M 1993, “Social Investment Market Place,” Mother Jones Magazine, vol. 18, no.1, p.80.

Kurtz, DL & Boone, LE 2010, Contemporary Marketing, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Peterson, S 2012, Sustainable IT strategy drives socially responsible business practices, viewed on 5th November, 2012 <http://searchcio.techtarget.com/news/2240169998/Sustainable-IT-strategy-drives-socially-responsible-business-practices&gt;

Roberts, P 1995, Environmentally sustainable business: a local and regional perspective, Chapman, London.

Stern, PC 1985, Energy efficiency in buildings: behavioral issues, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Global History of Gendered Movements since 1700’s

Women were for a very long time perceived as being dysfunctional without men and for a very long time most of them believed this to be true. Nevertheless, with the passing of time, the achievements that many women have made in the educational process they go through as well as their success in careers classically considered only suitable for the men such as politics and engineering have proved these perceptions of women as weak and fragile to be untrue. In an attempt to liberate women from the suppression and subjugation that they have suffered under male tyranny for long, many feminine movements and activists have dedicated themselves to the mission of liberating and empowering women. Such gendered movements have existed in different parts of the world from Africa to Asia and Europe.

According to Morrison (1996, p. 124), in America, for example, heated confrontations occurred between the women movements and the government when in 1804 the state of New Jersey annulled the right of women to vote which had been in existence since 1776 (Deji and Deji, 2011, p. 331). In another part of the world, New Zealand, suffragist Kate Sheppard, had in the year 1893 managed to rally for women rights and women were allowed to vote. In the US in 1848 a woman suffrage association was formed after a group of activists converged in the Seneca Falls Convention to rally for women’s rights; this led to the Declaration of Sentiments. Eighteen years later in 1869 the National Suffrage Association was established by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in America. In other parts of the world such as the Arab Spring, women who had been under the bondages of male chauvinism and religion for so long were also fighting hard for liberation through the gendered movements and in 1905 Mohtaram Eskandari of Iran formed the Union of Patriotic Women. The fact that women such as Mekatilili wa Menza from the Kenyan coast in Africa who rallied her people many times to fight against oppressive rule of the colonialists proved to the whole world that given the opportunity women could achieve as much, if not more than men.

According to Stoller(2012) despite the fact that our sex as either male and female is determined by our biological sexual organs, gender is cultural in the sense that it is as a result of the social orientation that any individual receives owing to their being part of a community. Youngsters are therefore socialized according to typecasts that are accepted in a certain society as being acceptable for either of the sexes; this implies that gender roles and functions are not as universal as many tend to assume. What is perceived as being a feminine duty or function may in another cultural civilization be perceived as a masculine function. In many societies women have for a very long time been perceived and described as docile, over sentimental and weak creatures who should be under the subjugation of men; this has led to women being confined in the homesteads their main duties being perceived as those of taking care of their husbands, children and homes (Rowold, 2008, p. 69).

Despite the devotion of women to form gendered movements to fight for their rights in different parts of the world, it should be noted that the fruits of their efforts that are enjoyed by the contemporary society many a times cost them their lives. Some in the radical Arabian nations were burnt or buried alive for trying to imply that women could be equal to men in any manner. Despite the fact that the struggle for gender equality is still on the modern day generation should appreciate that the freedom and liberties enjoyed by women today came at a great price.

References

Deji, O and Deji, O F, 2011, Gender and Rural Development: Introduction, Volume 1, LIT

Verlag Munster, pp. 390-395

Morrison, A B, 1996, Fundamentals of American Law, Oxford University Press, pp. 124-130

Rowold, K, 2008, The Educated Woman: Minds, Bodies and Women’s Higher Education in

Britain, Germany and Spain, 1865-1914, Routledge, p. 67-80

Stoller, R. J, 2012, Sex and Gender: the development of Masculinity and Feminity, Karnac

Books p. 65-70

Why the Ancient Culture of Mesopotamia deserves to be called a Civilization

Between 3000-550BC, the civilization of the culture of Mesopotamia, also known as “The Land Between Two Rivers” was at its peak. Unfortunately, much of Mesopotamia’s contributions to the history of human civilization go unnoticed. The limited history available on this magnificent land shows that a great deal of human civilization begun in Mesopotamia. This is proven by its extensive trade routes, outstanding leaders, and astronomical development in technology that came into being in the ancient Mesopotamia. Undoubtedly, the ancient culture in Mesopotamia was the epitome of civilization. Duker and Spielvogel enumerate a number of aspects that need to considered for a culture to be referred to as civilized (7). They include the existence of written laws, intensive agriculture, division of labor, highly structured communities, market economy, among other variables. Thus, drawing from these elements that dictate civilizations, this essay attempts to explain why the ancient culture of Mesopotamia deserves to be called a civilization.

By 3000 BC, the Sumerians, people of unknown origin had expanded the cities in Mesopotamia. During this period, they began to exercise political and economic control over other parts of the vast Mesopotamia. In addition, they formed city states, the most basic units of civilization in Mesopotamia. To start with, it is necessary to consider how Mesopotamia was divided. Mesopotamia was divided into what is now referred to as Sumerian cities. These cities were surrounded by walls with towers for defense shooting up high to 35 feet. Uruk, for instance, was a city heavily protected by Sumerians’ remarkable creativity and innovation. The buildings in Mesopotamia were outstanding. Made of sun-dried-bricks and bound together by mud, Sumerians, both peasants put up dwellings that housed their households. Evidently, Mesopotamia has displayed the most artistic and creative architecture made of bricks of all time.

Secondly, the economic might of the people of Mesopotamia further proves the level of civilization exhibited by Mesopotamia’s culture. Sumerian cities were predominantly agricultural. However, other economic aspects such as commerce and industry were practiced by Mesopotamians. For instance, they produced metalwork, pottery, and woolen textiles. In a display of their established trade market economy, Mesopotamians exchanged their agricultural products such as dried fish, barley, and wheat for imports that included copper, timber, and tin. Trade in Mesopotamia was made even easier with the introduction of carts with wheels. Duker and Spielvogel postulate that close to 90% of the entire Mesopotamian population practiced agriculture (8).

With the increase in the numbers of Sumerian cities, Mesopotamia saw the need for the creation of more elaborate leadership structures. Thus in 2340 BC, the city states were abolished and more expansive and inclusive concept of leadership came into force, the empire. Mesopotamia did not only thrive on extensive and highly structured trade routes it enjoyed the leadership of a flourishing system of governance. Despite having fallen almost the time when city states were abolished ushering in the concept of an empire, Mesopotamia had accomplished leaders. Sargon I, for instance, was able to bring together the vast land of civilized people together and foster unity, which further gave his subjects the peace necessary for development.

Along with the highly structured and remarkably efficient government systems was the rule of law that existed in Mesopotamia. The Code of Hammurabi, for instance, was a collection of laws that provided a platform for exercising justice in Mesopotamia. Just as most laws in this day and age are strict, Duker and Spielvogel give an insight into how these laws were enforced (9). The Hammurabi Code is proof of a civilized ancient society with strict rules that came with strict punishments for breach any.

As far as religious aspects of this ancient culture were concerned, it is evident that the people of Mesopotamia were spiritual. In Mesopotamia, religion was led by priests who were accorded respect and valued by everyone including the kings. They believed in the existence of gods who were said to be at the helm of all the endeavors in Mesopotamia. It was in this effect that kings and other leaders had the responsibility of dedicating monuments and offerings for the gods for their much needed favor, especially at times of war. With many gods to be observed by the Mesopotamians, it suffices to say that religion was based on polytheism.

Another aspect of ultimate importance in the ancient culture of Mesopotamia is that of the invention of arts and sciences. At around 3000 BC, the Sumerians introduced a system of writing that they referred to as cuneiform. Out of reeds, they inscribed wedge-shaped writings on clay tablets. The tablets were then baked, and once dry, they left permanent impressions that have continued to be sources of fascinating literature of this ancient society. It is from this invention that the art of writing began, without which we would have known nothing about writing. Therefore, it is agreeable that the ancient culture of Mesopotamia was civilized.

Initially, Sumerian art of writing began with pictures of concrete objects, but gradually developed to form a phonetic system that made it possible for them to put abstract ideas into writing. Tracking the importance of writing in the ancient Mesopotamia, Duker and Spielvogel show how writing was vital to the people of Mesopotamia (13). With writing came the practice of keeping records of previous activities in addition to enhancing non-verbal communication.

In addition to the outstanding art, Mesopotamians made incredible achievements as far as scientific discoveries are concerned. Arguably, their contributions to the math we perform today never go unnoticed. Thus, Mesopotamians played a pivotal role in the field of mathematics and astronomy. Duker and Spielvogel suggest that Mesopotamian culture ushered in a wave of technological advancements that no man had ever known (12). The period between 3000- 550 BC saw great scientific revolutions in Mesopotamia that led to the invention of exponents and roots in mathematics. Surprisingly, 4000 years later, no such discoveries have been made, discoveries so simple that no man has been able to improve on. With this breakthrough in mathematics and geometry, Sumerians could now employ this new concept in their various architectural designs. For instance, it was after the introduction of architectural concepts of arch, dome, and vaulted ceilings used in designing dwellings in Mesopotamia. Consequently, more people could fit into less space because of the new and effective designs of the dwellings.

On the same note, it is paramount to note that it was in Mesopotamia that the numbers we now see in math were first coined. Mesopotamians devised the numbering, which they used in astronomy and keeping their calendar. With their newly found mathematical concept, they were able to base their calendar on the on the 12 lunar months.

Duker and Spielvogel further use the elaborate trading system in Mesopotamia to illustrate how civilized it was (7). History suggests that Mesopotamia had the most civilized trading system with its trading routes running from Egypt to India. Initially, most nations of Mesopotamia’s age had trades that only operated within villagers. However, in Mesopotamia, trade extended beyond its borders through which Mesopotamia obtained most of its commodities through barter trade. Thus, it is through these far-reaching trade routes that one can confidently argue that the ancient culture of Mesopotamia had an immense deal of civilization.

At the mention of Mesopotamia and civilization, one never fails to note the early forms of education systems that existed during this period. In Mesopotamia, Sumerians had devised a way of educating the young members of the society how to read and write Algaze 8). However, this never came to be until the art of writing was discovered. The Sumerians came up with what they referred to as writing schools that provided avenues through which early scholars learned creative writing (Algaze 6). These centers formed vibrant systems of apprentice. It was in the apprentice schools that craftsmen and artists trained on the job. They offered training on woodwork, metal work among other forms of art. Through this early system of education, other skills such as brewing and baking were taught. On the other hand, Sumerian schools provided graduates who later served as scribes in palaces, temples, and other affluent dwellings. Others proceeded to become instructors in other learning centers.

Finally, it is necessary to look at how Mesopotamia displayed civilization via the field of medicine. It is evident that Mesopotamia was at the heart of the invention of practical medicine. Archaeologists have stumbled on pharmaceutical tablets that are said to have cured wounds, venereal diseases among other ailments of the ancient times. Whist other places are said to have resorted to dancing to drive away headaches; Mesopotamians had made a breakthrough in the field of medicine and were actually treating headache (Algaze 5). This only serves to demonstrate how the ancient culture of Mesopotamia was civilized.

Therefore, in view of the compelling evidence of civilization, it suffices to say that the ancient culture of Mesopotamia was civilized. It is obvious to draw a conclusion that owing to Mesopotamia’s highly structured and elaborate leadership system, trade routes, technological advancements, educational systems, and well established religious system the culture of Mesopotamia is an ideal example of civilization of the ancient times. It is evident that, most of the technologies available today have a history with Mesopotamia. From carts with wheels to mathematical functions, symbols of Mesopotamia’s culture are evident. Thus, using Duker and Spielvogel’s elements as a yardstick against which to measure civilization, it is evident that Mesopotamia’s ancient culture did exhibit most of the elements therefore, automatically deserves to be called a civilization.

Works Cited

Algaze, Guillermo. Ancient Mesopotamia at the Dawn of Civilization: The Evolution of an Urban Landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2008 Print.

Duker, William & Spielvogel, Jackson. The Essential World History. 6th edition, Wadsworth Publishing 2011. Print.