Perception is a process that is based on the consciousness of an object. Perception is among the means of knowledge that is valid and that is comprised of relations to the consciousness contents and perspectives that are inseparable. The theory observes that the common man considers the objects that he sees in the world as to be existent outside his senses and the body and there is a feeling that the objects are reflected in a perception way in the mind. The theory further asserts that the objects do not enter into the eye through seeing but that there is always a vibration that is transmitted from the objects. This vibration always comes into contact with the human consciousness thus man realises the existence of these objects. Perception is seen as a mediator between the objects outside the body and the relations triggered by the operations of the mind in coordination with other sensory organs. These perceptual experiences are often classified into three categories that are always broad based: hallucinations, illusions and perceptions that are veridical. (Robinson, 2003)

Disjunctive theory

The disjunctive theory of perception defies the applicability of hallucinations and illusions. The theory rejects any claims of having the same experience in the three various cases; illusions, hallucinations and veridical perceptions. Disjunctivists believe that in the perception of the world, there are independent objects in perception that are comprised in the experiences of the humans. Such include trees, table and mountains among others, which form the independent aspects of perception. The disjunctivists are based on realities that are naive (Lowe, 2003)


Perception and hallucination

The nature of hallucinations is always given little attention by some disjunctivists. For instance, there are disjunctivists who always describe hallucination as being merely an appearance, thus failing to elaborate the positive side. In this case, hallucination is always viewed a lack of a concrete perception that amount to inconsequential comprehension and identity of the objects around an individual. Hallucinations are at times related to the experiences that may seem different from the cases of veridical perceptions, and are always indiscriminably introspective from the perception that is veridical. Hallucination is a perception that is always out of the usual expectations or normalities and lacks the phenomenal character. Whenever a perception occurs in the absence of an external stimulus, then that is always referred to as a hallucination. Hallucination is a perception that is similar to dreaming only that in dreaming, there is lack of awakeness. Hallucination involves a perception that is distorted and misinterpreted and most often than not lacks the real perception. Hallucination occurs in various sensory modalities including auditory, visual, tactile, nociceptive, chronoceptive, thermoceptive, gustatory and olfactory. A mild perspective of hallucination is always referred to as disturbance. For instance, in the presence of a red ball, one may see a green ball (illusion), another may see the red ball (veridical perception) while one with hallucination perception may not see any ball. (Fish, 2009)

Sense data

Sense data theory is an aspect of philosophy of perception. The sense data theory was commonly applied in the twentieth century by philosophers among them C.D Broad, A.J.Ayer among others. The theory bases on the mind based dependant objects that have properties and whose existence is tied to perception directly. The analysis of these objects are always done in the mind, in which there are always subsequent appearances that are more advanced in terms of mental operations and are always exactly as they appear. The placement of sense data is always in accordance to casualty series and or time in a manner which there is a potential unreliability in the perceptual feelings and perceptions they. There is always a distinctive view of the real objects that are in the world and outside the mind. These objects’ properties and existence can always be mistaken.


Idealism is a philosophical view with an assertion tha,t reality has a mental basis, is constructed in the mind and is immaterial. Idealism holds a perspective that the human ideas, perceptions, values and beliefs are vital in the societal shape up. Idealism bases on the fact that perception is dependant to an individual’s mind and what each individual perceives is independent and important to the society. The perception of individuals is based in the spirit and mind according to the idealism theory. Idealism further rejects dualist and physicality theories as they fail to acknowledge the ascription of the role that the mind plays in perception. Idealism therefore values the role of the mind and the spirit more as far as perception is concerned as opposed to the physicality. (Fish, 2010)


Perception is the main connector between the human’s external environment and the real comprehension of the objects in the environment. Through perception, there are various interpretations that are made by the humans especially after a series of coordinated responses in the brain. Perception is a broadly based subject which has seen a lot of dissection from various scholars. This has given forth to the disjunctive theories of perception which tend to explore the basis of perception. In the theories, perception is basically seen to be based on the mind of the individuals. There is always a connection between the external objects in the environment and the humans through the mind which amounts to perceptions, which vary with individuals. These variations do give way for hallucinations, illusions and the veridical perceptions.


Lowe E. J. (2003). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind. UK: Cambridge University Press

Robinson, H. (2003).Perception. London: Routledge.

Fish, W.(2009). Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion. New York: Oxford University Press

Fish, W. (2010). Philosophy of PerceptionA Contemporary Introduction. New York: Taylor & Francis.


Ryu & Hung (2009) have conducted a study, “E-Commerce Transaction Mechanisms and Buyer-Supplier Relationship,” published in the Journal of Business & Economics Research, to deepen managerial knowledge about e-business relationships between suppliers and purchasers. Their paper is intended for managers given various choices of transaction mechanisms, including electronic marketplaces and electronic data interchanges (EDI). Examining a number of studies on e-commerce relationships, the authors describe various advantages and disadvantages of e-marketplaces and EDI for managers in the process of selecting an efficient and economical transaction mechanism for electronic commerce (Ryu & Hung, 2009).

Results of this research include definitions of e-marketplaces and EDI as cost-cutting transaction mechanisms allowing for frequent and rapid exchanges of information. Since electronic business is dependent on the viability of information systems in place, the advantages of building EDI to suit environmental needs are also discussed (Ryu & Hung, 2009). Study findings further describe the need for these technologies to be adaptive in the face of both “environmental diversity” and “technological uncertainty” (Ryu & Hung, 2009, p. 84). If, for example, the economy is unstable in one place and strong in another, and EDI involves a buyer for an international business dealing with both places at the same time, the demand for perfect information requires electronic data interchange to be perfectly appropriate to face this form of “environmental diversity” (Ruy & Hung, 2009, p. 84). Likewise, both electronic data interchanges and e-marketplaces – despite the fact that they allow for quick relay of information between buyers and suppliers – need to be perfected in a time of “technological uncertainty,” when product features or technologies are rapidly evolving (Ruy & Hung, 2009, p. 84).

Ryu & Hung (2009, p. 84) note that present-day EDI and e-marketplaces are not equipped to handle “technological uncertainty.” When there are many suppliers, buyers are not likely to opt for electronic transaction mechanisms, seeing that the implementation procedures for EDI and e-marketplaces are both expensive and complicated. Use of electronic transaction mechanisms depends on suppliers’ and buyers’ beliefs about their respective abilities to successfully conduct e-business. Even if complex product features render EDI and e-marketplaces attractive as these transaction mechanisms make it cost-effective, speedy and efficient to exchange important facts about the product, participants in an e-business relationship must be sufficiently comfortable about their use of computer technology (Ryu & Hung, 2009).

Ryu & Hung (2009) further describe trust as an essential factor influencing the use of electronic transaction mechanisms. The authors’ approach in this context may be referred to as risk mitigation, as their article is focused on the pros of electronic business transactions. According to Ruy & Hung (2009, pp. 86-87), e-business relations reduce the risk of opportunism as perfect information is relayed between suppliers and buyers. In addition, the authors note that electronic data interchange allows for long-term relations to be developed between buyers and suppliers, even if electronic marketplaces do not promise this (Ruy & Hung, 2009, p.87).

Ruy & Hung’s (2009) conclusions are derived from various studies. The authors recommend a strategic approach to decision-making when it comes to choosing transaction mechanisms. Electronic transaction mechanisms involve uncertainties that information systems may or may not be equipped to handle at any given time. Given that the choice of transaction mechanism affects the firm’s performance as well as costs and revenues, the decision-making process must necessarily involve a consideration of the organization’s short-term goals versus its long-term strategic plan (Ruy & Hung, 2009, pp. 87-88).


Ryu, S., & Hung, K. (2009). E-Commerce Transaction Mechanisms and Buyer-Supplier

Relationship. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 7(2), 79-92. Retrieved January 8, 2013, from http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/JBER/article/view/2263/2311



Mental fitness is a state of being psychologically upright. Preferably, it means that no mental disorder exists in a person. Thus, a person with mental health possesses the capability of living a normal life and to the fullest. There exist a number of mental disorders that tend to be prevalent in most societies. These disorders hinder the affected person from the full and independent participation in their life (Frederic, 1998). Furthermore, they lack the sufficient ability to realize their potential. They are also incapable of tackling the numerous stresses presented in life. Some common types of mental disorders include the Bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, depression and a rare case called Schizophrenia (Eve, 2002).

People suffering from mental illnesses tend to encounter a lot of seclusion and rejection from the rest of society. In the recent years, the statistics of people suffering from mental illnesses hiked. This hike is owed to the rising demands that are presented in one’s life. Various problems lead to mental illnesses. Most of these problems are psychological or social in origin. Social problems like poverty, marginalization or any kind of oppression could lead to this illness. People undergoing such problems experience a substantial risk of becoming mentally ill. Secondly, some emergency- induced social mishaps also cause these illnesses. Some of these problems arise from the separation of a family that may happen due to a divorce. In addition, it occurs when community structures are destructed or when one faces a series of gender- based violence. Moreover, excessive alcohol abuse, grief and some post- traumatic stress disorders lead to mental illnesses. These among other causes like lose of close family members to death cause mental illnesses (Sue, 1992)

A mental disorder known as Schizophrenia will be discussed in this essay. This is a rare type of mental disorder. It is described as a mental failure or thought processes that are linked with a poor response of emotions. Paranoia, delusions, auditory hallucination and disorganized thinking characterize it. The on- set of this illness may be in the early adulthood of the patient. During the process of its treatment, the doctor requires the patient has detailed behavioral characteristics and responsiveness (James, 2009)

I managed to get an assignment of handling a Schizophrenia patient. This exercise occurred in one of the mental hospitals in the city. On arrival at the mental hospital, a number of astonishing things occurred. There were several patients being escorted by their nurses to the creative room. This refers to a room in which the patients take part in various kinds of creative arts. The patient am supposed to deal with is twenty- seven year old Brian Gomez. The real name has been concealed for confidential reasons. Brian is not an active member in the art room. Mostly, he simply plays with his nails and on different occasions, scratches his head while making quick glances at his fellows. Then he suddenly faces down and seems drifted away from the activities taking place around him. When one of the nurses directs me to him, I underestimate his condition and simply indulge in a general conversation with him. Brian does not seem to respond well to what I say. I can only see him mumbling some words whose meanings I cannot make out.

To that effect, I try lifting up his face gently with my hands and the once so calm Brian turns wild. First, I get an extremely painful slap on my hands. What follows is an over expression of emotions and an outburst of unending speech. He even becomes violent with the other patients and overturns the tables that come in his way. Some of the nurses run after him while I seek refuge among the other remaining nurses in the room. This situation scared me, and I even kept a distance with the other patients in the room. Later, when everything calmed down, one nurse led me out. The assignment failed since I did not get the chance to have a reasonable chat with the patient.

Some of the difficulties I faced included the inability to connect with Brian. This happened since I gave a wrong first impression towards him. Several considerations had to be made before the start of the conversation. In addition, when Brian remained quiet, I saw this as rudeness. That, therefore, agitated me to take the initiative of making him talk to me. Failure to respect a mental patient and his condition could lead to massive destruction. I never took my time to study and evaluate him. A Schizophrenia patient exhibits an extreme emotional response when they are agitated (Jeffrey, 2011).

Furthermore, a patient tends to display a lack of decline in speech on such occasions. Next, I did not show him the care and gentleness that he required. This is crucial since it has an immense link with the cause of this illness. Previously, it was noted that this disorder might be caused by former social distress and trauma. Therefore, since I failed to consider the history of Brian’s illness, the process failed (David, 2008).

Thus, it is crucial that this mental disorder should be given a more professional approach. Hence, while in the process of connecting with the patient, rightful measures and procedures are taken. The professional gets the opportunity to create a serene environment for bonding. The patient then feels accepted and comfortable with the presence of the doctor. Apart from that, several other skills are required in order to build a good therapeutic relationship while providing holistic care in a mental setting (Richard, 1998).

The basic role of a nurse includes creating a good relationship with the patient. In the presence of a good relationship, treatment and recovery processes are hastened. This kind of client- nurse relationship involves interactions of feelings, thoughts and actions. First, a nurse assesses or examines the patient to verify their problem. This process may require the involvement of family members since the patient may not be able to explain. The first stages of creating a bond with a patient are key. This is because, at this stage the nurse is supposed to get the patient to accept their situation as a part of their life. A mental patient tends to mingle more with those who accept and respect them (Carl, 1976).

Therefore, the nurse should show much respect and acceptance towards the client. Considerations need to be made in the demands of the patient. For instance, a patient that constantly urinates on himself should not be secluded. When this happens, the patient tends to lose the little confidence that he or she has. Eventually, the healing process is slowed down. A nurse always focuses on the patient’s needs and requirements (Paul, 2001).

The skill of communication should be well used, and the behavioral changes encouraged. It is also fundamental to portray genuine feelings while bonding. This entails being open with the patient and not shying away from some of their problems. The nurse’s body language during a conversation or problem- solving discussion matters a lot. The client tends to gather or lose confidence depending on the nurse’s posture. Thus, the nurse should always be relaxed in posture and mood (Sheila, 2010).

An important skill in bonding with a patient is identifying their strengths and weaknesses. (Allen, 2011). The nurse works on empowering the patient to be independent. In this manner, the patient learns to explore their capabilities and the nurse only assists them only when necessary. A patient may portray certain bad habits that could hinder them from full recovery. As much as such characters might harm the patient, a nurse should not directly point them out to the patient. For instance, a patient may possess a habit of injuring themselves with sharp objects in order to fulfill a certain urge. Another patient may enjoy scribbling on the walls instead of books. In such cases, the nurse is not supposed to label out these actions. Rather, the nurse should find out what makes the patient behave that way and find a solution to it. The nurse should also analyze the thinking and behavior of the patient for this to be possible (Linda, 2004).

Cases of a blurred nurse- patient relationship may occur. This happens when a nurse puts her needs before the patient’s needs. When a nurse becomes too helpful and controlling, the patient might feel misplaced and harassed. A nurse should not be too involved in things that the patient can do for himself or herself. This is to ensure that the patient does not become too dependent on the nurse. In addition, the patient may isolate himself or herself since the nurse fails to take the required interventions. In the whole process of bonding with the patient, the nurse should not overexpose herself to the patient. This could lead to physical attractions that are unnecessary.

A nurse must be fully aware of history as well as the general beliefs and culture of the patient. This is crucial since it prevents cases of misunderstanding. The nurse gets to fit in with the level of reasoning of the patient. Mentally disabled patients may tend to portray violence, especially to their caregivers. In fact, such patients have committed a large number of crimes. In the event of a brutal attack by a patient, a nurse must never reciprocate with violence. Instead, she should forward more empathy to the patient and show care and understanding. Individuality towards a patient should also be practiced. A patient should always understand that his or her life goes beyond their mental illness. This motivates the patient and makes them feel more important and respected.

A nurse should also be supportive to the patient. This is done by always giving answers and suggestions when questions are asked. In addition, a nurse shows concern by communicating in a calm and accommodative voice. The nurse may also provide reassurance to the patient. The extra efforts could be sharing meals and going for walks together. The accessibility of the nurse is fundamental in the whole process of bonding with the patient. Nurse’s presence involves investing of quantity time to the patient. This step has proven useful in the quick recovery of the patient. This time should be used in effecting the therapeutic techniques and not in controlling over the patient.

A nurse’s duty is to work based on equality. She should avoid displaying a sense of power towards the patient. However, there are better ways of applying power in a mental care hospital. A nurse may use power in cases when she is offering knowledge or solving problems. A bond could be blurred when a nurse abuses power by avoiding the patient, refusing to help the patient or being harsh (Ruth, 2011).

In conclusion, every step that is taken in the recovery of a mental patient attributes to their eventual behavioral values. For instance, when a nurse is always available to the patient, this patient gradually becomes genuine and respectful. In addition, active listening and response to the patient develops their understanding in different situations. Thus, more skills need application when it comes to dealing with mental cases so that such attributes may be found. Moreover, the activities carried out in mental care hospitals must be discrete. High level of understanding towards the patient is needed. Hence, a high level of professionalism in required.


Sue Nathanson Elkind, 1992, Resolving Impasses in Therapeutic Relationships, 72 Spring Street,

New York.

Jeffrey A. Lieberman, T Scott Stroup, M.D., Diana O. Perkins, M.D., 2011, Essentials of

Schizophrenia, USA: American Psychiatric Pub.

David G. and Douglas, T., 2008, Cognitive Therapy of Schizophrenia, Third ed. USA: Guilford


Richard McMahon, Alan Pearson, snr, Alan Pearson (SNR), 1998, Nursing As Therapy, 27 Bath

Road Cheltenham, United Kingdom.

Ruth, E., Katie, E. and Debra, N., 2011, Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Second ed.

Australia: Elsevier Health Science.

Frederic J. Leger, 1998, Beyond the Therapeutic Relationship, United States of America.

Eve Lipchic, 2002, Psychodynamic Techniques, 72 Spring Street, New York.

Allen, R., David, Springer and Kathi, T., 2011, Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia,

Canada, John Wiley & Sons.

Sheila, L. 2010, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Fifth ed. Lippincot Williams & Wilkins.

Paul Abels, MSW, PLD, Sonia Abels, MSW, 2001, Understanding Narrative Therapy, United States of America.

Linda A. Krikos, Cindy Ingold, 2004, Women’s Studies,

Teresita Deriada Gonzalez, 2009, Impact of Active Listening and Training at a California State, 789 East Eisenhower Parkway.

Carl Ransom Rogers, Eugene T. Gendlin, 1976, Therapeutic relationship and its impact,

Karen J. Maroda, 2009, Psychodynamic Techniques, 72 Spring Street, New York

James O. Prochoska, John C. Norcross, 2009, Systems of Psychotherapy, Belmont

Alcohol Consumption among Underage College Students

A study conducted to find out why underage college students drink in excess despite reported negative consequences found out a number of motivations behind this behavior. One of the reasons given by the students was the influence of the peers. The students who took part in the study reported high drinking rate of their friends and the influence it had on their drinking habits. From this study, it was found out that drinking habit was encouraged by friends who were also involved in the same behavior. The study also found out that male students thought that it was normal to keep up with the drinking habits of their peers. Most of them also engaged in drinking with friends as a form of competition to see who would take the most beer. However, on the part of female students, peers played a different role to encourage the drinking behavior (Dodd, Glassman et. al, 2010). According to the findings of the study, female students used their peers to watch them in case they lost control after excessive drinking. Keeping up with the drinking habits of their friends was also not important to female students. The two groups however, agreed that peers played a major role in influencing their drinking behavior.

Another reinforcing attribute of Alcohol consumption is that it enabled young students to gather enough confidence to approach strangers. It also facilitated sexual opportunities for these students due to the confidence that they gain after consumption of alcohol. This reason was cited by both male and female students. The male respondents reported that high risk drinking increased their chances of hooking up although they agreed that excessive drinking could lead to unacceptable and embarrassing behavior. Thus, to male consumers, alcohol consumption has both rewards and punishment, rewards being increased sexual opportunities and punishment coming in embarrassing situations in case of excessive consumption of alcohol. Despite this, the female respondents did not express any concern on the amount of alcohol consumption. What mattered to them was the level of confidence they gained to approach members of the opposite sex after alcohol consumption. The more the alcohol consumption by the female respondents, the more the courage they gained. Thus, the reward reaped by females from consuming alcohol reinforces their behavior. There was also consensus among participants that it was important for both parties to be drunk in order to hook up for sexual activities (Dodd, Glassman et. al, 2010).

To many college students, college lifestyle provides an opportunity to prove their attained autonomy from parental control. In an attempt to confirm and reinforce this notion, Dodd et al. asserts that students consume alcohol as it serves as a strong way of individuals’ ability to make personal choices over their lives. This perception of alcohol as a sign of independence, autonomy and confirmation of “maturity” provides the colleges students with a positive reward that satisfies a specific stimulus thus reinforcing the alcoholism behavior. As evidenced by the research from the article, most students believed that alcohol was one way they could demonstrate their sense of freedom from parental control. Most of them argued that they had received instructions for about 18 years and so it was now their time to do whatever they thought was right including drinking (Dodd, Glassman et. al, 2010). Another reason that underage students gave for drinking habit was to gain courage to interact with other people in the society. Therefore, they saw alcohol consumption as a social lubricant. As a result of this, students drunk in order to feel at ease in social situations.

In conclusion, it is evident that despite its negative effects, alcohol consumption among the youths in college can be explained using the principles of behavior reinforcement. The principle suggests three consequences that can reinforce, decrease or extinguish a given behavior. Therefore, if a given consequence leads to rewards it encourages the associated behavior. If the consequence leads to punishments, it decreases the behavior, while if the consequence leads to neither rewards nor punishments, it extinguishes the associated behavior. Alcohol consumption behavior is encouraged by the reward students get if form of social acceptance, hook up and the courage to interact with strangers. This reinforces alcohol consumption behavior among students.


Dodd, V., Glassman, T., Arthur, A., Webb, M., & Miller, M. (2010). Why Underage college students drink in excess: Qualitative research findings. American Journal of Health Education, 41(2), 93-101.

Sensory Prosthetics

Many disabled people live in soundless and sightless worlds. In psychological research, endeavors have been made to combine the workings of sensory systems with technical advances in bioengineering, resulting in sensory prosthetic devices that provide sensory input that can substitute for what cannot be provided by a person’s sensory receptors (Patil & Turner, 2008). Lozano, Kaczmarek and Santello (2009, p.50) noted that electrical stimulations that occur on body’s surface, which transmit touch information can stimulate afferents underneath the surface thereby causing perception. According to them, augmentation and sensory substitution are the two common applications of electrotactile stimulation (ETS). One useful device in this regard is Paul Bach-y-Rita’s device, a tactile tongue-based electrical input sensor that converts digitized stimuli from a camera to an array of electrodes, which stimulate tactile receptors in the tongue to communicate spatial information to the brain (2004).

This research review paper will investigate whether the tongue is the best suitable organ to provide detailed, high-resolution input of visual stimuli. It will delve into the sensory and neural mechanisms involved with Bach-y-Rita’s stimulator as a substitute for visual input through working with the tactile receptors in the tongue. To put this research question into words, to what extent can a sensory artificial system, such as Bach-y-Rita’s device, compensate for blindness? Furthermore, is there any room for more advancement? In addition to helping the blind, can this device have other practical applications for people living with normal vision, in pitch-black, hazy, or smoky environments, for example? The overall expectation of this paper is to provide an in-depth overview of the current scientific research on Bach-y-Rita’s device. A critical review of scientific discoveries will suffice to present the necessary content by employing various approaches to explaining Bach-y-Rita’s device and presenting some controversial research data in the same domain.

An individual who has experienced total sensory system loss incidentally also underwent a brain lesion. In the case of blindness, this involves a loss of more than one million fibers. According to Bach-y-Rita (2003, p.643), there is growing scientific evidence to the effect that a human brain is capable of recognizing things extensively, following its damage and reorganization event after several years of trauma with suitable recuperation. Several research laboratory studies on the theme of sensory substitution have shown that information originating from non-natural sensory receptors can be relayed to the brain, and independent experiences of the missing sensory system can be felt with necessary training. Blind people have shown the ability to recognize different faces, read, locate various objects, observe, and trace movements in 3D (Sampaioa, Marisa & Bach-y-Rita, 2001, p.204).

With advancements in technology and related disciplines like bioengineering, devices with human-machine interfaces have been developed that provide convincing potential of real world, cosmetically satisfactory devices for the benefit of those who suffer sensory loss. These devices are popularly known as vision substitution system. They consist of videoconferencing camera, video capture card, laptop, tongue display unit (TDU), an electrode array, and software for image processing (Sampaioa, Marisa & Bach-y-Ritab, 2001, p.204). An experiment involving a human subject using a tongue-based human-machine interface and the above-mentioned equipment (Sampaioa, Marisa & Bach-y-Rita, 2001, p.204) revealed interesting findings.

These results indicated that it is possible to quantify visual acuity using a sensory substitution system. Moreover, a human-machine interface via the tongue is capable of providing a pathway to helpful sensory substitution systems. The application of the central and peripheral structures of the complete somatosensory system to convey information from an ancillary receptor such as TV camera would permit for the evaluation of late plasticity of the brain associated with sensory substitution (p.206).

Therefore, why is there much interest in a tongue-based device? A tongue-based device is appropriate since the tongue provides an interface that allows the growth of sensory systems, which are combined with supplementary technology. Normally, any transduce-able input develops into a 2D display on the array of the tongue and travels to the brain, becoming a brain component upon the influence of a training program. A research on this showed that for the tongue, voltage control bears to some extent desirable stimulation qualities. In addition, this leads to simpler circuitry that causes miniaturization upon employing MEMS technology (Bach-y-Rita, Tyler & Kaczmarek, 2009, p.289).

Electrotactile stimuli are transmitted via the TDU, a 12×12 grid of gold-plated copper circular electrodes held together by a Mylar (polyester) strip. The tongue display is designed to allow for simultaneous stimulation of all electrodes, and is a flexible component that is placed in the dorsum of the tongue (Bach-y-Rita, Tyler & Kaczmarek, 2009, p.289). The stimuli are delivered in 40 microsecond intervals in bursts of three pulses each at a frequency of 50Hz with a 200Hz pulse rate within the burst (p.290). Dorsal and lateral areas of tongue show higher thresholds of sensation than frontal and medial locations (32% higher) due to “differences in tactile sensor density and distribution” (Bach-y-Rita, Tyler & Kaczmarek, 2009, p.290). Linear regression models of the experimental data allowed the development of algorithms that can allow users of the device to adjust the average stimulus level and intensity as a function of location on the tongue (p.291).


The sensory receptors in the tongue are very shallow because the surrounding mouth offers sufficient protection. Saliva full of ions is a good electrolytic medium for signal transduction through the tongue receptors to the brain. It has been shown that the tongue is more sensitive than the fingertips in interpreting tactile stimuli, for it requires 3% of the voltage the finger-tip requires to respond to stimulation, as well as much less current (Bach-y-Rita1 & Kercel, 2003, p.542).

Previous studies showed that a TV camera could pick optical images that were transduced into direct or vibratory electrical signal transmitted through the receptors of the skin at different body parts such as the fingertip and back. The visual data spreads to the perceptual intensities for examination through somatosensory structures and pathways. Changing the location of the input device does not disorient the subjects, they easily adapt because they are trained to not perceive the image on the skin but locate it correctly in space. A reduced resolution sensory system has the power to make available required information for purposes of perceiving images that are complex (Bach-y-Rita1 & Kercel, 2003, p.543).

In this experiment, skin insufficiencies such as low 2-point resolution fail to affect ultimate high performance since the brain is able to extract information from stimulation patterns. In an experiment where an immobile TVSS was showing the tactile matrix concerning the back of the subjects revealed that the blind subjects identified a ball rolling off the table, estimated its position on the table, and calculated the precise moment and level at which to bat it once it is in free-fall. Results were near perfect when the subjects received training (Bach-y-Rita1 & Kercel, 2003, p.543).


Typical sensory systems never experience overloads. This is chiefly because the central nervous system (CNS) has the capability of choosing specific target information required to handle the situation that a given context presents. In fact, in 1970, research revealed that various attempts to develop means of aiding the sensory system resulted in sensory overload challenges. A sharp restriction arises on the rate at which humans can deal with serially received information particularly because visual perception grows well upon flooding with information. An example is looking at a complete scene of events or full text page. However, when input is reduced, visual perception gradually disjoints or diminishes (Bach-y-Rita1 & Kercel, 2003, p.543).

In another experiment using letters created from a black cardboard bearing a white background and involving blind subjects, a camera was used to transmit images perceived to a laptop computer device that translates the photos captured by the camera into electrical impulses sent to the tongue as electro-tactile pulses (Chebata et al., 2007, p.1901). Translation of the image depends on a color scale. The signal of highest potential corresponds to black and no signal is transmitted for white, thus any color will produce an intermediate potential with an intensity that depends on its closeness or distance from black. This codes the colors into electrical impulses that, with time and practice, allow the brain to distinguish the intensities and characterize them into colors. Therefore, stimuli were at full contrast, which converted into electro-tactile pulsations for black while white lacked stimulation (p.1902). In a similar experiment that Essick et al. conducted, they established that the tongue could recognize the smallest letter with an average of 5.1mm (p.1903).

Neural systems can develop some adaptation to benefitting from using neuroprosthetic devices. Apart from error-correction feedback mechanisms, neural adaptation to the circuitry of the neural device, and incorporated adaptation of the circuitry for purposes of learning are probably critical features that would permit neuroprosthetic devices to accomplish a level of usage the equivalent of the normal limb. Consciously, primates can indiscriminately transform their neural activity into performance of tasks. Much evidence indicates that neural activity is expected to be reasonably plastic. For example, selected neurons have already been used to measure regulation in an operant training paradigm (Patil & Turner, 2008, p.143).

Several advancements have been made in sensory substitution to cater not only for the needs of the handicapped, but also for those with normal vision and auditory systems. For instance, sensory substitution is applied in the areas of artistic presentations, augmented reality, and games. Examples of these include technologies that substitute visual stimuli into tactile or audio impulses, and of converting audio stimuli into tactile stimuli. For instance, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health (2009), about 7.5 million U.S. citizens have speech difficulties that are generally associated with aphasias. However, due to advancements in cochlear implants, cortical implants could aid the brain’s speech areas and developed so to help improve speech in those with the speech handicaps.

Another key advancement of sensory substitution is the tactile-vestibular substitution that seeks to aid people who experience high reactions to antibiotics thereby anguishing from a condition called bilateral vestibular damage, BVD for short, where they cannot control their postures/gaits. This application requires one to have a brain-machine interface and a head-mounted accelerometer to generate electrotactile stimulation on the surface of the tongue causing the relay of information to the sufferer on head-body balance making it possible for him/her to adjust his/her body posture/gait appropriately (Tyler, Danilov & Bach-y-Rita, 2003).

Finally, in 2005, a research was conducted to provide for magnetic perception through sensory augmentation using vibrotactile magnetic compass strap that individuals put on about their waists. These belts provided vibrations that indicated to the subjects perceive magnetic directions like the North, based on the vibrating transducers at their waists (Nagel et al., 2005). There are other areas of advancements in this field including self-charging implants, memory off-loading, controlling complex machinery, and mood inducements. Current experiments indicate that tactile sense could help activate a person’s auditory cortex through the application of vibrotactile stimuli to enable hearing in both normal hearing and hearing-impaired humans. Already there is a promising technology called ‘Sense Organs Synthesizer” that is aiding this advancement (Schumann et al., 2006).

The modern progress of tongue human-machine interface now provides the opportunity of carrying these researches to greater levels: the invention of real-world systems for sensory substitution, for perceptible internet-based communications, for surgical treatment, and many other uses (Bach-y-Rita, Kaczmarek & Tyler, 2003, p.184). The ultimate goal of scientific research in this area of neuroprosthetic devices is to identify certain principles that would guide neural ensemble physiology. This would consequently lead the way in the development of a class of cortical neuroprosthetic devices, which can help restore complete body agility in those patients with devastating degrees of paralysis resulting from degenerative lesions of the CNS or from trauma (Nicolelis & Lebedev, 2009, p.533). However, there are criticisms on sensory prosthetics. They include arguments that substitution is a concept that is misleading since it simply means an addition, not a replacement of sensory modality (Lenay et al., 2003).



Bach-y-Rita, P. (2003). Theoretical basis for brain plasticity after a TBI. Brain Injury, 17(8), 643-651.

Bach-y-Rita, P. & Kercel, S.W. (2003). Sensory substitution and the human–machine interface. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 7(12), 541-546

Bach-y-Rita, P., Tyler, M.E., & Kaczmarek, K.A. (2009). Seeing with the Brain. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15(2), 285-295.

Bach-y-Rita, P., Kaczmarek, K.A. & Tyler, M.E. (2003). A Tongue-Based Tactile Display for Portrayal of Environmental Characteristics. Wicab, Inc.169-186

Chebata et al. (2007).Tactile ‘visual’ acuity of the tongue in early blind individuals. NeuroReport, 18(18), 1901-1904

Lenay et al. (2003). Sensory Substitution: limits and perspectives. Touching for Knowing, Cognitive psychology of haptic manual perception, 275-292.

Lozano, C.A., Kaczmarek, K.A. & Santello, M. (2009). Electrotactile stimulation on the tongue: Intensity perception, discrimination, and cross-modality estimation. Somatosensory and Motor Research, 26(2–3), 50–63

Nagel et al. (2005). Beyond sensory substitution – learning the sixth sense. Journal of neural engineering, 2(4), R13-26.

Nicolelis, M.A.L. & Lebedev, M.A. (2009). Principles of neural ensemble physiology underlying the operation of brain–machine interfaces. Nature Reviews (Neuroscience). 10(1), 530- 539

Patil, P.G. & Turner, D.A. (2008). The Development of Brain-Machine Interface Neuroprosthetic Devices. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 5(1), 137-146

Sampaioa, E., Marisa, S. & Bach-y-Ritab, P. (2001). Brain plasticity: ‘visual’ acuity of blind persons via the tongue. Brain Research 908 (2001), 204–207

Schurmann et al. (2006). Touch activates human auditory cortex. Neuroimage, 30(1), 1325–1331

Tyler, M., Danilov, Y. & Bach-y-Rita, P. (2003). Closing an open-loop control system: vestibular substitution through the tongue. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 2(1), 159-164.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/vsl.asp Accessed 12/16/2012. Updated 6/18/2009.

Drilling Fluid Mud Rheology


  • Determining the density of mud drilling fluid,

  • Finding the specific gravity of water-based mud

  • Obtaining the hydrostatic pressure gradient for water based mud

The apparatus used in the experiment was OFITE mud balance.

Equipment and materials

  • Mud balance

  • A corrosion-resistant plastic case for holding the balance in a working position


Various types of clay can compose the drilling mud, all clays have a unique property and when they are prepared with water they portray different viscosity, gel strength and the rheological characteristic. It is quite clears that Bentonite and Barite exhibit characteristics that are different to the drilling mud (frank, 2001). Bentonite can be seen to exhibit a low yield of clay and it is not effective in salt water. Barite on the other hand has a high clay yield and it does not exhibit any signs that are significant to swelling. Bentonite undergoes enormous swelling when it is mixed with fresh water (Robello, 2010). This means that Barite is a much better choice when making drilling mud.

Drilling mud is very crucial in the petroleum industry. This is because oil bearing formations contain oil with a certain amount of pressure that depends on the depth and other properties (Joan, 2006). When drilling, the drilling fluid is circulated continuously so that it can provide hydrostatic pressure in the drilling hole column so as to control the pressure exerted by the oil bearing formations. This avoids blow ups for cases of high pressure reservoirs. Note that the hydrostatic pressure is kept sufficiently high than the oil bearing formation pressure to avoid fracture. Note that the hydrostatic pressure is dependent on the density of the drilling mud. This means that the process of determining mud density is very crucial (Elton, 2001).

The Gel strength can be determined at a low shear stress after it has been allowed to thicken for an amount of time typically about ten minutes. The strength of the formed mud cake not only helps to prevent water from going into the wellbore but also the drilling fluid circulating in the wellbore from leaking out into a fracture (Francis, 2002). Viscosity refers to the fluid’s resistance to flow, the mud viscosity determines the efficiency and the ability to lift cuttings out of the well bore. Adding different clay types of clay not only affects the viscosity but also the use of salt water as oppose to plain water.


The mud cup was cleaned and dried; the mud was then placed on the mud balance on a flat level surface. The temperature of the fluid was then measured and recorded on an appropriate mud record form. The lid was then removed from the mud cup and the clean dry cup was then filled to the top with the mud sample to be tested. The lid was the placed on the cup and it was then set in a gentle twisting motion until it was seated firmly. The hole in the lid was then covered with a finger and all mud on the outside cup and arm was washed and then thoroughly dried. The balance was then placed on the knife edge on the fulcrum rest. The rider was then moved along the outside of the arm until the cup and arm were balanced which was achieved when the spirit level bubble was under the center line. The mud weight was then read at the edge of the rider towards the mud cup. This procedure was then repeated for each of the three mud samples.





Mud density Ip/ft3

Mud gradient (psi/ft)

Fresh water





Mud sample-1-5%





Mud sample-2-10%





Mud sample-3-15%





Density =g/cm3 = (lb/gal)/8.345

1 lbs/gal = 0.119826427 g/cm3


For bentonite

Density for fresh water = 8.31×0.119826427 = 0.9958 g/cc

Density for mud sample 1 = 9.01 x 0.119826427 = 1.079 g/cc

Density for mud sample 2 = 9.63 X 0.119826427 = 1.078 g/cc

Density for mud sample 3 =10.46 x 0.119826427 = 1.253 g/cc


For barite

Density for fresh water = 8.31×0.119826427 = 0.9958 g/cc

Density for mud sample 1 = 1.07 x 0.119826427 = 0.1282 g/cc

Density for mud sample 2 = 1.153 X 0.119826427 = 0.1381 g/cc

Density for mud sample 3 =1.251 x 0.119826427 = 0.1499 g/cc


Mud gradient, psi/ft = (lb/gal)/19.24


The results above depict that Bentonite can work well in Fresh Water, although it does swell a few times its own size. This means that Bentonite cannot do well when used with Salty Water. The graph of barite can however be observed to be linear which means it is suitable for use in both fresh and salty water and it doesn’t swell much.


Note that drilling mud is a non-Newtonian fluid and therefore the determination of which model type the fluid follows cannot be done by eye judgment. There must be graph construction and after that linear or power law regression has to be done to determine the rheological character of the drilling mud. For instance a mixture of Bentonite with fresh water results in a Bingham Plastic fluid.


Frank, J. (2001). Spectrometry and Reservoir Characteristics of Marine oil fields. New York publishers.

Robello, S. (2010). Friction factors: torque, drag, vibration, bottom-hole assembly and transient surge/swab analysis. Oxford university press.

Joan, K. (2006). Impact of frictional pressure losses along the completion on well performance. Cambridge university press.

Park, L. (1997). Rheological properties of biopolymers drilling fluids. Paperback publishers.

Francis, M. (2002). Frictional Pressure Loss and Rheological characteristic of Drilling and Stimulation fluid. Oxford university press.

Newton, J. (1994). Effective high-density wellbore cleaning fluids. Paperback publishers.

Elton, H. (2001). Hydraulic optimization of foam drilling for maximum drilling rate in vertical wells. New York publishers.

Management Development Program


Management development program refer to series of modules and activities designed and delivered over time. These programs have a design that fits into the cultural organization of a firm. During an undertaking of a MDP, it is essential to perform a review of basic groups of modules present for the different groups of employees and managers at the firm. In addition, the execution of a MDP can use the services of experienced firms, which provide the MDP courses. These firms have the capabilities of using varied techniques in delivering the MDP services to the clients (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 52). MDP occurs as a discipline that that enables companies to offer improved services to clients. In addition, the discipline enables the firm to attain its objectives. The MDP ensures that managers facilitate motivation through the application of various behaviors and tools available through MDP.

Currently, businesses have management strategies that have their basis on the leadership capabilities of the managers. MDP has the capabilities of advancing the leadership strategies of these managers. Investing in the leadership capabilities of the managers is crucial in maintaining the operations of the firm and ensuring the attainment of the objectives of the firm. These leaders have the responsibilities of ensuring the smooth running of the firm and the attainment of the objectives of the organization. In addition, they have the task of ensuring planning and establishment of favorable market position of the firm. Most importantly, different managers and leaders have different strategies in approaching issues and leadership. Some of the managers ensure the satisfaction of the employees while other managers rely immensely on operational efficiency (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 180). It is essential to note that leaders have the driving forces in most firms and they dictate the operations in most business enterprises. Additionally, different organizations have different management cultures, which play a role in influencing leadership in the firm. However, effective management practices and good leadership act crucially in the management of a firm.

Peer Assessment and Project Success and Failures

During the third week working at PIGG Plc, I presented an agenda item during a meeting. During this presentation, I highlighted a project in which I created a new database system for the management of information. During this presentation, I relied immensely on my previous presentation and acting skills. I prepared the presentation with an aim of ensuring the presentation of a detailed presentation. During the preparation for the presentation, I understood that effective planning was crucial and essential (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 121). In addition, I also knew the importance of presenting all the facts and correct figures during the presentation in order to create a presentation of the actual events in the field. During the preparation for the presentation, I grew in confidence that I would make a good presentation.

During the presentation, I realized that the attendants of the meeting were waiting for me to speak. This affected my confidence as I began to feel nervous. At the beginning of the presentation, I felt my voice wobble because of the nervousness. However, my confidence grew as I proceeded with the presentation (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 212). I presented using the PowerPoint platform, which ensured that I used the audio and visual forms of presentation.

I was disappointed because my presentation was not impressive especially to Mrs. Shaw. She gave me tips and areas of improvement, which included reducing the speed of presentation, articulation, and reduction of the content in the presentation. In addition, she pointed out that I should maintain my composure during the presentation. In addition, Mrs. Shaw said that I should present my data in a format that audiences comprehend. She also highlighted the need to practice in order to improve on my presentation strategies.

During the presentation, I realized that the audience had disorganized attitudes and personal perceptions. For instance, Mrs. Shaw interrupted my presentation by posting questions and answering most of the questions that I posted. In addition, she added notes throughout my presentation, which means that I did not prepare adequately for the presentation. The leader of the meeting also lacked confidence because he consulted extensively with other attendees showing that he was either ill prepared or lacked confidence.

After the first meeting, we completed an assignment and presented through email. Most of the student did not understand the usage of the email or its applications. Most of the students did not understand basic information communication skills and technologies for the class. The requirement for presentation through the email platform confused most of the students. Some of them found the exercise tasking, and they felt that the exercise was suited for computer science students. The next project involved meeting the client. Members within the group began sharing ideas for the meeting in order to ensure an articulation of the group’s ideas. This involved addressing questions that would emerge during the meeting. The meeting and sharing of ideas also played a crucial role in addressing problems that may arise during the meeting with the clients (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 213).

Continuous Personal and professional development

I have always admired lawyers, and dreamt of pursuing law career at adulthood age. My interest focused on learning the different concepts of law and implementation of law to ensure that the welfare and protection of citizens offered first priority. I made sure that I researched on legal books to gain a comprehensive oversight of the legal profession. In similar occasions, I would also watch television shows that featured accomplished lawyers tackling controversial legal cases (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 215). This was an inspiration in my life and career path, as I wanted to imitate the lawyers. Among the notable books that inspired me was Shane Peacock’s The Boy Sherlock Holmes novel. This book depicted the life of Holmes, who was a notorious drug user since he used cocaine to relieve stress whenever he faced complicated court cases. Holmes also used cocaine to stimulate his brain when he forgot significant facts about the cases he handled. The drug injected, in high concentrations, in the veins to effect immediate results. The main character displays an observant detective who searches for any relevant information that could be useful in judicial cases. Holmes regularly declares some absurd and unconfirmed deduction only to mock Watson by enlightening the clearest clues. However, Holmes’ personality is in form of a continuous dose of adoration from Watson. On the other hand, Watson’s nonstop adulation apparently meant to emulate understanding of the renowned investigator comes through convincingly at the end of the book, when Holmes reaches at Devonshire. Watson is a humble trainee and live-in friend, who try to solve a challenging case in his leader’s stead. Illustrated as always on hand to hit Holmes’ personality, Watson is, however, intent on showing his own courage by relating Holmes’ methods (Collings and Watton, p. 234, 2000).

However, the use of cocaine drug influenced Holmes in conducting drug related cases, as he later devised ways of extracting information from clients. He could discover ash residues of any drugs used by the suspects and clients. The main challenge that the protagonist faced was that England had legalized use of all drugs irrespective of the after effects that the addicts faced. This illustrated negative social evils in the societies since many people could access the dangerous drugs. From the use of cocaine drugs, Holmes was capable of exposing corrupt officials who smuggled drugs to unsuspecting individuals. This made him a famous lawyer in the US who could handle any case related to drug smuggling and abuse of illegal stuffs. I derived other inspirational ideas from renowned speakers and writers like John Stuart Mills. The speeches that Mills gave in his tours, seminars and books inspired me to attain my targets. Other television programs such as CSI were also valuable since they emphasized the value of suitable investigation in the modern community. Personally, I concur to the knowledge that the importance of proper and defensible system of trial disorganizes down in most nations (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 242). Since analytical writing is an essential activity for lawyers, reading passages by Miller increased my analysis writing skills. The authors present their opinions and points in logical manners that assist readers to grasp vital points. The materials are easily accessible because of the technological developments that have taken place in the present world. The technological advancements have distorted the characteristic line between fiction and facts, which have significantly affected the integrity system in America. These technological advancements have also affected the judicial systems in dispensation of judgment and justice. I learnt from the novel that a person’s personality could influence his career by determining the outcomes in an organization. Therefore, Doyle campaigns for a return to the traditional principles of passing knowledge such as reading novels as forms of entertainment. I feel in concurrence with the author that these books are the basic sources of information that applies to all generations as opposed to the fresh forms of technology, which continues to derail the entire literary world. The technological sources of information apply much usage of jargons that is unappreciated by other professionals. The jargons also lack educational foundations and citations in case laws applications. This notion makes me believe that the coming generation need to concentrate on the usefulness of critical thinking qualities. A number of factors such as comprehensive reading, thinking and writing incorporated in the analysis are vital in the course. This implies that consideration of the above attributes will then bring forth a society with proper activists.

According to Miller, teachers should not praise first year students for arguments that lack suitable foundation. This is because these arguments have no value in the current civilization and legal justifications (Collings and Watton, 2000, p. 253). I strongly believe that my future endeavors are products of present activities and determination. This is because Miles believes that a person should analytically think of their present situations and ways of improving their existence through use of the various forms of communication. To me the most significant idea about management development involves borrowing of concepts from established personalities. This helps an individual to acquire skills and experiences applied in the past and use them to tackle present problems. The concepts retrieved from written materials prepared by the icons about their lives and professions are useful attributes. Experience gained through learning from other renowned personalities in the field of interest is also beneficial learning points. This has assisted me to improve on my research work and inquisitive search of evidences used in administering justice to the underprivileged in the society. Having experienced that, I now believe that I can be of important value to the society and individuals around me. This demonstrates the urge I have always had in my life since childhood times. I will now need to reflect on my personal life to ensure that other upcoming generations also imitate my interests.

Management development programs entail helping aspiring students and members of the society to achieve their targets in life and careers. Having analyzed the works of Doyle and Miller, I concurred that individuals should always recognize traditional forms of knowledge passage. The modern technological forms of information use exaggerated terminologies without proper basis of the sources. Equally, technology applied in administration of present justice needs to consider historical precedence that had been previously used. Videos and films are produced and directed for entertainment reasons, and sometimes do not depict the true happenings on the ground. I would like to state that reading of novels not only prepares a person to perceive life differently, but it also improves language proficiency of the individual. Lawyers need to consider mastery and command of English language, as it is a vital requirement used in international law courts and similar environments.



















Collings, J and Watton, P, 2000, JEWELS Project: Learning through Independent

Work Experience – Final Report.