Archive for March, 2013

Sustainable Design Manifesto

March 26, 2013

Sustainable Design Manifesto




  1. Importance of Sustainability

Quantitative Importance

Energy consumption is one of the major cause of Global Warming and Greenhouse effect. According to International Energy Agency (IEA) the goal of limiting the global warming to 2 degree Celsius is becoming a challenge and increasingly the rate as year passes. It is projected that by the year 2017 CO2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure, means the hotter it will be.

Qualitative Importance

Sustainable design envisions itself to lessen or absolutely removed any or all the negative impact that has or will arise on a certain product. The concept of the sustainable design is applicable to all areas of designing of a certain product. In this human are the key responsible for maintaining a sustainable environment – the Human Home.

The Designer’s Role

The designer is the one who is responsible to respond to design a house that will suit the environment and needs of the people who will occupy a certain building or residence. In history, designer’s main objective in designing is to protect the lives of the people against the enemies. These enemies are nowadays known as negative aspects that cause discomfort to human lives. They need to design using the three R guidelines – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

Figure 1 – Exterior of House


The house is a modern contemporary design / box type house with 156 sq, m floor area, Three Bedrooms, with provision of suspended slab deck, 2 bathrooms. A fully air conditioned and has a full heating system inside. It is constructed in the Philippines by Drilon & Doctor Construction Company, Designed by Engr. Ralph Romar Doctor and Arch, Maricor Tan. Philippines is a tropical country – people who lives here prefer a high ventilated houses.

Sustainable Feature:

  1. The house uses natural lights; it is visible on their kitchen and bathroom, where the you can see the existence of using roof windows. Using Natural Light as a source of brightness will totally lessen your electric consumption.

  2. Exterior and interior paint uses bright colors in order to create a brighter interior, trough this electric consumption will be lessen.

  3. Roof and walls are all fully insulated with 900 mm wide overhangs that will provide natural cooling under hot sunny day.

  4. The house uses Standard Bamboo Floors instead of using textile products.

  5. The house also uses floor to ceiling glass windows that allows natural lights enlighten the whole structure during day time.



  1. Ventilation – It is better to use fan rather than the use of Air Conditioners as it less the energy consumption. It is best to use only air conditioners to rooms that really need to. It is also advised to use asphalt roofing that has at least 0.09mm wide in order to keep the ventilation to house exhaust during hot weather. The more windows is also advised in order to flow the natural air inside the house.

  2. Daylight – During daylight, the house uses natural lights by adding roof windows on Kitchen and bathroom these roof windows will totally less the energy consumption, there will be no need to switch on the light during daylight. On evening, it is advised to use LED lights for less energy consumption, the use of pin lights is also advised since it only requires low energy consumption. It must be point out that too much energy consumption leads to Global Warming and increasing the rate of Green House Effect.

  3. Water – It is advised to consume less hot water trough installing water efficient showerheads and tops in order to save energy and water, though this consumption of water will be less. It is also advice to use automated flush toilet rather than valve toilets since it is conserve more water as compare to the second. It is also advise to use the drained water from the kitchen to water the garden outside the house, through this waste water will be maximized and consumption of fresh water for the plant will be lessen. It is important to conserve fresh water. Fresh water nowadays is increasingly scarce resources because of water pollution and in urban area consumption of water continuously increasing but the supply of potable water are inversely increasing. Statistically recorded that buildings use 17 %`fresh water – as a result treatment cost for fresh water increases annually.

  4. Furniture and Interiors – It is advised to use renewable products on furniture, like bamboo. Below are some example of bamboo products that may be use:

Figure 2 and Figure 3 Furniture of the Green Village


It is said that Bamboos are locally grow in South-East Asian countries like Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and other ASEAN countries. Through this material a sustainable designing and production of furniture will be possible and will be a good source of pro-natural and environment products.


Rock and Roll and Society

March 26, 2013

The influence of War/Protests on Rock and Roll Music

Rock and Roll music is a powerful genre of music that has a controversial nature. It has been used to respond to various social and political issues affecting the society. Its controversial nature has made it very popular. From 1955 to 1966, wars and protests significantly influenced Rock and Roll music. This period was characterized by the Vietnam War which killed more than three million people. The United States got involved in the Vietnam War to support South Vietnam against the communist regime (Lamb, 2012). However, due to the high number of young American people who were dying, the public approval of the war began to dwindle. Rock and Roll music which was very popular among the younger American generation at that time became a tool of expressing anti-war protests. This paper will illustrate how war/protests influenced Rock and Roll music between the year 1955 and 1966.

Rock and Roll music was the most popular music genre among the American youths during the war. According to Sarappa (2011), most of the soldiers were youths below the age of 23. The screaming guitars, rhythm and raw energy of Rock and Roll music provided the soldiers with a perfect reflection of the confusion and chaos of the fire fight battles and the jungle warfare. Rock and Roll music provided the ultimate anthem for the youths to demonstrate their anti-war sentiments. This is because most of the young soldiers had been separated from family and friends and were loosing their lives in Vietnam.

As proven by history, a generation can be defined by music. The soldiers imported Rock and Roll music into the battle field. Also, Rock and Roll was used to express lyrical calls of putting an end to the war and promote peace. For instance, McGuire released the song “Eve of Destruction” in 1965. The song was a protest song about American political concerns of the 1960’s. The first stanza of the song speaks about the horrors of the war and criticizes the inclusion of young men into the military. One particular line in the song goes “You’re old enough to kill, but not for votin’” (McGuire, 2009). The song was banned in many radio stations in America and was restricted by the BBC due to its anti-government lyrics (Sarappa, 2011).

Several influential rock artists rose to express their disaffection with Vietnam War and emphasized on love and peace during the 1960’s. The Vietnam War influenced Bob Dylan’s song “The Times They Are A – Changin’” which was written in 1963. According to Hopkins (2012), Dylan’s song has a line that goes “There’s a battle outside/and it’s raging/it will soon shake your windows/rattle your walls”. This was used to refer to the chaos of the Vietnam War. He goes on to sing “Come mothers and fathers/throughout the land/ and don’t criticize/what you can’t understand/your sons and daughters are beyond your command” (Dylan, 2010). Rock and Roll music inspired hope among family and friends of the young soldiers. It inspired hope that the war would end and things would return to normal for their reunion. Bob Dylan’s song portrayed the frustrations, anger and confusion among many parents whose children were involved in the war as soldiers.

The Vietnam War also influenced popular rock groups such as Mystery Trend and Jefferson Airplane. The two rock groups used an anti-war music poster to advertise their show which was to be staged at the University of California, Berkley on 25 March 1966. According to Hopkins (2012), the poster showed a dance scene colored in red and black and featured combatants who wore helmets and held machine guns while trying to evade explosions produced by bombers flying above their heads. The words “Vietnam” and “Peace” could be read on the poster printed in white letterings. The red background of the poster reflected the blood of the soldiers. The group used the concert to express the simple message that they wanted the Vietnam War to come to an end.

The influence of war on rock music can also be observed in the song “I Feel Like I’m Fixin’ to Die Rag by Country Joe and the Fish. The band used their Woodstock performance to protest against the Vietnam War. The song blames the U.S military leaders and politicians for the war and also expresses the horrors of the war in a sarcastic humor. The influence of war on Rock and Roll music is also demonstrated in many rock songs released after 1966. For instance, John Lennon’s masterpiece “Give Peace a Chance” which was released in 1969 became an Anti-Vietnam War anthem.

In conclusion, it can be argued that Wars/Protests had a major influence on Rock and Roll music. Rock and Roll music is a powerful genre that changes the mood of people. Several rock artists and bands such as McGuire, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, John Lennon, Country Joe and the Fish and Jefferson Airplane among others effectively used rock music to make non-violent protests against Vietnam War. The music provided a means through which young people could make their voices be heard without using guns.


Hopkins, A. (2012).Protest and Rock ‘n’ Roll During the Vietnam War. Student Pulse, 4(11). Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < and-rock-n-roll-during-the-vietnam-war >.

Sarappa, P. (2011).The Vietnam Conflict: The Rock ‘n’ Roll War. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < %E2%80%98n%E2%80%99-roll-war/ >.

Dylan, B. (2010). The Times They are A- Changing. Retrieved on February 7,2013 from, < >.

Lamb, J.B. (2012).Vietnam War Protest Music. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < >.

McGuire, B. (2009). Eve of Destruction. Retrieved on February 7, 2013 from, < >.

British Invasion on Rock and Roll Music in America

March 26, 2013

British Invasion on Rock and Roll Music in America


The year 1964 is described as ‘The sixties’ because it is significant in the musical arena. The foundation of rock and roll originated in the US through mixing of the black genre music, gospel music, blues and rhythm. Musicians like Alan Freed played blues and rhythm to multi-racial people and audience and therefore describing it as ‘rock and roll’ and for us to understand the music of sixties we need to investigate and do not overshadow the music of 1950s. According to James Curtis (1987) he said “Rock n’ roll a rose from a complex combination of racial, demographic, generational and technological development”.

British invasion occurred during the time (1960s) when rock music act from UK with other areas of British culture being conformed by US. The band like ‘The Rolling Stones’, ‘The Beetle’, ‘The Who’ and’ The Moody Blue’ could make impact in musical scene in the United States. This paper tries to shed light the influential groups during the invasion, the impact of British invasion, what could happen if British invasion could have not taken place and the difference between the British and their American counterpart.

Most Influential Groups in 1960s

In the history of music there are performers who have left impact on the musical scene and mark through there proficiency and exploration. The list is endless but the outstanding ones include: the Beetle; The Moody Blue; The Rolling Stone and The beach Boys.

The Beetle

The group’s influence on roll and rock was profound and the world culture. In 1960 many rock bands depended on professional songwriters but this group composed their own. Areas such as developing ideas and incorporate them in their music. Their music stood up since rock music was looked down upon by previous musician when they produced the album ‘Sergeant Papper’, it was criticized. The group inspired the current musician from all spectrum and the group experiment with new techniques of recording sandwiched with common phrases for example the guitar effects.

The Rolling Stone

From history this is the longest performing rock of all the time. As part of the British invasion Rolling Stone became ‘Bad boys’ taken to portray the image of drug, sex and queer behavior. The band influenced the school girls and school boys although parents were not for it. In 1965 when they had there mega hit the attitude of the music won a mixture of rebellion using tribal drum and sexual vocals which seduced the young and alarmed the aged. This group influenced teenagers who changed their lifestyle.

Moody Blues

Began in 1964 in England. This group led the endeavor and pursuit the fusion of rock n’ roll and orchestra music with first song achieving the success through the incorporation of electronic keyboard as well as flute in the sound. The group has influenced rock music for along time.

Impact of British Invasion

British invasion took place between 1964 and 1966. The British rock n’ roll influenced the working class to make instrument and coexist with musicians like Van Morrison to begin their music career. This dented the career of many. The Beetle initiated the British invasion. The Beetle re-invented the image of the rock to be palatable and enjoyable to audience. This changed the imagination of American parents to view the band as nice and none threatening. Through the British invasion Dustly Springfield invented female soul which was notable. This rock tended to change American culture more especially among the youth as well as rapid change in the musical scene like rise of different genre of rock based in drum and guitar. According to rock magazine of 1960s, British invasion was a new savior and simple way to rock as it brought slung and modern style of dressing. This led to commercial success of many rock musicians.

What if British Invasion was thwarted?

The rock production in America could have not grown without the influence of the British more especially ‘Brait’. At the same time bands like Rolling Stones was a bad example to the youth as their music was based around drugs and sex. This influence could not exist or emanate if the country music could be emphasized as it was contemporary and could be listened on the radio and television without problems.

Electric Dylan was powerful but his platform could not be established without the help of the British invasion as they revabished rock n’ roll possibilities otherwise American rocks could not be interesting and the black artist could not be identified because no body carried the aggressive war as they expressed dissatisfaction before the invasion. Others include ‘Don’t look back’ and Sir Douglas Quintet. Some argue that English lyrics is better in rocks than the British slang

The British Verses America Rocks n’ Roll

Historically the rock n’ roll emerged from America with musician like Muddy Water introduced to England. British only gave favor in ‘sixties’ as called British invasion.

British used heavy metal. Bands like ‘Deep Purple’ used it. In America the band like ‘Van Helen’ used the thrashed metal.

Geographically many Americans rock and roll was popular in England. Bands like ‘Nirvana’ was both popular with British rock fans but American bands washed them soon.

American roll and rock music was established by American then refined by British. More focus has been put by American. British rock uses generational terminologies like in sex unlike America and this influence the uncouth behavior that we experience.


Terming British music as inversion to some extent is inappropriate. It must be considered that US and Britain constitute the larger part of anglosphere by using common culture. It implies that rock n’ roll is emphasized for youth, sexual progress and technology.


Bertland M.(2000). The Race, Rock and Elvis. Urbana. University of Illinois press

James C.(1987).Rock Era. Interpretation of Music and Society.1954-1984. Green state.

University press.

Kirty D.(2009). The Birth of Rock n’ Roll. London. Continuum.

Consumers and brands

March 26, 2013

Question 1

Customers always appreciate or like a specific aspect of a product that makes them want to keep coming back for more. It is also said that all products can be said to be tangible but has the possibility of being intangible in future.

Services on the other hand, can only be described as being intangible, they can only be felt (Callen, 2010). They are provided through the application of human behavior and effort that is directed towards people. In relation to a business, services are crucial elements that add value to the core of a product (Callen, 2010).

Services have a variety of characteristics that enable us differentiate them from goods. For instance, they possess the aspect of intangibility, implying they cannot be seen or touched. Nor can they be physically possessed but can only be felt. Another characteristic of services is that they are inseparable from the production and consumption processes (Callen, 2010). It is because of this characteristic that consumers will feel once they purchase a good, they also expect a specific service availed to them an in a manner the specific individual wants.

Perish ability implies that any unutilized service in a given period cannot be brought forward to some future time. This is also true since producers are incapable of handling supply and demand issues immediately through inventory or scheduling techniques (Callen, 2010). Therefore, it is strongly recommended that any service that would serve to increase the value of a good is offered in the best way at the specific time, else it would be rendered useless in future as it cannot be used elsewhere (Callen, 2010).

All of these characteristics of goods significantly influence the development and growth of marketing strategies and facilitate the attainment of an efficient market mix. To attain success, it is essential for a marketing professional to understand how the characteristics of services change and affect consumer behavior. The specific organization must also have the knowhow on how best to reduce engagement risk, boost a large market share, and improve customer discernment (Callen, 2010).

Question 2

In the review of two brands that are in the same industry, we pick Coca-cola and Pepsi soft drinks.

Coca-cola has for years been among the strongest surviving soft drinks brand before the emergence of others like Pepsi. One main reason why Coca-cola has retained its market share despite the competition posed by other new brands is because it has strong advertising and marketing strategies. The company has entirely capitalized on advertising to make sales and fortunately, they are always on top of their game. Coca-cola’s culture of advertising has revolutionized many things, among the American pop culture and the world in general (Callen, 2010).

Coca-cola adverts are said to be captivating and energizing for any consumer. They are engaging and entertaining. In the meantime, the company also produces other brands such as Sprite, Fanta, and Stoney. All these brands aim to capture markets that Coca-cola has been unable to secure (Callen, 2010).

Coca-cola has adopted catchy slogans in its advertising. For instance, one says “Delicious, Refreshing, Exhilarating, Invigorating.” Another goes “Refresh your thirst” (Callen, 2010). This year marked the 50 years of advertising for the Coca-cola company, and the company has released statements that its business continues to gain strength and longevity. The company has succeeded in adopting to the changing characteristics of its customer base all over the world.

Pepsi is a comparatively newer brand in the market compared to Coca-cola. It has lost a
a significant market share to Coca-cola which is its biggest competitor. Pepsi is a brand produced by the PepsiCo, which was established in 1893 (Callen, 2010). The company has suffered many problems including going bankrupt due to lack of sales.

Consequently, the company has re-designed and rebranded its products in a bid to reclaim its market share from Coca-cola. It employed new advertising strategies and partnered with icons in various fields that consumers would associate with. For instance, it entered a partnership deal with Beyonce and the National Football League. In addition, the company has featured Nicki Minaj, Drew Brees and Lionel Messi in its adverts (Callen, 2010). Despite the efforts, however, sales volumes continue to drop.

Beyonce, for instance, has not been an effective endorser of the product because as she herself said in a recent press conference, she only did the commercials for Pepsi not because she loves the product, but because she will earn from the endorsement deal.

The management, however, remains positive that Pepsi will soon make a full recovery. Despite the drop in sales volume, the company has been successful in reclaiming a small portion of its market share. This signifies that there is still more that the company can do when it comes to advertising and customer service, just like what Coca-cola does to add value to its products.

The only advert that has managed to create sales for the company is Diet Pepsi which is doing well in the market.

In comparing the two brands, it’s obvious that Coca-cola still ranks higher than Pepsi. Coa-cola’s advertising strategies can be said to be more effective if market shares are the main measuring stick for effectiveness. (Callen, 2010).

Question 3

The BCG Matrix was proposed by the Boston Consulting Group as an effective model for advertising and marketing due to is simplicity. The matrix has the capability to operate when the economies of scale were achievable in a production mix. The matrix is a renowned corporate analysis tool.

On the other hand, it is ineffective for a business portfolio as it can only classify a business as either low or high and ignores the aspect of a business being medium. In addition, the model discredits growth rate and market share as determinants of profitability.

The Product Life Cycle Matrix on the other hand is also discredited for use in business portfolios because it calculates sales with a lag, hence giving inaccurate results. The model is also inefficient when it comes to dealing with brands and services. Here, it it is assumed that slow movement of goods and slow sales signify that the product has reached its decline phase, an assumption that is not always right in most cases (Callen, 2010).


Callen, B. (2010). Manager’s guide to marketing, advertising, and publicity. New York: McGraw Hill.


Callen, B. (2010). Manager’s guide to marketing, advertising, and publicity. New York: McGraw Hill.

Inventory control at Wal-Mart

March 26, 2013



Wal-Mart Background

Wal-Mart was founded in 1962 when the firm opened its first store in rural Rogers, Arkansas. It was incorporated to Wal-Mart Store Inc. in October 1969. The firm has grown to become the United States and the world’s largest retail outlet. It is the largest single job creator with over two million employees. It is the largest retail outlet in the world. The company is committed to a business model of driving costs out of supply chains to enable consumers save money and live better. This is done anytime anywhere. Wal-Mart use retails stores and online stores as its main distribution channels of its products. As per January 2012 the Wal-Mart had an approximate of 1.4 million associates in the United States. The store has 780 000 international associates. Wal-Mart net sales for the year 2012 were $443.9 billion, an increase of 5.9 percent. The stores consolidated operating income grew by 4% to $26.6 billion. The company’s diluted earnings per share were $4.54. In the same year the company added 52.2 million square feet through 1,160 additional units. This was in a summation of acquisitions in the United Kingdom and South Africa. Wal-Mart fiscal year 2013 sales are approximated to be $466 billion (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2012).

Products and services

Wal-Mart offer a wide range of products that include retails goods like electronic goods, books, home furnishings, music downloads. The store also offer photo lab services inside the store and online. Customers drop their photographs for developing via a store kiosk or they can upload them through the corporate website. The store also offers pharmacy services, financial services and wireless services through partners like T-mobile.


Wal-Mart competitors are spread all over the world because the store operates in all regions of the world. In North America, Wal-mart’s primary competition includes department stores like Kmart, Shopko and Meijer. It faces competition from Canada’s Zellers, Giant tiger and the Real Canadian Superstore. The store faces competition from Mexico’s Commercial Mexicana and Soriana.

Wal-Mart product mix


Wal-Mart hosts products that range from electronics, music, movies, furniture, books, baby shop, clothing, sports items, health care products, pharmaceutical, toys, photography, grocery and jewelry. The company has also incorporated electronic commerce where it offers online shopping and shipping of products from its stores to any destination in the world. The company has installed a very reliable and warranted system that enables customers to purchase directly through mega stores over the internet. This has helped the store reduce the cost of operation through operation expense reductions. The company has exhibitions where private labeled brands and other brands like Cott beverages are marketed at the store’s various outlets. The companies that supply the stores with food items have been requested to use technologies that are environment friendly will maintaining the nutritional value of these foods. Wal-Mart store is one stop shop where an individual can buy all he or she wants either online on by visiting the various outlets available in the world.


Wal-Mart does not produce any brand. It exhibits various brands. The store has a huge worldwide network that flock with customers due t its discount packages that attract and tempt customers. The store is the largest retailer in the world. This makes it an economic force that enables it to run the pricing policy that provides customers with low rates. These rates are not available anywhere else. The company stands on this basic policy of providing products and services at low rates. The company has a universal bar code that acts as the bench mark for the company. This has helped shift the power form manufactures to retailers. The company has lowered the prices of all its grocery items by 15% of the local market price. Other products that have lower rates than the local market price include electronic goods and technological products. The company has a policy that for any manufacturer retailing items at Wal-Mart stores is that it has to reduce the price of increase the quality of its products. This price policy favors only producers with products selling fast in the market. Thus, Wal-Mart has ensured that its customers get value for their money.


Wal-Mart provides its goods and services through its three main divisions. They include Sam’s Club, Wal-Mart Stores United States and Wal-Mart international. The company’s outlets are marketed in different names in Japan, India, United Kingdom, South America, China, South Africa and Japan. The store is a huge network of stores. They range from small markets, cash and carry stores, membership warehouse clubs, food and drugs. Wal-Mart’s other networks general merchandise stores and soft discount stores. Wal-Mart outlets are mostly large building with an average of 197, 000 square feet.


The company has its own in-store promotional activities that include sales promotions. They include product bundling and pricing strategies. The company’s online store earns the firm revenues. This is gotten from customers placing online gifts. The sales turnover of the company increases due to its pricing strategy. The company uses “everyday low prices”, “value of the day” strategy to lure customers to its stores. The electronic commerce site has slogans that tempt customers to buy the products. Examples include “grab it before it is gone”.

Conditions that led to the implementation of inventory control

Company running out of stock

Big stores like Wal-Mart can be hard to carry out an inventory manually. With the inventory control system the staff restocks after taking the inventory off the rack. The system enables them to determine which brand, models and sizes that consumers are buying often. This makes the whole system efficient. This system prevents the store from running out-of stock. The system alerts the employees to replenish the store after a sale. This prevents cases where products go out of stock without the knowledge of the manager. Purchasing on the other hand is notified on the spot. This enables them to place orders throughout the day. The technology is used to improve operations. The tag is disabled at checkout.

Management of suppliers was a problem in the organization. The system was implemented in order to manage suppliers. After the implementation of the system, the number of suppliers was reduced. The suppliers were also made partners with Wal-Mart.

Inventory management was a nightmare at Wal-Mart. This was due to the large number of products, processes and services the firm was dealing with. The system reduced the order-ship-bill cycle. Information could also be easily shared online from one store or department to another.

Wal-Mart is very expansive with branches round the world. To manage all the channels was time consuming and tedious work. The implementation of the system also ensured that channel management was eased. Documents like a bill of landing, purchase order and advanced ship notices can be moved easily over the system.

The system after implementation eliminated the barriers that existed in payment. Wal-Mart was linked to its suppliers and distributors by the system. This ensured that payment could be made electronically.

Wal-Mart operated in various world regions that use different currencies. The system eliminated financial management problems that were facing the company. The management of the company would manage various foreign exchange currencies using the system.

Information between various stores was a problem before the implementation of the system. The system facilitated and improved flow of information among sales and production and customer functions.

Implementation of the operational management tool was done in 2005. This was after various failures of the bar-code system. This system had challenges like inefficiency and slow operations. Inventory was also a problem. Restocking of the store used to be done after a week. However, with the implementation of the new management tool inventory was eased. Other problems faced by the store included supply problems, payments and check-out.

Results of the implementation of the management tool

Information flow was eased at the company. This is because all the associates get the day’s news at once. Any other event is relayed in real-time. This makes operations and management easy, efficient and cheap. Workers were reduced. This is because some of the roles that were being done manually like inventory taking were automated by the new inventory tool. This in the end saved Wal-Mart large sums of money that would otherwise have been used to pay wages.

The figure below shows a reduction in the wages by Wal-Mart store due to implementation of a management tool (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2012).


Increased productivity by Wal-Mart due to less time taken to carry out roles like restocking and inventory. Sales increased because the tool ensured that all the products are available for customers at the right time and place. The system alerted the attendants on all products in the store. It could provide information on the expiry date, re-stocking level, price, size, local and quantity. This increased productivity of Wal-Mart thus increasing profits accrued.

Global management tools are of utmost importance to companies like Wal-Mart. This is because these tools eliminate procedural and informational bottlenecks. This increases the efficiency of Wal-Mart’s decision and order timing. The use of the inventory tool by Wal-Mart has helped it improve its business processes both in the United States and Internationally. The risks associated with making errors due to perceived demand changes in the supply chain go done because with the use of the inventory tool, the data becomes relevant and more accurate (Bonacich & Wilson, 2005).

The implementation of the management tool by Wal-Mart improved operations at the store. Customers got quality service and efficiently. This was achieved through the supply chain visibility and more accurate ordering decisions. The system enabled Wal-Mart to lower the costs related with inefficient inventory decisions and handling. This is because ordering and sales are closely aligned than any other process in the operation of the store. The inventory tool is used by Wal-Mart to avoid having excess inventory while attracting price-minded consumers.

The implementation of the inventory tool by Wal-Mart increased the efficiency of its inventory management. The technology has also been implemented by its suppliers because inventory is handled by both Wal-Mart and the suppliers. This tool has enabled Wal-Mart to replenish its products faster than when it was using bar code technology.

The Future of Wal-Mart

The future Wal-Mart will focus its attention on smaller stores as consumers are shifting from out-of-town shopping centers. This has been attributed to high costs of fuel, penetration of technology, consumers do not want to be faced with many things they cannot afford and rise in number of online stores. This has been demonstrated by recent Wal-Mart developments where it is launching small stores in neighborhood markets. These stores can be linked with the rest of the stores using the management tool.

Electronic commerce

Internet has penetrated the world at an alarming rate. Increase in smart phones and cheap computers and the market have increased the demand for electronic commerce. The number of online stores offering electronic commerce has also increased. This has made the number of traditional visit stores shrink in size at a very high rate. Wal-Mart should take advantage of social networking and mobile application that are taking over the lives of many consumers to roll out an efficient electronic commerce system. This will have consumers shop for products over the internet and have them delivered to their proffered destinations. Increase in social networking has influenced shopping habits of many customers.

Going green

Customers’ demands and various campaigns advocating for cost savings have led many retailers, Wal-Mart included to take not of environmental matters. This has been demonstrated by opening of a Wal-Mart, Joplin, Mo. that use energy efficient bulbs. These bulbs use LED lighting and they are complemented by sunlight and concrete flooring made of recycled materials. Wal-Mart has plans to install solar power to its stores in order to reduce the pressure on the environment.

Sci-fi solutions

With the installation of the new management tool, Wal-Mart can install in-store scanning to run its operations. This technology can be used to shift from channel-centric to customer centric. This can enable retailers reach consumers at home, work and during commute time (Bruton & White, 2010).


Wal-Mart in future can expand and open new store through acquisition. This method cautions an organization against market forces. The company acquires an already existing store in the market with a customer base and premise. All the company does is change management and introduce new products and services. This in the end reduces the starting capital of the firm.


Information technology has been employed by Wal-Mart to improve its business process. The inventory tool has decreased the costs of doing business for Wal-Mart while increasing efficiency and profits. The tool has helped increase the quality of products on display through timely re-stocking while avoiding having excess inventory. Wal-Mart through the use of technology, it can afford to offer consumers goods at low prices because it can control its costs. The costs of its products are also determined by the efficiency or inefficiency of its suppliers. The implementation of a management tool has increased the productivity of the firm, lowered the amount spent to pay its stuff and increased return on investment tremendously. This has been attributed to low cost of doing business.


Bonacich, E. & Wilson, J. (2005). Hoisted by its own Petard: Organizing Wal-Mart’s Logistics Workers. New Labor Forum, 14(2), 67-75.

Bruton, G. & White, A. (2010). The Management of Technology and Innovation: 

A Strategic Approach. Connecticut: Cengage Learning.

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., (2012). To our shareholder, associates and customers. Retrieved from

Comparison Essay

March 26, 2013

A Good man is hard to find and Good country people, are articles authored by Flannery O’Connor, deeply touching on mankind. Both of these articles have some similar issues talked about by Flannery in the context of her writing. For instance, she heavily touches on family wrangles; religion, untrustworthiness and death are issues that arise in her articles. The article Good country people is about a 30 year old lady who has a miserable life and is comfortable being that way. All the events revolving around these articles happen to occur from the south. This is evident because there is a statement made about aspects matching the southern climate.

The events and characters revolving around these articles arise from the past as their presentation puts them across. Mrs. Freeman and Mrs. Hopewell are seen to be digging onions in the back pasture of their locations (Scott, 452).  This in other words implies that the stories narrated in these two articles happen in the rural areas and not in urban centers. Still in the south, Flannery distinguishes between the old and the new south which varied in the modes of lifestyles in the past. Christian sentiments are evident in both the Good country people as well as in the article a Good man is hard to find. Themes of Christian theology are exposed as Flannery is a conscious catholic thus being able to match biblical sentiments with contemporary life issues. The author wisely uses her theological beliefs to expose violence and the conflict between good and evil. The author’s religious perspectives are exposed by majoring on both selfish actions and violence as portrayed by her characters.

Most of Fernery’s characters revolve around the realm of humanity unlike in the spiritual realm. This is visible in the case of the grandmother and Hulga do not accommodate the existence of Christ until things get worse. The acts of violence push both characters to the extreme to the extent of them fighting to seek Christianity (Meyer, 463). After a long period of fighting against religion, the grandmother turns to prayers which do not save her. The battle between good and evil is evident when unlike Hulga; a Bible salesman portrays the holiness of God. The difference between the old and the new south is portrayed by the grandmother who is said to take a long time preparing herself. This exposes the presentation and self-pride nature of the old south residents. Unlike the grandmother, the author brings about the new south by explaining how the children’s mother dresses.

Throughout these two stories, Fernery O’Connor exposes how life’s events end up changing her character’s opinions. Due to spiritual journeys, they end up transforming from the worst to better religion accommodating people. As a result of ego and personal pride, characters from both articles believe they stand in a better place than any other person (Scott, 457). The power of the omnipotent God is portrayed when people in problems turn to him by praying and not criticize religion as a whole.

In both the stories, the author uses a persuasive nature to emphasize on the importance of accommodating religion. She states that if there was someone shooting the grandmother any time, then she would be a strict Christian. Finally, both the story A good man is hard to find and the good country people, the author provides a tough and touching ending. This is because of some characters like the grandmother who end up losing their lives. The two stories thus have adequate similarities than differences allowing Franery to display her writing techniques.

Work cited

Meyer, Michael. The Bedford introduction to literature: Reading, thinking, writing. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2011. Print.

Scott, Neil. Flannery O’Connor: An annotated reference guide to criticism. Milledgeville, Ga: Timberlane Books. 2002. Print.

Pricing Strategies

March 26, 2013

Question 1

  1. If this past relationship between sales of whole grilled chicken and increased sales of other goods holds, by how much must chicken sales increase to make this price promotion profitable?

The current price for the whole grilled chicken is £0.89 while the proposed price is £0.59. the difference between these two prices is £0.3. That means that the vegetables will change by £1.95, packed vegetables by £0.433 and frozen vegetables by £2.63.

  1. How might you structure the promotion to increase the likelihood that additional chicken sales will in fact result in a corresponding high level of sales for other products?

This can be offering the price of the chicken at the wholesale price. The grocery can buy this chicken at a wholesale price to ensure that they are offered at a lower price. In that case, this will affect the prices of the other products.

  1. Could this store have profitability promoted whole fryers at £ 0.49 per pound?

No, that could not be possible since it will result in a loss in the sale of the other product. For example, the sale of packaged groceries, fruits and vegetables will suffer a very big fluctuation in price if this does happen (Gamez 2012)

Question 2

  1. The difference between Dual pricing and worldwide pricing.

These two methods vary in their effectiveness as well. As the purpose for which they are used. Dual pricing entail the use of a different price for the goods that are sold in the domestic market and setting a different price for the goods that are sold in the international market. The method sets the international prices while still being sensitive to local prices. Worldwide pricing is also for the companies that operate in the international market. However, it does not differentiate the pricing of the different markets. It uses one price for all the markets internationally. Both these methods are use to optimize prices. However, the dual pricing is seen to be better in that it is sensitive to the local pricing.

  1. The meanings of the terms transfer pricing and arm’s length pricing.

Transfer pricing is the method of accounting that is uses to transfer revenue between the divisions of a company that work together to develop a given product. The purpose of transfer pricing is helping the divisions of a company make optimal decisions. It also helps measure divisional performance. Arms length pricing on the other hand is the determination of the price of a product that is being charged by one party to another as if the parties were not related. It is the determination of the price of a product as if it was being sold in the open market. The principle of arm’s length pricing works in transfer pricing in that the prices of products valuation between related parties ion a company are dealt with as if they are being priced in the open market.

  1. How might price controls and dumping affect the pricing decisions of international companies?

Dumping entails the sale of a product at a lower price in the international market than the price that is offered in the domestic market. This can happen intentionally but it can also happen due to fluctuations in exchange rates. The countries where this is happening try to influence the prices of the foreign companies that are said to be dumping. That may influence the decision that a company is making in the pricing of its products internationally.

A price control entails the placing of a minimum or maximum price that nation requires a certain n product to be sold at. This normally happens when there a cases of inflation in a country, in that case the countries place maximum price that they require a certain product to be sold at. That will no doubt affect the price that the company decides to charge a certain product.

Question 3

  1. What is price waterfall?

It is a method that is used to determine the achieved net as well as the price pockets and not just the price that appears on the print of the invoice. This is done by the collection of all the price related data that may be available. The method helps an organization come up with the best prices that can be obtained for any product by the determination of the price leakages at all levels of product production.

  1. The benefits of a price waterfall.

A price waterfall is a tool that is used by businesses to help show what is happening with the pricing. It helps the company understand why the prices are as they are. It also helps the employees and business partners communicate the valuation of a given product. It helps the company make the pricing of product more effective.

Question 4 – There are several key factors affect pricing decisions. Name and describe them.

Factors that affect the pricing decision are;

  1. Customers. The customers determine the pricing decision in that the company has to consider certain things about them. These are how sensitive they are to the pricing, how many they are in the market and what value they may be placing on the product that is being sold to them.

  2. Competitors. With many products being sold in the market as well as substitutes, companies have to strive to keep loyal customers by matching their prices with those of their customers. Customers will not be willing to buy a product at a price that is higher than what it being sold elsewhere.

  3. Government regulations and the regulations. The nature of the economy of any given country cam largely determine the prices that a company will assign to its product. When the economy is poor, there are many people who are unemployed and therefore e may not have much money to spend on the products on sale.

Works Cited

Gamez, Ruben. 7 Pricing Strategies Based on Research Studies. November 19, 2012. /


March 8, 2013


The two sources of this paper include the Journal of College Admission titled The Myth OF THE MILLENIALS written by Edwin W. Koc and Welcoming a New Generation to College: The Millennial Students written by Dr. Carol Elam, Dr. Terry Stratton and Denise D. Gibson. The Millennia generation students has received significant attention and therefore, expected to have a critical role of shaping the future of the economy. The current generation of college students and universities students have some unique attributes that professional in the education sector have to enjoy while at the same time condemning some. This generation has developed shared values and behaviors such as team work, respect, talented, hardworking, generous and confidence about their future among others. The millennial generation is the newest generation and builds its values from baby boomers and tries to fill the empty space left by the cultures of the G.I generation. Currently most enrollees’ in college and universities students are from Generation X and Millennial generation. The millennia generation has received significance attention from their parents in a different way from the previous generation therefore, making them to poses unique sets of behaviors.

The Millennial students have a characteristic of being sheltered. Their supportive parents encourage them to succeed in life. They have been encouraged to follow the rules and on the other hand, they expect all rules to be communicated clearly. Millennial students are respectful and follow and scrutinize rules, policies and procedures carefully resulting to having them being reviewed regularly. Research suggests the Millennia students prefer dynamic methods of learning. Technology has reduced the time required to complete tasks therefore, millennial college students think and process information in different ways compared to their predecessors. The attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of these students require the educators to adopt new learning and service strategies, rethink student development methods and modify the learning environment in order, to serve them efficiently. These students have mastered the skills of multitasking through the use of technology; the use of computers, pagers and cell phones thereby, enhancing the capability of organizing and mobilizing themselves (Elam et al, 2007).

Millennial students have developed the skills of cooperating and collaborating throughout the high schools and colleges. They have goals to achieve and often work in teams. They also like collective actions on their jobs. This generation of millennial students is socially networked and has a practical approach of dealing with problems. Therefore, they engage very well in community services as long as they get credit for it. Confidence is another trait that the millennial students expect of their future. They are optimistic and have been encouraged to believe in themselves. They are high achievers and expect to be held accountable as long as accountability can be achieved through good behaviors. The pressure they undergo from their parents and teachers help them to achieve their goals.

Although the millennial students have all those positive qualities their teachers, counselors and administrators have to confront some challenges encountered with students at high school and colleges. The millennial students interact with many cultures and one might assume they share same experiences and perspectives. The diversity of racial and ethnic group has resulted in increased racial discrimination among students of this generation compared to the previous generations. The other challenge to teachers is that students rely too much on communication technology and some researchers fear that this has reduced their attention span. The other challenge is that those students who have completed their primary and secondary curriculum lack the skills of critical thinking because of being exposed to rote learning.

Parents are over protective and intrusive regarding their children education experience since they are always following their progress. Increased parents involvement in school administration reflects transparency and capability on the side of the institution. This generation has come to trust their elders to arrange for them a system that lead to success as long as they don’t divert from it. They are very closely related to their mothers,

The millennia generation is the dominant part of the labor force. Their unique set of behaviors is also portrayed in the job market. Their high level concept is evidence in choosing the employer the generation desire to work with, and where work and life is balanced. Therefore, they require flexible jobs where some hours are spent pursuing other interests outside their job. The millennial parents also want to be part of the recruitment process in the employment sector and policies have been adopted by employers to include them to special gatherings. This is too much on the side of these domineering parents. Due to the high rate of unemployment there is no room to review job offers with the parents. Security consciousness on their job is a result of the nurturing environment. The millennial students ran to the union movement for grievances instead of changing jobs. This behavior is not appealing since the competing view of this college recruits should not be relied to determine employment policies because of their high level concept which is evidence in choosing the employer the generation desire to work with and where work and life is balanced. They have become used to receiving rewards in high school and colleges, thus the justification for the millennial mindset that tends to encourage compliance rather than commitment. Some Millennia generation students’ behaviors will make it hard to shape the future of the economy especially, with the dependency level and the high level attitude. The behavior of the millennial generation workers will result in social strain because of their high expectations in comparison to the previous generations. The ambitions and pressure to achieve the desired goals by the millennial student can blur the ethics for these students. The unrealistic expectations set for the millennial students are a concern, and there is doubt if they are adequately prepared for the professional world (Koc, 2008).

In conclusion, the millennial students have thrived in a nurturing environment where they are encouraged to succeed. Their characteristics are a mixture of both the good and bad qualities. The close relationship with their parents who support all their activities in school and work place make them to poses unique sets of behaviors that are different from previous generation. Although domineering parents have contributed to the reasons why the millennia generation is regarded as dependant, this has also helped to enhance the development of talents and self-esteem. This essay reflects the recurring aspect of culture where people are treated in ways that reinforce their behavior to believe that this is what is expected of them and their peers (Koc, 2008).


Elam, Carol., Stratton,Terry and Gibson, Denise . (2007) Journal of College Admission: Welcoming a New Generation to College: The Millennial Students. Nace Research.

Koc, Edwin W. (2008). The Myth OF THE MILLENIALS. Nace Research.

Article critique: The myth of Millennials

March 8, 2013

Article critique: The myth of Millennials

In the modern world, a lot of things are associated to a particular generation: for instance many things have been attributed to the millennium generation. This gives rise to the question does the millennium generation really exist? The article “The myth of Millennials” published by NASE (National alliance of colleges and employers) research provides some information on the mater. It is for this reason that the article is a good source of material for this essay. Along with the article “welcoming a new generation to college: the millennial students”. This essay critiques “the myth of millennials” article along with the analysis of “welcoming a new generation to college: the millennial students”

NACE Research (2008): The myth of Millennials

NACE research is quite a reputable organization that connects campus recruits and career services experts with an aim of providing the best practices, trends, study, professional development, and symposiums. In my opinion, the organization is quite knowledgeable on matters concerning the generation in question. This is so because most of college students as well as the professionals involved in such symposiums are of the age bracket in question. The credibility of the information from the organization is therefore not an issue.

This article gives a brief introduction of the factors surrounding the millennial generation. He article also goes ahead to describe the factors that constitute a generation. In the introductory part of the article, NACE Research describes the millennial generation as the generation of people born between the years 1980 and 2000 (NACE Research, 2008). To many people this is quite a wide margin of age difference. The article describes a generation to be a set of people of almost the same age so that the oldest and the youngest have an age difference equivalent to the time span between birth and adulthood. This is in line with the universally acceptable definition of a generation- people born within the same time range showing similarity in cultural practices.

The article argues that the millennial generation has among others a common view of the job sector. This is an important sector since it determines the future of an individual as well as that of the people dependent upon the individual. This creates a phenomenon referred to as helicopter parenting. Most of the people in this generation are currently in college or in their early years of working. Going by the article, one of the major challenges is the work life balance. Under the work-life balance, the generation is faced by a challenge between choosing an employment avenue to facilitate the balance (NACE Research 2008). In as much as this may be true to some extent, am of the view that most of the people in this generation are rather desperate to start working and shift from their parents’ houses.

Further on the article says that the people allied to this generation want a job that gives them time to pursue the private matters. If I were to say, this could be true in the short run. This is basically the dream of most of most of the people at this age. However, if on entering in the job hustle group, they conclude that this may not be quite possible in the short run. As times passes on, they become less sensate for the type of job as a result of desperation. The article says that the work-life balance is a trade of between career opportunities and personal goals. I couldn’t agree more to this more so considering that a lot of sacrifice in involved. I also consider sacrifice to be a much alien vocabulary to the millennium generation. Most of the people in this generation are used to get away with anything especially during their teenage lives. This is however not practical in the real world where we don’t get exactly what we want. It is much harder for the millennial generation to understand this than it is for them to quit a well paying job for some fun and leisure.

Later on in the article, NACE research explains more about helicopter parents. Helicopter parents are defined as parents who are particularly close to their children and more so during their problematic situation. Some people consider this to be a good move for both the parent and the children as it creates a bond between the two. In my opinion, this is not so good especially for the child. It creates a virtual world for the child where everything is perfect and runs according to plan. Protection and helping is not bad after all but overdoing it is what spoils the situation. This explains the behavior exhibited by the millennial generation towards work among other factors.

Dr. Carol Elam, Dr. Terry Stratton and Denise D. Gibson Welcoming a new generation to college: the millennial students

This article looks at the millennial generation from a different point of view. In my understanding, the media plays a very critical role in modeling the behaviors and traits of members of the millennial generation. In the introductory part, the writer state “They watched the unfolding of Desert Storm in Iraq––and the continual, “real time” media coverage it generated. From school shelling at Columbine High School (CO) and other locations, they experienced school lock-downs and increased security.” Contrary to my expectation, the writers say that growing in that kind of environment has instilled a unique set of attributes particular to the millennial generation (Carol E., Terry S. and Denise D., 2007).

The article goes on to say that the millennial generation is constituted by a set of hardworking people in their youthful stages of life, who have the support of their parents. In page 22 of the article, the writers say that in as much as they appreciate the positive traits instilled to the students by the society, the millennial students still pose a major challenge for the tutors in colleges. They go ahead to explain that the students are not to blame for the challenges posed but their parents are to blame. Helicopter parents often assume the theoretical as well as practical roles of their children as they grow. According to statistics provided in the article 20% of all U.S. students from the millennial generation have issues pertaining to racism among other factors. Like the “The myth of Millennials” article, this article also talks about the helicopter parents and how they play a negative role on the lives of their children.

Communication technology has also been put forward as one of the most influential factors in the millennial generation. Members of the millennial generation have been termed as being over reliant on communication technology. Technological developments have also enabled students in this category to be able to multitask even in events they should not be multitasking. These two statements are somehow interdependent. Looking at the current situation, social networks have become so common to people in this age bracket with Facebook and Twitter being the most common. About 45% of all college students in this age bracket can effectively use their communication gadgets while still performing another task.

In a nutshell, the “Welcoming a new generation to college: the millennial students” article looks at both the positive and negative sides of the millennial generation and therefore providing a much comprehensive outlay of the millennial generation.



NACE Research (2008): The myth of Millennials U.S.A. NACE RESEARCH

Carol E., Terry S. and Denise D. (2007) Welcoming a new generation to college: the millennial students U.S.A Spring

The Untainted Falcon: An analysis of The Maltese Falcon in the eyes of John Huston

March 8, 2013

The 1941 film The Maltese Falcon by John Huston is the second film adaptation of the 1930 detective novel of the same title written by Dashiell Hammett. This version depicts historic images of the social issues pestering the 1940s America, as well as the popularity of the film noir fiction of the time that were also evident in Hammett’s work on the novel. Huston’s film debut strongly adhered to the spirit of Hammett’s story. In an interview, John Huston made it known that when it comes to his approach to adaptations, he tries “to penetrate first to the basic idea of the book or the play, and then work with those ideas in cinematic terms.” (Wexman 50) For him, the basic idea of the novel is the mystery of the precious falcon statuette. He makes sure that his film will be centered on this specific notion by staying faithful to this concept. In this film adaptation of The Maltese Falcon novel by Dashiell Hammett, John Huston tries to communicate the appeal of Hammett’s novel to him by presenting its important aspects such as storyline, film noir essence, and historical and cultural context in a faithful adaptation seen in the film’s familiar screenplay, skillful manipulation of sound and cinematography techniques, and timely and relevant release.

In The Maltese Falcon, Huston created a screenplay that stayed close to the novel’s storyline. Huston’s film debut strongly adhered to the spirit of Hammett’s story. The screenplay basically revolves around the mystery of the Maltese Falcon and the suspense in the treacherous chase for the most coveted bejeweled statue. The opening of the novel introduces a helpless woman who comes to Spade and Archer’s office to ask for help in finding her sister who eloped with a guy named Thursby. With a prologue about the history of the Maltese Falcon, the same scene was also the beginning of the story in Huston’s film. Huston also adopted the theme of the original work and that is the strenuous hunt for the impossible and determining the thing that keeps a man tied to his dream, along with underlying notions such as betrayal, greed, trust, and failure. As the characters get involved in this complex entanglement agitated with crime, deception, and greed the more the audiences are made to realize that trust is an elusive pursuit as the hunt for the Maltese Falcon. He incorporated the basic idea and the meaning symbolized by the Maltese Falcon by using it as the title of the film and letting the plot revolve around the hunt for this rare treasure. A prologue about the Maltese Falcon gaged prior knowledge on the “the stuff that dreams are made of,” where it serves as the thing that symbolizes a dream that is almost impossible to achieve and at the same time suggests a treacherous path towards realizing that dream. By adopting the exact sequencing of events and the underlying themes Hammett’s novel, Huston literally translated the story from novel to screen that in turn upholds his credibility and reputation as a film director when it comes to his adaptation style.

Another convincing method that Huston used in his film is his masterful use of music and cinematography techniques that delivered the spirit of Hammett’s novel as he intended it to be. In the light of film noir and hard-boiled fictions, Huston used high contrast images, extreme close ups, low camera angles in most scenes of the film for a dark and mysterious effect. One of the most intense scenes in this film is when Samuel Spade’s partner, Miles Archer was shot while tailing Ms. Wonderly. To indicate the intensity of this scene, Huston used a low-key lighting to provoke fear towards the impending death of Archer. Also, most of the scenes are shot in a tight frame giving a feeling of claustrophobia that further triggers moods such as panic and anxiety. Confrontational scenes involving the characters were usually shot inside Spade’s small office and in his apartment as if wanting the audience to feel tense and uneasy in seeing Spade in close proximity with the dangerous people while confined in a small room. It is often noticeable as well how Gutman and the rest of his gang are given height and a powerful sense through the use of low camera angle, making the audience feel vulnerable and inferior with regards to these characters. Gutman’s intimidating presence was even more intensified with high contrast scenes of his enormous body dressed in dark hues against the very white wall of his apartment. Moreover, in order to make sure that Spades nervousness will be adequately emanated from a subjective point of view, Huston used extreme close ups of his face in most stressed scenes.

Aside from cinematography styles discussed, editing and sound techniques also plays a great role in filling this film with thrill and suspense. In the final scenes where they unwrap the package that is supposed to contain the statuette, the effect of the dragging scene and the discordant and grating music is indeed very thrilling and absorbing. In terms of cinematography and music, Houston used an artistic proof to make his case in his adaptation of the novel. His play with the film’s settings, lighting, camera angle, and sound that are all inherent to film noir and hard-boiled fictions trigger the very same emotions that Hammett wanted to achieve from his readers.

Huston was capable of capturing the essence of the film in its historical and cultural context that the original version of The Maltese Falcon conveys, and it is one of the aspects of Hammett’s novel that Huston considers as significant in order to direct the audiences to the general mood and message. During the release of prior versions of this story, its reception was quite affected negatively by the public’s perception of what’s relevant. People back then are not used to “misogynistic flavor” of most hard-boiled fictions; instead they found romance and happy endings more tasteful. (Wexman 49) Also in the 1930s when the novel and the first film adaptation of this novel was released, it is quite rare to depict a woman with immense sexuality, intellectual mind, and dangerous motives that are exactly what the character of Brigid O’Shaughnessy is all about. By 1941, the plot of Huston’s film adaptation has finally become relatable in respect to status quo. During the 1940s the diversity of population in the US experienced a prevalent stretch. Immigrants from different parts of the world who started to swarm the biggest American cities, prohibition in effect, and the formation of gangsters all brought drastic changes to the US demographics. (Bradley & Whitley, “The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell…”) These changes were pronounced in this film as social drawbacks that somehow inspired film noir genre and detective stories in the 1940s; hence the dominant themes of the film being crime investigation, trust issues, and greed. In the film, a group of instigators who’ve been all various cities in the world chose San Francisco’s private investigators Samuel Spade and Miles Archer to help them in their quest to find a rare treasure with unquantifiable value that consequently cost Archer’s life and trapped Spade in a web of lies and deception. Another interesting manifestation of the America’s 1940 society is the rise of women taking over the work of men who at the time are preparing for war (Wexman 50) that inspired the femme fatale character of Brigid O’Shaughnessy in this story. O’Shaughnessy’s unrelenting lies and wicked mind earned her an image of dangerous lady capable of overthrowing a man of power. (Bradley & Whitley, “The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell…”) What used to be unthinkable to the 1930s audience becomes the standard of future film noir fictions by the advent of Huston’s The Maltese Falcon. (Bradley & Whitley, “The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell…”) The adaptation of American literary works is one of the telling characteristics of film noir in the 1940s with most of the stories released in the succeeding years under this genre were based on best-selling detective novels, pulp fiction, etc. (“Film Noir” 1) In The Maltese Falcon, Huston managed to relate the story to the experiences of the audience, appeal to their emotion, and ultimately appeal to reason with the timely release of his film, when the norms of the society seemed sympathetic to this storyline.

In order to appeal to the emotion of the readers, Hammett artistically used conspicuous metaphors and impressive storytelling techniques in his novel. This is much the same with what Huston did in his film to communicate a version of it to the audiences. Instead of lavish words, the mystery and suspense brought by the pursuit for the Maltese Falcon were manifested through his artistry in storytelling, music and cinematography, and the fortunate timing of his adaptation’s release.

The major aspects of Hammett’s novel: storyline, settings, characters, themes, and contexts are also the core of Huston’s film adaptation as carefully analyzed through specific focus on Huston’s screenplay writing, sound and cinematography manipulation, and historical and cultural relevancy application. John Huston’s goal to bring The Maltese Falcon to the screen the way he visualize the novel has been effectively achieved. With his solid approach and modest style in jumping The Maltese Falcon to another medium, Huston’s screen adaptation became the standard for future detective films plot and characterizations. (Bradley & Whitley, “The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell…”) Mainly as a sign of his respect to the high art of Dashiell Hammett, Huston’s film has successfully turned out to be a literal rendition of what the novel ultimately stands for that is nevertheless a unique and the most admirable rendition on its own rights, and inspired many of the succeeding film noir fictions.

Works Cited

Film Noir.” AMC Filmsite. Web. 18 Feb 2013.

Bradley, B. & Whitley, P. “The Maltese Falcon by Dashiell Hammett – LSC Kingwood.” Lone Star College System. Dec 2012. Web. 18 Feb 2013.

McKay, B & McKay, K. “Classical Rhetoric 101: The Three Means of Persuasion.” 21 Dec 2010. Web. 18 Feb 2013.

Mooney, W. “Sex, Booze, and The Code: Four Versions of The Maltese Falcon.” Literature Film Quarterly, 2011, Vol. 39 Issue 1, p54-70, 17p.

Naremore, J. “John Huston and “The Maltese Falcon”.” Literature Film Quarterly Vol I nr 3 (Summer 1973); p 239-249.

The Maltese Falcon.” The Internet Movie Database. 2013. Web. 20 Feb 2013.

Wexman, V. “The Transfer from One Medium to Another: “The Maltese Falcon”” from Fiction to Film. The University of Chicago Press. The Library Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 1, Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Conference of the Graduate Library School, August 5-6, 1974. Differentiating the Media: A Focus on Library Selection and Use of Communication Content (Jan., 1975), pp. 46-55.