Sustainable Design Manifesto

Sustainable Design Manifesto




  1. Importance of Sustainability

Quantitative Importance

Energy consumption is one of the major cause of Global Warming and Greenhouse effect. According to International Energy Agency (IEA) the goal of limiting the global warming to 2 degree Celsius is becoming a challenge and increasingly the rate as year passes. It is projected that by the year 2017 CO2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure, means the hotter it will be.

Qualitative Importance

Sustainable design envisions itself to lessen or absolutely removed any or all the negative impact that has or will arise on a certain product. The concept of the sustainable design is applicable to all areas of designing of a certain product. In this human are the key responsible for maintaining a sustainable environment – the Human Home.

The Designer’s Role

The designer is the one who is responsible to respond to design a house that will suit the environment and needs of the people who will occupy a certain building or residence. In history, designer’s main objective in designing is to protect the lives of the people against the enemies. These enemies are nowadays known as negative aspects that cause discomfort to human lives. They need to design using the three R guidelines – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

Figure 1 – Exterior of House


The house is a modern contemporary design / box type house with 156 sq, m floor area, Three Bedrooms, with provision of suspended slab deck, 2 bathrooms. A fully air conditioned and has a full heating system inside. It is constructed in the Philippines by Drilon & Doctor Construction Company, Designed by Engr. Ralph Romar Doctor and Arch, Maricor Tan. Philippines is a tropical country – people who lives here prefer a high ventilated houses.

Sustainable Feature:

  1. The house uses natural lights; it is visible on their kitchen and bathroom, where the you can see the existence of using roof windows. Using Natural Light as a source of brightness will totally lessen your electric consumption.

  2. Exterior and interior paint uses bright colors in order to create a brighter interior, trough this electric consumption will be lessen.

  3. Roof and walls are all fully insulated with 900 mm wide overhangs that will provide natural cooling under hot sunny day.

  4. The house uses Standard Bamboo Floors instead of using textile products.

  5. The house also uses floor to ceiling glass windows that allows natural lights enlighten the whole structure during day time.



  1. Ventilation – It is better to use fan rather than the use of Air Conditioners as it less the energy consumption. It is best to use only air conditioners to rooms that really need to. It is also advised to use asphalt roofing that has at least 0.09mm wide in order to keep the ventilation to house exhaust during hot weather. The more windows is also advised in order to flow the natural air inside the house.

  2. Daylight – During daylight, the house uses natural lights by adding roof windows on Kitchen and bathroom these roof windows will totally less the energy consumption, there will be no need to switch on the light during daylight. On evening, it is advised to use LED lights for less energy consumption, the use of pin lights is also advised since it only requires low energy consumption. It must be point out that too much energy consumption leads to Global Warming and increasing the rate of Green House Effect.

  3. Water – It is advised to consume less hot water trough installing water efficient showerheads and tops in order to save energy and water, though this consumption of water will be less. It is also advice to use automated flush toilet rather than valve toilets since it is conserve more water as compare to the second. It is also advise to use the drained water from the kitchen to water the garden outside the house, through this waste water will be maximized and consumption of fresh water for the plant will be lessen. It is important to conserve fresh water. Fresh water nowadays is increasingly scarce resources because of water pollution and in urban area consumption of water continuously increasing but the supply of potable water are inversely increasing. Statistically recorded that buildings use 17 %`fresh water – as a result treatment cost for fresh water increases annually.

  4. Furniture and Interiors – It is advised to use renewable products on furniture, like bamboo. Below are some example of bamboo products that may be use:

Figure 2 and Figure 3 Furniture of the Green Village


It is said that Bamboos are locally grow in South-East Asian countries like Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand and other ASEAN countries. Through this material a sustainable designing and production of furniture will be possible and will be a good source of pro-natural and environment products.

Rock and Roll and Society

The influence of War/Protests on Rock and Roll Music

Rock and Roll music is a powerful genre of music that has a controversial nature. It has been used to respond to various social and political issues affecting the society. Its controversial nature has made it very popular. From 1955 to 1966, wars and protests significantly influenced Rock and Roll music. This period was characterized by the Vietnam War which killed more than three million people. The United States got involved in the Vietnam War to support South Vietnam against the communist regime (Lamb, 2012). However, due to the high number of young American people who were dying, the public approval of the war began to dwindle. Rock and Roll music which was very popular among the younger American generation at that time became a tool of expressing anti-war protests. This paper will illustrate how war/protests influenced Rock and Roll music between the year 1955 and 1966.

Rock and Roll music was the most popular music genre among the American youths during the war. According to Sarappa (2011), most of the soldiers were youths below the age of 23. The screaming guitars, rhythm and raw energy of Rock and Roll music provided the soldiers with a perfect reflection of the confusion and chaos of the fire fight battles and the jungle warfare. Rock and Roll music provided the ultimate anthem for the youths to demonstrate their anti-war sentiments. This is because most of the young soldiers had been separated from family and friends and were loosing their lives in Vietnam.

As proven by history, a generation can be defined by music. The soldiers imported Rock and Roll music into the battle field. Also, Rock and Roll was used to express lyrical calls of putting an end to the war and promote peace. For instance, McGuire released the song “Eve of Destruction” in 1965. The song was a protest song about American political concerns of the 1960’s. The first stanza of the song speaks about the horrors of the war and criticizes the inclusion of young men into the military. One particular line in the song goes “You’re old enough to kill, but not for votin’” (McGuire, 2009). The song was banned in many radio stations in America and was restricted by the BBC due to its anti-government lyrics (Sarappa, 2011).

Several influential rock artists rose to express their disaffection with Vietnam War and emphasized on love and peace during the 1960’s. The Vietnam War influenced Bob Dylan’s song “The Times They Are A – Changin’” which was written in 1963. According to Hopkins (2012), Dylan’s song has a line that goes “There’s a battle outside/and it’s raging/it will soon shake your windows/rattle your walls”. This was used to refer to the chaos of the Vietnam War. He goes on to sing “Come mothers and fathers/throughout the land/ and don’t criticize/what you can’t understand/your sons and daughters are beyond your command” (Dylan, 2010). Rock and Roll music inspired hope among family and friends of the young soldiers. It inspired hope that the war would end and things would return to normal for their reunion. Bob Dylan’s song portrayed the frustrations, anger and confusion among many parents whose children were involved in the war as soldiers.

The Vietnam War also influenced popular rock groups such as Mystery Trend and Jefferson Airplane. The two rock groups used an anti-war music poster to advertise their show which was to be staged at the University of California, Berkley on 25 March 1966. According to Hopkins (2012), the poster showed a dance scene colored in red and black and featured combatants who wore helmets and held machine guns while trying to evade explosions produced by bombers flying above their heads. The words “Vietnam” and “Peace” could be read on the poster printed in white letterings. The red background of the poster reflected the blood of the soldiers. The group used the concert to express the simple message that they wanted the Vietnam War to come to an end.

The influence of war on rock music can also be observed in the song “I Feel Like I’m Fixin’ to Die Rag by Country Joe and the Fish. The band used their Woodstock performance to protest against the Vietnam War. The song blames the U.S military leaders and politicians for the war and also expresses the horrors of the war in a sarcastic humor. The influence of war on Rock and Roll music is also demonstrated in many rock songs released after 1966. For instance, John Lennon’s masterpiece “Give Peace a Chance” which was released in 1969 became an Anti-Vietnam War anthem.

In conclusion, it can be argued that Wars/Protests had a major influence on Rock and Roll music. Rock and Roll music is a powerful genre that changes the mood of people. Several rock artists and bands such as McGuire, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, John Lennon, Country Joe and the Fish and Jefferson Airplane among others effectively used rock music to make non-violent protests against Vietnam War. The music provided a means through which young people could make their voices be heard without using guns.


Hopkins, A. (2012).Protest and Rock ‘n’ Roll During the Vietnam War. Student Pulse, 4(11). Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < and-rock-n-roll-during-the-vietnam-war >.

Sarappa, P. (2011).The Vietnam Conflict: The Rock ‘n’ Roll War. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < %E2%80%98n%E2%80%99-roll-war/ >.

Dylan, B. (2010). The Times They are A- Changing. Retrieved on February 7,2013 from, < >.

Lamb, J.B. (2012).Vietnam War Protest Music. Retrieved February 7, 2013 from, < >.

McGuire, B. (2009). Eve of Destruction. Retrieved on February 7, 2013 from, < >.

British Invasion on Rock and Roll Music in America

British Invasion on Rock and Roll Music in America


The year 1964 is described as ‘The sixties’ because it is significant in the musical arena. The foundation of rock and roll originated in the US through mixing of the black genre music, gospel music, blues and rhythm. Musicians like Alan Freed played blues and rhythm to multi-racial people and audience and therefore describing it as ‘rock and roll’ and for us to understand the music of sixties we need to investigate and do not overshadow the music of 1950s. According to James Curtis (1987) he said “Rock n’ roll a rose from a complex combination of racial, demographic, generational and technological development”.

British invasion occurred during the time (1960s) when rock music act from UK with other areas of British culture being conformed by US. The band like ‘The Rolling Stones’, ‘The Beetle’, ‘The Who’ and’ The Moody Blue’ could make impact in musical scene in the United States. This paper tries to shed light the influential groups during the invasion, the impact of British invasion, what could happen if British invasion could have not taken place and the difference between the British and their American counterpart.

Most Influential Groups in 1960s

In the history of music there are performers who have left impact on the musical scene and mark through there proficiency and exploration. The list is endless but the outstanding ones include: the Beetle; The Moody Blue; The Rolling Stone and The beach Boys.

The Beetle

The group’s influence on roll and rock was profound and the world culture. In 1960 many rock bands depended on professional songwriters but this group composed their own. Areas such as developing ideas and incorporate them in their music. Their music stood up since rock music was looked down upon by previous musician when they produced the album ‘Sergeant Papper’, it was criticized. The group inspired the current musician from all spectrum and the group experiment with new techniques of recording sandwiched with common phrases for example the guitar effects.

The Rolling Stone

From history this is the longest performing rock of all the time. As part of the British invasion Rolling Stone became ‘Bad boys’ taken to portray the image of drug, sex and queer behavior. The band influenced the school girls and school boys although parents were not for it. In 1965 when they had there mega hit the attitude of the music won a mixture of rebellion using tribal drum and sexual vocals which seduced the young and alarmed the aged. This group influenced teenagers who changed their lifestyle.

Moody Blues

Began in 1964 in England. This group led the endeavor and pursuit the fusion of rock n’ roll and orchestra music with first song achieving the success through the incorporation of electronic keyboard as well as flute in the sound. The group has influenced rock music for along time.

Impact of British Invasion

British invasion took place between 1964 and 1966. The British rock n’ roll influenced the working class to make instrument and coexist with musicians like Van Morrison to begin their music career. This dented the career of many. The Beetle initiated the British invasion. The Beetle re-invented the image of the rock to be palatable and enjoyable to audience. This changed the imagination of American parents to view the band as nice and none threatening. Through the British invasion Dustly Springfield invented female soul which was notable. This rock tended to change American culture more especially among the youth as well as rapid change in the musical scene like rise of different genre of rock based in drum and guitar. According to rock magazine of 1960s, British invasion was a new savior and simple way to rock as it brought slung and modern style of dressing. This led to commercial success of many rock musicians.

What if British Invasion was thwarted?

The rock production in America could have not grown without the influence of the British more especially ‘Brait’. At the same time bands like Rolling Stones was a bad example to the youth as their music was based around drugs and sex. This influence could not exist or emanate if the country music could be emphasized as it was contemporary and could be listened on the radio and television without problems.

Electric Dylan was powerful but his platform could not be established without the help of the British invasion as they revabished rock n’ roll possibilities otherwise American rocks could not be interesting and the black artist could not be identified because no body carried the aggressive war as they expressed dissatisfaction before the invasion. Others include ‘Don’t look back’ and Sir Douglas Quintet. Some argue that English lyrics is better in rocks than the British slang

The British Verses America Rocks n’ Roll

Historically the rock n’ roll emerged from America with musician like Muddy Water introduced to England. British only gave favor in ‘sixties’ as called British invasion.

British used heavy metal. Bands like ‘Deep Purple’ used it. In America the band like ‘Van Helen’ used the thrashed metal.

Geographically many Americans rock and roll was popular in England. Bands like ‘Nirvana’ was both popular with British rock fans but American bands washed them soon.

American roll and rock music was established by American then refined by British. More focus has been put by American. British rock uses generational terminologies like in sex unlike America and this influence the uncouth behavior that we experience.


Terming British music as inversion to some extent is inappropriate. It must be considered that US and Britain constitute the larger part of anglosphere by using common culture. It implies that rock n’ roll is emphasized for youth, sexual progress and technology.


Bertland M.(2000). The Race, Rock and Elvis. Urbana. University of Illinois press

James C.(1987).Rock Era. Interpretation of Music and Society.1954-1984. Green state.

University press.

Kirty D.(2009). The Birth of Rock n’ Roll. London. Continuum.

Consumers and brands

Question 1

Customers always appreciate or like a specific aspect of a product that makes them want to keep coming back for more. It is also said that all products can be said to be tangible but has the possibility of being intangible in future.

Services on the other hand, can only be described as being intangible, they can only be felt (Callen, 2010). They are provided through the application of human behavior and effort that is directed towards people. In relation to a business, services are crucial elements that add value to the core of a product (Callen, 2010).

Services have a variety of characteristics that enable us differentiate them from goods. For instance, they possess the aspect of intangibility, implying they cannot be seen or touched. Nor can they be physically possessed but can only be felt. Another characteristic of services is that they are inseparable from the production and consumption processes (Callen, 2010). It is because of this characteristic that consumers will feel once they purchase a good, they also expect a specific service availed to them an in a manner the specific individual wants.

Perish ability implies that any unutilized service in a given period cannot be brought forward to some future time. This is also true since producers are incapable of handling supply and demand issues immediately through inventory or scheduling techniques (Callen, 2010). Therefore, it is strongly recommended that any service that would serve to increase the value of a good is offered in the best way at the specific time, else it would be rendered useless in future as it cannot be used elsewhere (Callen, 2010).

All of these characteristics of goods significantly influence the development and growth of marketing strategies and facilitate the attainment of an efficient market mix. To attain success, it is essential for a marketing professional to understand how the characteristics of services change and affect consumer behavior. The specific organization must also have the knowhow on how best to reduce engagement risk, boost a large market share, and improve customer discernment (Callen, 2010).

Question 2

In the review of two brands that are in the same industry, we pick Coca-cola and Pepsi soft drinks.

Coca-cola has for years been among the strongest surviving soft drinks brand before the emergence of others like Pepsi. One main reason why Coca-cola has retained its market share despite the competition posed by other new brands is because it has strong advertising and marketing strategies. The company has entirely capitalized on advertising to make sales and fortunately, they are always on top of their game. Coca-cola’s culture of advertising has revolutionized many things, among the American pop culture and the world in general (Callen, 2010).

Coca-cola adverts are said to be captivating and energizing for any consumer. They are engaging and entertaining. In the meantime, the company also produces other brands such as Sprite, Fanta, and Stoney. All these brands aim to capture markets that Coca-cola has been unable to secure (Callen, 2010).

Coca-cola has adopted catchy slogans in its advertising. For instance, one says “Delicious, Refreshing, Exhilarating, Invigorating.” Another goes “Refresh your thirst” (Callen, 2010). This year marked the 50 years of advertising for the Coca-cola company, and the company has released statements that its business continues to gain strength and longevity. The company has succeeded in adopting to the changing characteristics of its customer base all over the world.

Pepsi is a comparatively newer brand in the market compared to Coca-cola. It has lost a
a significant market share to Coca-cola which is its biggest competitor. Pepsi is a brand produced by the PepsiCo, which was established in 1893 (Callen, 2010). The company has suffered many problems including going bankrupt due to lack of sales.

Consequently, the company has re-designed and rebranded its products in a bid to reclaim its market share from Coca-cola. It employed new advertising strategies and partnered with icons in various fields that consumers would associate with. For instance, it entered a partnership deal with Beyonce and the National Football League. In addition, the company has featured Nicki Minaj, Drew Brees and Lionel Messi in its adverts (Callen, 2010). Despite the efforts, however, sales volumes continue to drop.

Beyonce, for instance, has not been an effective endorser of the product because as she herself said in a recent press conference, she only did the commercials for Pepsi not because she loves the product, but because she will earn from the endorsement deal.

The management, however, remains positive that Pepsi will soon make a full recovery. Despite the drop in sales volume, the company has been successful in reclaiming a small portion of its market share. This signifies that there is still more that the company can do when it comes to advertising and customer service, just like what Coca-cola does to add value to its products.

The only advert that has managed to create sales for the company is Diet Pepsi which is doing well in the market.

In comparing the two brands, it’s obvious that Coca-cola still ranks higher than Pepsi. Coa-cola’s advertising strategies can be said to be more effective if market shares are the main measuring stick for effectiveness. (Callen, 2010).

Question 3

The BCG Matrix was proposed by the Boston Consulting Group as an effective model for advertising and marketing due to is simplicity. The matrix has the capability to operate when the economies of scale were achievable in a production mix. The matrix is a renowned corporate analysis tool.

On the other hand, it is ineffective for a business portfolio as it can only classify a business as either low or high and ignores the aspect of a business being medium. In addition, the model discredits growth rate and market share as determinants of profitability.

The Product Life Cycle Matrix on the other hand is also discredited for use in business portfolios because it calculates sales with a lag, hence giving inaccurate results. The model is also inefficient when it comes to dealing with brands and services. Here, it it is assumed that slow movement of goods and slow sales signify that the product has reached its decline phase, an assumption that is not always right in most cases (Callen, 2010).


Callen, B. (2010). Manager’s guide to marketing, advertising, and publicity. New York: McGraw Hill.


Callen, B. (2010). Manager’s guide to marketing, advertising, and publicity. New York: McGraw Hill.

Inventory control at Wal-Mart



Wal-Mart Background

Wal-Mart was founded in 1962 when the firm opened its first store in rural Rogers, Arkansas. It was incorporated to Wal-Mart Store Inc. in October 1969. The firm has grown to become the United States and the world’s largest retail outlet. It is the largest single job creator with over two million employees. It is the largest retail outlet in the world. The company is committed to a business model of driving costs out of supply chains to enable consumers save money and live better. This is done anytime anywhere. Wal-Mart use retails stores and online stores as its main distribution channels of its products. As per January 2012 the Wal-Mart had an approximate of 1.4 million associates in the United States. The store has 780 000 international associates. Wal-Mart net sales for the year 2012 were $443.9 billion, an increase of 5.9 percent. The stores consolidated operating income grew by 4% to $26.6 billion. The company’s diluted earnings per share were $4.54. In the same year the company added 52.2 million square feet through 1,160 additional units. This was in a summation of acquisitions in the United Kingdom and South Africa. Wal-Mart fiscal year 2013 sales are approximated to be $466 billion (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2012).

Products and services

Wal-Mart offer a wide range of products that include retails goods like electronic goods, books, home furnishings, music downloads. The store also offer photo lab services inside the store and online. Customers drop their photographs for developing via a store kiosk or they can upload them through the corporate website. The store also offers pharmacy services, financial services and wireless services through partners like T-mobile.


Wal-Mart competitors are spread all over the world because the store operates in all regions of the world. In North America, Wal-mart’s primary competition includes department stores like Kmart, Shopko and Meijer. It faces competition from Canada’s Zellers, Giant tiger and the Real Canadian Superstore. The store faces competition from Mexico’s Commercial Mexicana and Soriana.

Wal-Mart product mix


Wal-Mart hosts products that range from electronics, music, movies, furniture, books, baby shop, clothing, sports items, health care products, pharmaceutical, toys, photography, grocery and jewelry. The company has also incorporated electronic commerce where it offers online shopping and shipping of products from its stores to any destination in the world. The company has installed a very reliable and warranted system that enables customers to purchase directly through mega stores over the internet. This has helped the store reduce the cost of operation through operation expense reductions. The company has exhibitions where private labeled brands and other brands like Cott beverages are marketed at the store’s various outlets. The companies that supply the stores with food items have been requested to use technologies that are environment friendly will maintaining the nutritional value of these foods. Wal-Mart store is one stop shop where an individual can buy all he or she wants either online on by visiting the various outlets available in the world.


Wal-Mart does not produce any brand. It exhibits various brands. The store has a huge worldwide network that flock with customers due t its discount packages that attract and tempt customers. The store is the largest retailer in the world. This makes it an economic force that enables it to run the pricing policy that provides customers with low rates. These rates are not available anywhere else. The company stands on this basic policy of providing products and services at low rates. The company has a universal bar code that acts as the bench mark for the company. This has helped shift the power form manufactures to retailers. The company has lowered the prices of all its grocery items by 15% of the local market price. Other products that have lower rates than the local market price include electronic goods and technological products. The company has a policy that for any manufacturer retailing items at Wal-Mart stores is that it has to reduce the price of increase the quality of its products. This price policy favors only producers with products selling fast in the market. Thus, Wal-Mart has ensured that its customers get value for their money.


Wal-Mart provides its goods and services through its three main divisions. They include Sam’s Club, Wal-Mart Stores United States and Wal-Mart international. The company’s outlets are marketed in different names in Japan, India, United Kingdom, South America, China, South Africa and Japan. The store is a huge network of stores. They range from small markets, cash and carry stores, membership warehouse clubs, food and drugs. Wal-Mart’s other networks general merchandise stores and soft discount stores. Wal-Mart outlets are mostly large building with an average of 197, 000 square feet.


The company has its own in-store promotional activities that include sales promotions. They include product bundling and pricing strategies. The company’s online store earns the firm revenues. This is gotten from customers placing online gifts. The sales turnover of the company increases due to its pricing strategy. The company uses “everyday low prices”, “value of the day” strategy to lure customers to its stores. The electronic commerce site has slogans that tempt customers to buy the products. Examples include “grab it before it is gone”.

Conditions that led to the implementation of inventory control

Company running out of stock

Big stores like Wal-Mart can be hard to carry out an inventory manually. With the inventory control system the staff restocks after taking the inventory off the rack. The system enables them to determine which brand, models and sizes that consumers are buying often. This makes the whole system efficient. This system prevents the store from running out-of stock. The system alerts the employees to replenish the store after a sale. This prevents cases where products go out of stock without the knowledge of the manager. Purchasing on the other hand is notified on the spot. This enables them to place orders throughout the day. The technology is used to improve operations. The tag is disabled at checkout.

Management of suppliers was a problem in the organization. The system was implemented in order to manage suppliers. After the implementation of the system, the number of suppliers was reduced. The suppliers were also made partners with Wal-Mart.

Inventory management was a nightmare at Wal-Mart. This was due to the large number of products, processes and services the firm was dealing with. The system reduced the order-ship-bill cycle. Information could also be easily shared online from one store or department to another.

Wal-Mart is very expansive with branches round the world. To manage all the channels was time consuming and tedious work. The implementation of the system also ensured that channel management was eased. Documents like a bill of landing, purchase order and advanced ship notices can be moved easily over the system.

The system after implementation eliminated the barriers that existed in payment. Wal-Mart was linked to its suppliers and distributors by the system. This ensured that payment could be made electronically.

Wal-Mart operated in various world regions that use different currencies. The system eliminated financial management problems that were facing the company. The management of the company would manage various foreign exchange currencies using the system.

Information between various stores was a problem before the implementation of the system. The system facilitated and improved flow of information among sales and production and customer functions.

Implementation of the operational management tool was done in 2005. This was after various failures of the bar-code system. This system had challenges like inefficiency and slow operations. Inventory was also a problem. Restocking of the store used to be done after a week. However, with the implementation of the new management tool inventory was eased. Other problems faced by the store included supply problems, payments and check-out.

Results of the implementation of the management tool

Information flow was eased at the company. This is because all the associates get the day’s news at once. Any other event is relayed in real-time. This makes operations and management easy, efficient and cheap. Workers were reduced. This is because some of the roles that were being done manually like inventory taking were automated by the new inventory tool. This in the end saved Wal-Mart large sums of money that would otherwise have been used to pay wages.

The figure below shows a reduction in the wages by Wal-Mart store due to implementation of a management tool (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2012).


Increased productivity by Wal-Mart due to less time taken to carry out roles like restocking and inventory. Sales increased because the tool ensured that all the products are available for customers at the right time and place. The system alerted the attendants on all products in the store. It could provide information on the expiry date, re-stocking level, price, size, local and quantity. This increased productivity of Wal-Mart thus increasing profits accrued.

Global management tools are of utmost importance to companies like Wal-Mart. This is because these tools eliminate procedural and informational bottlenecks. This increases the efficiency of Wal-Mart’s decision and order timing. The use of the inventory tool by Wal-Mart has helped it improve its business processes both in the United States and Internationally. The risks associated with making errors due to perceived demand changes in the supply chain go done because with the use of the inventory tool, the data becomes relevant and more accurate (Bonacich & Wilson, 2005).

The implementation of the management tool by Wal-Mart improved operations at the store. Customers got quality service and efficiently. This was achieved through the supply chain visibility and more accurate ordering decisions. The system enabled Wal-Mart to lower the costs related with inefficient inventory decisions and handling. This is because ordering and sales are closely aligned than any other process in the operation of the store. The inventory tool is used by Wal-Mart to avoid having excess inventory while attracting price-minded consumers.

The implementation of the inventory tool by Wal-Mart increased the efficiency of its inventory management. The technology has also been implemented by its suppliers because inventory is handled by both Wal-Mart and the suppliers. This tool has enabled Wal-Mart to replenish its products faster than when it was using bar code technology.

The Future of Wal-Mart

The future Wal-Mart will focus its attention on smaller stores as consumers are shifting from out-of-town shopping centers. This has been attributed to high costs of fuel, penetration of technology, consumers do not want to be faced with many things they cannot afford and rise in number of online stores. This has been demonstrated by recent Wal-Mart developments where it is launching small stores in neighborhood markets. These stores can be linked with the rest of the stores using the management tool.

Electronic commerce

Internet has penetrated the world at an alarming rate. Increase in smart phones and cheap computers and the market have increased the demand for electronic commerce. The number of online stores offering electronic commerce has also increased. This has made the number of traditional visit stores shrink in size at a very high rate. Wal-Mart should take advantage of social networking and mobile application that are taking over the lives of many consumers to roll out an efficient electronic commerce system. This will have consumers shop for products over the internet and have them delivered to their proffered destinations. Increase in social networking has influenced shopping habits of many customers.

Going green

Customers’ demands and various campaigns advocating for cost savings have led many retailers, Wal-Mart included to take not of environmental matters. This has been demonstrated by opening of a Wal-Mart, Joplin, Mo. that use energy efficient bulbs. These bulbs use LED lighting and they are complemented by sunlight and concrete flooring made of recycled materials. Wal-Mart has plans to install solar power to its stores in order to reduce the pressure on the environment.

Sci-fi solutions

With the installation of the new management tool, Wal-Mart can install in-store scanning to run its operations. This technology can be used to shift from channel-centric to customer centric. This can enable retailers reach consumers at home, work and during commute time (Bruton & White, 2010).


Wal-Mart in future can expand and open new store through acquisition. This method cautions an organization against market forces. The company acquires an already existing store in the market with a customer base and premise. All the company does is change management and introduce new products and services. This in the end reduces the starting capital of the firm.


Information technology has been employed by Wal-Mart to improve its business process. The inventory tool has decreased the costs of doing business for Wal-Mart while increasing efficiency and profits. The tool has helped increase the quality of products on display through timely re-stocking while avoiding having excess inventory. Wal-Mart through the use of technology, it can afford to offer consumers goods at low prices because it can control its costs. The costs of its products are also determined by the efficiency or inefficiency of its suppliers. The implementation of a management tool has increased the productivity of the firm, lowered the amount spent to pay its stuff and increased return on investment tremendously. This has been attributed to low cost of doing business.


Bonacich, E. & Wilson, J. (2005). Hoisted by its own Petard: Organizing Wal-Mart’s Logistics Workers. New Labor Forum, 14(2), 67-75.

Bruton, G. & White, A. (2010). The Management of Technology and Innovation: 

A Strategic Approach. Connecticut: Cengage Learning.

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., (2012). To our shareholder, associates and customers. Retrieved from

Comparison Essay

A Good man is hard to find and Good country people, are articles authored by Flannery O’Connor, deeply touching on mankind. Both of these articles have some similar issues talked about by Flannery in the context of her writing. For instance, she heavily touches on family wrangles; religion, untrustworthiness and death are issues that arise in her articles. The article Good country people is about a 30 year old lady who has a miserable life and is comfortable being that way. All the events revolving around these articles happen to occur from the south. This is evident because there is a statement made about aspects matching the southern climate.

The events and characters revolving around these articles arise from the past as their presentation puts them across. Mrs. Freeman and Mrs. Hopewell are seen to be digging onions in the back pasture of their locations (Scott, 452).  This in other words implies that the stories narrated in these two articles happen in the rural areas and not in urban centers. Still in the south, Flannery distinguishes between the old and the new south which varied in the modes of lifestyles in the past. Christian sentiments are evident in both the Good country people as well as in the article a Good man is hard to find. Themes of Christian theology are exposed as Flannery is a conscious catholic thus being able to match biblical sentiments with contemporary life issues. The author wisely uses her theological beliefs to expose violence and the conflict between good and evil. The author’s religious perspectives are exposed by majoring on both selfish actions and violence as portrayed by her characters.

Most of Fernery’s characters revolve around the realm of humanity unlike in the spiritual realm. This is visible in the case of the grandmother and Hulga do not accommodate the existence of Christ until things get worse. The acts of violence push both characters to the extreme to the extent of them fighting to seek Christianity (Meyer, 463). After a long period of fighting against religion, the grandmother turns to prayers which do not save her. The battle between good and evil is evident when unlike Hulga; a Bible salesman portrays the holiness of God. The difference between the old and the new south is portrayed by the grandmother who is said to take a long time preparing herself. This exposes the presentation and self-pride nature of the old south residents. Unlike the grandmother, the author brings about the new south by explaining how the children’s mother dresses.

Throughout these two stories, Fernery O’Connor exposes how life’s events end up changing her character’s opinions. Due to spiritual journeys, they end up transforming from the worst to better religion accommodating people. As a result of ego and personal pride, characters from both articles believe they stand in a better place than any other person (Scott, 457). The power of the omnipotent God is portrayed when people in problems turn to him by praying and not criticize religion as a whole.

In both the stories, the author uses a persuasive nature to emphasize on the importance of accommodating religion. She states that if there was someone shooting the grandmother any time, then she would be a strict Christian. Finally, both the story A good man is hard to find and the good country people, the author provides a tough and touching ending. This is because of some characters like the grandmother who end up losing their lives. The two stories thus have adequate similarities than differences allowing Franery to display her writing techniques.

Work cited

Meyer, Michael. The Bedford introduction to literature: Reading, thinking, writing. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2011. Print.

Scott, Neil. Flannery O’Connor: An annotated reference guide to criticism. Milledgeville, Ga: Timberlane Books. 2002. Print.

Pricing Strategies

Question 1

  1. If this past relationship between sales of whole grilled chicken and increased sales of other goods holds, by how much must chicken sales increase to make this price promotion profitable?

The current price for the whole grilled chicken is £0.89 while the proposed price is £0.59. the difference between these two prices is £0.3. That means that the vegetables will change by £1.95, packed vegetables by £0.433 and frozen vegetables by £2.63.

  1. How might you structure the promotion to increase the likelihood that additional chicken sales will in fact result in a corresponding high level of sales for other products?

This can be offering the price of the chicken at the wholesale price. The grocery can buy this chicken at a wholesale price to ensure that they are offered at a lower price. In that case, this will affect the prices of the other products.

  1. Could this store have profitability promoted whole fryers at £ 0.49 per pound?

No, that could not be possible since it will result in a loss in the sale of the other product. For example, the sale of packaged groceries, fruits and vegetables will suffer a very big fluctuation in price if this does happen (Gamez 2012)

Question 2

  1. The difference between Dual pricing and worldwide pricing.

These two methods vary in their effectiveness as well. As the purpose for which they are used. Dual pricing entail the use of a different price for the goods that are sold in the domestic market and setting a different price for the goods that are sold in the international market. The method sets the international prices while still being sensitive to local prices. Worldwide pricing is also for the companies that operate in the international market. However, it does not differentiate the pricing of the different markets. It uses one price for all the markets internationally. Both these methods are use to optimize prices. However, the dual pricing is seen to be better in that it is sensitive to the local pricing.

  1. The meanings of the terms transfer pricing and arm’s length pricing.

Transfer pricing is the method of accounting that is uses to transfer revenue between the divisions of a company that work together to develop a given product. The purpose of transfer pricing is helping the divisions of a company make optimal decisions. It also helps measure divisional performance. Arms length pricing on the other hand is the determination of the price of a product that is being charged by one party to another as if the parties were not related. It is the determination of the price of a product as if it was being sold in the open market. The principle of arm’s length pricing works in transfer pricing in that the prices of products valuation between related parties ion a company are dealt with as if they are being priced in the open market.

  1. How might price controls and dumping affect the pricing decisions of international companies?

Dumping entails the sale of a product at a lower price in the international market than the price that is offered in the domestic market. This can happen intentionally but it can also happen due to fluctuations in exchange rates. The countries where this is happening try to influence the prices of the foreign companies that are said to be dumping. That may influence the decision that a company is making in the pricing of its products internationally.

A price control entails the placing of a minimum or maximum price that nation requires a certain n product to be sold at. This normally happens when there a cases of inflation in a country, in that case the countries place maximum price that they require a certain product to be sold at. That will no doubt affect the price that the company decides to charge a certain product.

Question 3

  1. What is price waterfall?

It is a method that is used to determine the achieved net as well as the price pockets and not just the price that appears on the print of the invoice. This is done by the collection of all the price related data that may be available. The method helps an organization come up with the best prices that can be obtained for any product by the determination of the price leakages at all levels of product production.

  1. The benefits of a price waterfall.

A price waterfall is a tool that is used by businesses to help show what is happening with the pricing. It helps the company understand why the prices are as they are. It also helps the employees and business partners communicate the valuation of a given product. It helps the company make the pricing of product more effective.

Question 4 – There are several key factors affect pricing decisions. Name and describe them.

Factors that affect the pricing decision are;

  1. Customers. The customers determine the pricing decision in that the company has to consider certain things about them. These are how sensitive they are to the pricing, how many they are in the market and what value they may be placing on the product that is being sold to them.

  2. Competitors. With many products being sold in the market as well as substitutes, companies have to strive to keep loyal customers by matching their prices with those of their customers. Customers will not be willing to buy a product at a price that is higher than what it being sold elsewhere.

  3. Government regulations and the regulations. The nature of the economy of any given country cam largely determine the prices that a company will assign to its product. When the economy is poor, there are many people who are unemployed and therefore e may not have much money to spend on the products on sale.

Works Cited

Gamez, Ruben. 7 Pricing Strategies Based on Research Studies. November 19, 2012. /