Archive for April, 2013

Psychology

April 11, 2013

Introduction

Different scholars have written much in regard to the body image for the past decades, all indicating that both men and women are obsessed with the body image and are dissatisfied with their respective physical selves. ‘The survey done by Psychology Today Body Image Survey’ on 4000 men and women in relation to the attitudes on their specific body parts and physique revealed that 56% of the women were dissatisfied with their general appearance, 89% of them opted to lose weight. 44% of the girls and 41% of boys within age bracket of 13-19 showed dissatisfaction. The answer as to why these individuals are increasing becoming dissatisfied with their image and appearance is convoluted. This paper focuses on analyzing the aspects involved in the adolescent body image development and creating a body image resources list for parents of adolescents. The first part of the paper analyzes the advertisement on the body image. The advertisement image chosen for analysis in the essay is that of Beyonce adverts on L’OREAL (2012)

Adopted from http://www.beyoncepictures.org/displayimage.php?album=1314&pos=0

  1. What is the intended audience for this advertisement? What age group? Male or female?

The intended audience for the advertisement is female gender because the main message of the adverts is conveyed by the Female model aimed at appealing to the female gender and also it highlights theme of beauty through message “I always want to shine like this.” The age group is between 15 to 40 years. Because this is the group likely to have low perception of themselves after seeing the advert having Beyonce image that to them is a perfect physical appearance.

  1. What subliminal and/or overt messages does this ad send?

The overt message that the advert sends to the audience is that women should chase ‘star appearance’ as that of Beyonce by using L’OREAL lip-gloss. In addition, the advert shows that ladies can eliminate insecure feeling of their lips not shinning by using the product. Finally, it shows that they can achieve shinny appearance that they are craving for through L’OREAL lip-gloss.

  1. How would this ad be interpreted differently by each gender?

The female gender (adolescent and young ladies) would intimate that the advert is sex because of the obsession with the attractiveness and concepts of sexuality identity. The male gender, especially young males and adolescents would interpret the advert as perfect because it features a beautiful and gorgeous model.

  1. Do you think this ad is inaccurate in its portrayal of body image? In what ways?

The advert is inaccurate in its portrayal of the female gender in particular because first the L’OREAL image of Beyonce is unrealistic and persuadable words “I always want to shine like this.” used in it to convince women that they can achieve similar beauty by using the product invokes a sense of insecurity in women about their physical appearance or image. The lips of Beyonce appear flawlessly red and shinny depicting what every lady desires. Additionally, her face and air makes her appear outstanding which makes her to appear unreasonably perfect on the advert with aim of appealing to teenagers and young ladies.

  1. Why do you think this ad and its product may be appealing to an adolescent?

The advert and its products are appealing to an adolescent because it is based on the social norms where attractiveness is the main objective of the female adolescent and have inclination to adopt the ideals of the advert because it is mainstreamed by Beyonce who is a role model to them. Further, most adolescent will look at Beyonce who is a super model unreasonable perfect appearance on the advert and reflect on the way they look nothing like her. This image portrayed to through mainstream media and social media will have a remarkable impact on what the adolescent expects on themselves.

  1. Why do you think the marketers chose to use this content and imagery?

The marketers chose to use this content and imagery to because female adolescent and young ladies are the dominant consumers of the product. This section of the consumers is incessantly pursuing beauty making it vital top focus on rationale of bombarding them with image of perfection through super model. The content is the adverts gives assurance to the audience that they have found the right answer to their pursuit of beauty that will enhance their attractiveness and likeness to the male gender. The aim is to appeal emotionally to adolescent females and young female feeling insecure about their image.

Body image

Body image is an individual inner notion of their physical appearance or image. Such notion may or may not connect with objective reality. Every individual has an image of the physically perfect person within his or her mind and analyzes personal image against this model. Individuals pleased with their body image and appearance have constructive self-image. The psychological creation of the image is influenced by several factors such as sensory, emotional, and cognitive factors. For example, individuals modify the image of their body images in connection to the emotional factors and other reactions in their respective environment. Further, body image is influenced by factors encompassing increasing disparity between the individuals real body weight or image and those of actors, celebrities and models depicted within the media and advertising. Besides, several adolescent females are sexually active as well as, dating at the young ages, thereby heightening their concerns regarding appearance or body image.

Several studies in regard to the body image on the adolescents have been conducted because in this developmental stage the teens undergo immense physical changes and subject themselves to diverse scrutiny episodes (Helm, 2009). The changes of puberty and the accompanying sexual maturation make the adolescents to sense self-conscious as well as, develop a feeling of embarrassment regarding their body image. Adolescent girls are especially vulnerable to the development of pessimistic body image. The girls focus on the appearance as proof of worthiness and ignore their value resulting in the lowered self-esteem.

The perception of the perfect body image has developed with time and continues to change as time progresses (Jeanne, 2010). Some of the factors influencing ideal body image development have been outlined in the preceding paragraph. This section of essay provides resources indispensable in the realistic body image formation during adolescent development.

Baird, A. L. and Grieve, F.G. (2006). Exposure of male models in advertisements leads to a decrease in men’s body satisfaction. North Am J Psychol. 8:115-121’

The resource provides a study conducted to measure the impact of the exposure to the adverts featuring male models on the male body satisfaction. The study was conducted through sets of magazine adverts featuring cologue or clothing products associated with men. The study shows that the idealized images in the adverts results in issues such as disorders and anabolic steroid use. The resources is useful because it explains to the adolescent that the images in the media are unrealistic that can not be realized in the normal circumstances. For example, media presentation of the socially ideal body shapes (muscular body for men and thin for ladies) is unrealistic (Baird and Grieve, 2006). Further, it is significant in preparing adolescent youths on reality regarding adverts to prevent stimulation effects from the adverts.

Gervais, S. J., Vescio, T. K. and Allen, J. (2011). When what you see is what you get: The consequences of the objectifying Gaze for women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(1): 5-17.”

This resource analyzes objectifying gaze effects on the maths feat, body dissatisfaction, body surveillance, and body shame. The resource posits that objectifying gaze leads to stereotypical threat that arouses concerns regarding social connections, and increased female motivation for engagement in interactions. However, objectifying gaze never influences body dissatisfaction and shame. The resource gives direction on the approaches to compliment the adolescent females to minimize their vulnerability to developing negative body image resulting from their environment. For instance, the rationale of objectifying gaze to females indicates appreciation of their values that will give them belonging certainty (Gervais et al, 2011).

Jeanne, B. M. 2010. The development of ideal body image perceptions in the United States. Nutrition Today, 45(3): 98-110.”

This resource addresses the rationale of idealized body images and the various sources that are indispensable in managing adolescents against developing a sense of insecure feeling because of exposure to idealized images in media. The resource describes models in print media, video games and sports people as conveyers of idealized images. It has a list of the sources that are vital in managing the impact of adolescent exposure to idealized images. The resource is useful because it analyzes the sources of the idealized images that affect adolescent perception of their own images. Further, it provides a list of the sources for managing influences of the idealized images on youths. Parents can borrow from these sources.

Chapter 6 exploring adolescent sexuality in: Santrock, W. J. (2012) Adolescence. (14th Ed). London: McGraw-Hill”

The resource (exploring adolescent sexuality chapter six) on the “sexual culture” portion explores the broad context of the adolescent sexuality with the American culture. It posits that sexual behavior among the adolescents is an extension of the trend by adults. Further, it shows that media has significant influence over adolescent sexual behavior orientation, with those exposed to sex in media exposed more to it. The resource is useful in depicting the genesis of the sexual culture among the youths as that rooted in the adults’ sexual trends. Further, it shows that media plays great role in influencing the adolescents. The parent can use the source to addresses various issues to adolescent regarding their sexual orientation, like safe sexual orientation approaches.

Chapter 6 exploring adolescent sexuality in: Santrock, W. J. (2012) Adolescence. (14th Ed). London: McGraw-Hill”

The resource particularly section on the “Developing a sexual identity” addresses complexity encountered by adolescents in understanding sexual feelings and forming sexual identity (p.190). The discussion shows that social norms strongly affect adolescent sexual identity. Further, it posits that sexual identity encompasses behavior styles, activities, as well as interests. The resource is useful to parents in helping manage their adolescent body image perception since it gives the areas to target like social norms like interaction with their peers. It will help the adolescent perceive their body as developed rather than undeveloped because of lack of sexual exposure.

Chapter 6 exploring adolescent sexuality in: Santrock, W. J. (2012) Adolescence. (14th Ed). London: McGraw-Hill”

The section on “Heterosexual attitudes and behavior” addresses development of the sexual activities development in adolescents. It addresses issues to do with oral sex and compares sexual orientation cross-culturally. Also the resources analyzes sexual scripts role in adolescent sexual identities. The resource is significant because it can help parent guide adolescent perception of their sexual orientation based on the different sexual scripts identified by ether of the gender. Moreover, parents will get guidance on the rationale that adolescent in the diverse geographic regions have diverse sexual identity that would affect their body image perception.

Chapter 6 exploring adolescent sexuality in: Santrock, W. J. (2012) Adolescence. (14th Ed). London: McGraw-Hill”

Finally, the “further exploration of sexuality in emerging adults” section in the book explores the heterosexual behavior and attitudes among the emerging youths. It indicates that males have had far more sexual partners than their female counterparts. Further, it shows that religious adults have had relatively few sexual partners compared to less religious individuals. Finally, males are more permissive attitude compared to females in regard to sexuality. The resource is useful in that it will assist parents know how to mould sexual attitudes of the adolescents in regards to the contemporary youth trends. It offers the basis of highlighting the consequences of some of the sexual behavior depicted in the media.

King James Version Online. (2012). Genesis 1:26-28. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/.”

The verse posits that God created man in his own image to rule everything on earth. He created both male and female and blessed them to be fruitful. The resource is useful to the parent because they will invoke it in the assisting children of the some idealized images they are bombarded with in media by implying that body is sacred dwelling of God. It is indispensable to maintaining that human beings are not only created in shape and form with God, but also in character that is being mutilated by the media unrealistic images of female and male bodies.

King James Version Online. (2012). Proverbs 13: 20. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/.”

This verse argues that individuals walking with wise remain wise while adolescents in company of fools suffer. It questions individual against wrong choice of friends. The resource is useful to parent since they can encourage the teens to chose the right relationships for themselves. It would guide the parents in guiding the adolescents to be cautious and selective in choice of their friends. The truth in this verse would help adolescents to identify with God and avoid uncertainty regarding their identity. Help the student get through the pressure inherent in adolescent.

King James Version Online. (2012). Psalm55: 22. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/. ”

This verse posits that individuals should turn to God when they come across a daunting task. Individuals should turn to God first rather engaging in other destructive options. The resource is useful to the parent in managing conflicting body image perception it will help them remember that the bible says they should turn to God for guidance rather than sex or other things like drug. It would caution youth on turning to media images to address innate body features like appearance.

King James Version Online. (2012). Proverbs 3: 5. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/. ”

This verse maintains that individuals should cast their burden to God and God will sustain them. Further, individuals should trust in God with everything and shun the inclination of relying on their understanding. The resource is useful to the parent in teaching the adolescents to avoid inclination of leaning toward the pictures portrayed in media about ideal body image rather trust what body appearance that God has given them. It will help parents in assisting adolescent get over adolescent stage bombarded with numerous ideal body images.

King James Version Online. (2012). Psalms 139: 19. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/. ”

This verse maintains that individuals are wonderfully and fearfully created. It posits that the human being image is unique and sacred. The resource is useful to parents in helping adolescent overcome perception of poor body image using idealized images from media. It would create a point of reference in regard to the adolescent identity rather than copying a sense of style of celebrities.

King James Version Online. (2012). Isaiah 43: 4. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/”

This verse posits that human beings are prized in God sight and God loves them the way they are, loves their appearance. Human being image is valuable to God. The source is useful to parent because it will help them in making adolescents understand truth regarding their image and assist them in discovering their true identity in God rather than on idealized images in media and other sources.

Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2012). Body Image. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.girlscouts.org/research/facts_findings/body_image.asp”

This resource posits that adolescent perception of their body image is not only under influence of self-perceptions, but also under influence of others. It presents statistics showing that adolescents suffer from body image dissatisfaction. Finally, it shows that mothers play significant role in guiding adolescent in healthy living. The resource is useful to parent by giving confidence to them that they have role to play in shaping their adolescent adoption of physical images from various sources. Finally, it gives avenues through which adolescent are bombarded with images that parents need to manage such as models in media.

Helm, S. K. (2009). Body discrepancy and body satisfaction: influence on approach and avoidance behaviors and emotions. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_4501_sm06/WCChina.pdf”

The source maintains that body image is significant to individuals and it is depicted through various avenues like media. It argues that body image and dissatisfaction effect is far much greater in women than in men through self-discrepancy theory. The source is significant to parent as they would tie behaviors of the adolescent to theory and focus on ways of managing it without causing tension between themselves and adolescents. It gives an avenue that parent can use to enable their student gain self-identity.

Pbs. (2002). The Winners are. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/missamerica/sfeature/sf_list.html”

The source outlines the list of Miss America from 1920 to 2002. The statistics indicate that the average age is 20 years and 3 months and average weight of 121 pounds. The source is useful in that it gives the parent avenue to assist adolescent accept their body image by showing that models depicts body image is not ideal since they come from different states in U.S. The parent can use the source to echo that adolescent should not despise their body appearance and crave that of models that is transient because they tend to win only once.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Body and Mind (BAM) Teacher’s Corner. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.bam.gov/teachers/body_image.html”

The source focuses on engaging the adolescent in the activity in which they are to discuss affect toys have on the adolescent perception of what is normal, and their physical and mental health. Further, through Ad Decoder student analyzes the adverts messages on body image and effect on health. The resource is significant for parent because it will allow for engaging the adolescent interactively in knowing the unrealistic body images on adverts effect on their health. Moreover, it would interactively reinforce other sources messages and it will be captivating to adolescent because of the interactivity option.

Gupta S. (2008).Taking on the thin-ideal. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0, 28804, 1703763_1703764_1810730, 00.html”

The source posits that there is nothing new with the media portrayal of thin models and feeding adolescents with unrealistic ideals about their beauty. It posits that University of Texas psychologist came up with ‘body activism’ to allow girls defend themselves against rationales of unhealthy beauty images. It maintains that a lot of girls have enrolled in studying how media has been duping them with the unrealistic images. This source is useful first it echoes parent argument that media models present unrealistic beauty images. Second, it would boast the campaign by showing that parents are the only one confronting the irrationality of the images. Finally, it would invoke adolescent voluntary interest in studying illusions of models images.

References

Baird, A. L. and Grieve, F.G. (2006). Exposure of male models in advertisements leads to a decrease in men’s body satisfaction. North Am J Psychol. 8:115-12.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Body and Mind (BAM) Teacher’s Corner. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.bam.gov/teachers/body_image.html

Gervais, S. J., Vescio, T. K. and Allen, J. (2011). When what you see is what you get: The consequences of the objectifying Gaze for women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(1): 5-17.

Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (2012). Body Image. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.girlscouts.org/research/facts_findings/body_image.asp

Gupta S. (2008).Taking on the thin-ideal. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0, 28804, 1703763_1703764_1810730, 00.html

Helm, S. K. (2009). Body discrepancy and body satisfaction: influence on approach and avoidance behaviors and emotions. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_4501_sm06/WCChina.pdf

Jeanne, B. M. 2010. The development of ideal body image perceptions in the United States. Nutrition Today, 45(3): 98-110.

Jeanne, B. M. 2010. The development of ideal body image perceptions in the United States. Nutrition Today, 45(3): 98-110.

King James Version Online. (2012). Genesis 1:26-28. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/

King James Version Online. (2012). Isaiah 43: 4. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org

King James Version Online. (2012). Proverbs 13: 20. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/

King James Version Online. (2012). Proverbs 3: 5. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/.

King James Version Online. (2012). Psalm55: 22. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/

King James Version Online. (2012). Psalms 139: 19. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/

Pbs. (2002). The Winners are. Retrieved 18th November 2012 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/missamerica/sfeature/sf_list.html

Santrock, W. J. (2012) Adolescence, 14th Ed. London: McGraw-Hill.

The 1997 Body Image Survey Results. Psychology Today. Jan-Feb, 1997.

Oedipus epitomizing Aristotle’s tragic hero

April 11, 2013

Introduction

Sophocles’s Oedipus is one of the most well-known and influential fictional figure in the history of literature primarily because of the fact that Oedipus symbolizes many things – as a hero, as a son, as a leader and as an example of the conflicting issues affecting morality. This particular hero is the center of the story. It’s about a boy who was thrown to the woods and was expected to meet his end there in the hopes that his death would render a prophecy unfulfilled. He would later find himself crossing paths once again with his true biological father whom he kills without knowing the true identity of the person he slew, thus, making the first prophecy a reality. When he later married his own biological mother upon his entry in his place of birth, he would make another prophecy realized. Oedipius’ life was tragic because he always ends up suffering various misfortunes even when his actions are fueled by the best of intentions on his part, a reversal known as peripeteia (Osborne, p. 69). It was his lack of knowledge and awareness that has doomed him to do the things he wanted to stay away from, which makes him the suitable individual to represent the concept of the ‘tragic hero’. Philosophical thinkers like Aristotle wrote about the idea of the tragic hero, explaining the characteristics of such an individual. Placing the predicament of Oedipus vis a vis, the characteristics of the tragic hero reinforces the idea that Sophocles’ Oedipus is the ideal man to exemplify Aristotle’s idea of the tragic hero based on several characteristics focused on the major flaw of Oedipus as an individual character and based on the actions Oedipus took that shaped his fortune and future.

Discussion

There are several characteristics that define the tragic hero, as per Aristotle’s understanding of the concept, and the life and characteristics of Sophocles’ Oedipus fit perfectly in this framework. First, there is the idea of evoking two important emotions: fear and pity. The life of the tragic hero should make the audience feel fear as well as pity. The feeling of pity should be a result of the audience empathizing to the misfortune that has befallen the hero in the story, while the feeling of fear should be a result of the realization of the audience that such misfortune could happen to them. Here, the role of the hero is to represent the human nature and the innate weakness and futility of the human endeavor to counteract or go against the perceived path that destiny and the universe has set for an individual. These are two of the strongest characteristics of Oedipus and two of the most important facets of the overall story of Oedipus’ life.

The audience feels pity over Oedipus because of what Oedipus has to go through, and how he was powerless to fight a prophecy because he feels that it is the moral thing to do. First, Oedipus, as a baby, was cursed to die in the forest because his father believed that if Oedipus lives, it is by his hands that King Laius would receive his end. There is reason to celebrate and be happy because Oedipus somehow managed to get out of the forest alive as he was discovered by chance by some peasant farmers who eventually ended up handing them over to the king and queen of Corinth. However, what was thought to be the start of a better life for Oedipus was actually the opposite. On the contrary, it will be the start of a life that would have a grim ending not only for Oedipus but also for his mother and father.

The feeling of pity among the audience continues as the audience witness how Oedipus unknowingly slays his father (Booker, p. 521), and then marries his mother, and it then becomes the reason for his mother’s intense feeling of guilt and confusion that led her to kill herself. Finally, the feeling of pity ends with Oedipus making himself blind and then throwing himself in exile. He allowed all of these things happen to him in pursuit of saving the lives of those whom he thought were his parents. Despite Oedipus’ moral and righteous goals, he nonetheless ends up doing what is wrong, illustrating the futility of the human being versus the power of destiny which is believed to be out of the control of human beings.

As the audience ponders about the life and predicament of Oedipus, he – as the epitome of the tragic hero – then becomes the symbol of the inability of a human being to run away from his destiny, and for that, the audience feel fear. Oedipus then represents every human being (Felski, p.134). They feel fear because in their everyday lives, they make conscious choices and efforts in order to keep them from harm’s way or to keep them from doing bad things or being subjected to bad experiences. They protect themselves and they do everything they can to be morally upright and to guarantee self-preservation. But Oedipus’ life and the lessons from it will become a deeply ingrained realization upon the audience that they, like Oedipus, are after all helpless versus their destiny, especially once it is revealed to them.

Another important characteristic of the tragic hero is the fact that the predicament that has led towards this destiny of the hero/protagonist is a road that is not paved with moral or virtuous steps, but should be characterized by the mercurial shift from a life of prosperity transforming towards the life of adversity. Aristotle does this to paint the tragic hero as imperfect, both in traits as well as in personal experiences. The tragic hero for Aristotle is a man whose knowledge and self awareness was a product of introspection resulting from strong and negative experiences.

When Oedipus was born, he has in his hands the prospect of a prosperous life being the son of the King and the Queen. But this prosperity turns to adversity as a result of the response of King Laius to the prophecy. When he was growing up in Corinth, again he was presented by a life of prosperity to which he turned his back against because he does not want to murder his own father and marry his own mother, leading to a path that will saw him murder his true father, marry his own mother who would soon take her own life while Oedipus makes himself blind and them puts himself in exile – clearly a life filled with adversity and not prosperity.

Aristotle believes that this is essential to the tragic hero because this will augur self-awareness as well as reinforce pity from the audience. It is perfect for a tragic hero because in the end, there is no happy ending for a man doomed to experience tragedy. The tragedy and misfortune will remove the tragic hero from an important trait of the tragic hero according to Aristotle, which is pedigree. The tragic hero is expected to be coming from a blood line of nobilities, which is symbolic of the expected role of leadership from which the righteousness or morality of the actions of the tragic hero are to be seen and gauged by the audience.

Another important aspect of a tragic hero as presented by Aristotle is the presence of both the flaw and the state of being virtuous. This puts the tragic hero in a balanced human form – there is the presence of innate good enough to inspire moral actions but not so much that the individual is saintly and incapable of doing wrong, while on the side there is also the tendency of the tragic hero to demonstrate his frailty or weakness which will result in his error. In the story, Oedipus is the epitome of the tragic hero because he is virtuous.

He was a good son to his surrogate parents and his being virtuous was demonstrated in two important events in his life. The first one was during the time he discovered that he was doomed to kill his father. It broke his heart to leave his parents behind but he knew that even though this is a very painful step for him, this was the only way that he could keep the prophecy from becoming true, saving the life of his father and saving his mother from shame that will result in the marriage of a son to his own mother.

The other event which showed Oedipus innate characteristic of being virtuous is during the time he took it upon himself to punish his own self for his wrong doings. When he discovered his own crime and accepted his own shame, he was the one who took his very own eye sight, symbolizing how he was blinded and how his punishment means, not allowing him to visually enjoy life because of what he did. He also threw himself in exile as part of the punishment he himself embraced, knowing that this is the right and moral thing to do.

But despite these moral actions, Oedipus is not perfect. He is also flawed and is a man who is characterized with errors. One of his flaws is his temper. It is because of his anger that has led to his killing his father. Another flaw of Oedipus is his belief that he is more powerful than destiny and fate. He believed that he could change the course of his life based on his own actions. This belief has sent him towards the path which he was trying to avoid. He believed that he can outrun destiny and change it over time, and this sense of overconfidence in what he can do doomed him. Had he been humble enough to allow destiny to reveal itself without any effort to change it, things would have been different. Of course, Oedipus cannot be blamed here. Any one would risk doing anything and everything hoping that things turn out for the best.

Lastly, the most important aspect of the tragic hero is death. Tragedy pertains to a sad ending to a story or a life. The tragic hero’s life is a tragedy not because of death per se. Every human being dies, but the essence of tragedy is seen in the details leading towards the death of the hero, a life characterized by misfortune that the tragic hero has to carry with him to his grave. This is a tragedy because even in his own death, Oedipus knew that there is nothing he can do to redeem himself from his sins. He is a hero because he tried to do the right thing but he only ends up doing the wrong things nonetheless. He was a tragic hero because while the audience praise him for his values, he is also forever stained by the reality that he can never be redeemed from his errors brought about by his flaws and weaknesses as a man who is powerless against the power of destiny and fate, which is a very significant ideal during the time of Sophocles.

Conclusion

Aristotle’s concept of the tragic hero puts in perspective the characteristics of the life of a person who tries to do good things but eventually ends up doing the wrong things anyway. The tragic hero paradigm explains a lot about the complex nature of life and destiny, and provides an excellent insight and commentary with regards on how society sees and judges the morality of a person. The tragic hero does not adhere to the idea regarding the means being justified by the end because even when the hero goes for what the people can consider as a moral end through acceptable means, the tragic hero veers away from this philosophical structure and opens up an entirely new schemata on how actions are decided, justified and later on adjudged for its morality and for its virtue.

The tragic hero’s flaw will result in death and not in success. The tragic hero suffers misfortune not because of a particular vice or any form of depravity in the part of the hero, rather, this is caused by an error or fault in his part. In the end, the tragic hero’s actions result to self awareness and more knowledge about one’s self in retrospect of all that has happened to him. Oedipus, the quintessential tragic hero, is seen by the audience with pity for what he has to go through despite his good and noble intentions. Through Oedipus and the tragic hero paradigm, the audience is given the chance to examine the complexities of human life and to redefine the idea of moral actions depending on the reason for the action or the resulting consequences from an action.

References

Booker, Christopher. (2004). The Seven Basic Plots: Why We Tell Stories. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004

Felski, Rita. (2008). Rethinking Tragedy. Maryland: JHU Press

Kennedy, X. J. and Gioia, Dana. (2006). An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Pearson/Longman

Osborne, Elizabeth. (2005). Oedipus Rex: Literary Touchstone Edition. Delaware: Prestwick House Inc.

B.F. Skinner’s Personality and his Behavioral Analysis

April 11, 2013

Abstract

The beginnings of scientific psychology and technology studies have significantly influenced in institutions by B.F.Skinner’s theory, radical behaviorism. Skinner realized that there are particularly many factors contributing to behaviorism. Some of which are genitival and a good number are influence by the environment of the organism. In the studies, he undertook, he used conditioned and non-conditioned situations to obtain the factors to a behavior development in a person that then condition his or her personality. His personal behavior sets him out as a unique individual that seeks out what he desires and thinks as appropriate to him. His researches and personality poses a challenge to teachers to look more into a theory before regarding it as behavior and not just a stimulus response. Skinner’s exploration of behavior does not just comprise the authority of a distinct instance of reinforcement, but also the effect of the program of reinforcement that spreads over a long period.

Biography

Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born in March 20, 1904, in the small town called Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He was born to William Skinner a lawyer and Grace Mange Burrhus Skinner a strong and intelligent housewife house wife. His upbringing was old-fashioned and hard-working. He was an active and outgoing boy. He loved building things and enjoyed school (Cihon, 2007).

He lost his 16 years old brother to cerebral aneurysm. He was brought up in a Presbyterian background, but he lost his faith in high school and became an atheist.

Skinner was awarded his BA in English from Hamilton College in upstate New York. He was passionate with being a writer and did try sending poetry and short stories to the school paper, as well as the school’s critical articles, the faculty and even Phi Beta Kappa! He could not fit in the school parties, or football games and since the school required a daily chapel attendance.

He lived Greenwich Village, New York as a bohemian writing newspaper articles on labor problems. He then decided to go back to school to get his masters in psychology in 1930 and doctorate in 1931 in Harvard; he stayed there doing research until 1936 (Overskeid, 2000).

In 1936, Skinner moved to Minneapolis to teach at the University of Minnesota. He met Yvonne Blue who he soon married and had two daughters. Their second daughter became famous of being the first infant to be raised in one of Skinner’s inventions, the air crib. This was a combination crib and playpen with glass sides and air conditioning.

He became the chairman of the psychology department at Indiana University in 1945. He was invited to Harvard in 1948; this is where he remained for the rest of his life. He continued with his research and guided hundreds of doctoral candidates as he went on writing books. He became one of the best psychology writers, achievement on account of the book Walden II, which is a fictional account of community controlled by his behaviorist principles (Pierce & Cheney, 2004).

Behaviorism

This Theory focuses on observation of as the main tool of studying behavior. Skinner prefers it because he says with observation there is little room for assumption and speculation. His approach was labeled radical behaviorism since it ignored traits such as ego, traits drives, needs, hunger and others. He continues to say that genetics are not as weighty as an individual’s history in determining his or her behavior since genetics are fixed at conception. He worked with animals and humans and studied the works of E.D Thorndike who conceived the Law of Effects. This law said that Rewards strengthen behavior but, punishment inhibit behavior but does not permanently deal with it (Greer, 2002).

He closely studied the works of J.B Watson who also studied animals and human beings. He argued that human behavior should be studied objectively. According to Watson the study should also include instinct, sensation, perception, motivation, mental states, mind and imagery.

Skinner stated that the internal motives cannot be used to tell behavior since they have no empirical evidence. He acknowledged their existence, but did not agree that they could explain behavior (Grow & Kodak, 2010).

Philosophy of science

Skinner say Scientific Behaviorism can be used to interpret behavior but not explain its causes. This is because it allows for generalization from basic to complex. Having used laboratory experiment to study human behavior, he says that interpretation should not be confused with explanations of why they behave in a certain way (Hergenhahn, 2008).

Skinner explains that science has the following characteristics.

Cumulative- Here he states that science has a large pool of facts. From the days of the early thinkers in Greece and that pure sciences like chemistry and physics have made much more progressive development compared to social sciences.

Attitude – He explains that science should be made of empirical result and not what someone prominent in a certain field has said. This ensures that his facts are paramount for a finding to be judged as true.

Science also demands intellectual honesty where a scientist has to accept facts whether they agree with his desires, wishes or not. It also suspends or delays judgment until the results are clear and leaves little or no room for assumptions.

Follows order and lawful relationships- Experiments have to start from simple to the complex. Any assumption has to be hypothesized and tested through controlled experiments and described honestly and accurately for it to allow modification of a theory.

Skinner concludes that human behavior can be determined by certain identifiable variables and follows definite lawful principles. He says that prediction control and prediction can be successfully used.

Conditioning

Skinner came up with two theories of conditioning namely Classical and Operant conditioning.

Classical conditioning-he said that a response is got from an organism by an identifiable or stimulus while, in Operant Conditioning a response is got from reinforcement.

In Classical Conditioning, a conditioned response is paired with an unconditioned response until the unconditioned response it got or learned. Conditioned responses are involuntarily unlearned and exhibited by all species. Reflex reactions such as covering the ear when there is a loud voice is an example of a conditioned response (Thyer, 2007).

Operant Conditioning– Skinner believed that most human behavior is learned through Operant Conditioning. Here, an organism is rewarded immediately after a response. The unique stimulus is the reward. Since the behavior is immediately followed with a reward, this modifies the frequency of a recurrence in future. This usually increases the probability of a recurrence in future.

Shaping is a method of operant conditioning where reward is given in little bits until the desired result is achieved. If reinforcement is delayed till the end then, that target might never be reached.

In Operant conditioning, there are always three conditions. The first Condition is the antecedent which is the environment which the organism is in (Thyer, 2007). The second condition is the Behavior that the organism is expected to show. This response must be within the organism’s pool of actions, and it must not be interfered with other forms of responses that distract him. The third is the consequence or the reward. The response is to be repeated if the reward is always given (Thyer, 2007).

However, the same response might not be exhibited all the time. The organism might perform better than the target behavior or even perform poorly. This is because behavior is continuous and not discrete. Otherwise, the organism would be responding the same way. Operant Conditioning takes place in an environment. The environment determines the way an organism will respond to behavior. Individual respond differently according to how the environment shaped them or reward them. This is called Operant Discrimination.

Stimulus generalization is the response one has to a similar environment in the absence of previous reinforcement. For example, going to watch a sequel to movie of your favorite actor because the first movie was good (Greer, 2002).

Reinforcement

This is intended to strengthen behavior or reward an organism. Skinner clarifies that not every behavior that is reinforced is rewarding or pleasing. It can either be positive or negative.

Positive Reinforcement– This is any stimulus that, when added to a situation, increases the probability that a given behavior will occur is termed a positive reinforce. Situations that produce beneficial environmental conditions are considered positive reinforcers. Examples include food, money, and/or sex. With humans, it is however difficult to determine which responses are rewarding. This is because of different personal history. For instance, some people might like being hugged for a reward while others might not.

Negative Reinforcement– This is the removal of an aversive stimulus from a situation. It increases the probability that the preceding behavior will occur.

Negative reinforcement differs from positive reinforcement in that it requires the removal of an aversive condition, whereas positive reinforcement involves the presentation of a beneficial stimulus (Vargas, 2009).

Effects of Punishment

Punishment is meant to prevent people from behaving in a particular way. When it succeeds it will prevent them from behaving in that manner. However, we may not know how they will act because they still have to do something. It only suppresses the undesired behavior, but does not tell them what to do.

Punishment might cause spread of effects where any stimuli associated with punishment may be avoided. This may lead to development of defense mechanisms.

Comparison between Punishment and Reinforcement

There are two types of Reinforcement (positive and negative) just like there are two types of Punishment. The first type of punishment involves presentation of an aversive stimulus while the second involves the withdrawal of a positive reinforcement.

Both can be derived from natural consequences or human intervention.

Both punishment and reinforcement are means of controlling behavior, whether the control is by design or by accident. Skinner preferred planned control. Reinforcers can be termed as General or Conditioned.

Conditioned reinforcers are those that do not directly satisfy human need but do so because they are associated with other Primary or unlearned reinforcers. An example is Money. Money can at the same time be called a general reinforcement because it is associated with more than one primary reinforcement.

According to Skinner other five other important generalized reinforcers that sustain human behavior include attention, approval, affection, submission of others and tokens (money).

Schedules of reinforcement

These are continuous and intermittent. In Continous reinforcement, the organism is rewarded after every good behavior while in intermittent reinforcement. The use of either depends on the behavior of the organism and the available time. Skinner preferred intermittent reinforcement because it was more efficient and produced responses that were more resistant to extinction.

Ferster and Skinner (1957) came up with four basic intermittent schedules namely;

Fixed and Variable-ratio, Fixed and Variable-interval. Fixed-Ratio With this schedule, the organism is reinforced intermittently according to the number of responses it makes. Ratio refers to the ratio of responses to reinforcers.

Nearly all reinforcement schedules begin on a continuous basis but, soon the experimenter can move from continuous reward to an intermittent reinforcement.

Variable-Ratio With the variable-ratio schedule, the organism is reinforced after the nth response on the average.

Fixed-Interval Here the organism is reinforced for the first response following a designated period of time.

Variable-Interval- In this type of schedule the organism is reinforced after the lapse of random or varied periods of time. For example in humans, one if paid for effort done but not after a certain period of time has elapsed.

Extinction

This is where a previously acquired response becomes gradually weakened upon no reinforcement.

Operant extinction– explained to be a systematic withholding of a previously learned response to zero. This though is a difficult way to control a human being, because people live in an unpredictable environment. Therefore, this may not be a good way to define one’s behavior (Pierce & Cheney, 2004).

A person’s behavior can also be determined by genes. This is referred to as Natural Selection. Reinforcement on one’s personal history tends to be repeated as that which is not dropped out. Likewise, the beneficial behaviors survive over time. This though counts for only a small number of people behavior shaping.

Cultural Evolution– Cultural practices and verbal behavior were learned when one was reinforced to uttering a distinctive sound. It generally shapes one human personality and behavior.

In conclusion, I would state that behavior development has a positive impact on personality as Skinner’s findings elaborate. The hypotheses his study came up with were met and are still termed practical. The research is reliable and can be used as a reference in other psychological studies.

Skinner’s use Scientific Behaviorism was quite valid since he did not want to take chances on what he could not physically observe or measure. He did not want to leave room for speculations however his main weakness was his avoidance of genetic factors which also contribute to behavior of organisms.

References

Cihon, T. M. (2007). A Comparison of Transfer of Stimulus Control Or Multiple Control on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants in Young Children. Ohio: Ohio State University.

Greer, R. D. (2002). Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach. San Diego: Academic Press.

Grow, L. L., & Kodak, T. (2010). Recent Research on Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications and Future Directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43 (4), 775-8.

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2008). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Belmont: Cengage Learning.

Overskeid, G. (2000). ‘Why do we think? Consequences of regarding thinking as behavior’. The Journal of Psychology, 134 (4), 357-374.

Pierce, W. D., & Cheney, C. D. (2004). Behavior Analysis and Learning (3rd Edition ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Thyer, B. A. (2007). ‘On The Possible Influence of Bertrand Russell On B. F. Skinner’s Approach To Education’. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 (3), 587.

Vargas, J. S. (2009). Behavior Analysis for Effective Teaching. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Interview on Parenting

April 11, 2013

PART 1: Interview

  1. How old is your child/children?

Olivia is 15.

  1. How is adolescence different from the elementary school years for your child? What changes have you seen in them?

Most of the times, talking with Olivia can be like walking on thin ice. Either depending on her mood, she can be delightful or an emotional wreck. In elementary school, she was so much easier to talk to.

  1. How has your relationship changed since your child has entered adolescence? Give examples of how this has changed.

Olivia hugs me in the morning and hugs me at night before she goes to sleep. Other than that, she does her homework and constantly chats with friends about meaningless teenage stuff. When Olivia was a little girl, she loved playing music with daddy (I am a musician.) Now, she thinks it is creepy to play with her dad.

  1. What are some boundaries and rules you have set up for your teen? What do you do if they break or a rule or disrespect a boundary?

One thing that bothers me about Olivia is that she is terrified when it comes to doing the wrong thing. So much so that I actually would not mind, if for once she got in to some trouble. She wakes up at 5:30, catches the bus at 6:30, runs track, plays piano and guitar brilliantly, and is a straight and honor student. I always say that Olivia was born at the age of 30. Meaning, the rules and boundaries are quite simple: do the right thing, make good choices, it’s ok if you screw up, hang out with good kids, let me know where you are always, and most of all, get straight A’s.

  1. Is your teen involved in a romantic relationship? Do they go on dates? What do the dates consist of?

Interesting question, but the answer is no. Olivia has a couple friends that “go with” boys. The advent of Twitter and Facebook, I believe, has changed the teenage dating scene dramatically. “Going with someone,” in my teenager’s mind, means tweeting boys or chatting with them on Facebook. In addition, I have access to all her social media. I try to be respectful with her privacy but I also do not want her to do something stupid.

  1. What is the greatest challenge you face in regards to your relationship with your adolescent?

Communication: Olivia used to think I was “cool”, and now I am just “annoying.” I have come to the realization that there is no way that a dad can be “cool.” Olivia and I had a fight the other night and she got unreasonably emotional. She said, “Dad, I got things going on.” Turns out she was having her period, which is something I clearly cannot communicate with her about.

  1. What is your child’s feeling toward his friendships? Do you think these friendships have a major influence on him/her? If so, give some examples.

Her friends dramatically influence Olivia. The fact that they all have “Smart Phones,” means that they are always together, even when they are apart. Her friends are a huge part of her life. Knowing all her friends and their parents, as a father, makes a big difference.

  1. How has the world changed from the time you were a teen? What then are some new challenges your teen will face that you did not?

When I was a teenager, I had one way to communicate with friends and was a landline phone that I had to share with an older brother and two older sisters. Teenagers today communicate 24/7. They also have access to enormous amounts of information, some of which is disturbing. I love the internet but am not sure that I love it for my daughter.

  1. Does your child have what you would consider good or poor self-esteem? Describe how you think they perceive themselves.

I received an email two days ago from Olivia’s high school that said they would be conducting tests for kids that might be depressed. Olivia laughed about it and said that even if she was depressed she would never be labeled as “one of those kids” that was tested. Olivia is exceedingly confident. However, her entire groups of friends are all beautiful and athletic. While Olivia is attractive, she is no great athlete. She is small and not particularly gifted athletically. Most of her friends, however, are super athletes. I think this probably bothers her.

  1. How do you cope with the anxiety and pressures that come with parenting an adolescent?

Honestly, I use humor. Yesterday Olivia said to me something like this: “Katie texted me that Julie was having a sleepover and then Kelsey said to Alden that she can’t so we just decided to meet at Starbucks.” I have no anxiety or pressure, just sadness that my little girl has moved on. Nevertheless, that is life.

PART 2: Interview report

  1. Consistency of the style used by the interviewed parent

The parenting style this parent has adopted is the authoritative parenting. In authoritative parenting, parents encourage their adolescent children to be independent but impose some controls and restrictions to that independence. There is an allowance for in depth verbal exchanges between parents and their adolescent children. Adolescents in authoritative parenting have strong social links, are self-reliant and are socially responsible. The parent in the interview is an example of an authoritative parent from the way he answers my questions. The parent has imposed some restrictive measures for Olivia such that she is always terrified when it comes to doing wrong things. The authoritative nature has enabled Olivia to have more control of her life and to make her more responsible at her age. She knows what is expected f her and she tries hard to avoid instances of conflict occurrence. To control her life, the parent has access to her private life that ensures she does not do anything weird to her life (Santrock, 2012).

  1. The greatest concern of the parent, and its manifestation in child-parent relationship

The main concern with this parent is the feeling that he is no longer close to his daughter. He feels that her peers take her away as most of her time she spends with her peers both physically and through social media. Peer relationships have both positives and negatives to the development of a child. Fostering a positive peer relationship will grow the adolescent youngster into a responsible person. Social isolation leads to many different forms of problems and disorders like substance abuse and depression. Peer relationships are therefore necessary for in development of a child. On the other hand, there is need for control into the types of relationship a peer is having, since lack of control may lead to negative peer pressure, which is not right. There is therefore a constant fight between parents and their youngsters in regard of peer and parent control. The bible teaches that, in Proverbs 13 and 19, parents should discipline their children if they want to make them responsible adults. The discipline however needs to balance with love to avoid rebellion and resentment. To avoid conflicts with peers, parents should positively monitor their behaviors in becoming responsible adults (Relevant Bible Teaching, 2012).

The peer-parent control conflict is common especially at the early adolescence age and important ids for parents to engage in constant conversations with their adolescents concerning consultations, guidance and peer conflicts to have a clear understanding in both of them (Santrock, 2012).

PART 3: Personal parenting philosophy

  1. The parenting style I believe in

I believe in the authoritative parenting style as the best in molding children into responsible adults. A parent should allow their parents to exercise some autonomy in their personal lives, to make particular personal decisions as well as controlling their social lives. The autonomy should have limits where parents have the final say in some instances. This will grow an all rounded child who knows what is right and wrong and understands how to control themselves in their private and social lives. Lack of socialization may lead to negative behaviors like substance abuse and depressions while at the same time absolute autonomy may lead to negative peer behaviors like drugs abuse, and commercial sex among others (Khaki, 2012).

  1. Balancing the relationship with adolescence and enforcing the rules of the house.

The Bible in Hebrews 12:11, says that discipline is painful in its occurrence but if followed by loving instructions, it is remarkably beneficial to the child. Further teachings from the holy book say that (Proverbs 22:6), the parent should train their child in the way they want them to go such that in adulthood, they will not turn from it. These biblical teachings answer my question, as I will impart discipline to my adolescent peer through the most loving way so that they embrace the guidelines in the best way and in that our relationship will be strong and with rules basis. I will teach them the right ways so that in future, they will not regret and blame their parents for their failure (Relevant Bible Teaching, 2012).

  1. Effect of Christian world view in parenting adolescents

The Christian Worldview bases its teachings in the Holy bible and they will act a guide in how I will parent my adolescence. The Holy Bible gives the guidelines on how parents should treat their children in making them responsible adults. Through the various scriptures teaching on parenting, I will build my family and guide my peers in the right way (Got Questions Org, 2012).

  1. How to approach a child with a drug issue

The moment I suspect that my child is using drugs I will stay calm to avoid unnecessary confrontations that can have negative effects on him. I will wait until I am in the right state of min, and then set a plan of confronting them by selecting a particular place and time most conducive for both of us. At the same time, I will ensure he is not under the influence of the drug to have a comfortable environment for both of us. I will also have a game plan on how to handle the conversation clearly stating my concerns. During the conversation, I will ensure that I understand the condition, and remain firm and supportive. I will also ensure no feelings of sarcasm, accusations, hostility, self-blaming and pitying emerge from me. In the end, I will have assisted the child in the most positive manner (English, 2005).

  1. How to cope with anxieties and pressures that come with adolescence parenting

Relationship between parent and an adolescent peer can be humiliating to the parent especially when the peer goes against the parent’s will in most instances. To avoid stressful life, I would remain simple and authoritative as possible. I would explain to my peer the limits of their authority and the expectations at home and with their friends. It is a very hard task but with constant love and concern, they will understand the rules of the house and live a happy life. To achieve this I will consult the biblical teachings on good parenting to be my guide (Santrock, 2012).

References

English. (2005). Family Matters: How to Approach Drug Issues with Your Family. Retrieved on 3rd December, 2012 from http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/publication_pdfs/7860/OTH-7860-ENG.pdf

Got Questions Organization. (2012). What does the Bible say about being a good parent? Retrieved on 3rd December, 2012 from http://www.gotquestions.org/good-parent.html

Khaki, H. (2012). The Four Parenting Styles. Article Garden. Retrieved on 3rd December, 2012 from http://www.articlegarden.com/Article/The-Four-Parenting-Styles/3815

Relevant Bible Teaching. (2012). Bedrocks of Biblical Parenting. Retrieved on 3rd December, 2012 from http://www.relevantbibleteaching.com/site/cpage.asp?cpage_id=140032273&sec_id=140001239

Santrock, J. W. (2012). Adolescence. 14th Edition. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Summary of the Application of B. F. Skinner’s Theory of Behavioral Analysis

April 11, 2013

Abstract

No one contributed to the beginnings of scientific psychology and to a technology of education and training through psychology as B. F. Skinner. His theory of “radical behaviorism” has influenced education, culture, leadership, research and many other aspects of life. It is considered radical since it expands behavioral principles to processes within the organism which are in contrast to methodological behaviorism thus he is ideologically against introspection being regarded as behavior and the concept of self-reinforcement because domestic states are never considered the basis of behavior, and this signifies that phenomena must be noticeable in the individual experiencing them. He also challenges teachers and evokes researchers, in the application of the study of language, to conduct a more thorough analysis of the role of stimulus control on emergent verbal behavior to identify more effective procedures for evoking untrained relations. Skinner’s scrutiny of behavior does not just comprise the authority of a distinct instance of reinforcement, but also the effect of specific program of reinforcement that spreads over a long period.

Behavioral Analysis is crucial to Education Development

Thyer, B. A. (2007). On The Possible InflSuence of Bertrand Russell on B. F. Skinner’s Approach to Education. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 (3), 587.

The journal article is a conceptual comparison between the views of Bertrand Russell and the approach of B. F. Skinner to reinforcement with regards to education. He further asserts that skinner’s approach must have been influenced by Russell’s as they bear great similarities. Human learning is influenced by experiences arranged by other people. Rational arguments, rewards, threats, bribes and force are used not only to promote learning but also to change the behavior of people (Pierce & Cheney, 2004). Reinforcement is a fundamental conception in Behaviorism, because it is viewed as a vital instrument in the determination and management of behavior. The author quotes Russell, by offering a case of a school situation, where he stresses the importance of the school authority having a specific hall for learners who are unwilling to learn.

An ordinary fallacy that is in existence is that unconstructive reinforcement is identical to punishment. This mistaken belief is widespread, and is generally established even in academic discourse of Skinner. Apparently, while constructive reinforcement strengthens conduct by the appliance of some occurrences (i.e., praising an individual after some good behavior is performed), unconstructive reinforcement can strengthen behavior by exclusion or avoiding specific event.(for instance, the practice of sending those students who do not want to learn away from class).

Teachers should be taught more effective ways of teaching which are accompanied by continuous, interval and (or) ratio reinforcement. The activities designed rules and procedures in a class or school, lesson materials and exercises, even informal peer interactions are all part of the contingencies of student behavior (Vargas, 2009).

There is a distinction between Thinking and Behavior

Overskeid, G. (2000). Why do we think? Consequences of regarding thinking as behavior. The Journal of Psychology, 134 (4), 357-374.

In this article, Overskied shows the consequences of regarding thinking as behavior.It isbroadly defined as “problem solving involving ideational activity”. There are several factors influencing people’s ways of thinking and drawing conclusions but there is lack of systematic accounting of the factors that initiate, terminate, and change both thinking itself and its various modes. If there is a failure in attempting to find and analyze the stimuli that reinforce, punish, and control thinking, then we exclude important factors that make us start thinking in the first place.

He stresses that cognitive psychology has explained how people think but has failed to uncover why people think. B. F. Skinner on the other hand states through his theory of radical behaviorism that “what is felt or introspectively observed is not some non-physical world of consciousness, mind, or mental life but the observer’s own body”. The elements of thought are sensations and feelings and are described to the extent to which they bare the attributes of pleasantness, excitement or strain (Hergenhahn, 2008) ; which do not necessarily constitute behavior.

In spite of theoretical acceptance, the phenomenon of thinking thus relates to the theory of radical behaviorist research-first, because the behavior in question cannot be observed directly. Second, no existing methodology can produce results that behavior analysts would regard as convincing evidence for the claim that private events may cause other behavior. Thus, thinking cannot be regarded as behavior even though others claim ‘self-reinforcement’ because self-reinforcement can be a result of the environment one is exposed to.

Functional Analysis of Verbal Behavior

Grow, L. L. & Kodak, T. (2010). Recent Research on Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications and Future Directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43 (4), 775-8.

The article evaluates the functional independence of verbal operants. It outlines the fact that teaching of children with disabilities focuses on four verbal operants ,these are mand, tact, intraverbal and echoic .These verbal operants are part of the six elementary operants explained by Skinner ,the two others being ‘audience relation’ and ‘textual’.

The mand is evoked by an establishing operation and is maintained by access to a response-specific reinforcer. The tact is under the discriminative control of a nonverbal stimulus and produces generalized reinforcers. A response that has point-to- point correspondence with a preceding vocal stimulus is an echoic (e.g., saying “fish” after someone says “fish”). An intraverbal lacks point-to-point correspondence with an antecedent verbal discriminative stimulus (SD). Answering, “a car” following the verbal stimulus “What do you ride in?” is an example of an intraverbal response.

Verbal repertoires are often taught using transfer of stimulus control. Basic research suggests that stimulus blocking may occur during transfer of stimulus control. Stimulus blocking may impede the acquisition of new verbal operants by blocking a new stimulus from acquiring stimulus control” (Cihon, 2007). Therefore, another possible avenue of future research involves an examination of the influence of stimulus control on emergent verbal behavior. Numerous behavior analyst since the time of Skinner have feel that the basic verbal relations should be re-assessed to deal with the challenges in encompassing a variety of responses into the categorization systems of the basic analysis. In this sense, the functional scrutiny of behavior should not be described in the same manner as the functional assessment due to the fact that they do not encompass the express control of autonomous variables, and the application of experimental models (Greer, 2002).

References

Cihon, T. M. (2007). A Comparison of Transfer of Stimulus Control Or Multiple Control on the Acquisition of Verbal Operants in Young Children. Ohio: Ohio State University.

Greer, R. D. (2002). Designing Teaching Strategies: An Applied Behavior Analysis Systems Approach. San Diego: Academic Press.

Grow, L. L., & Kodak, T. (2010). Recent Research On Emergent Verbal Behavior: Clinical Applications And Future Directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 43 (4), 775-8.

Hergenhahn, B. R. (2008). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Belmont : Cengage Learning.

Overskeid, G. (2000). Why do we think? Consequences of regarding thinking as behavior. The Journal of Psychology , 134 (4), 357-374.

Pierce, W. D., & Cheney, C. D. (2004). Behavior Analysis and Learning (3rd Edition ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Thyer, B. A. (2007). On The Possible Influence Of Bertrand Russell On B. F. Skinner’s Approach To Education. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis , 40 (3), 587.

Vargas, J. S. (2009). Behavior Analysis for Effective Teaching. New York : Taylor & Francis.

Issues That Children Face

April 11, 2013

There is a very urgent need for parents to shape their children. Self-confidence is one major area that parent need to have control over in their children, especially for children in primary school level or below. This is because such children are on a drive to try out what they can do and also on how they can be compatible with people from different groups. Parents are usually in the best position to show children how they should perceive themselves. It is of importance for people, especially parents, not to confuse a child’s self-confidence with extraversion, boldness, over-confidence, and self-assuredness. This is because a child can be quiet, reserved, and full of self-doubt but still act with poise in a particular social or learning setting. To children, self-belief is a matter of taking risks and trying out new things. Thus, children who are self-confident are more expected to use most of their potential while carrying out different activities. This is because they will tend to broaden themselves socially. Every child has a different way of expressing or viewing themselves. However, keeping a positive stance or attitude will benefit a kid as compared to a negative outlook. Many children will suffer from a low self-respect due to various reasons, thus the need to build their self-confidence to ensure they succeed in life (Berne & Savary, 1981). This paper will discuss the stages of moral development in children, self-esteem in children, causes of low self-esteem in children and how we can instill confidence in children.

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, there exist six stages of moral development in children. The obedience and punishment orientation stage refers to the stage where the kid believes that influential figure sets down standard rules and regulations that he or she must automatically heed to (Power, Higgins & Kohlberg, 1991). This stage is usually referred to thinking preconventional since the kid does not speak to members of the public. Instead, these children tend to see morals as something external to them, as the thing they are commanded to do. The individualism and exchange stage is where the children realize that they are not just commanded to do one specific thing by the authorities since different people have different opinions. Noticeably, most children in this stage as in the first stage think about punishment. However, they see it differently in stage one and two. In the first stage, punishment is fixed in the youngster’s mind with wrongness. This implies that the punishment justifies that disobeying the authorities is wrong (Munsey, 1980). In the second stage, the child perceives the punishment as a threat that he or she logically wants to evade. Individuals at this stage are still seen to reason at the preconventional level since they perceive themselves detached from the larger society. The third stage is the good interpersonal relationships stage. In this stage, the teenagers view morality as more than just a simple deal. The teenagers have a feeling that individuals should live up as expected by their friends, family, and society and have good manners (Crain, 1985). Good manners in this context imply that they should have good motives and interpersonal sentiments like reliance, love, understanding, and mindful of others. In the maintaining the social order stage, the individuals become more concerned with the general public as a whole as compared to the previous stage where he or she is concerned with close associates like family members and close friends. The focus in this stage is abiding by the laws, respecting the authorities, and carrying out the obligations as required. Also in this stage, the respondents make ethical choices from the viewpoint of the society as a whole. These perceptions exceed by far the clasp of the youngster. The social contract and individual rights stage is where the individuals start thinking about society in a very hypothetical way. They tend to step back from the individual society and starts considering the civil liberties and principles that a society need to maintain. Later, they begin assessing the present societies in terms of these past reflections. Also, individuals in this stage think that a decent society can be best visualized as a social contract in which individuals liberally operate toward the benefit of the larger community. The universal principle stage, which is the last stage, defines the standards by which individuals can attain justice.

The other issue that is addressed in the book TheConfident Child: Raising Children to Believe in Themselves by Terry Apter is self-esteem among children. The main feature of self-confidence is negativity. Negative feelings tend to saturate a child’s confidence, thus deteriorating his or her self-confidence. Children with low self-esteem will exhibit a number of symptoms. They rarely live their lives to the fullest. They will distance themselves from other children when playing, therefore denying themselves love, mental, and physical support. Such kids will not make use of the full potentials as compared to children with confidence. Also, they are not always at ease with success. They are more likely to believe that they are not entitled to success and tend to believe that they have no idea of relishing success. Children with low self-esteem also have a general disposition of lowering themselves (Apter, 1998). In most instances they perceive themselves not to be good enough and are deemed to fail. Such negative self-talk is more likely to breed into a negative self-assurance. These children will thus instill these traits of pessimism in the other children who are around them and suffer from similar setbacks. As a result, they end up with more negativity than they were before. The other symptom of low self-esteem in children is the high level of discontent (Briggs, 1988). Such children tend to spend most of their time grumbling. They don’t see anything positive in themselves nor the people they are associating with. These children also spend a considerable amount of their time worrying about their past and future. They spend very less time living their present whether it is full of success or not. Last but not the least, children with low self-esteem are more likely to have problems associating closely with other kids. They tend to be very uneasy with closeness and often impose barriers that stop other children from getting more close to them. They are also not comfortable with opening up or revealing their feeling to others. Instead, they confine themselves and live in self-denial.

Self-esteem usually affects children’s confidence in many ways. Once a child believes that he or she has no basic abilities to crack personal problems then he or she may lose hope and give up. Self-belief is very essential in children. This is because it offers individuals the poise to aim for the highest. It also overcome negative feelings and eliminates the fear of failure among youngsters. Self-belief gives children the confidence that they have nothing to fear or loose especially when it comes to asking questions in class. Also, children with self-belief are blessed with the confidence to admit failure through positive thinking. Children with a high self-esteem tend not to talk of their failure; instead, they are more interested in establishing the reasons behind their failure. Low self-esteem diminishes the self-confidence of a child. Children with a low self-esteem will be seen turning to alcohol or other forms of drugs to improve their confidence. Such a kid needs to develop self-respect and believe that he or she is better than others. The moment he realizes that he is not the only child with a weak point the better for his mental judgment.

There are several ways of boosting self-esteem in a child. A parent need to offer the child unconditional love. The child needs to be assured of love despite his strengths, abilities, and difficulties. Secondly, the parent should lay down some rules for the child. He or she should ensure the child understand that it is wrong for not doing so and so. For instance, a parent should make it clear to a child that at no circumstance should he or she go skating without a helmet. Thus, knowing that certain rules have been set for him will make him feel a bit secure and loved. Thirdly, as a parent you should allow mistakes to happen (Ramsey, 2002). A child is known to be bound to doing wrongs. Making mistakes are helpful lessons for boosting a child’s self-esteem. If a child makes a mistake in doing something, the parent should encourage him or her to try and do it differently next time to avoid repeating the mistake. For example, if the child misses his bus to school because he was searching for his misplaced schoolbag, you should encourage him to find a good place for keeping it so that next time he can locate it with ease instead of yelling at him. Fourthly, the parent need to praise the positives the child is doing. A child, like an adult, will react positively to encouragements. Thus a parent should try as much as possible to appreciate the good things that a child does. This will improve his feeling of self-worth and accomplishment. Also, as a parent, you should avoid comparing the child to another child who you consider better that him. Comparing a child to another person will promote jealousy and rivalry between the two. It also fosters shame in the child. A parent should also shun from giving even positive comparisons. This is latently harmful because the youngster can find it difficult to live up to the new image. Thus, you should only let the kid know that his unique personality is appreciated. The other way of instilling self-confidence in child is to show him or her empathy. For example, a child may be saddened by his inability to do something like another person. Like he may ask why he is not able to play basketball perfectly like his sibling. The parent should show the child sympathy by emphasizing on one of the strengths he possesses. For instance, he should console the child that even though he is not a good basketball player, he is an excellent runner.

References

Apter, T. (1998). The Confident Child: raising Children to Believe in Themselves. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Berne, P. H. & Savary, L. M. (1981). Building self-esteem in children. London, UK: Continuum.

Briggs, D. (1988). Your Child’s Self Esteem. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group.

Crain, W. C. (1985). Theories of Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Munsey, B. (1980). Moral development, moral education, and Kohlberg: basic issues in philosophy, psychology, religion, and education. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Ramsey, R. (2002). 501 Ways to Boost Your Child’s Self-Esteem. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional.

Power, F. C., Higgins, A. & Kohlberg, L. (1991). Lawrence Kohlberg’s Approach to Moral Education. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Impact of Wealth and Power in My Last Duchess by Robert

April 11, 2013

Impact of Wealth and Power in My Last Duchess by Robert

Outline

  1. Introduction

    1. General introduction: Poem’s title, poet, focus

    2. Thesis: Through the words of a member of a Victorian royal family, Robert Browning skillfully exposes the despicable aspects of wealth and power.

  2. Body

The negative aspects influences of wealth and power from the poem:

    1. The speaker is has no sad feelings associated with loss. Instead of being in mood of loss, he is pride of his financial ability

    2. Exposing the speaker’s cruelty by describing the desirable qualities and experiences of the Duchess

    3. Wealthy and power precedes jealousy which leads the speaker to order for the murder of the Duchess.

  1. Conclusion

    1. Restating the thesis

    2. Brief restatement of the main points

Impact of Wealth and Power in My Last Duchess by Robert

The Essay

This Victorian poem, Robert Browning’s My Last Duchess, revolves around a painting of the late Duchess of Ferrara. In the poem, her life-time husband describes her human qualities, how she enjoyed life, how she died, and the aftermath of her death. Through the reactions of the speaker, the Duke, to the aspects described in the life of the Late Duchess, the reader can inevitably learn about the personality of the Duke. The motivation for the personality of the Duke is clearly linked to his wealthy, powerful position that the royal family places him as the Duke. This way, the central argument of this paper is, through the words of a member of a Victorian royal family, Robert Browning skillfully exposes the despicable aspects of wealth and power.

There are several instances in the poem that illustrate the negative aspects of wealth and power. First, the Duke has lost a wife, and yet the emotions associated with loss are not apparent in the poem. As the poem opens, the speaker’s pride is clearly exposed. The speaker prides himself: “That piece a wonder, now: Frà Pandolf’s hands (3). The speaker identifies the artist by name, implying that he must have been a respected painter of his time. This word choice in this line gives an idea of the unfeeling personality of the speaker. Having been his own wife, one would expect that he is emotionally touched by her death. However, the use of the word piece shows the insensitive nature of the speaker. Although the painting is an image, that image should symbolize the Duchess. However, in this case, the speaker seems to be impressed by the quality of the painting, rather than what it symbolizes. His financial ability to get the best known painter is what makes him insensitive to the fact that this painting symbolizes his departed Duchess.

Second, Browning used description to demonstrate that the speaker is actually cruel. The speaker describes some aspects of the Duchess which to him are undesirable. However, to the reader, and probably the rest of humanity, these are the traits that would be appealing. This presents a kind of ironical situation in that what the speaker disliked about the Duchess, is actually what humanity would appreciate; and because of this, the speaker becomes the revolting character. By way of example, the Duchess’ sociable nature was something that the speaker disliked. This illustrated by the speaker’s observation that his late spouse “had a heart” and that she was “too soon made glad” and that she was always grateful to men; she always expressed gratitude to them.. The speaker explains that the Duchess was “Too easily impressed” and that “she liked whate’er/ She looked on…” (21-24). These illustrations demonstrate that the Duchess was an ordinary woman who would appeal both to people and nature. As a matter of fact, people will be appealed to those others who are easily sociable. Again, enjoying aspects of nature such as sunrise is an admirable aspect. From the way the speaker reacts to the Duchess personality, it is evident that the speaker is not happy with her. For instance, the speaker is not happy with the way the Duchess expressed appreciation to those men who offered her gifts. The speaker feels that the Duchess is discriminative in the way she expresses gratitude. This is clearly illustrated by the speaker’s observation that the Duchess thanked men “as if she ranked/My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name/With anybody’s gift…” (31-34). This is a clear indication that the speaker felt that the Duchess was biased against him when it came to being appreciative. It is interesting to note that it is power and wealth that the speaker believes he should be thanked for. In noting that his gift to her of a 900-year old is more valuable than any other gift, it clearly demonstrates the value that the speaker attaches to wealth and wealth. In other words, wealth and power overshadows desirable human traits.

Third, wealth and power led the speaker to order for the murder of the Duchess. The speaker admits that due to jealousy, he decided to order for the murder of the Duchess. The jealousy arose from the personality of the Duchess: showing respect to every one, smiling to every person who walked past her, and being grateful to everyone. When the speaker felt that he could not stomach this personality anymore, he “gave commands/Then all smiles stopped together/There she stands/As if alive” (45-47). The speaker does not give details on the kind of the order he gave, but from the choice of words, they can be inferred. After indicating that he issue order upon getting fed up with her smiles and appreciations to everyone, the next line reports that “all smiles stopped together” before unashamedly noting that now she stands on a wall as if when were breathing. These instances show that he killed her; and has no regrets about it. The reasons for murdering her basically connected with her inability to sufficiently recognize her wealthy and powerful position; and smile to him and thank him differently from others who do not belong to the same social status. It should be noted that the speaker does not demand to be treated differently because he is her husband, but rather because he holds a wealthy and powerful position as the Duke of Ferrara.

In conclusion, this paper has demonstrated that power and wealth associated with Victorian royal families displaced the desirable human qualities. The analysis of My Last Duchess by Robert Browning has highlighted some of the negative aspects of wealth and power. The speaker developed intense dislike for the Duchess to the extent that he ordered for her death. Even in her death, the Duke does not seem to have any feeling for wrongdoing. The root cause of this insensitivity, the paper has demonstrated, is wealth and power. The speaker has insisted that the Duchess should have recognized her wealthy and powerful position, which he obtained because of him.

Reference

Browning, R. (1993). My Last Duchess. In X. J. Kennedy and D. Gioia. Literature: An introduction to fiction, poetry, and drama (6th ed.) (pp. 594-595). New York: Harper Collins.

Contemporary Issues in Management

April 11, 2013

Executive Summary

The world has been changing significantly for a long time. This has caused a debate regarding the nature as well as historical importance of these changes. This is what is meant by globalization. Globalization has come up as a powerful as well as a controversial concept of this age. The world has seen a major process of increasing connectivity and interdependence of the markets and businesses (Budd, 2007). This is a process that has been spreading dramatically for the past two decades. This is because of the technological developments that have made it possible and easier for people to travel, communicate and operate globally. Development in telecommunication infrastructures and increase in the use of the internet are the major driving forces behind globalization. While there changes have been evident there is a ranging debate regarding globalization. At the center of the debate regarding the change, is the extent, form and results of globalization in the modern world. Globalization has led to increased advancement of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from one nation to the next (Ray, 2007). Globalization has allowed increased competition in a free market because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. It is seen as an opportunity for prosperity and economic development of nations all over the world. However, globalization also has negative effects. The process of globalization has been known to cause massive joblessness in the industrialized and developed nations as multinational organizations realize that they can get cheaper labor and raw materials for their companies in other regions of the world, particularly the underdeveloped and developing regions. It has also led to increased immigration and insecurity across the world.

Introduction

Globalization is a term used to refer to the increasing interconnectedness between countries.Globalization is normally viewed as being caused by interplay of economic, socio-cultural, technological, political, and biological forces (Clark, 1998). It is historically viewed as a process that emanated from the need to share and explore. Technological development has led to the ease in transfer of information, products and services to other parts of the world. This has also led to the need to explore other parts of the world for economic benefits. With the development in the internet, information on resources and products is spread very fast, with ease and less expensively. There is also the aspect of the need to exploit primary products in the developing and poor nations by the developed nations. This has led to not only the import and export of products, but also the development of multinational companies. This essay seeks to identify and analyze reasons why the process of globalization has a controversial issue around the world.

As the barriers are removed, nations, organizations and business firms become dependent on each other. The three main indicators of globalization are where goods and services are being traded between nations, flow of capital between countries and an eased movement of people across borders (Giddens, 1990). These indicators also form some of the most important issues about globalization that must be addressed. International trade greatly determines the results of globalization. In other words, what is being traded will determine whether globalization is useful to the parties involved, or pone of the states is being exploited by another or neither of the two states benefits from each other. If international trade is such that there is no mutual benefit then it should be discouraged while aspects that ensure there is mutual benefit are encouraged.

Finances form the basics of every community as it is through them that institutions are funded, governments deliver services to their citizens and individuals get sources of livelihood (Steger, 2002). There are three major forms in which finances flow from country to another in the process of enhancing globalization. These are through foreign indirect invest, foreign direct investment and through Greenfield and Brownfield investment. In foreign indirect investments, capitals flows to another country when money is used in buying financial assets that are within that country. Foreign indirect investment focuses mostly on enhancing an integrated financial market across the globe. Foreign direct investment takes place when an organization invests in another country with the aim of increasing its production. There is mutual benefit in that the organization will increase its production at lower costs of production while the country in which the organization has moved to benefits through economic growth, provision of jobs to its citizens and bettered living conditions through earning better wages (Budd, 2007). Even though research studies have shown that developed countries often benefit much through foreign direct investment than host countries do.

Greenfield and Brownfield investment is the last mode in which capital flows from state to another state. Multinational corporations (MNCs) seeking to expand their production processes to other countries often do it either through Greenfield or through Brownfield (Held & McGrew, 2007). Greenfield refers to where the MNC establishes a production facility which is completely new in the host country while Brownfield refers to where the MNC merges with a locally existing firm to increase its production capacity or to completely take control of the existing firms. The flow of money through interstate borders has been growing rapidly and mostly through migrants remitting money to their friends and relatives living in their home countries.

Controversy

On one side of the debate supporters of globalization have argued that the world has been basically changed by globalization for the better (Held & McGrew, 2007). The supporters of globalization have also argued that it opens up opportunities for everyone to operate in a free market. This is because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. On the other side, there are opponents who argue that the claim of the positive changes due to globalization is exaggerated. They have claimed that the power of national governments, geopolitics and nationalism are still the defining elements of this age. This is a claim that is based on the argument that nothing much has changed. Some opponents have completely denied the argument that the world has entered an entirely new era. The opponents have also argued that globalization is a negative phenomenon for it has made it hard for some groups to participate in the international business because of the increased pressure caused by competition. Therefore there is a controversy regarding whether globalization is a positive concept in describing the current events. Whether globalization is a positive or negative development remains unclear.

Positive effects

There are many benefits that emanate from the process of globalization. The very first benefit of globalization is in the increased advancement of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from one nation to the next (Intriligator, 2003). The increased levels of foreign investment that are triggered by the process of globalization are important for a number of reasons; firstly they encourage the transfer of technology from one nation to another. Secondly, it is very instrumental in the reformation of industries; competition has always been known to encourage commercial enterprises to up their game and provide the consumers with better quality goods and services. In addition to this globalization supports increased international trade and an increased efficiency in the utilization of available resources in the process of production and manufacture of finished goods. The increased rates of trading activities amongst the nations of the world in the international arena have with time led to the collapse of any trade barriers that existed previously (David, 1998). This implies the Free Trade Policy in which the levies, duties, subsidies and quotas that were previously imposed on nations and their trading activities by others have been eliminated.

Globalization is also advantageous due to the fact that it increases harmonious associations between nations on the international arena (Legrain, 2003). When nations are engaged in mutual trade, they tend to increase the levels of collaboration and cooperation between them and consequently reduce the probabilities for the advent of conflicts or wars between nations. This implies that with globalization many nations that were previously engaged in bitter confrontations have established new peaceful associations based on trading activities. Globalization has also increased the rates in which people all over the world connect with each other; the opening of territorial boundaries implies that workers looking for greener economic pastures can freely migrate to other nations in search for employment. Globalization tends to positively affect tourism; nations that have a great number of natural resources and wildlife improve their financial systems through the tourism industry.

Globalization has allowed increased competition in a free market because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. Globalization is seen as an opportunity for prosperity and economic development of nations all over the world. This is because even the developing nations are becoming part of the international opportunities and capital flows (Intriligator, 2003). Survival in this international market necessities increased levels of production making nations even in the developing world more productive. This has led to an increase in the use of technology for production of more superior products (Meinhard & Niklas, May 2012). Globalization has also enabled access to different products some of which are not produced at a territorial level. This has helped both consumers and industries in accessing both consumer goods and industrial products. With the increase in globalization, international borrowing of capital has been made possible.

Negative effects

In spite of all the benefits that have been described as being brought about by the process of globalization, there are also some negative effects. The process of globalization has been known to cause massive joblessness in the industrialized and developed nations. This usually occurs when multinational organizations realize that they can get cheaper labor and raw materials for their industries and companies in other regions of the world, particularly the underdeveloped and developing regions (Sen, 2002). As a consequence, the commercial organizations shut down their businesses in the developed nations with the intentions of investing outside the nation. This leads to the laying off of many workers that were previously working for the multinationals. The emergence of investors from foreign nations in any country is also another disadvantageous aspect of the globalization process since it removes the safeguard of domestic producers and makes them susceptible to rivalry and competition from foreign investors. It is due to such aftermaths of globalization that in the year 2005, the relevant agencies in the European Union and the United States of America impressed limitations on the importation of low cost textiles from China into their territories (Ray, 2007).

Globalization is also enhanced by the free flow of resources including human resource. If not well addressed, globalization can lead to massive migration both legal and illegal. Migration from one state to another has numerous effects such as increasing pressure on social amenities and especially the healthcare sector, increasing social crimes among others (Robertson & Khondker, 1998). Even though most nations have worked hard to liberalize their markets, the same has not been depicted in the flow of human labor as most still have laws that do not encourage migration. Even though the laws are still tough on migration it has continued to exist and mostly between the developing and developed countries. One of the reasons why migration should be addressed while dealing with globalization is because different countries have different definitions of migrants such that people who might not be considered as migrants in one country might be in another.

Another challenge of globalization that has caused a lot of concern in the modern day is the propensity of commercial organizations to degrade and pollute the ecosystem (Intriligator, 2003). Globalization is perceived as having contributed significantly to the increased number of environmental challenges in the 21st century world. As industries are being developed and being moved to other parts of the world, especially the developing nations, environmental degradation has been experienced. This is especially the case with the industries that are being developed in developing nations such as Nigeria that are causing pollution and exploitation of natural resources (Bethan & Arabella, 2005). It is for this reason that nations have come up with very stringent regulations and laws on the safeguarding of the environment. Globalization allows multinational commercial organizations to shift their trading activities from nations that have very stringent environmental laws to those whose laws and regulations regarding the environment are less strict. This in turn leads to an increased rate of environmental degradation. The most affected nations are those in the third world.

Globalization has been perceived as benefiting the industrialized and developed nations at the expense of the poor nations in developing and underdeveloped regions particularly in Africa (Clark, 1998). The nations in the industrialized world tend to be more advanced in terms of their technology and levels of education in comparison to those in developing nations. This places them in a position to benefit more from globalization than the poorer nations of the world. Globalization also has a propensity to cause nations to rely on a limited range of products, a factor that increases the vulnerability of their financial systems to external events. This happens when nations in the global arena incline towards the production of commercial products and services that they are competent and proficient in. Further more, globalization has been known to be the advent of the collapse of several financial systems in the world as was witnessed in the last three decades of the 20th century in nations such as Thailand, Brazil, Indonesia and Mexico (Giddens, 1990). These nations acquired huge amounts of money from investors who were interested in the establishment of commercial enterprises within their borders; the consistent failure of the business enterprises led to the withdrawal of the investors, a fact that had negative impacts on these nations.

There are also increased cases of conflicts and terrorism due to the aspect of globalization. Technological advancements allow people to exchange information easily. Terrorists have taken advantage of this new development to coordinate attacks in various parts of the world (Harvey, 1989). A good example to illustrate this is the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. This is evidence that people are not at ease because of the forces of globalization and modernity. This is because the preparation and attacks themselves were facilitated by the globalization process. Increased insecurity has become a major challenge for both countries and business organizations across the world.

Conclusion

Globalization has both negative and positive effects to states and organizations. The main determinant on whether or not a particular nation will benefit from globalization is whether that nation is adequately prepared for globalization. Rather that concentrate on the tipping of the globalization process to their own advantage, the nations of the world have more to gain if they engage in collaborative efforts with others in the international arena (Appadurai, 1990). This way, a country is able to benefit from the strengths of another and all the nations involved can come up with mutual solutions for shared problems. Globalization has also led to increased insecurity in many parts of the world. Business organizations are greatly affected by changes in their areas of operation. There is an increase in competition across the world due to globalization. Several multinational companies have expanded their operations to different parts of the world due to the increased interconnectivity among nations. Companies are therefore forced to improve the quality of products and services to enhance customer satisfaction and gain a competitive advantage. However, this creates a great challenge for organizations as it can be costly and challenging. Bigger multinational companies can take advantage of their resources to outdo smaller domestic companies.

Bibliography

Appadurai, A, 1990, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, Theory of Culture Society, 7(): pp. 295-310

Bethan Emmett & Arabella Fraser, (2005). Paying the Price: ‘Why Rich Countries Must Invest Now In a War on Poverty’ Oxfam Campaign ReportsOxfam, Page 8-15

Budd, Adrian (December 2007). “Transnationalist Marxism: a critique.” Contemporary Politics 13, no. 4:331-347

Clark, I. (1998). Beyond the Great Divide: globalization and the theory of international relations,Review of International Studies, Vol. 24(4).

David Held, A. McGrew, (1998) “The End of the Old Order?”, Review of International Studies, 24, p.230.

Giddens, A., (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Post-modernity. Oxford: Blackwell

Held, D. and McGrew, A. (2007), ‘Globalization/Anti-Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide’, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Polity, pp. 15-32

Intriligator, M. D., (2003), ‘Globalization of the World Economy: Potential Benefits and Costs and a Net Assessment’, Policy Brief, No. 33, pp. 7-24

Legrain, P. (2003). In Defense of Globalization: Why Cultural Exchange is Still an Overwhelming Force for Good Globalization. Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://www.international-economy.com/TIE_Su03_Legrain.pdf

Meinhard, Stephanie, and Niklas Potrafke (May 2012). “The Globalization-Welfare State Nexus Reconsidered.” Review Of International Economics 20, no. 2: 271-287.

Ray, L., (2007). Globalization and everyday life. USA and Canada: Routledge.

Robertson, R and Khondker, H. H, 1998, Discourses of Globalization: Preliminary Considerations, SAGE, International Sociology13(1): pp. 25-40

Sen, A. (2002), ‘Globalization: Past and Present’, Ishizaka Lectures, 18 February Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage, 1990.

Steger, Manfred (2002). Globalism: the new market ideology. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Effects of Marijuana

April 11, 2013

Introduction

Marijuana use has been associated with effects on almost every organ of human body ranging from cardiovascular, immune, respiratory and endocrine system. There are claims that marijuana has health consequences on cognitive function of the body and foetal developmental consequences. There however been claims opposing these effects and blaming them on different causes. All in all, use of marijuana has more negative effects on its users and should not be legalized.

Visual

Pictures: Leaves of a marijuana plant and marijuana joints

Repetend

Marijuana has become to be the most common illegal drug. Various attempts had been made in the twentieth century in a bid to curb the negative effects that have been encountered when persons take marijuana. Health concerns have led in the push in illegalizing the drug. However, various movements have emerge pushing for legalization of marijuana

Essay

Marijuana and ‘amotivational’ syndrome closely linked. In this, marijuana use has been associated with short attention span, decreased drive and ambition, tendency to fail making plans until the last day and easy distractibility. The individuals with the highest level of marijuana use have been found to be significantly on lower income levels than the others in spite of them being from similar families. This to some extent does reflect the effects of marijuana in that its abuse tends to instil less initiative and drive in its abusers. In large doses, marijuana has been linked with illusions and panicky states (Maisto, Galizio and Connors 279).

There are those who argue against this questioning the amotivational syndrome. Proponents of marijuana argue that chronic marijuana abuse leads to remarkable enthusiasm and energy in pursuit of their goals. They argue that ‘amotivational’ syndrome is nothing more than the acute effects of marijuana intoxication on the abusers. They characterise ‘amotivational’ syndrome more with personality style rather than drug-induced effect. Observations have been made that showing evidence that academic marks have significantly dropped after they initiated marijuana use. For the case of workers, their productivity has undergone a downward turn and this is evidenced by the clinicians while marijuana users self-report on the same (Goldberg 247).

In a conservative argument, it is advanced that heavy uptake of marijuana increases the likelihood of developing of the syndrome, and that the syndrome further reinforces the chronic use of marijuana. If adolescents use marijuana at a very early age may be a factor in ‘amotivational’ syndrome. Frequency of use, pre-existing psychosocial factors and duration of use may be exacerbated by use of marijuana (Goldberg 247).

The reason behind the controversy in marijuana usage has been as a result of beliefs that have been held by various people on the drug. When growing up kids are brought up with a mindset that discourages them from taking marijuana. As they reach teenage years, a stage characterised with experimentation, they mostly fall victim of advances demonstrating marijuana as ‘cool’. Teenagers are thus in a confused state on which way the best way to choose. Considering their youthfulness, they are susceptible. With contradicting remarks from different adults on the effects of marijuana, the teenager is left to make decision based on the influence that the adults and peers are able to impart. In a teenager

Stream of Consciousness

While young, we were being scared of the dangers that were brought out by our seniors. There were those claiming that marijuana was more dangerous than it was believed, as hundred of youths would die from it. However, not in a single moment did the source of this myth get in the public limelight. It was just an attempt to instil fear in children. As one ages, it becomes clear as an adult enjoy fundamental rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. As one ages, they become familiar that marijuana is even used in clinical operations. But still, there are some worries. Why have there been claims that marijuana is dangerous to an extent that it can kill through ensuing accidents, which may result out of its usage? Are these people victims of socialization or are they real? It is confusing how such a subject have remained in the public limelight without getting a conclusive answer up to this age when solutions to past problems have been getting solutions.

There are various allegations that have been against marijuana use. But the main question that begs for answer is; why have there been no compelling reason that marijuana would substantially contribute to accidents and fatalities. There seems to be an agreement that marijuana has an effect on perception and psychomotor performances at some doses. However, that enough does not qualify banning of marijuana. In driving studies, marijuana has been found to produce little or no impairment of car handling as compared to even low and moderate levels of alcoholism and numerous legal medications. Alcohol has been found to increase chances of risky driving practices. In the case of marijuana, cautiousness in the case of its subjects seems to be enhanced. However, there is a contradicting view on this claiming that marijuana plays a negative role in caution in some individuals resulting into bad driving. There seems to be contradicting views in every aspect that marijuana is being criticized. Effect of marijuana seems to have different reactions on different individual. For my case, it better to keep off it. I fear the effects it would have on me.

Drug avoidance is of great necessity to avoid falling victim to marijuana. As it has been established marijuana victims are likely to influence others into drinking. Furthermore if one finds he is susceptible to dangers as a result of marijuana effects of another, it would be advisable for them to avoid the drug victims. Addiction to marijuana has been found to be relatively softer in comparison to cigarette and cocaine abuse but there have been no precise way to break the addiction. Therapy and rehabilitation have in various instances have worked in various addicts.

Advice Column

Question: In case our friends, family and relatives are using marijuana in private, is that acceptable or should we stop seeing them?

Adviser: Taking up smoking marijuana is completely unacceptable if your friend, family member or relative is involved. It is a reason to worry. This is because it would imply that they might be driving while high with you as their passage without your knowledge. In doing so, your life is being put into danger as they are putting their own. There is no way he should be driving in any case he had smoking marijuana. You will not be able to recover the cost that you may incur in case of accident as smoking remains illegal. If it is possible, avoid those smoking marijuana in some scenario, as they are not cognizant of the consequences that their actions may lead to.

Question: which is the best method to break marijuana addiction? Is there any?

Adviser: Yes, there is a way to stop taking marijuana. The only hurdle that is there is that the method is a little bit complicated to many addicts. Complications can be attributed to underwhelming and remarkably under-researching done. This can also be as a result of less addiction that marijuana has in comparison to heroin, alcohol and cocaine. For many people, thus, marijuana is a wickedly complex master. Its relatively cheapness compared to other drugs and its lack of severe negative consequences that arise on frequent usage make it difficult to spot problems and changing behaviour.

The best way to do away with marijuana addiction has to deal with behavioural methods that have been found effective for other drugs. No single approach has been found out that will address marijuana addiction.

Question: How does marijuana works in a user’s body?

Adviser: After smoking marijuana, cannabis from the lungs enters into the blood and is distributed into all parts of the body. There are several chemicals available in marijuana drug whose act to bind receptors in brain sections that deal with memory, pleasure, concentration, awareness and concentration. As a result of these the marijuana user will be made to feel pleasant effects that will make them feel relaxed, sleepy and happy.

Hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety are also normal characteristics of marijuana use due to the effect of the chemicals associated with cannabis. These feelings do not last for a long time. However, subtle effects can last a few days as there some effects that stay in the body system for some weeks.

Poem

When marijuana turns to your lungs, there is no turning back

Then your mind is on danger, there must be something wrong

Then from there, you will not experience real life again

Abstinence is the stand, to keep you and marijuana apart

Never dare marijuana, as it will destroy your life.

To stay drug free, a proven door to happiness.

Life is more than involvement in marijuana,

Strive to live your life without strife

Better to live free, than to live in agony,

Marijuana, marijuana

It is so sad, many have been made mad

Trying to gain happiness, has always remained elusive

Before aiming for that happiness, always think twice

Was I the master, marijuana would be past

Teeth have rotten, all due to smoking pot

As kids see Marijuana cool, even bringing it to school

Not aware of the consequences, thinking it will just pass by,

But as pot gets to the head, it opens ways to be dead

It is true, it can kill

If not that, can restrain your thought

One thing for sure, it can grant you nothing

But there is a possibility, you can be unable to function

Just because of it, you live a crazy life

As at no time, you will decide to stop

As after taking it, there is little chance, to live a good life

Decision is yours, it is still your life.

Life is not a joke, to just stand a smoke pot

Life should have a purpose, rather than getting high and wasting time

Drugs may be appeasing, but not all glitters is gold

If to get high was to be a goal, it better to not to achieve

Joke with pot, life will be short

To might try to smoke, you be hooked in your life

To be hook may not be enough, like the life you have spoilt

You will waste your money, as marijuana will not refund

You will risk prison, as you know it is illegal

We may waste our time, but the message is clear

There are so many reasons, but those are enough

If your ears are functioning, the decision is yours

If I was to answer, it better to live off marijuana

To live a longer life, pot has to come to the end.

It is so unfortunate that many youths are victims of peer influence. Depressions that many encounter when in school force students to revert into methods that in a way will retrieve their distresses. This gets more complex when youths are facing hardships while growing up. Youths in low-income neighbourhoods have further been found to be in more danger of indulging in marijuana abuse.

Dialogue

It is so disheartening how the number of marijuana smokers has skyrocketed in the recent years,” Peter said, “those who have been after legalizing of marijuana has slightly been off the mark. It is not an interesting discussion as it has been going on in the press. Bill, how doo you regard the situation?”

As for me, I am never interested with whatever goes on concerning drugs”, Bill answered, “Since I stopped taking the drug, there is no way back. Marijuana wasted so much of my time when I was young. You are lucky you were not raised in similar conditions that I experienced, as there are chances you would understand what it means to be involved in drug activities.”

Peer, surprised, says, “You mean you have had experiences with marijuana?”

There was little or no chance for me to avoid in my youth considering my neighbourhood,” answered Bill.

How was the experience?” asked Peter.

Marijuana seemed a compelling gateway to be in line with the hardships that we used to face when we were young. As a result of the poverty, we found marijuana as an escape route. There was no way we could avoid it, as it was accessible. As teens, we found smoking marijuana as the best strategy to function properly in day-to-day activities. We could even take marijuana in the morning. At first, the desire was fuelled by peer pressure but with time addiction crept in and one could not live without it,” Bill explained to Peter who by now he seemed to have been surprised by Bill’s past.

How did marijuana have effects on you?” peter asked.

As long as I know, I cannot blame any marijuana addict for addiction challenges they are going through,” Bill asserted, “when one starts taking marijuana, there is a kind of stress relieve that one experiences. One finds it as a perfect solution to cope up with challenges one encounters in school and problems that might arise at home. There is a feeling of calmness and relaxation which normally go with marijuana smoking.”

Is there other ways in which you felt the effects of marijuana?” peter interrupted.

Bill responded, “When one is a teen, one is normally swayed by the euphoria advocating for marijuana use among teenagers in our past backgrounds. As I was faced with various depressions, I found marijuana as the better prescription to my woes than medication. In school, I was weak in task-oriented subjects as I found myself to lack concentration without taking marijuana. We believed marijuana would assist us in functioning at our best. Worries that normally resulted from the living conditions that we were going through would turn our minds busy. We found a resting premise in marijuana, as we believed it is even better than taking pills. Peter, didn’t you go through such even at a later age?” Bill asked.

Peter responds, “My background seems to have been different. I cannot assume the upbringing that I went through. There is a possibility it had an effect on me not having taken marijuana in my life”.

Bill proceeds, “you are lucky, in our case, we found marijuana as the way to get in touch with our feelings. We viewed marijuana as a way to be more open and intimate in our discussions with friends. Marijuana was even seen as a cool thing for area youths to avoid. But with the enlightenment that we have experienced, I would not encourage anyone to involve themselves with marijuana. The government should proceed to make marijuana more punitive and enhance fight against marijuana abuse”.

Newspaper Article

There has been a campaign that has been going on in an attempt to make marijuana appear harmless even after it has been exclusively established that student who use the drug have demonstrated consistently poor performances in school and a high probability to drop out and earn less when they become adults.

Marijuana, with cannabis as its botanical name, has been used by humans for thousands of years, though it has been illegal in many countries since twentieth century. Lately, there have been growing numbers of movements calling for the drug’s legalization. Some of the movements call for its usage for medical purposes.

Marijuana is the drug that has been found to have the most significant negative effect on academic performance even exceeding other drugs. It raises questions how there are bodies that are pushing for legalization of marijuana use in various regions. Effects of marijuana have become most prevalent among teenagers, with a big proportion of teenagers admitting to have smoked marijuana in their teenage years. This trend has been increasing, as it seems teenagers are moving slowly from alcohol and cigarette abuse, which are undergoing slow declines.

The increasing popularity of marijuana can be attributed to growing perception among teenagers that there is little or no harm carried by habitual marijuana. This perception has links to medical marijuana and the ease in obtaining it.

Legalizing the drug would mean that all the gains that have previously been made were all in vain. Science, as well as research has since time immemorial has come up with negative effects of marijuana abuse. Retracing these and disregarding science for the sake of smokers’ selfish demands would greatly undermined public good that the country aims too much to achieve. Progresses have previously been made when science have been used in implementing policies. It will be highly unlikely that political agendas driving the discussion of legalizing marijuana will come with a solid case for marijuana.

Conclusion

Effects of marijuana have been over the time been subject of controversy. However, it is agreeable that the drug has negative effects on people when abused. Even for those who are for marijuana use, they acknowledge the fact that there are those people whom experience adverse effects of marijuana.

Works Cited

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across The Spectrum. Belmont, Ca: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Maisto, Stephen A, Mark Galizio And Gerard J Connors. Drug Use And Abuse. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, 2011.

Why We Need To Save the Glaciers

April 11, 2013

Glacier National Park in Montana and adjacent Waterton National Park in Canada are both endangered. At the rate at which things are going, in the next few years, we might not be having Glacier National Park in Montana and the adjacent Waterton National Park in Canada. Reasons being, the effects of global warming have hit them bad. The glaciers have started melting and in the next decade or so, there will be no snow and the national heritage will be no more. The glacier is continuing to sink at a very fast rate and studies show that by 1993, glacier had sunk in two thirds and from 1850, the glacier had receded by two thirds of a mile(Enright, 2010). A survey by the Geological Survey in the U.S. shows that the temperatures at the glaciers have increased by three degrees over the past one century. Fagre says that this is an indication of climate change and great changes in the ecosystem will also be experienced.

Some people have argued that the earth is just undergoing a natural warming cycle but we all know that this is due to pollution and other human activities. Whatever the case, something needs to be done and declaring these two parks as endangered parks might reverse the situation in one way or the other.

These two parks need to be declared as heritage sites in danger and one of the groups fighting for this move is Center for Biology Diversity. These two parks are the most majestic places in Montana and Canada and they need to be saved failure to which there will be no more glaciers. if measures to control or stop global warming are not put in place, not only will we not be having these glaciers but there are so many other natural resources will be gone (Enright, 2010). The heating of the earth has seen the glaciers retreat at a very high rate and the melted water is just being washed away into the sea carrying away sand and within no time, the sea level will rise and more land will be swallowed by the sea.

The swallowing up of land by the sea will see the earth sinking and we all know what will happen afterwards. To prevent all this happening, we need to protect the glaciers so that we can have our land intact and still have our lovely glaciers to view. They are a great site to behold and none of us wants it to be lost. Today, only less than 30 glaciers are remaining and in the past fifteen years, there were more than 150 glaciers meaning that the melting and the receding of the glaciers is taking place faster than we thought (Enright, 2010). Today, those glaciers the have already melted have left a trail of rocks a symbol of earthly tombstones with the others’ waiting for an inevitable death if something is not done soonest.

The effects of climate change had been long documented and the results were inevitable but the United States of America still refused and still refuses to reduce the greenhouse emissions. These two parks were never designated as endangered and the ice kept on melting and is still melting and at a very fast rate. The parks have been melting from 1850’s but cooled a little from 1940’s to 1970’s only for the rate to increase later (Enright, 2010). The westerners have become accustomed to the state of affairs with the saddening news of the wilderness dying and the wildlife it holds becoming extinct as a result.

The melting of the glacier ice distorts the seasonal distribution of water supply because as we lose glacier, we will lose the water supply. What happens for ice to form on the mountains is, the snowfalls accumulate over time (Enright, 2010). If the ice does not melt over time, it will become ice glacier. This has not been happening in the recent years because as soon as snow falls on the mountains and becomes ice, it starts melting in the next summer and within no time, there are runoffs and the rocks on the mountains are left bare.

Other than melting of the ice, the governments need to prevent glacial erosion by increasing pollution controls. This will reduce the amount of soil being taken to the ocean thus reducing chances of sea level rising. Alarming reports have it that if nothing is done, Glacier National Park in Montana will varnish by 2030 and if the current state of affairs in the climate remains the way they are. The United States has to reduce the amount of green house gases it is emitting to the environment to reduce the damage being seen in the Glaciers Mountains and glacier parks.

The loss of Glacier Mountains and glacier parks will also see the loss of the wild animals in those mountains and there will be no more tourists whether national or international. The countries will lose their national heritage and God might just punish us for not taking care of the environment as He instructed as to do (Enright, 2010). We really need to save these two national parks from eminent deaths because when they are all gone, there will be huge losses to pay for not to mention the weather imbalance and the inevitable rise of the sea level.

References

Enright, K. (2010). America’s natural places: Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.