Contemporary Issues in Management

Executive Summary

The world has been changing significantly for a long time. This has caused a debate regarding the nature as well as historical importance of these changes. This is what is meant by globalization. Globalization has come up as a powerful as well as a controversial concept of this age. The world has seen a major process of increasing connectivity and interdependence of the markets and businesses (Budd, 2007). This is a process that has been spreading dramatically for the past two decades. This is because of the technological developments that have made it possible and easier for people to travel, communicate and operate globally. Development in telecommunication infrastructures and increase in the use of the internet are the major driving forces behind globalization. While there changes have been evident there is a ranging debate regarding globalization. At the center of the debate regarding the change, is the extent, form and results of globalization in the modern world. Globalization has led to increased advancement of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from one nation to the next (Ray, 2007). Globalization has allowed increased competition in a free market because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. It is seen as an opportunity for prosperity and economic development of nations all over the world. However, globalization also has negative effects. The process of globalization has been known to cause massive joblessness in the industrialized and developed nations as multinational organizations realize that they can get cheaper labor and raw materials for their companies in other regions of the world, particularly the underdeveloped and developing regions. It has also led to increased immigration and insecurity across the world.

Introduction

Globalization is a term used to refer to the increasing interconnectedness between countries.Globalization is normally viewed as being caused by interplay of economic, socio-cultural, technological, political, and biological forces (Clark, 1998). It is historically viewed as a process that emanated from the need to share and explore. Technological development has led to the ease in transfer of information, products and services to other parts of the world. This has also led to the need to explore other parts of the world for economic benefits. With the development in the internet, information on resources and products is spread very fast, with ease and less expensively. There is also the aspect of the need to exploit primary products in the developing and poor nations by the developed nations. This has led to not only the import and export of products, but also the development of multinational companies. This essay seeks to identify and analyze reasons why the process of globalization has a controversial issue around the world.

As the barriers are removed, nations, organizations and business firms become dependent on each other. The three main indicators of globalization are where goods and services are being traded between nations, flow of capital between countries and an eased movement of people across borders (Giddens, 1990). These indicators also form some of the most important issues about globalization that must be addressed. International trade greatly determines the results of globalization. In other words, what is being traded will determine whether globalization is useful to the parties involved, or pone of the states is being exploited by another or neither of the two states benefits from each other. If international trade is such that there is no mutual benefit then it should be discouraged while aspects that ensure there is mutual benefit are encouraged.

Finances form the basics of every community as it is through them that institutions are funded, governments deliver services to their citizens and individuals get sources of livelihood (Steger, 2002). There are three major forms in which finances flow from country to another in the process of enhancing globalization. These are through foreign indirect invest, foreign direct investment and through Greenfield and Brownfield investment. In foreign indirect investments, capitals flows to another country when money is used in buying financial assets that are within that country. Foreign indirect investment focuses mostly on enhancing an integrated financial market across the globe. Foreign direct investment takes place when an organization invests in another country with the aim of increasing its production. There is mutual benefit in that the organization will increase its production at lower costs of production while the country in which the organization has moved to benefits through economic growth, provision of jobs to its citizens and bettered living conditions through earning better wages (Budd, 2007). Even though research studies have shown that developed countries often benefit much through foreign direct investment than host countries do.

Greenfield and Brownfield investment is the last mode in which capital flows from state to another state. Multinational corporations (MNCs) seeking to expand their production processes to other countries often do it either through Greenfield or through Brownfield (Held & McGrew, 2007). Greenfield refers to where the MNC establishes a production facility which is completely new in the host country while Brownfield refers to where the MNC merges with a locally existing firm to increase its production capacity or to completely take control of the existing firms. The flow of money through interstate borders has been growing rapidly and mostly through migrants remitting money to their friends and relatives living in their home countries.

Controversy

On one side of the debate supporters of globalization have argued that the world has been basically changed by globalization for the better (Held & McGrew, 2007). The supporters of globalization have also argued that it opens up opportunities for everyone to operate in a free market. This is because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. On the other side, there are opponents who argue that the claim of the positive changes due to globalization is exaggerated. They have claimed that the power of national governments, geopolitics and nationalism are still the defining elements of this age. This is a claim that is based on the argument that nothing much has changed. Some opponents have completely denied the argument that the world has entered an entirely new era. The opponents have also argued that globalization is a negative phenomenon for it has made it hard for some groups to participate in the international business because of the increased pressure caused by competition. Therefore there is a controversy regarding whether globalization is a positive concept in describing the current events. Whether globalization is a positive or negative development remains unclear.

Positive effects

There are many benefits that emanate from the process of globalization. The very first benefit of globalization is in the increased advancement of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from one nation to the next (Intriligator, 2003). The increased levels of foreign investment that are triggered by the process of globalization are important for a number of reasons; firstly they encourage the transfer of technology from one nation to another. Secondly, it is very instrumental in the reformation of industries; competition has always been known to encourage commercial enterprises to up their game and provide the consumers with better quality goods and services. In addition to this globalization supports increased international trade and an increased efficiency in the utilization of available resources in the process of production and manufacture of finished goods. The increased rates of trading activities amongst the nations of the world in the international arena have with time led to the collapse of any trade barriers that existed previously (David, 1998). This implies the Free Trade Policy in which the levies, duties, subsidies and quotas that were previously imposed on nations and their trading activities by others have been eliminated.

Globalization is also advantageous due to the fact that it increases harmonious associations between nations on the international arena (Legrain, 2003). When nations are engaged in mutual trade, they tend to increase the levels of collaboration and cooperation between them and consequently reduce the probabilities for the advent of conflicts or wars between nations. This implies that with globalization many nations that were previously engaged in bitter confrontations have established new peaceful associations based on trading activities. Globalization has also increased the rates in which people all over the world connect with each other; the opening of territorial boundaries implies that workers looking for greener economic pastures can freely migrate to other nations in search for employment. Globalization tends to positively affect tourism; nations that have a great number of natural resources and wildlife improve their financial systems through the tourism industry.

Globalization has allowed increased competition in a free market because it has made the agents of production more effective and efficient. Globalization is seen as an opportunity for prosperity and economic development of nations all over the world. This is because even the developing nations are becoming part of the international opportunities and capital flows (Intriligator, 2003). Survival in this international market necessities increased levels of production making nations even in the developing world more productive. This has led to an increase in the use of technology for production of more superior products (Meinhard & Niklas, May 2012). Globalization has also enabled access to different products some of which are not produced at a territorial level. This has helped both consumers and industries in accessing both consumer goods and industrial products. With the increase in globalization, international borrowing of capital has been made possible.

Negative effects

In spite of all the benefits that have been described as being brought about by the process of globalization, there are also some negative effects. The process of globalization has been known to cause massive joblessness in the industrialized and developed nations. This usually occurs when multinational organizations realize that they can get cheaper labor and raw materials for their industries and companies in other regions of the world, particularly the underdeveloped and developing regions (Sen, 2002). As a consequence, the commercial organizations shut down their businesses in the developed nations with the intentions of investing outside the nation. This leads to the laying off of many workers that were previously working for the multinationals. The emergence of investors from foreign nations in any country is also another disadvantageous aspect of the globalization process since it removes the safeguard of domestic producers and makes them susceptible to rivalry and competition from foreign investors. It is due to such aftermaths of globalization that in the year 2005, the relevant agencies in the European Union and the United States of America impressed limitations on the importation of low cost textiles from China into their territories (Ray, 2007).

Globalization is also enhanced by the free flow of resources including human resource. If not well addressed, globalization can lead to massive migration both legal and illegal. Migration from one state to another has numerous effects such as increasing pressure on social amenities and especially the healthcare sector, increasing social crimes among others (Robertson & Khondker, 1998). Even though most nations have worked hard to liberalize their markets, the same has not been depicted in the flow of human labor as most still have laws that do not encourage migration. Even though the laws are still tough on migration it has continued to exist and mostly between the developing and developed countries. One of the reasons why migration should be addressed while dealing with globalization is because different countries have different definitions of migrants such that people who might not be considered as migrants in one country might be in another.

Another challenge of globalization that has caused a lot of concern in the modern day is the propensity of commercial organizations to degrade and pollute the ecosystem (Intriligator, 2003). Globalization is perceived as having contributed significantly to the increased number of environmental challenges in the 21st century world. As industries are being developed and being moved to other parts of the world, especially the developing nations, environmental degradation has been experienced. This is especially the case with the industries that are being developed in developing nations such as Nigeria that are causing pollution and exploitation of natural resources (Bethan & Arabella, 2005). It is for this reason that nations have come up with very stringent regulations and laws on the safeguarding of the environment. Globalization allows multinational commercial organizations to shift their trading activities from nations that have very stringent environmental laws to those whose laws and regulations regarding the environment are less strict. This in turn leads to an increased rate of environmental degradation. The most affected nations are those in the third world.

Globalization has been perceived as benefiting the industrialized and developed nations at the expense of the poor nations in developing and underdeveloped regions particularly in Africa (Clark, 1998). The nations in the industrialized world tend to be more advanced in terms of their technology and levels of education in comparison to those in developing nations. This places them in a position to benefit more from globalization than the poorer nations of the world. Globalization also has a propensity to cause nations to rely on a limited range of products, a factor that increases the vulnerability of their financial systems to external events. This happens when nations in the global arena incline towards the production of commercial products and services that they are competent and proficient in. Further more, globalization has been known to be the advent of the collapse of several financial systems in the world as was witnessed in the last three decades of the 20th century in nations such as Thailand, Brazil, Indonesia and Mexico (Giddens, 1990). These nations acquired huge amounts of money from investors who were interested in the establishment of commercial enterprises within their borders; the consistent failure of the business enterprises led to the withdrawal of the investors, a fact that had negative impacts on these nations.

There are also increased cases of conflicts and terrorism due to the aspect of globalization. Technological advancements allow people to exchange information easily. Terrorists have taken advantage of this new development to coordinate attacks in various parts of the world (Harvey, 1989). A good example to illustrate this is the attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. This is evidence that people are not at ease because of the forces of globalization and modernity. This is because the preparation and attacks themselves were facilitated by the globalization process. Increased insecurity has become a major challenge for both countries and business organizations across the world.

Conclusion

Globalization has both negative and positive effects to states and organizations. The main determinant on whether or not a particular nation will benefit from globalization is whether that nation is adequately prepared for globalization. Rather that concentrate on the tipping of the globalization process to their own advantage, the nations of the world have more to gain if they engage in collaborative efforts with others in the international arena (Appadurai, 1990). This way, a country is able to benefit from the strengths of another and all the nations involved can come up with mutual solutions for shared problems. Globalization has also led to increased insecurity in many parts of the world. Business organizations are greatly affected by changes in their areas of operation. There is an increase in competition across the world due to globalization. Several multinational companies have expanded their operations to different parts of the world due to the increased interconnectivity among nations. Companies are therefore forced to improve the quality of products and services to enhance customer satisfaction and gain a competitive advantage. However, this creates a great challenge for organizations as it can be costly and challenging. Bigger multinational companies can take advantage of their resources to outdo smaller domestic companies.

Bibliography

Appadurai, A, 1990, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, Theory of Culture Society, 7(): pp. 295-310

Bethan Emmett & Arabella Fraser, (2005). Paying the Price: ‘Why Rich Countries Must Invest Now In a War on Poverty’ Oxfam Campaign ReportsOxfam, Page 8-15

Budd, Adrian (December 2007). “Transnationalist Marxism: a critique.” Contemporary Politics 13, no. 4:331-347

Clark, I. (1998). Beyond the Great Divide: globalization and the theory of international relations,Review of International Studies, Vol. 24(4).

David Held, A. McGrew, (1998) “The End of the Old Order?”, Review of International Studies, 24, p.230.

Giddens, A., (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Post-modernity. Oxford: Blackwell

Held, D. and McGrew, A. (2007), ‘Globalization/Anti-Globalization: Beyond the Great Divide’, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Polity, pp. 15-32

Intriligator, M. D., (2003), ‘Globalization of the World Economy: Potential Benefits and Costs and a Net Assessment’, Policy Brief, No. 33, pp. 7-24

Legrain, P. (2003). In Defense of Globalization: Why Cultural Exchange is Still an Overwhelming Force for Good Globalization. Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://www.international-economy.com/TIE_Su03_Legrain.pdf

Meinhard, Stephanie, and Niklas Potrafke (May 2012). “The Globalization-Welfare State Nexus Reconsidered.” Review Of International Economics 20, no. 2: 271-287.

Ray, L., (2007). Globalization and everyday life. USA and Canada: Routledge.

Robertson, R and Khondker, H. H, 1998, Discourses of Globalization: Preliminary Considerations, SAGE, International Sociology13(1): pp. 25-40

Sen, A. (2002), ‘Globalization: Past and Present’, Ishizaka Lectures, 18 February Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage, 1990.

Steger, Manfred (2002). Globalism: the new market ideology. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

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Effects of Marijuana

Introduction

Marijuana use has been associated with effects on almost every organ of human body ranging from cardiovascular, immune, respiratory and endocrine system. There are claims that marijuana has health consequences on cognitive function of the body and foetal developmental consequences. There however been claims opposing these effects and blaming them on different causes. All in all, use of marijuana has more negative effects on its users and should not be legalized.

Visual

Pictures: Leaves of a marijuana plant and marijuana joints

Repetend

Marijuana has become to be the most common illegal drug. Various attempts had been made in the twentieth century in a bid to curb the negative effects that have been encountered when persons take marijuana. Health concerns have led in the push in illegalizing the drug. However, various movements have emerge pushing for legalization of marijuana

Essay

Marijuana and ‘amotivational’ syndrome closely linked. In this, marijuana use has been associated with short attention span, decreased drive and ambition, tendency to fail making plans until the last day and easy distractibility. The individuals with the highest level of marijuana use have been found to be significantly on lower income levels than the others in spite of them being from similar families. This to some extent does reflect the effects of marijuana in that its abuse tends to instil less initiative and drive in its abusers. In large doses, marijuana has been linked with illusions and panicky states (Maisto, Galizio and Connors 279).

There are those who argue against this questioning the amotivational syndrome. Proponents of marijuana argue that chronic marijuana abuse leads to remarkable enthusiasm and energy in pursuit of their goals. They argue that ‘amotivational’ syndrome is nothing more than the acute effects of marijuana intoxication on the abusers. They characterise ‘amotivational’ syndrome more with personality style rather than drug-induced effect. Observations have been made that showing evidence that academic marks have significantly dropped after they initiated marijuana use. For the case of workers, their productivity has undergone a downward turn and this is evidenced by the clinicians while marijuana users self-report on the same (Goldberg 247).

In a conservative argument, it is advanced that heavy uptake of marijuana increases the likelihood of developing of the syndrome, and that the syndrome further reinforces the chronic use of marijuana. If adolescents use marijuana at a very early age may be a factor in ‘amotivational’ syndrome. Frequency of use, pre-existing psychosocial factors and duration of use may be exacerbated by use of marijuana (Goldberg 247).

The reason behind the controversy in marijuana usage has been as a result of beliefs that have been held by various people on the drug. When growing up kids are brought up with a mindset that discourages them from taking marijuana. As they reach teenage years, a stage characterised with experimentation, they mostly fall victim of advances demonstrating marijuana as ‘cool’. Teenagers are thus in a confused state on which way the best way to choose. Considering their youthfulness, they are susceptible. With contradicting remarks from different adults on the effects of marijuana, the teenager is left to make decision based on the influence that the adults and peers are able to impart. In a teenager

Stream of Consciousness

While young, we were being scared of the dangers that were brought out by our seniors. There were those claiming that marijuana was more dangerous than it was believed, as hundred of youths would die from it. However, not in a single moment did the source of this myth get in the public limelight. It was just an attempt to instil fear in children. As one ages, it becomes clear as an adult enjoy fundamental rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. As one ages, they become familiar that marijuana is even used in clinical operations. But still, there are some worries. Why have there been claims that marijuana is dangerous to an extent that it can kill through ensuing accidents, which may result out of its usage? Are these people victims of socialization or are they real? It is confusing how such a subject have remained in the public limelight without getting a conclusive answer up to this age when solutions to past problems have been getting solutions.

There are various allegations that have been against marijuana use. But the main question that begs for answer is; why have there been no compelling reason that marijuana would substantially contribute to accidents and fatalities. There seems to be an agreement that marijuana has an effect on perception and psychomotor performances at some doses. However, that enough does not qualify banning of marijuana. In driving studies, marijuana has been found to produce little or no impairment of car handling as compared to even low and moderate levels of alcoholism and numerous legal medications. Alcohol has been found to increase chances of risky driving practices. In the case of marijuana, cautiousness in the case of its subjects seems to be enhanced. However, there is a contradicting view on this claiming that marijuana plays a negative role in caution in some individuals resulting into bad driving. There seems to be contradicting views in every aspect that marijuana is being criticized. Effect of marijuana seems to have different reactions on different individual. For my case, it better to keep off it. I fear the effects it would have on me.

Drug avoidance is of great necessity to avoid falling victim to marijuana. As it has been established marijuana victims are likely to influence others into drinking. Furthermore if one finds he is susceptible to dangers as a result of marijuana effects of another, it would be advisable for them to avoid the drug victims. Addiction to marijuana has been found to be relatively softer in comparison to cigarette and cocaine abuse but there have been no precise way to break the addiction. Therapy and rehabilitation have in various instances have worked in various addicts.

Advice Column

Question: In case our friends, family and relatives are using marijuana in private, is that acceptable or should we stop seeing them?

Adviser: Taking up smoking marijuana is completely unacceptable if your friend, family member or relative is involved. It is a reason to worry. This is because it would imply that they might be driving while high with you as their passage without your knowledge. In doing so, your life is being put into danger as they are putting their own. There is no way he should be driving in any case he had smoking marijuana. You will not be able to recover the cost that you may incur in case of accident as smoking remains illegal. If it is possible, avoid those smoking marijuana in some scenario, as they are not cognizant of the consequences that their actions may lead to.

Question: which is the best method to break marijuana addiction? Is there any?

Adviser: Yes, there is a way to stop taking marijuana. The only hurdle that is there is that the method is a little bit complicated to many addicts. Complications can be attributed to underwhelming and remarkably under-researching done. This can also be as a result of less addiction that marijuana has in comparison to heroin, alcohol and cocaine. For many people, thus, marijuana is a wickedly complex master. Its relatively cheapness compared to other drugs and its lack of severe negative consequences that arise on frequent usage make it difficult to spot problems and changing behaviour.

The best way to do away with marijuana addiction has to deal with behavioural methods that have been found effective for other drugs. No single approach has been found out that will address marijuana addiction.

Question: How does marijuana works in a user’s body?

Adviser: After smoking marijuana, cannabis from the lungs enters into the blood and is distributed into all parts of the body. There are several chemicals available in marijuana drug whose act to bind receptors in brain sections that deal with memory, pleasure, concentration, awareness and concentration. As a result of these the marijuana user will be made to feel pleasant effects that will make them feel relaxed, sleepy and happy.

Hallucinations, paranoia and anxiety are also normal characteristics of marijuana use due to the effect of the chemicals associated with cannabis. These feelings do not last for a long time. However, subtle effects can last a few days as there some effects that stay in the body system for some weeks.

Poem

When marijuana turns to your lungs, there is no turning back

Then your mind is on danger, there must be something wrong

Then from there, you will not experience real life again

Abstinence is the stand, to keep you and marijuana apart

Never dare marijuana, as it will destroy your life.

To stay drug free, a proven door to happiness.

Life is more than involvement in marijuana,

Strive to live your life without strife

Better to live free, than to live in agony,

Marijuana, marijuana

It is so sad, many have been made mad

Trying to gain happiness, has always remained elusive

Before aiming for that happiness, always think twice

Was I the master, marijuana would be past

Teeth have rotten, all due to smoking pot

As kids see Marijuana cool, even bringing it to school

Not aware of the consequences, thinking it will just pass by,

But as pot gets to the head, it opens ways to be dead

It is true, it can kill

If not that, can restrain your thought

One thing for sure, it can grant you nothing

But there is a possibility, you can be unable to function

Just because of it, you live a crazy life

As at no time, you will decide to stop

As after taking it, there is little chance, to live a good life

Decision is yours, it is still your life.

Life is not a joke, to just stand a smoke pot

Life should have a purpose, rather than getting high and wasting time

Drugs may be appeasing, but not all glitters is gold

If to get high was to be a goal, it better to not to achieve

Joke with pot, life will be short

To might try to smoke, you be hooked in your life

To be hook may not be enough, like the life you have spoilt

You will waste your money, as marijuana will not refund

You will risk prison, as you know it is illegal

We may waste our time, but the message is clear

There are so many reasons, but those are enough

If your ears are functioning, the decision is yours

If I was to answer, it better to live off marijuana

To live a longer life, pot has to come to the end.

It is so unfortunate that many youths are victims of peer influence. Depressions that many encounter when in school force students to revert into methods that in a way will retrieve their distresses. This gets more complex when youths are facing hardships while growing up. Youths in low-income neighbourhoods have further been found to be in more danger of indulging in marijuana abuse.

Dialogue

It is so disheartening how the number of marijuana smokers has skyrocketed in the recent years,” Peter said, “those who have been after legalizing of marijuana has slightly been off the mark. It is not an interesting discussion as it has been going on in the press. Bill, how doo you regard the situation?”

As for me, I am never interested with whatever goes on concerning drugs”, Bill answered, “Since I stopped taking the drug, there is no way back. Marijuana wasted so much of my time when I was young. You are lucky you were not raised in similar conditions that I experienced, as there are chances you would understand what it means to be involved in drug activities.”

Peer, surprised, says, “You mean you have had experiences with marijuana?”

There was little or no chance for me to avoid in my youth considering my neighbourhood,” answered Bill.

How was the experience?” asked Peter.

Marijuana seemed a compelling gateway to be in line with the hardships that we used to face when we were young. As a result of the poverty, we found marijuana as an escape route. There was no way we could avoid it, as it was accessible. As teens, we found smoking marijuana as the best strategy to function properly in day-to-day activities. We could even take marijuana in the morning. At first, the desire was fuelled by peer pressure but with time addiction crept in and one could not live without it,” Bill explained to Peter who by now he seemed to have been surprised by Bill’s past.

How did marijuana have effects on you?” peter asked.

As long as I know, I cannot blame any marijuana addict for addiction challenges they are going through,” Bill asserted, “when one starts taking marijuana, there is a kind of stress relieve that one experiences. One finds it as a perfect solution to cope up with challenges one encounters in school and problems that might arise at home. There is a feeling of calmness and relaxation which normally go with marijuana smoking.”

Is there other ways in which you felt the effects of marijuana?” peter interrupted.

Bill responded, “When one is a teen, one is normally swayed by the euphoria advocating for marijuana use among teenagers in our past backgrounds. As I was faced with various depressions, I found marijuana as the better prescription to my woes than medication. In school, I was weak in task-oriented subjects as I found myself to lack concentration without taking marijuana. We believed marijuana would assist us in functioning at our best. Worries that normally resulted from the living conditions that we were going through would turn our minds busy. We found a resting premise in marijuana, as we believed it is even better than taking pills. Peter, didn’t you go through such even at a later age?” Bill asked.

Peter responds, “My background seems to have been different. I cannot assume the upbringing that I went through. There is a possibility it had an effect on me not having taken marijuana in my life”.

Bill proceeds, “you are lucky, in our case, we found marijuana as the way to get in touch with our feelings. We viewed marijuana as a way to be more open and intimate in our discussions with friends. Marijuana was even seen as a cool thing for area youths to avoid. But with the enlightenment that we have experienced, I would not encourage anyone to involve themselves with marijuana. The government should proceed to make marijuana more punitive and enhance fight against marijuana abuse”.

Newspaper Article

There has been a campaign that has been going on in an attempt to make marijuana appear harmless even after it has been exclusively established that student who use the drug have demonstrated consistently poor performances in school and a high probability to drop out and earn less when they become adults.

Marijuana, with cannabis as its botanical name, has been used by humans for thousands of years, though it has been illegal in many countries since twentieth century. Lately, there have been growing numbers of movements calling for the drug’s legalization. Some of the movements call for its usage for medical purposes.

Marijuana is the drug that has been found to have the most significant negative effect on academic performance even exceeding other drugs. It raises questions how there are bodies that are pushing for legalization of marijuana use in various regions. Effects of marijuana have become most prevalent among teenagers, with a big proportion of teenagers admitting to have smoked marijuana in their teenage years. This trend has been increasing, as it seems teenagers are moving slowly from alcohol and cigarette abuse, which are undergoing slow declines.

The increasing popularity of marijuana can be attributed to growing perception among teenagers that there is little or no harm carried by habitual marijuana. This perception has links to medical marijuana and the ease in obtaining it.

Legalizing the drug would mean that all the gains that have previously been made were all in vain. Science, as well as research has since time immemorial has come up with negative effects of marijuana abuse. Retracing these and disregarding science for the sake of smokers’ selfish demands would greatly undermined public good that the country aims too much to achieve. Progresses have previously been made when science have been used in implementing policies. It will be highly unlikely that political agendas driving the discussion of legalizing marijuana will come with a solid case for marijuana.

Conclusion

Effects of marijuana have been over the time been subject of controversy. However, it is agreeable that the drug has negative effects on people when abused. Even for those who are for marijuana use, they acknowledge the fact that there are those people whom experience adverse effects of marijuana.

Works Cited

Goldberg, Ray. Drugs Across The Spectrum. Belmont, Ca: Cengage Learning, 2010.

Maisto, Stephen A, Mark Galizio And Gerard J Connors. Drug Use And Abuse. Belmont, Ca: Wadsworth, 2011.

Why We Need To Save the Glaciers

Glacier National Park in Montana and adjacent Waterton National Park in Canada are both endangered. At the rate at which things are going, in the next few years, we might not be having Glacier National Park in Montana and the adjacent Waterton National Park in Canada. Reasons being, the effects of global warming have hit them bad. The glaciers have started melting and in the next decade or so, there will be no snow and the national heritage will be no more. The glacier is continuing to sink at a very fast rate and studies show that by 1993, glacier had sunk in two thirds and from 1850, the glacier had receded by two thirds of a mile(Enright, 2010). A survey by the Geological Survey in the U.S. shows that the temperatures at the glaciers have increased by three degrees over the past one century. Fagre says that this is an indication of climate change and great changes in the ecosystem will also be experienced.

Some people have argued that the earth is just undergoing a natural warming cycle but we all know that this is due to pollution and other human activities. Whatever the case, something needs to be done and declaring these two parks as endangered parks might reverse the situation in one way or the other.

These two parks need to be declared as heritage sites in danger and one of the groups fighting for this move is Center for Biology Diversity. These two parks are the most majestic places in Montana and Canada and they need to be saved failure to which there will be no more glaciers. if measures to control or stop global warming are not put in place, not only will we not be having these glaciers but there are so many other natural resources will be gone (Enright, 2010). The heating of the earth has seen the glaciers retreat at a very high rate and the melted water is just being washed away into the sea carrying away sand and within no time, the sea level will rise and more land will be swallowed by the sea.

The swallowing up of land by the sea will see the earth sinking and we all know what will happen afterwards. To prevent all this happening, we need to protect the glaciers so that we can have our land intact and still have our lovely glaciers to view. They are a great site to behold and none of us wants it to be lost. Today, only less than 30 glaciers are remaining and in the past fifteen years, there were more than 150 glaciers meaning that the melting and the receding of the glaciers is taking place faster than we thought (Enright, 2010). Today, those glaciers the have already melted have left a trail of rocks a symbol of earthly tombstones with the others’ waiting for an inevitable death if something is not done soonest.

The effects of climate change had been long documented and the results were inevitable but the United States of America still refused and still refuses to reduce the greenhouse emissions. These two parks were never designated as endangered and the ice kept on melting and is still melting and at a very fast rate. The parks have been melting from 1850’s but cooled a little from 1940’s to 1970’s only for the rate to increase later (Enright, 2010). The westerners have become accustomed to the state of affairs with the saddening news of the wilderness dying and the wildlife it holds becoming extinct as a result.

The melting of the glacier ice distorts the seasonal distribution of water supply because as we lose glacier, we will lose the water supply. What happens for ice to form on the mountains is, the snowfalls accumulate over time (Enright, 2010). If the ice does not melt over time, it will become ice glacier. This has not been happening in the recent years because as soon as snow falls on the mountains and becomes ice, it starts melting in the next summer and within no time, there are runoffs and the rocks on the mountains are left bare.

Other than melting of the ice, the governments need to prevent glacial erosion by increasing pollution controls. This will reduce the amount of soil being taken to the ocean thus reducing chances of sea level rising. Alarming reports have it that if nothing is done, Glacier National Park in Montana will varnish by 2030 and if the current state of affairs in the climate remains the way they are. The United States has to reduce the amount of green house gases it is emitting to the environment to reduce the damage being seen in the Glaciers Mountains and glacier parks.

The loss of Glacier Mountains and glacier parks will also see the loss of the wild animals in those mountains and there will be no more tourists whether national or international. The countries will lose their national heritage and God might just punish us for not taking care of the environment as He instructed as to do (Enright, 2010). We really need to save these two national parks from eminent deaths because when they are all gone, there will be huge losses to pay for not to mention the weather imbalance and the inevitable rise of the sea level.

References

Enright, K. (2010). America’s natural places: Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. Santa Barbara, Calif: Greenwood Press/ABC-CLIO.

Hospitality Law and Employment

Hospitality Law and Contracts in Employment

Non Compete Provisions or Restrictive Covenants in Employment

These refer to agreements made between an employer and employee restricting him from giving out confidential, trade secrets acquired from the company. This is in the event that the employee leaves the company and joins a competitive organization. According to Ripin, they aim at protecting the employer by offering protection to trade secrets and lists of customers in the effort to prevent irreparable harm (2013). They thus dictate the kinds of companies to be joined by ex-employees within a specified period.

In the hospitality industry, they are used especially for those involved in food and beverage production and pricing, sales, marketing, and top managerial positions. Besides the hospitality industry, they are also used in the pharmaceutical, manufacturing, technological, advertising industries as well as consultancy firms.

One case that highlights such provisions or covenants related to employment is PepsiCo Inc v. Redmond. In the case, the issue was whether the lower court made a correct decision by placing a reasonably likely success by PepsiCo. to claim misappropriation of trade secrets and a breach of the confidentiality agreement.

It is applicable when a long serving employee at a vital position joins a competitive company for a similar or related position. This, therefore, puts him in a position to disclose the company’s confidential information giving their competitor an unfair advantage (Epstein, 2006).

In relation to this, the party requesting for an injunction should be capable of proving the existence of a trade secret and the likelihood of its misappropriation. The responsibility taken by Redmond at Quaker Oats would require him to divulge most secrets from PepsiCo. As it would be highly advantageous to Quaker Oats, it is clearly expected from Redmond in the effort to sustain his new job.

The courts decided that the District Court was right in offering success claims for PepsiCo. It was considered that Redmond was likely to rely on secrets acquired from the company to execute his duties. Quaker Oats would thus get an advantage in pricing, distributing and marketing its drinks. The decision was upheld.

The other case is the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. v. Continental Aviation & Engineering Corp. The issue to be decided was if it was right to offer an injunction relief for an area specifically related to the plaintiff.

It can be applied where an employee in a non-compete agreement with the employer is appointed in a competitive company though in a different position.

As such, change in employment companies does not guarantee the divulgence of trade secrets. Similar positions, such as engineering for the above case but with different operations may be allowed. It prevents the ex-employee from securing a different employment position. However, an injunction is necessary for the employee not to deal with the exact job specification as before.

The judges made a ruling that Mr. Wolff would work in any engineering position at the Continental. This would include the designing and development of all fuel pumps apart from the distributor type pumps (Epstein, 2006).

Trademark

A trademark is the means through which the source of a product in relation to its producer or manufacturer can be identified. Its standards are that the producers of a product in use should be known to the consumer, so that purchase is done with preference out of confidence in brand identity.

They are used to ensure that the quality of service paid for is received to protect the managers. They also protect consumers from confusing and misleading information. Additionally, the owner is given legal rights to own and use the mark.

Barth and Hayes indicate that it involves labeling the different products used in the hospitality industry. This represents the quality of the product through association with different signs, labels, marks, and wrappers that should not be used by any other producer of similar products (2009).

This is well demonstrated in Wal-Mart Stores v. Samara Brothers where the circumstances under which a product’s trademark are distinctive rendering it protected from actions of infringement under the unregistered trade dress.

This rule is applicable where the infringement of a trade dress shows secondary meaning.

Therefore, a certain brand may be identified using specific marks by the customers. This does not make it distinctive. Secondary meaning is only identified in outfits with specific shapes or designs.

The court made a conclusion that the decision of the lower court be reversed since the color was not distinctive and protectable.

References

Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. v. Continental Aviation & Engineering Corp., 255 F. Supp. 645 (E.D. Mich. 1966).

Barth, C. Stephen, & Hayes, K. David. (2009). Hospitality law: managing legal issues in the hospitality industry. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.

Epstein, A. Michael. (2006). Epstein on intellectual property. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers.

PepsiCo Inc v. Redmond, US Ct of Appeals, 7th cir (1995).

Ripin, M. P. (2013). “Keeping What’s Yours: Protecting Trade Secrets Through Non Competition Agreements”. Hotel News Resource. Retrieved 26 February 2013 from http://www.hotelnewsresource.com/article14423Keeping_What_s_Yours__Protectin _Trade_Secrets_Through_Non_Competition_Agreements____By_Peter_M__Ripin Esq_.html.

Wal-Mart Stores v. Samara Brothers 529 U.S. 205 (2000).

WHY DID TRUMAN ELECT TO USE THE ATOMIC BOMB AGAINST JAPAN?

Harry Truman led the United States into its new responsibility as post-war world superpower and upheld the extended task of the federal government.1 Acknowledging and appreciating the increased significance of the presidency during the Cold War era and the welfare state period, Truman changed the executive arm of the government. In addition, he expanded the advisory agencies and thus increased the efficiency of the federal government.2 However, his decision to use atomic bombs against Japan triggered a major debate. While some argued in favour of the decision, others strongly opposed the move.

There are a number of reasons that informed the decision to bomb Japan. First and foremost, the bomb was dropped with an aim of speeding the end of the war. This was the perception of Truman and those in support of his decision.3 The reason was attributed to the fact that it would have saved lives, referring to the lives of the American soldiers. The lives of the Japanese soldiers and the civilians perhaps counted for nothing.4 In addition, dropping the bomb would have prevented the Japanese Emperor and other leaders from shame, which in essence was an important factor going by the Samurai culture of the Japanese. As a matter of fact, at the end, few major leaders desired to make the final sacrificial stand.5 However, they were overruled by the rest in support of the Emperor, who called for a retreat, having confirmed from Washington that the Emperor would stay in the event that he adhered to the rules of the American army commander.6 The last reason was attributed to the fact that America wanted to impress Russians.

However, different opinions were given in regard to the reasons of Truman to bomb Japan. One major finding of the past years was that the United States casualty projections did not start to hit the one million mark, while the estimated American deaths in the event of an invasion were much lower than half a million.7 The projected deaths from an invasion stood at 46, 000 in the worst case scenario. The main debate was however based on whether Truman was motivated by military or political reasons in deciding to bomb Japan. While there is a strong disagreement among the scholars, there has been some form of consensus.8 As far as the scholars were concerned, Truman never influenced the decision to bomb Japan with an aim of saving hundreds of thousands of American soldiers.

Even though they share the view that he used the bomb to shorten the war, the population of American lives saved would have ranged in the tens of thousands as opposed to hundreds of thousands.9 In addition, the specialists view the diplomatic goal as a secondary trigger or motivation in Truman’s decision. They have failed to acknowledge the revisionist claim that Truman acted in order to create an impression on the Soviets and advance the political objectives of the Americans.10 However, it appears that the political implications in using the bomb figured in the deliberations of the administration. The consensus of the scholars was centred on the fact that the war would have culminated within a short period without necessarily using atomic bomb and the fact that the invasion of the Japanese islands was in essence an unlikely possibility.11 In addition, it maintains that there were a number of alternatives in stopping the war without the need for an invasion and the fact that Truman and his colleagues were well versed with the options.

I do not agree with the decision of Truman to bomb Japan. For one, the sanctity of human life must be respected by all regardless of their societal status. The decision to use atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was in itself futile in America’s war against Japan.12  The reason behind this was the fact that Japan was already defeated and had no option other than to surrender.13 The second reason is that by being the first nation to use the atomic bomb, America embraced an ethical standard that was common among the barbarians present during the Dark Ages.14  There is no way that victory can be attained by killing women and children.

What had been described by Truman as the biggest thing in history was indeed, from the perspective of his military leaders, an action of unparalleled cowardice, and mass killing of women and children. The incorporation of the atomic bombs marked the end of an air war that was staged against civilians in Japan and Germany, a war that portrayed increasing contempt for civilian lives and for the laws that govern wars.

Bibliography

Kelly, Charles. The Way Life Is. New York: Author House, 2010.

Krieger, David. Were the Atomic Bombings Necessary? 30 July 2012. http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/db_article.php?article_id=381 (Accessed 18 March, 2013)

Landesman, Charles. Rawls on Hiroshima: An Inquiry into the Morality of the use of Atomic Weapons in August 1945. The Philosophical Forum, 34(1), 21-38.

Lemoine, Florence, and Strickland, John. Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001

Walker, Samuel. History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb. Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

1  Florence Lemoine, and John Strickland, Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001), 188.

2  Florence Lemoine, and John Strickland, Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001), 188.

3 Charles Landesman, Rawls on Hiroshima: An Inquiry into the Morality of the use of Atomic Weapons in August 1945, The Philosophical Forum, 34(1), 21-38.

4  Charles Landesman, Rawls on Hiroshima: An Inquiry into the Morality of the use of Atomic Weapons in August 1945, The Philosophical Forum, 34(1), 21-38.

5  Charles Landesman, Rawls on Hiroshima: An Inquiry into the Morality of the use of Atomic Weapons in August 1945, The Philosophical Forum, 34(1), 21-38.

6  Charles Landesman, Rawls on Hiroshima: An Inquiry into the Morality of the use of Atomic Weapons in August 1945, The Philosophical Forum, 34(1), 21-38.

7  Samuel Walker, History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb, Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

8  Samuel Walker, History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb, Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

9  Samuel Walker, History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb, Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

10  Samuel Walker, History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb, Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

11  Samuel Walker, History, Collective Memory, and the Decision to use the Bomb, Diplomatic History, 19(2), 319-328.

12  David Krieger, Were the Atomic Bombings Necessary? 30 July 2012, http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/db_article.php?article_id=381 (Accessed 18 March, 2013)

13Charles Kelly, The Way Life Is (New York: Author House, 2010), 183.

14  David Krieger, Were the Atomic Bombings Necessary? 30 July 2012, http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/db_article.php?article_id=381 (Accessed 18 March, 2013)

Media Project Description and Rubric

The first article of interest is about the topic of religion in schools titled “No discrimination in religious education: judge”, written on October 19, 2012 by Jewel Topsfield. In the article, a psychologist and two other parents filed a case in court to protest against purported discrimination of children that failed to attend to religious classes in state primary schools. In a ruling by the presiding judge, he declined to take action against the Education Department citing that a child’s attendance to the religious instructions does not reflect their religious beliefs or those of their parents whatsoever under the Equal Opportunity Act. The parents had indicated that their children, who did not attend the religious instructions, were being discriminated against as there was no parallel program to assist them and there was a lot of pressure emanating from teachers forcing the students to attend the classes or they would otherwise end up in hell. Fairness in Religions in schools, a group founded by parents, explains that the decision by the court only explains how the Education Act is not sufficient to address all major issues.

In my opinion, the argument by the parents is very credible as their children are being judged by fellow children because of opting to not attend the instructions. It is not the intention of teachers to differentiate pupils on basis of religion, which is why I think that the Education Act should be amended. It would make more sense to me if the religious instructions were conducted outside of the normal class schedule or if inclusive education was integrated to cater for all and sundry.

The second article of interest is about the topic of socio-economic status in schools titled “Research Brief: Low Socioeconomic Status Contributes to Bullying Risk”, written on September 11, 2012 by Nikila Kakarla, U.S. Department of Education. In the article, research conducted by the American Journal of Public Health indicates that wealth disparities in schools contribute massively to bullying rates. The survey results show how children from poorer families face a higher risk of being bullied that those from wealthier families. Results also indicated that schools in countries with higher wealth disparity gaps had more bullying rates as compared to those with lower disparity rates. Conclusively, the results explain how bullying entirely not an adolescent behaviour but mostly a societal issue.

In my opinion, the results of the survey are credible in the sense that bullying factors range on a wide scale and the socio-economic context applies to most of them. Although there might be many instances where other reasons apply, many kids from poorer families have to undergo psychological trauma from their richer mates simply because they are less privileged than them and can thus be manipulated easily.

The third article of interest is about the topic of gender in schools titled “Widening participation: time to put gender back on the agenda”, published on Tuesday 4 September by Kim Catcheside. The article is about the shocking and increasing disparity amongst female and male graduates. Nowadays, females get better grades and have higher numbers of college and university applications as compared to their male counterparts. These numbers do not reflect well in contrast to survey results which show a bigger number of males as compared to females generally. The article emphasises on the importance and need of bringing the issue of gender back on the drawing board and maybe finding ways to increase the number of male graduates.

I think that this article is very important as this topic is often ignored when it comes to education. Moreover, the topic is associated with gender discrimination, which is probably why it has often been left on the shelves. It is important for people to face reality and address issues as they arise, with special attention to the long-term effects. Programmes should be formulated with a mission of alleviating males to the level of females in education.

The fourth article of interest is about the topic of gender in schools titled “Ability Grouping in Elementary Schools”, published on Wednesday, October 31st, 2012 by Hollifield, J. The article covers the very controversial topic of ability groupings in elementary as well as secondary schools. There has been a lot of research conducted on the vast effects of the two main types of school ability groupings, within-class and between-class and consequently many observations formulated as well. The author finally reviews the ability grouping scenarios that, in his opinion, help students to achieve more.

I am of the opinion that ability grouping is not a fair practice. The reason why I am saying this is because it does not provide an equal opportunity for those that are not equally “able” and since learning is progressive and collaborative, they are left out and denied the chance to be as “able” as their counterparts. Ability grouping should take the form of higher education, whereby individuals with specific set of abilities are trained to become professionals in their respective fields. However in the case of elementary schools, it is a big source of causing disparity amongst students and is extremely unfair.

The fifth article of interest is about the topic of gender in schools titled “The Super Bowl of School Reform’: What the Chicago Teacher Strike Is Really About”, published on September 12, 2012 by Andrew P. Kelly of the American Enterprise Institute. The article is about the public’s support of increased wages for teachers but with emphasis on more accountability. Striking teachers in Chicago have brought policies of education on the limelight and the increasingly tightening tug of war between teachers unions and others pushing for educational reforms is tightening. It is clear to see that the strike is not entirely because of teacher’s wages but rather more about educational policies regarding who is in control of the institutions. Reformists are advocating for evaluation of teachers based on the performance of students and this poses a serious risk to their job security. Thus, the teacher’s unions are vigorously opposing the move, terming it as unfair and that they should rather be judged by the general effect of their job to the community.

I think that teachers, just like any other professionals, should be evaluated based on student performance and scores attained. This will bring in competitiveness and also improve the overall quality of education. Job security is an issue that faces all professionals so unless they are not competent enough, I fail to understand why they refuse to be evaluated based on student performance.

Young Girl Plucking a Duck Analysis

Young Girl Plucking a Duck refers to an oil on canvas painting that was created by Fabritius Barent, a male Dutch artist, between 1643 and 1645. The artwork measures 84.1 by 70 centimeters or about 33 by 27 inches. The artwork is currently exhibited as an anonymous souvenir at the Dallas Museum of Art within Dallas, Texas, USA (El Paso Museum of Art). The painting depicts a young girl who holds a lifeless duck by the left hand while using the right hand to remove feathers off the duck. The girl’s eyes are keenly trained on the bird. I am interested in the artwork owing to the questions that the girl’s action and disposition conjures within my mind, namely; is she angry, happy? Why is she skinning the duck? Is there a deeper meaning of the girl’s activity?

In the painting, Barent places the young girl at the center against a largely dark background. While facing the foreground, the girl is seated before a wooden table on which her right hand rests by the elbow. Only the upper torso portion of the girl’ body is visible, with the lower section being concealed by the table. The girl’s head is slightly bent so as to offer a closer view of the bird that is in front of her. The girl’s open eyes are trained on the duck. Her unbraided hair, which is neatly held to the back of her head by a crimson band, is of dark tan color. She has red lipstick on her neatly closed lips. The girl wears a brown collarless dress with red sleeves. The head of the pale brown duck droops and touches the table with the other sections being raised. As she continues to pluck feathers, the girl holds some fluff in her right palm. Beside the girl to the right is a shut door. A blank wall is behind the girl (El Paso Museum of Art).

Barent was a Baroque painter who held an artistic career which is distinguished by his utilization of cool shades to describe forms within space (Porkopolis.org). The Baroque art era emerged at the dawn of the 1600s and ran up to the mid 1700s during a time of cultural, social and religious turmoil. Originating in Italy, Baroque acted as an indiscernible transition from the late Renaissance (Carl and Charles 7). Barent’s career saw him residing in London, Leiden, and Amsterdam. He was born on 16th November 1624 and died on 20th October 1673. Pieter Carlesz Fabritius, Barent’s father, was a schoolmaster and artist. Initially, Barent became a carpenter, hence his Latinized nameFabritius, which derives from the Latin word ‘faber’ for carpenter. Barent mainly focused on painting illustrations of mythological, historical, and biblical scenes. Some of Barent’s 1650s works are influenced by the 1640s Rembrandt van Rijn’s style which involved the intensified utilization of shade, light, and shade. Carel Fabritius, who was Barent’s elder brother, also influenced the younger Fabritius (Witt 512). Barent mentored Johannes Vermeer in the arts (Porkopolis.org).

The theme of Barent’s painting relates to the innocence and unadulterated outlooks of young people. Through the steady gaze and serene disposition of the young girl, the artist shows that childhood constitutes complete purity. The girl is fully committed to the otherwise mundane task of plucking feathers off a duck. She is not distracted by any entities in her surroundings. Consequently, Barent indicates that owing to the absence of clutter in young people’s minds, children are capable of giving their entire concentration to issues.

Following visual analysis, I have adjusted my initial impression of Barent’s artwork, thereby discarding the superficial focus on the girl’s feather-plucking activity and instead acknowledging the deep theme of childhood innocence. This realization reflects the knowledge I have gleaned through research, namely, the artist’s focus on biblical or spiritual issues. In the Young Girl painting, Barent emphasizes the spiritual idea of children’s innocence.

Works Cited

Carl, Klaus, and Charles, Victoria. Baroque Art.New York City: Parkstone International, 2009. Print.

El Paso Museum of Art. “Current Exhibitions.” http://www.elpasoartmuseum.org/exhibitions.asp, n.d. Web.

Porkopolis.org. “Fabritius, Barent.” http://www.porkopolis.org/art-museum/artist-index/barent-fabritius/, n.d. Web.

Witt, David. Jan van Noordt: Painter of History and Portraits in Amsterdam. Ontario, Canada: McGill-Queen’s Press – MQUP, 2007. Print.