The effect of variable catechol concentration on the rate of enzyme activity

Niloufar Kosari

Lab Partners: Weiwei Liu, Ashkaan

Lab Section: 1219

Date: June/2/2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Enzymes are biological molecules that are involved in chemical interconversions in living organisms. They act as catalysts that greatly accelerate both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions(Garrette & Grisham, 1999). In our experiment a number of tests were carried out on a specified enzyme with the main aim of the experiment being to demonstrate some properties of enzymes. In the experiments, the activity of the enzyme polyphenol-oxidase from potato extract was measured under varying concentration of substrate catechol at Ph 6. The question was to find out what effect concentration of catechol on the rate of polyphenol-oxidase from potato extract reaction.

The variable under study in this experiment was the substrate concentration. In order to show its effect on enzyme activity, the concentration of the substrate used (catechol) was increased in the following proportions: 0.2 ml, 0.5ml, 1 ml, 2.5 ml and 3 ml. With this in mind the following hypothesis was made; as the substrate concentration is increased, the rate of reaction increases too. This increase is observed up to the point where all available enzymes are occupied by the substrate. In this case, this is the maximum rate and it can also be referred to as the plateau. This hypothesis is a reflection of what is expected from the experiment. However, an understanding of the occurrence of the phenomena was necessary and it is as presented in the following section.

In the world of chemistry, most of enzymes are proteins. Each particular enzyme has its own unique physical structure that is vital for its function. The importance of this shape is that it “fits” into the shape of the reacting molecule or molecules in a reaction where the enzyme acts as a catalyst. The enzyme “fit” enables reacting molecules to bond together at the appropriate bonding sites and this “lowers” the activation energy of the chemical reaction: which is the purpose of the enzyme (Liljas, Liljas, Piskur, Nissen, Kjeldgaard, & Lindblom, 2009).

In this experiment a phenolic compound, Catechol, naturally found in many plants (potatoes and apples) was used. Injured tissues of such plants release catechol, which is rapidly oxidized by their own catechol-oxidase to benzoquinone, that spontaneously get converted to the brown pigment Melanin (Creveling, 2000).

In this case, the catechol was reacted with polyphenol oxidase in order to measure the accumulation of colored products (the change in absorbance) in a spectrophotometer at 475 nm. The reaction for this process is as shown in the figure below:

 

 

This chemical reaction shows the conversion of catechol to benzoquinone in the presence of the enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (Creveling, 2000). This is the chemical reaction that will be expercted to be occuring during the experiment.

The outcome of the experiment was then used to carry out various analyses as required for this exercise. During the experiments, the change in color of the catechol was observed to take place. In addition, the graphical analysis done on the numerical results obtained from the experiment brought out the expected outcomes from such an experiment. The hypothesis posted earlier was also proven.

Method

In this experiment, the following chemicals and apparatus were used; potato extract containing the enzyme polyphenol-oxidase, 0.1% Catechol (substrate), Phosphate buffer of pH 6.0, test tubes, 1 mL, 5 mL and 10 mL pipet, two 100 mL beakers, timer and spectrophotometer. A five-milliliter reaction mixture containing each of the named chemicals was prepared in a test tube. The mixture was mixed rapidly as it was poured into a cuvette. The timer was started as soon as the substrate and the enzyme were both present in the mixture. Then, the absorbance was measured by the spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 475 nm every 30 seconds.

Six samples with various concentration of Catechol were made according to the following Table:

Sample

1

2

3

4

5

6

Substrate (mL)

0

0.2

0.5

1

2.5

3

Buffer (mL)

4

3.8

3.5

3

1.5

1

Enzyme (mL)

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total Volume (mL)

5

5

5

5

5

5

 

While doing the precise measurements, the potato extract was added in the mixture last and the recording of time stated at that instance. The readings of the absorbance of each tube were then recorded for increasing time intervals up to the 20-minute mark.

Results

In this section, the results obtained from each experiment are presented. The data was then used to carry out various analyses in graphical means as shown in the diagrams following the table of results.

Table 1: Absorbance values for produced Melanin at six various substrate concentrations. This is the raw data that was used to plot the graphs of absorbance against time and compared with the hypothesis in the beginning of this report.

Time (min)

Absorbance at 475 nm

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.3

0.105

0.118

0.0576

0.078

0.198

0.132

1

0.115

0.097

0.127

0.112

0.212

0.183

1.3

0.094

0.152

0.189

0.124

0.228

0.223

2

0.126

0.159

0.221

0.196

0.289

0.271

2.3

0.169

0.179

0.183

0.177

0.318

0.303

3

0.163

0.214

0.22

0.186

0.346

0.36

3.3

0.127

0.211

0.188

0.189

0.415

0.414

4

0.135

0.258

0.171

0.223

0.442

0.436

4.3

0.135

0.231

0.221

0.217

0.476

0.515

5

0.134

0.271

0.214

0.22

0.493

0.53

5.3

0.118

0.298

0.252

0.224

0.515

0.544

6

0.169

0.305

0.172

0.275

0.533

0.566

6.3

0.154

0.341

0.256

0.287

0.615

0.626

7

0.19

0.344

0.225

0.288

0.599

0.613

7.3

0.157

0.38

0.241

0.515

0.651

0.622

8

0.157

0.41

0.285

0.3

0.66

0.66

8.3

0.154

0.428

0.301

0.362

0.704

0.68

9

0.147

0.474

0.308

0.385

0.704

0.682

9.3

0.16

0.474

0.298

0.371

0.712

0.677

10

0.142

0.482

0.315

0.37

0.672

0.682

10.3

0.14

0.497

0.373

0.402

0.718

0.657

11

0.14

0.511

0.398

0.413

0.707

0.698

11.3

0.17

0.535

0.38

0.417

0.718

0.709

12

0.162

0.583

0.402

0.426

0.701

0.672

12.3

0.138

0.625

0.389

0.44

0.712

0.68

13

0.157

0.585

0.363

0.447

0.738

0.726

13.3

0.181

0.594

0.377

0.481

0.732

0.715

14

0.167

0.613

0.391

0.462

0.769

0.696

14.3

0.165

0.64

0.385

0.555

0.789

0.709

15

0.161

0.65

0.398

0.531

0.741

0.693

15.3

 

0.671

0.47

0.506

0.766

 

16

 

0.69

0.447

0.549

0.763

 

16.3

 

0.671

0.46

0.531

0.772

 

17

 

0.682

0.442

0.568

0.766

 

17.3

 

0.714

0.44

0.606

0.766

 

18

 

0.69

0.497

0.563

0.782

 

18.3

 

0.679

0.506

0.578

0.779

 

19

 

0.666

0.44

0.601

0.769

 

19.3

 

0.751

0.515

0.568

0.789

 

20

 

0.764

0.504

0.601

0.782

 

 

From this data, the following graphs were obtained:

 

Figure 1: Melanin production using six different concentration of Catechol for 20 minutes. The graph depicts the progression of enzymatic reaction for different substrate concentrations and is a reflection the Melanin production. The Melanin production increases over 20 minutes. The trend lines were assigned. The equation and the R2 of the curves of 0mL, 0.2mL, 0.5mL, 1mL, 2.5mL and 3mL are y = -0.000x2 + 0.007x + 0.111, R2 = 0.954, y = -0.000x2 + 0.052x + 0.053, R2 = 0.987, y = -0.000x2 + 0.023x + 0.111, R2 = 0.933, y = -0.000x2 + 0.034x + 0.078, R2 = 0.982, y = -0.002x2 + 0.078x + 0.155, R2 = 0.978, y = -0.004x2 + 0.106x + 0.0.087, R2 = 0.986, respectively.

From figure one, the following table of the rate of melanin production for each sample was obtained.

Table 2: Rate of melanin production for each sample of substrate concentration: This is the information that was then used to plot the plot of melanin production level against concentration as shown in figure two.

 

Sample

Substrate concentration (mL)

Rate of melanin production over 2 to 5 minutes

1

0

-0.005

2

0.2

0.034

3

0.5

0

4

1

0.013

5

2.5

0.073

6

3

0.091

 

 

 

Figure 2: kinetics of the enzyme reaction measured by the rate of the production of Melanin through the absorbance values of six different concentrations of Catechol over 2-5 minutes. The rate of Melanin production except for the 0.2 mL Catechol concentration between 2-5 minutes increases as the substrate concentration increases. The curve equation is y = 0.0099x2 – 0.0011x + 0.0084 and the R² = 0.95443

 

 

Discussion

From figure one, the shape of the figures can be explained by the fact that the rate of melanin production is affected by more than just the concentration of the substrate. That is, the rate of melanin production could have been affected by factors other than catechol oxidase activity, such as the intracellular organization, pH concentration and temperature. However, the concentration in this experiment was the effect of substrate concentration. From a cellular perspective, it can be seen that the activity of melanin formation depended on the amount of the enzyme in solution. For instance, in the solution without the enzyme the formation of melanin was so slow that it appeared to be inactive as compared to the solutions with enzymes. The reaction with the highest amounts of the enzyme was the most prolific. Then, from a molecular perspective the shapes of the graphs can be explained as follows: As catechol was oxidized by the enzyme to form 0-benzoquinone this was followed by the formation of a heterogeneous group of polymers called melanin. As the polymers got larger, their colors were seen to deepen from pink-gold through orange-brown and finally to an intense brown-black color. Since the larger molecules are less soluble in water they would eventually precipitate from the solution. The process begins as a spontaneous activity as shown in the initial stages of the graphs in figure one which then slows down as melanin formation comes to an end.

As earlier stated in the hypothesis, as the concentration of the substrate was increased, the rate of reaction increased as well (with exception of the second point.) The increase in enzyme activity for each level of substrate concentration was observed up to a point where the relationship became horizontal. From the theory on enzyme activity, this is the point where the enzyme is occupied by the substrate. In this case, this is the maximum rate and it can also be referred to as the plateau. The Melanin production in each salt concentration increases over the time. This is because the reaction proceeds as the time passes.

Despite the expected outcome being reflected by the experimental results, some errors were noted. For instance, the data produced irregular graphs that could not be conclusively used for analysis. This then prompted the use of interpolation techniques in order to carry out the required analysis. In addition, it was observed that the reaction rate for a substrate concentration on 0.2ml was higher than that of 0.5ml and 1 ml of concentration. This is also an experimental error since reaction rates should increase progressively with increase in substrate concentration. However, this error was not consistent since the other substrate concentrations followed the expected trend. These errors might have come about due to human related errors such parallax errors when measuring the various fluid concentrations and improper timing when using the timer or apparatus inherent errors such equipment wear and tear due to aging. However, since the experiment yielded the expected outcomes, it can be considered to have been a successful exercise.

 

 

 

References

Creveling, C. R. (2000). Role of Catechol Quinone Species in Cellular Toxicity. Tennessee: F P Graham Company.

Garrette, R. H., & Grisham, C. M. (1999). Biochemistry. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishers.

Liljas, A., Liljas, L., Piskur, J., Nissen, P., Kjeldgaard, M., & Lindblom, G. (2009). Textbook Of Structural Biology. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company.

Logan, R. 2003. Enzymatic Reactions. Biology 21 Lab Manual. Santa Monica College.

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The effect of variable catechol concentration on the rate of enzyme activity

 

 

 

The effect of variable catechol concentration on the rate of enzyme activity

Niloufar Kosari

Lab Partners: Weiwei Liu, Ashkaan

Lab Section: 1219

Date: June/2/2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Enzymes are biological molecules that are involved in chemical interconversions in living organisms. They act as catalysts that greatly accelerate both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions (Garrette & Grisham, 1999). In our experiment a number of tests were carried out on a specified enzyme with the main aim of the experiment being to demonstrate some properties of enzymes. In the experiments, the activity of the enzyme polyphenol-oxidase from potato extract was measured under varying concentration of substrate catechol at Ph 6. The question was to find out what effect concentration of catechol on the rate of polyphenol-oxidase from potato extract reaction.

The variable under study in this experiment was the substrate concentration. In order to show its effect on enzyme activity, the concentration of the substrate used (catechol) was increased in the following proportions: 0.2 ml, 0.5ml, 1 ml, 2.5 ml and 3 ml. With this in mind the following hypothesis was made; as the substrate concentration is increased, the rate of reaction increases too. This increase is observed up to the point where all available enzymes are occupied by the substrate. In this case, this is the maximum rate and it can also be referred to as the plateau. This hypothesis is a reflection of what is expected from the experiment. However, an understanding of the occurrence of the phenomena was necessary and it is as presented in the following section.

In the world of chemistry, most of enzymes are proteins. Each particular enzyme has its own unique physical structure that is vital for its function. The importance of this shape is that it “fits” into the shape of the reacting molecule or molecules in a reaction where the enzyme acts as a catalyst. The enzyme “fit” enables reacting molecules to bond together at the appropriate bonding sites and this “lowers” the activation energy of the chemical reaction: which is the purpose of the enzyme (Liljas, Liljas, Piskur, Nissen, Kjeldgaard, & Lindblom, 2009).

In this experiment a phenolic compound, Catechol, naturally found in many plants (potatoes and apples) was used. Injured tissues of such plants release catechol, which is rapidly oxidized by their own catechol-oxidase to benzoquinone, that spontaneously get converted to the brown pigment Melanin (Creveling, 2000).

In this case, the catechol was reacted with polyphenol oxidase in order to measure the accumulation of colored products (the change in absorbance) in a spectrophotometer at 475 nm. The reaction for this process is as shown in the figure below:

 

 

This chemical reaction shows the conversion of catechol to benzoquinone in the presence of the enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (Creveling, 2000). This is the chemical reaction that will be expercted to be occuring during the experiment.

The outcome of the experiment was then used to carry out various analyses as required for this exercise. During the experiments, the change in color of the catechol was observed to take place. In addition, the graphical analysis done on the numerical results obtained from the experiment brought out the expected outcomes from such an experiment. The hypothesis posted earlier was also proven.

Method

     In this experiment, the following chemicals and apparatus were used; potato extract containing the enzyme polyphenol-oxidase, 0.1% Catechol (substrate), Phosphate buffer of pH 6.0, test tubes, 1 mL, 5 mL and 10 mL pipet, two 100 mL beakers, timer and spectrophotometer. A five-milliliter reaction mixture containing each of the named chemicals was prepared in a test tube. The mixture was mixed rapidly as it was poured into a cuvette.  The timer was started as soon as the substrate and the enzyme were both present in the mixture.  Then, the absorbance was measured by the spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 475 nm every 30 seconds.

Six samples with various concentration of Catechol were made according to the following Table:

Sample

1

2

3

4

5

6

Substrate (mL)

0

0.2

0.5

1

2.5

3

Buffer (mL)

4

3.8

3.5

3

1.5

1

Enzyme (mL)

1

1

1

1

1

1

Total Volume (mL)

5

5

5

5

5

5

 

While doing the precise measurements, the potato extract was added in the mixture last and the recording of time stated at that instance. The readings of the absorbance of each tube were then recorded for increasing time intervals up to the 20-minute mark.

Results

In this section, the results obtained from each experiment are presented. The data was then used to carry out various analyses in graphical means as shown in the diagrams following the table of results.

Table 1: Absorbance values for produced Melanin at six various substrate concentrations. This is the raw data that was used to plot the graphs of absorbance against time and compared with the hypothesis in the beginning of this report.

Time (min)

Absorbance at 475 nm

1

2

3

4

5

6

0.3

0.105

0.118

0.0576

0.078

0.198

0.132

1

0.115

0.097

0.127

0.112

0.212

0.183

1.3

0.094

0.152

0.189

0.124

0.228

0.223

2

0.126

0.159

0.221

0.196

0.289

0.271

2.3

0.169

0.179

0.183

0.177

0.318

0.303

3

0.163

0.214

0.22

0.186

0.346

0.36

3.3

0.127

0.211

0.188

0.189

0.415

0.414

4

0.135

0.258

0.171

0.223

0.442

0.436

4.3

0.135

0.231

0.221

0.217

0.476

0.515

5

0.134

0.271

0.214

0.22

0.493

0.53

5.3

0.118

0.298

0.252

0.224

0.515

0.544

6

0.169

0.305

0.172

0.275

0.533

0.566

6.3

0.154

0.341

0.256

0.287

0.615

0.626

7

0.19

0.344

0.225

0.288

0.599

0.613

7.3

0.157

0.38

0.241

0.515

0.651

0.622

8

0.157

0.41

0.285

0.3

0.66

0.66

8.3

0.154

0.428

0.301

0.362

0.704

0.68

9

0.147

0.474

0.308

0.385

0.704

0.682

9.3

0.16

0.474

0.298

0.371

0.712

0.677

10

0.142

0.482

0.315

0.37

0.672

0.682

10.3

0.14

0.497

0.373

0.402

0.718

0.657

11

0.14

0.511

0.398

0.413

0.707

0.698

11.3

0.17

0.535

0.38

0.417

0.718

0.709

12

0.162

0.583

0.402

0.426

0.701

0.672

12.3

0.138

0.625

0.389

0.44

0.712

0.68

13

0.157

0.585

0.363

0.447

0.738

0.726

13.3

0.181

0.594

0.377

0.481

0.732

0.715

14

0.167

0.613

0.391

0.462

0.769

0.696

14.3

0.165

0.64

0.385

0.555

0.789

0.709

15

0.161

0.65

0.398

0.531

0.741

0.693

15.3

 

0.671

0.47

0.506

0.766

 

16

 

0.69

0.447

0.549

0.763

 

16.3

 

0.671

0.46

0.531

0.772

 

17

 

0.682

0.442

0.568

0.766

 

17.3

 

0.714

0.44

0.606

0.766

 

18

 

0.69

0.497

0.563

0.782

 

18.3

 

0.679

0.506

0.578

0.779

 

19

 

0.666

0.44

0.601

0.769

 

19.3

 

0.751

0.515

0.568

0.789

 

20

 

0.764

0.504

0.601

0.782

 

 

From this data, the following graphs were obtained:

 

Figure 1: Melanin production using six different concentration of Catechol for 20 minutes. The graph depicts the progression of enzymatic reaction for different substrate concentrations and is a reflection the Melanin production. The Melanin production increases over 20 minutes. The trend lines were assigned. The equation and the R2 of the curves of 0mL, 0.2mL, 0.5mL, 1mL, 2.5mL and 3mL are y = -0.000x2 + 0.007x + 0.111, R2 = 0.954, y = -0.000x2 + 0.052x + 0.053, R2 = 0.987, y = -0.000x2 + 0.023x + 0.111, R2 = 0.933, y = -0.000x2 + 0.034x + 0.078, R2 = 0.982, y = -0.002x2 + 0.078x + 0.155, R2 = 0.978, y = -0.004x2 + 0.106x + 0.0.087, R2 = 0.986, respectively.

From figure one, the following table of the rate of melanin production for each sample was obtained.

Table 2: Rate of melanin production for each sample of substrate concentration: This is the information that was then used to plot the plot of melanin production level against concentration as shown in figure two.

 

Sample

Substrate concentration (mL)

Rate of melanin production over 2 to 5 minutes

1

0

-0.005

2

0.2

0.034

3

0.5

0

4

1

0.013

5

2.5

0.073

6

3

0.091

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: kinetics of the enzyme reaction measured by the rate of the production of Melanin through the absorbance values of six different concentrations of Catechol over 2-5 minutes. The rate of Melanin production except for the 0.2 mL Catechol concentration between 2-5 minutes increases as the substrate concentration increases. The curve equation is y = 0.0099x2 – 0.0011x + 0.0084 and the R² = 0.95443

 

 

Discussion

From figure one, the shape of the figures can be explained by the fact that the rate of melanin production is affected by more than just the concentration of the substrate. That is, the rate of melanin production could have been affected by factors other than catechol oxidase activity, such as the intracellular organization, pH concentration and temperature. However, the concentration in this experiment was the effect of substrate concentration. From a cellular perspective, it can be seen that the activity of melanin formation depended on the amount of the enzyme in solution. For instance, in the solution without the enzyme the formation of melanin was so slow that it appeared to be inactive as compared to the solutions with enzymes. The reaction with the highest amounts of the enzyme was the most prolific. Then, from a molecular perspective the shapes of the graphs can be explained as follows: As catechol was oxidized by the enzyme to form 0-benzoquinone this was followed by the formation of a heterogeneous group of polymers called melanin. As the polymers got larger, their colors were seen to deepen from pink-gold through orange-brown and finally to an intense brown-black color.  Since the larger molecules are less soluble in water they would eventually precipitate from the solution. The process begins as a spontaneous activity as shown in the initial stages of the graphs in figure one which then slows down as melanin formation comes to an end.

As earlier stated in the hypothesis, as the concentration of the substrate was increased, the rate of reaction increased as well (with exception of the second point.) The increase in enzyme activity for each level of substrate concentration was observed up to a point where the relationship became horizontal. From the theory on enzyme activity, this is the point where the enzyme is occupied by the substrate. In this case, this is the maximum rate and it can also be referred to as the plateau. The Melanin production in each salt concentration increases over the time. This is because the reaction proceeds as the time passes.

Despite the expected outcome being reflected by the experimental results, some errors were noted. For instance, the data produced irregular graphs that could not be conclusively used for analysis. This then prompted the use of interpolation techniques in order to carry out the required analysis. In addition, it was observed that the reaction rate for a substrate concentration on 0.2ml was higher than that of 0.5ml and 1 ml of concentration. This is also an experimental error since reaction rates should increase progressively with increase in substrate concentration. However, this error was not consistent since the other substrate concentrations followed the expected trend. These errors might have come about due to human related errors such parallax errors when measuring the various fluid concentrations and improper timing when using the timer or apparatus inherent errors such equipment wear and tear due to aging. However, since the experiment yielded the expected outcomes, it can be considered to have been a successful exercise. 

 

 

 

References

Creveling, C. R. (2000). Role of Catechol Quinone Species in Cellular Toxicity. Tennessee: F P Graham Company.

Garrette, R. H., & Grisham, C. M. (1999). Biochemistry. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishers.

Liljas, A., Liljas, L., Piskur, J., Nissen, P., Kjeldgaard, M., & Lindblom, G. (2009). Textbook Of Structural Biology. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company.

Logan, R. 2003. Enzymatic Reactions. Biology 21 Lab Manual. Santa Monica College. 

 

 

Consumer Analysis Project

Institution

Name

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Executive summary

This paper shall focus on a marketing strategy problem facing the insurance industry. The paper will attempt to figure out the essential factors in developing a suitable marketing strategy for insurance companies. It will investigate the main reasons people buy insurance for insurance users and reasons for not buying insurance for non-users of insurance. It will also investigate the consumer behavior concepts and how these concepts influence people in buying insurance products.

The paper will be based on primary data collected through questionnaires filled randomly from users and non-users of insurance. The results showed that the non- users of insurance are not aware of the insurance policies offered and benefits of insurance since the insurance companies have not reached their areas. The results also showed that demographic factors play a crucial role in consumer’s buying decision for users of insurance when it comes to purchasing insurance. Secondary data will also be used to find out what previous researchers feel about the challenges facing insurance companies and how to cope with these challenges.

The insurance companies, therefore, shall focus on the ways of improving their marketing strategy through mostly segmentation and positioning their products. They will also focus on improving their services rendered before purchasing insurance and after purchasing i.e. pre- purchase.

Background

The companies in focus are the Insurance companies that are in the service industry. The art of insurance started with the Chinese and Babylonian traders. The merchants would borrow a loan for a shipment, from this loan; they would pay an amount as a guarantee that the loan would be cancelled once a loss occurred when shipping the goods. This background check leads us to what is insurance? Insurance is assuming the risk that would have been suffered by another by pooling funds together from which, the insurer can make a claim.

Insurance companies experience low revenues due to the issues arising from the consumer buying behaviors that affect the marketing strategy of a company. The major problem facing the insurance companies in marketing the products is that, they are unable to reach out to customers in different regions, in a country because consumers are not well educated about the insurance products. This challenge to insurance companies needs to be looked out though it means allocating large amounts of their revenues to this initiative. Insurance companies should form an association that will help in educating citizens all over the regions especially the indigenous that have limited access to information. This initiative will cut down cost for the entire insurance industry (Bhalla, 2001).

Insurance companies compete among themselves. They try to attract consumers of other insurance companies by offering lower premiums for a policy. This is has proved not to be a solution to the problem as the low premiums means low pool of funds and the claims will not be fully met. Insurance companies offer similar products (policies). Therefore, it is difficult for them to diversify. The only way for insurance companies to have a breakthrough is by understanding the processes of consumer buying behavior and concepts. This way they will be able to win over the loyalty of consumers in to staying with the company without necessarily having to reduce the premiums. A SWOT analysis of a company can help take advantage of consumers buying behaviors (Seog, 2008). The SWOT analysis for insurance businesses tends to be the similar. The SWOT analysis as discussed below.

Strength

Insurance companies have a well-informed, qualified with positive attitudes personnel. Approaching a client can be difficult at times especially where there is money outflow involved. It will need a patient person. Having persistent personnel would help recruit more customers’ into the business.

Insurance companies have many branches that help in networking. These branches should be evenly distributed all over a region. Goals should be set for these branches to reach within a given timeline.

Weakness

Many competitors are offering same products with by title but the difference is the premium requested.

Insurance is not afforded by middle and low income earners that form a large part of the population in a country

Promotions endeavors are very expensive for the companies

Opportunities

Huge untapped market especially the indigenous

Government policy requires certain policies as compulsory i.e. Motor vehicle insurance

Insurance is gradually gaining acceptance

Many people are going for health insurance due to the many diseases emerging in today’s world.

Threats

Other insurance companies lower the premiums on policies with a bid to attract customers.

Product diversification and differentiation are difficult as similar products are offered by all insurance companies

Competition from multinationals is becoming a threat to the local insurance companies.

 

SWOT analysis stands for strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Insurance companies should use their strength points to overcome threats imposed on them, and use opportunities available to deal with their points of weaknesses. For instance, an insurance company will take advantage of the untapped market in the indigenous areas to beat their competition. However, this process should be undertaken early enough before the competitors find their way to these areas.

The Consumer and consumer issues: Consumer behavior is the study of processes that a buyer is involved in when he is buying a product or service to satisfy his needs and the impact of those processes to the survival off an organization. The study also helps in understanding the decision making process of a buyer that would want to purchase a product or service. Consumer buying behavior is influenced by five concepts. A marketer of an organization needs to be fully informed of the concept and how he can use the concept to persuade a customer into buying a product. Knowing these concepts is not enough to keep the customers royalty (Foxall, 2005).  The marketer should find ways to be able to keep up with the changing needs of a customer. This discussion will help a marketer to know how he can integrate consumer behavior concepts into the marketing strategy of an insurance company.

The five concepts involved are perception, attitude, reference group and personality. Perception may be referred to as positioning of a product in a consumer mind. Insurance policies are lowly perceived all over the world, If it were not for government intervention, there would be no insurance companies because governments have tried to impose certain covers as compulsory in a country. People perceive insurance covers as a way of “gaining where they did not leap” this is because insurance companies have made the process of filing claims a challenge to the insured. The process may take 2-3 years, and the chances of recovering the loss are minimal. Insurance companies would also not want to lose their pool of fund this is reason why they make this process a lengthy one. The uneducated group forms the largest market, yet they can not buy a cover because they see no use for it.

The process of perception is categorized into four that is selective exposure where the consumers select a product due to promotional messages they are exposed to. Insurance companies should take advantage of this by providing as much information as possible in their promotional strategies. This can be effectively done by providing brochures and accessible points of contact for the consumers. Selective retention is where the consumer remembers a message that is likely to satisfy his needs. Insurance companies try to cover all areas of risk so as to widen its scoop of customers. Selective comprehension is where the consumers interpret a message according to his values, beliefs and experiences. A company should try to understand different cultures within a region so that it suits consumers’ beliefs and values.

Another concept is the reference groups or family into which a consumer belongs to. Nowadays, consumers are building identity through various consumption activities that upholds ideas about them. What better way to do this other than follows his reference groups or family? A consumer would choose to purchase a policy just because another person has purchased. Insurance companies should realize that Social groups are important to a consumer life and, therefore, should try to take advantage by educating to its existing customers about the available covers within the companies. These customers can serve as an agent of educating and sale for the insurance companies. Many people have taken up an insurance cover through referral by a friend, family, colleague or spouse.

Attitudes concept can be favorable or unfavorable feelings about insurance policies. These feelings are a great motivator for purchase of a cover. Insurance companies have failed in connecting with the feelings of individuals. Their marketing is more for their gain other than changing the attitudes of consumers to favor the sale of policies. Some insurance companies have realized this gap and are trying to correct it through emotional marketing. This marketing is sensitive to consumer behavior. According to Philip Kotler, insurance companies have turned into marketing of emotional and image incentives to gain the best position in clients mind and hearts (Philip, 2003).

Another concept is the personality. Insurance companies should try to blend person’s personalities into their products. This way they will be able to create brand relationships that will eventually create identity, image and likability. Personality’s helps in creating various dimensions such as, self image, looking glass self, real self, ideal self that is relevant in marketing. For instance, the dimension of looking glass self helps a marketer understand what a consumer would want other people to see him as. The marketer will create a product that best suit his would be personality.

Insurance companies should identify that they cannot reach out to potential customers through mass marketing. They need to segment their market so as to be able to reach the most remote customers. There are various ways that insurance companies can segment their market that is demographic, geographical, psychological, and behaviourlistic segmentation. All this types of segmentation would help solve the issue of lack of knowledge of insurance and would help out in reaching out for the indigenous group in the market. The most effective way of segmentation would be the geographical segmentation.

Consumer analysis

The form of primary research that I used to gain information on consumers was questionnaire. Because through the questionnaires we can get individuals preferences, requirements and inclination from the product the insurance company delivers. It also helps us in identifying what respondents know or do not know about the products. We are also able to find out why people buy insurance and their behavior towards buying insurance.

The research objective was mostly to find out the most essential criteria people think about before investing in an insurance policy, and various investment alternatives that people prefer. Other objectives include; knowing what people thinks about insurance and finds it from people why it is necessary to take insurance policies. This will help draw a comparison between the observed behavior of consumers and the purchase.

The questionnaire included the following questions;

What do you think of insurance?

What is your reason to purchase insurance?

What is your objective of purchasing insurance?

What criteria do you use to select an insurance company?

What policy is popular among people or what type of policy do you know most?

Which factor do you consider when buying insurance?

Where do you like purchasing the insurance policy?

What is your insurance buying decision influence?

What is your experience with other existing insurance company?

What is your suggestion to improve insurance sector?

The finding after conducting the questioner concluded that most people purchase insurance for family security, some for tax saving, others for investments and few people for discipline saving. The main objective of purchasing insurance was for life stage needs i.e. fulfilling time to time need like child education, others insure to cover liabilities in case of disease, disability and death. Others insure due to fear while very few said that insurance gives them social relaxation.

On the basis of criteria used to find an insurance company, the finding was that most people choose the company based on policy scheme, income and its reliability and creditworthiness. We can conclude that people choose an insurance company depending on the policy scheme of the company i.e. if it fulfills the need of an individual.

The research finding shows that the majority of people do not know about different types of insurance. People in the rural areas are not made aware of different types of insurance policies. Others said that they had never heard of insurance policies. Those who have invested in insurance policies have invested in whole life insurance.

Most people like to purchase insurance from the agent while others directly from the company. In buying insurance, we found out through questioners that most people are influenced by their families. They take insurance according to their family’s need some people would not like to take loans in the future, so they invest in insurance especially in child education. Others are influenced by advertisements and brands while others from neighbors and friends or professional and trade unions (Foxall, 2005). 

Recommendation

The study shows that demographic factor is the key effect in the purchase decision of the consumer. The company should understand the demographic of the consumer and target them according to their way. The company should also try to find new markets especially in the rural areas. Proper educative measures should be taken to ensure that every person especially in the rural areas is made aware of the insurance policies. All consumers should be made aware of companies profile and all the returns associated with insurance.

The insurance company should segments its product i.e. policies in terms of age, income, religion, family size and gender. For example, the company can provide pension for all age group due to discipline saving. The company should also come up with policies that incorporate all earners. For example, middle income earners can pay their premium on a monthly basis instead of may be twice a year. The company should also provide proper assistance to customers at the time of settlement claim to avoid the bad perception people have concerning insurance.

The company should improve on its image because most consumers consider this before taking any insurance policy. This is because people expect safety and security for their money that they invest. They also look at the bonuses and interest paid by the company as well their services. The company should also try to reach all the people in different geographical areas by having their companies find new markets especially in rural areas.

The company should also focus on the products offered; all the policies should match the needs and wants of consumers. The company should make sure that the products reach all the geographical places. Reach out to all individuals both in the rural and urban, this can be through proper advertisements. The insurance policies should have a price or should accommodate all classes of people i.e. low income earners, middle and high class earners. The company service should also be improved to satisfy the consumers. I.e. the customers should be taken through the decision making process and guided on all issues that are essential before buying any policy (Seog, 2008).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bhalla, K. (2001). Financial Management & policy 11 Edition. New Delhi: Anmol publication.

Seog, S. (2008). Informational Cascade in the Insurance Market. The Journal of Risk and Insurance, 75/1: pp145-165.

Foxall, G. (2005). Understanding Consumer Choice. Baingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian.

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Insights from A to Z: 80 Concepts Every manager Needs To Know. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literary analysis “The lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara

Name:

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Date:

Literary analysis

“The lesson” by Toni Cade Bambara

A short story “The Lesson” focuses on education as the major theme. Education comes in many forms of life and it is very important because of the results of the knowledge acquired from the valuable lessons learned in life outside classroom. The story identifies three characters; Sylvia, Mercedes and a black woman, Ms. Moore who is educated and takes children from poor and underprivileged neighborhood to FAO Schwarz. The children do not want to go but they are forced by parents, showing how learning leads to discomfort though with a positive change. Ms. Moore is unique in the neighborhood that she moves and she is very black, thus connecting the white community with black. There are different types of pride as well as leadership functions identifying ways in which people either respect or disrespect one another. There is a notion of economic inequality among whites and blacks in the United States because Sylvia is a leader in charge of her friends’ activities. Ms. Moore wishes to get a lot from children and after trying for some times, she manages to get Sylvia who resents Ms. Moore’s appearance in her entire life because as an adult, Ms. Moore has more inherent authority and high education from college to change Sylvia’s life. Sylvia learned the lesson because she wound up and did not want to go regardless of the impact in her life from the trip. Her tone and use of slang terms as well as curse words showed how she disliked Ms. Moore who kept on mocking her because of her family’s poverty as this showed he the existing economic inequality in the world. Sylvia learns a lesson outside classroom for her rise above her circumstance through creating herself a better life.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

Bambara, Toni, Cade. The Lesson. New York: The Continuum Publishing Corporation, 1972.

Online Shopping System

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Online Shopping System

[Your Names]

[Names of your Institution]

[Date]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This paper involves a research on creating an internet shopping website of a shop with the goal of increasing the number of customers since it will be accessed by anyone in any part of the world, and the effectiveness and efficiency of the shop. The shop that they need the system developed is identified by its name chrimoska systems where they would like to increase the market of their products. The shop sells different types of products such as computer accessories, laptops, smart phones, and networking devices among other products where they want to implement an information system in the form of an internet shopping website to increase the marketability of their products.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

Abstract 1

Introduction. 3

Phase 1: requirements analysis. 6

Problem definition. 6

Issues. 7

Objectives. 8

Requirements. 9

Constraints and assumptions. 10

Descriptions of the proposed system.. 11

Risks involved. 11

Technical risk. 12

Operational risk. 12

Financial risk. 12

Member risk. 13

Customer risk. 13

Other risk. 13

Benefits of the online shopping website implementation project 13

Tangible benefits. 13

Intangible benefits. 14

Logical model of the proposed system.. 15

Context dataflow diagram.. 15

Level 0 DFD diagram.. 16

Level 1DFD diagram.. 17

Phase 2: System and database design. 23

System architecture. 23

System interface. 23

Data design. 24

Project plan. 26

 

 

Introduction

An information system can be defined as a collection of software, hardware and people which helps in collecting, filtering, processing, creating, and distributing data which is used to support the operations of an organization by improving management and decision making processes.( Dennis, Wixom, & Roth.2009). An information system can be composed of five categories, which are;

  1. An office information system, which can also be defined as office automation is an information system which supports a range of business office activities which helps employees’ communication within the offices.  It contains software, hardware and network which are components that facilitate communication and exchange of information (Satzinger, Jackson,  &Burd, 2009).
  2. Transaction processing system which can be defined as an information system, which records and processes daily information that is generated from the organization’s daily business activities. For example, it can be a part of an information system that records any organization’s orders, payments, deposits or even reservations(Satzinger, Jackson,  &Burd, 2009).
  3. Management information system, which can also be called a management reporting system is an information system which generates accurate and reliable reports as at when needed or on a regular basis. It provides reliable, accurate and organized information inform of reports to the organization’s managerial group for effective, fast and efficient decision making processes, for supervising organization’s activities, tracking the organization’s progress and solving problems (Satzinger, Jackson,  &Burd, 2009).
  4. Decision support system, which is an information system that uses internal and external data to help the company’s executives make a wise decision when a decision-making situation arises (Satzinger, Jackson,  &Burd, 2009).
  5. Expert system is an expert system that records the knowledge of human expertise, where it imitates human reasoning and knowledge in solving and processing business processes(Satzinger, Jackson,  &Burd, 2009).

Currently, most business transactions have been turned to e-commerce due to its various numerous advantages and due to human beings technological advancement. The internet shopping website is an e-commerce information system, where customers can access the vendors’ products online via their web browsers anytime anywhere around the world. This paper explains how the shops internet shopping website will be developed where it will discus on the requirements analysis the system, the design of the system and its database, and the project plan on how the system will be implemented.

In developing the proposed system without any loss of systems objectives, goals and budget, the shop will use systems development life cycles (SDLC) process where it will implement it using waterfall approach model.  System Development Life Cycle can be defined as software development process that helps in forming the framework for controlling and planning the development of information systems. Waterfall approach is the linear system development model in which each developer in a development team works in different phases.  The phases in which the model uses are system planning, system analysis, system design, and system implementation which can be executed by the following steps as shown in the diagram below;

 

Phase 1: requirements analysis

 Problem definition

Chrimoska Systems have been having problems selling its products due to the reduced numbers of customer. The manager of the shop who is still the owner decided that for them to grow in sales they must implement a way of marketing their products and selling them online. Since the shop offers various products, by implementing the internet shopping site the manager argues that it must meet the customers’ ultimate decisions who when deciding what to purchase they choose from different varieties of products according to their taste and preferences. 

Another problem that the shop faces is ineffectiveness and inefficiency in their order placing system. The current system that the shop has depends on numerous paper works to be filled by the company from the moment the order is placed up to the time or period that the products are delivered to the customer. The manual process of taking orders from consumers imply recording of a number of specifications provided by the customer creates room for errors such as delivering the wrong type of goods ordered which causes ineffectiveness of the shop.

Also, the shop currently lacks a database that contains information about the potential customers where it’s hard for the business to acquire information about a consumer when an order is placed. Currently, customer information is recorded on hard copy materials and kept in a store log, which the shop maintains and uses when required. This information is recorded whenever customer makes or places an order and retrieval of the manual information consumes much time decreasing the efficiency of the shop.

Issues

Apart from having its numerous advantages to the vendors, customers do raise some issues concerning the internet shopping sites. Most customers do prefer to shop in stores that they can easily reach than on internet shopping websites due to their various reasons which sometimes discourages the internet shopping sites owners. Some of the reasons that discourage the customers from shopping online are;

  1. Most customers do not have trust with the online shopping websites hence they don’t like to risk their money.
  2. Some internet shopping websites may have too much complicated graphical user interfaces which discourages customers from browsing though and making their orders.
  3. When it comes to electronics, some of them may be mishandled as it is shipped to the customer’s premises hence it may reach to the customer with a malfunction problem.
  4. In case of an electronic malfunction, returning the item to the online vendor can be very costly and tiresome which most customers do try to avoid.
  5.  Most customers do fear to display their private financial information on the internet due to fear of being hacked, or to involve themselves in fraudulent purchases.
  6. Some internet shopping sites do take long to process the customers’ orders, where it may also take time delivering the product to the customer which may not meet the customer urgency state of needing the product that he or she ordered.
  7. Some goods are not insured by the internet shopping sites vendors hence incase the goods are damaged, destroyed, or even stolen hence the customers are not compensated which is a risk they don’t want to be involved with.

Objectives

After successfully completion of the internet shopping website project, the shop is expected to have the following benefits and improvements;

  1. It will increase in the effectiveness and efficiency in processing orders and shipping the orders to the customers in a timely manner.
  2. It will make effective the marketing strategy for the shop’s products which will end up increasing its customers.
  3. It will increase the profit margin of the shop since it will reduce the cost of operations within the shop.  The cost of operation that will be reduced includes a lot of paper work that consumes most of the shops time, money and energy.
  4. It will increase the confidence and trust of the customers with the shop by providing order tracking mechanism to the customer where the system will be sending order tracking emails to the customers regarding the state of the orders.
  5. The online shopping website will have administrative sections which will track and handle all the accounting information which will increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the shop.
  6. The entire operations of the shop is expected to improve since the information system developed will be expected to produce accurate and reliable reports which will improve the decision making process of the shop hence increasing the effectiveness of the entire operations.

Requirements

For an online shopping website to support successful products shopping, the websites must meet specific requirements standards. The requirements that the shopping websites must meet to ensure customers satisfaction are;

  1. The system must implement information confidentiality and integrity by ensuring that the entire customer’s information is kept away from unauthorized personnel.
  2. The systems graphical user interface should be simple which allows customers to navigate through without experiencing any difficulties in viewing the various products that the site offers, the means of payment, and how the order can be traced.
  3. The system should have adequate and effective search criteria mechanism that can help the customers to easily find and choose the products that he or she wishes to order.
  4. The systems should have adequate customer service functionalities such as integrated live chat services for handling urgent customer issues and email services for handling customers’ issues that are not urgent.
  5. The system should be light when loading in computers and mobile phones so that customers using different types of devices to access the system can access it without experiencing any delays due to the devices they are using to access the system.
  6. The system should have backup facilities such as onsite and offsite servers which can help in restoring the system to its previous state before any kind of attack happens. This increases the confidence of customers on the system due to maintenance of consistent records.
  7. The system should have reliability non functional requirements where they should be able to provide reliable information to its customers at all times.
  8. The system should be fast enough to provide notification messages to the shop’s staffs in case there is a new order from the customer so that it can ensure that the orders have been processed in a fast manner.
  9. The system should be easy to update so that customers can be having updated products details which will increase their effectiveness.

Constraints and assumptions

For the successful development and implementation of the online shopping website there are some constraints that must identified and kept in mind. The following constraints have been identified:

  • Time:  The project may not be completed within the allocated time.  The project has been estimated to be completed within 5 months or 150 working days where project team members are supposed to work on 8 hours per day and 5 days per week. The project was scheduled to start on 7th January 2013, the second week after ushering the new year.
  • Cost: The project may not be completed within the allocated budget constraints. The project cost is estimated to be$500,000, where it covers the project development cost and procurements of materials needed for the project.
  • Scope: The project may not fully cover the scope that has been identified.

            The following assumptions have been made in defining the scope, objectives and approach:

  • The shop’s board of directors has approved the project proposal.
  • There are enough funds for the project.
  • The feasibility studies of the project have already been carried out and approved.
  • The project will fully meet the shop’s needs.

Descriptions of the proposed system

The proposed system will have various functionalities which will make if satisfies the users requirement.  The proposed system will have the following functionalities;

  1. It will allow the shop’s staffs to add, update and delete products from the database.
  2. It will enable the customers to view available products for sale
  3. It will enable customers to search for the products using any search criteria
  4. It will enable the shop’s staffs to view ordered products
  5. It will allow customers to track the state of the orders they have ordered.
  6. It will allow the shop’s financial department to view order payment details before the order is processed.

Risks involved

The project may be affected with the following risks;

Technical risk.

This is a type of risks that may cause failure of the systems functionalities, which may also affect its performance. Some of technical risks are;

  • System security risks where unauthorized personnel may gain access to the system where they may violate data confidentiality, integrity and availability.
  • The system may have non functional requirements risk failure such as lack of multithreading functionality, lack of survivability functionality which may cause the system to crash if accessed by many users concurrently. The risks may have a severe impact on the company since it may cause denial of services where authorized personnel can’t access services that they are authorized to access.

Operational risk

 Failure of the information not being delivered on time which can be caused due to

  1. The project may fail to be delivered on time due to poor or lack of senior management support hence delaying in the decision making processes which may delay the project.
  2. The project my fail to be delivered on time due to lack of standardized project management methodologies which may lead to improper management of the system.
  3. The system may fail to be delivered on time due to overworked or undertrained project team.

Financial risk

The project may be at a risk of not being delivered within the planned budget.  For example, if the project is faced with a risk of being behind the schedule, the project manager may decide to add more team member, recruit other team members or even add overtime hours which must cost more than it was allocated. In this case, the project is at a risk of not being completed on the allocated budget since the cost to cater some milestones that could have been covered has been used as mislenious costs.

Member risk

The project may be at a risk of the project team not meeting the requirements of the user. The requirements may not be met either by having a non qualified team who may not have adequate knowledge about software development, or even it may be caused by the project procurement team who may purchase substandard materials that are not of high quality as it was expected by project sponsor. Also, the project may be at a risk of not meeting the clients’ requirements due to poor participation in the development process. For example, the sponsor team may fail to participate actively in the development of the project where they could be making some comments and confirm the development process which may be a risk.

Customer risk

The project may be at a risk of the customer changing the project requirements.

Other risk

The project may be at a risk of not being developed by the right people who have adequate skills and combination, staffs that are committed during the entire project period, or even staffs with the necessary training.  In this case the project team staffs may misuse the projects resources which may put the project at a risk of not being developed on time or on the budgeted cost.

Benefits of the online shopping website implementation project

Tangible or intangible benefits of the project are;

Tangible benefits

The tangible benefits that the company will gain after completion of the project are;

  • The company will increase its profit margin by reducing the operational costs that it may be incurring due to lack of an information system.
  • The shop will increase the number of customers who will be accessing its products online which will result in mass sale of their products.
  • The company will have a change to increase its online customers who increases the company’s page access traffic, which may lead to the company’s website becoming an advisements channel for other companies hence making the company to earn more money.
  • The company will reduce its advertisement cost, while on the other hand increases its customers which lead to profit maximization.

Intangible benefits

The intangible benefit that the shop or the company gains from completion of the project are;

  1. It increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the shop by improving on the efficiency of processing business processes and also producing reliable reports when needed.
  2. It improves communication within the business processes which reduces the time of processes operations
  3. It will increase the effectiveness and efficiency of decision making processes which will also increase the effectives of the shop.
  4. Due to the increased rate of decision making process and effectiveness of the shop it will increase the shop’s reputation which will also increase its trust to its customers.
  5. It will increase in the financial management processes of the shop.
  6. It will increase financial and document security within the shop since only authorized personnel will have the right to access the system.
  7. It will increase the rate of marketing since many customers who are of different geographical areas will easily and effectively access the shops products.

Logical model of the proposed system

The logical model of the proposed online shopping website for chrimoska system can be as shown by the following data flow diagram and context diagrams.

Context dataflow diagram

 

The inputs from the above diagram are the products details, and payment details entered by the shop’s staffs, and the order details and payment details entered by the online customer. Another input is the search index criteria that will be used by either the staff or the online customer. The output details are the confirmation details after input has been entered,  the  order details which is retrieved by the shop’s staff,  the product details retrieved by the online customer, the output of any search process, and the reports generated by the shop’s staffs.

Level 0 DFD diagram

 

Level 1DFD diagram

 

From the above Level 1 DFD, the processes, inputs and their outputs are;

Process 1:  Revise stock

Description

In this process, the procurement staff revises stock that is stored in the database.

Inputs: 

  • The input of this process is new stock data entered by the procurement officer.

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is a message from the system confirming to the procurement officer that the stock has been updated.

Process 2:  Delete stock

Description

In this process, the store procurement officer deletes some stock from the database.

Inputs:

  • The input of this process is stock data which is entered by the store procurement officer.

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is a message from the system confirming to the procurement officer that the stock has been deleted.

Process 3: Adding inventory into the system

Description:

In this business process, the store staffs who are responsible for adding or updating inventory into the database adds the inventory into the business where they can be accessed by customers online.

Inputs:

  • The input of this process is the inventory that the store’s staff adds or updates into the database. The inputs vary with the inventory details which may be the price, name, and description.

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is the same inventory but inform of goods available for sale to customers who accesses it online.

Process 4:  update stock

Description

In this process, the store procurement officer updates some stock from the database.

Inputs:

  • The input of this process is stock data which is entered by the store procurement officer.

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is a message from the system confirming to the procurement officer that the stock has been updated.

Process 5:  Search stock

Description

In this process, the customer searches for stock from the database that he or she can purchase.

Inputs:

  • The input of this process is stock data which is entered by the customer.

Outputs:

  • The output is the generated results of the search of the stock that the customer searches.

Process 6:  Checkout

Description

In this process, the customer checks his or her details in the system database  regarding the order

Inputs:

  • The input to this process is personal data that the customers enters.

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is that information regarding the order is displayed.

Process 7:  Verify credit card information

Description

In this process, the customer verifies the credit card information that he or she has entered into the system.

Inputs:

  • The input in this process is the customer’s data

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is the feedback data that the client will receive after verifying his or her credit card.

Process 8:  reject order

Description

In this process, the accountant may reject the customer’s order if the details provided are not relevant.

Inputs:

  • The input  in this process is the customer data

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is the results which are the reject order

Process 9:  Accept order

Description

In this process, the accountant accepts the customer’s order if the details provided are relevant.

Inputs:

  • The input in this process is the customer data

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is the results which are the accept order

Process 10:  Delivering order

Description

In this process, after the order has been accepted, it is delivered to the customer.

Inputs:

  • The inputs are order details which are passed after the order has been accepted

Outputs:

  • The outputs are order details which are passed after the order has been delivered

Process 11:  Email verification

Description

In this process, after the products have been delivered to the customer, he or she is notified of the progress by email verification.

Inputs:

  • The inputs are order details which are passed after the order has been delivered

Outputs:

  • The output of this process is a confirmation message to the staff that an email has been sent successfully.

Process 12:  Report preparing

Description

In this process, the store management team may generate reports from the system which may help them in decision making processes.

Inputs:

  • The inputs of this process are customer and order details, report requests, and stock status data.

Outputs:

  • The output of this report is a compiled report.

Process 13: final update

Description:

In this process, the entire data is updated where the customer and order data are updated after the order has been delivered to the customer.

Inputs:

  • The inputs in this process are the customers’ details and order details

Outputs:

  • The output of this process can be viewed can be viewed as a completed database after the entire order process.

Phase 2: System and database design

System architecture

The online shopping website will be based on the three-tier network architecture which is also called three-tier client/ server architecture where it will have the client on tier one, application server on tier two, and database server on tier three. The client server on tier one will be a web browser like Firefox or internet explorer for the customer can order company’s products online. The second tier will be the application server, which will also be a web browser, where it will be used by the shop’s staffs, to update and inserts new products into the shop’s website. The third tier is the database server where it will be used to store all the company’s information. The second tier will be used as a link between the tier one, which is the client and tier three which is the database.

System interface

The systems user interface will be the point of interaction between the user and the system. For effective communication and usability of the system, the user interfaces should be easy and simple to navigate through. Usability can be defined as learnability ease of use of human made objects where it is measured as how the object is efficiently used by human beings without experiencing difficulty, and how it is easy to learn without needing a lot of time to be trained.  For the system to have usability characteristics, its graphical user interfaces will be design in a simple way where customers can easily view products, make orders and even make payments without experiencing any difficulties in using the system. The systems user interface of both the shop’s staffs and customers will be made inform of a website where the scripting language used will be PHP and JavaScript.

Data design

The database model of the system can be as shown below where it shows the entities relations, their attributes and their primary keys.

 

 

Project plan

The online shopping website implementation milestones work breakdown structure is

1.0  Initiating

1.1 Prepare business case

1.2 Prepare charter

2.0  Planning

2.1  Team contract

2.2  Prepare scope statement

2.3  Prepare WBS

2.4  Prepare schedule

2.5  Prepare cost baseline

2.6  Requirement Definition

2.6.1        Gathering requirements or information

2.6.2        Analyzing gathered requirements or information

2.7  Writing the system proposal

2.7.1        Approval of the proposal written

3.0   Executing

1.1  Code generation and software construction

1.2  Code testing and system testing

1.3  System installation/ hosting

1.4  System training and education

1.5  System documentation

1.6  Investigating any system the group

1.6.1        may have

1.6.2         may have had

1.7  Building web application models

4.0  Monitoring & Controlling

1.1  Status Report

1.2  Support team establishment

5.0  Closing

5.1  project stakeholders meeting

5.2  Final project presentation

5.3  Final project report

5.4  Lessons learned report

The milestones, their approximated duration, starting date, finish date and the resources used are as shown in the Gantt chart screenshots below;

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Burd, D.S. (2011). System Architecture. United States of America: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Dennis, Wixom, Roth. (2009). System Analysis and Design (4th Ed.). New Jersey: John Willey&            Sons, Inc.

Mailer,W.M.(2009). The Art of System Architecting. United States of America: Cengage Learning,Inc.

Miles, R. (2006). Learning UML 2.0. United States of America. O’Reilly Media.

Shelly, B.G., Rosenblat, J.H. (2011). System Analysis and Design (9th Ed.). United States of      America: Cengage Learning.

Satzinger, J., Jackson, R. B., &Burd, S. D. (2009).Systems analysis and design in a changing     world (5th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Course Technology.

 

 

Money in circulation and inflation in the US

Name      

Professor

Course

Date

Money in circulation and inflation in the US

INTRODUCTION

Money is an important exchange medium, entity of account as well as a stock of value. The various functions that money serves are directly related to its pragmatic value. In any given economy, it is impossible to determine the accurate amount of money in circulation. There exists numerous measures that are categorized along scales between constricted and expansive monetary summative. Money in circulation for dollarized economies often gets unstable, making it hard to properly control inflation (Nienke and Ohnsorge 67). Inflation creates one of the most severe economic challenges of our current times. It implies quite a number of social prejudices that many citizens are grieved by.  Inflation results in economic instability leading to a decrease in efficiency and retardation in economic growth of a given economy with time. Gottfried (43) defines inflation as an expansion in the monetary circulation instead of a rise in the price level; more precisely as an increase in the product of the quantity of money and the velocity of circulation of money.[1]

In any economy, the amount of money in circulation has a direct impact on the inflation in the economy. The situation of Zimbabwe, an African nation, has prompted a lot of research work by many economists. Key among them is Krugman (72) who states that, by the summer of 2008, the African nation of Zimbabwe had achieved an enviable distinction: in June 2008, it had the world’s highest inflation rate of 11 % a year. [The government kept introducing even larger denominations of its currency. Suffice it to say, the Zimbabwean currency value depreciated so that its value was so miniature that bank cash withdrawals were made using suit cases.

Even though Zimbabwe’s case seems the most shocking of all times, the situation was mild and cannot stand comparison to the chronicle’s most popular example of extreme inflation that occurred in Germany.  In the light of what Krugman (96) has documented on this topic, it is evident that money issue had grave impact on the country’s economy between the years 1922-1923. This inflation has been described as a hyperinflation and towards its end, commodity prices were increasing at the rate of 16% each day. This hyperinflation made Germans reluctant to use the currency notes as its worth was depreciating hourly.

Bruce D Smith (84) evaluates the money supply and inflation in colonial Massachusetts. Consequently, for this research paper, it is paramount to appreciate the contribution of the level of money supply to inflation. In this research on colonial Massachusetts, the author clearly defines the amount of money in circulation as a key determinant of the country’s inflation rate. The situation in this country saw prices increasing by 618% and 800% in 1970. The government minted more currency and this led to depreciation in currency value resulting in increased rate of inflation characterized by high commodity prices. The country’s situation has been best described by use of the quantity theory of money which proposes that growth rate of money in circulation is roughly equal to the rate of inflation. This research will be conducted to investigate the impact of money issue on inflation in light of independent and dependent variables in the US. The main objective of this study is to determine the consequences of monetary policies and the contribution of these consequences to inflation and the reasons behind the loss of purchasing power of per unit money in the US economy. This paper includes some data in the SAS system that will be analyzed in the regard of this topic in order to reach sound conclusions. In the analytical section of this paper, money circulation is represented by X and is the independent variable while inflation is the dependent variable Y. This paper seeks to explore the relationship between X and Y and to explain the dependence of Y on X. Finally, the paper will give an extensive discussion on the phenomenon; the same unit of money purchasing fewer commodities in the face of inflation.

 

 

ANALYTICAL SECTION

            For the purpose of accurate analysis of the data for this specific research, M2 was used. M2 implies that the Federal Reserve Notes, the US Notes and Coins (whether is held inside or outside of the private banking system as reserves) in addition to the demand deposits amount, checkable deposits, money market accounts, travelers checks, savings accounts, retail money market mutual funds, and small denomination time deposits (Taylor 45).

            Money supply and inflation are two economic variables that are dependent on each other in one way or another. Money supply is however the independent factor since it is entirely a decision made by the central financial organ in a country. Inflation in this case is the most dependent factor. It is possible, economically, to have an increase in the amount of money supply in a country without necessarily leading to an increase in the inflation levels. Inflation is however dependent on it in the following way: with an increase in the amount of money supplied for economic usage within a country, there is a resultant increase in the money at the citizen’s disposal. Commodity prices in the same line rise from the various sectors of the economy both for the goods and services (Steven 67).

            Indeed, economists have a universal concurrence amongst themselves that there exists a connecting relationship between the prices of goods and services and the demand and supply of money. When considered in economic provisions, this is very true but there exists no general conformity concerning the accurate system and relationship linking price inflation and money supply.

 

 

 

STATISTICAL MODEL/REGRESSION EQUATION

 

 

Graph showing money supply for the past 30 years.

There has been a gradual but consistent increase in the amount of money released by the commercial banks for circulation in the U.S. over the years.

 

 

 

 

 

Graph indicating the levels of inflation rates in the United States between 1982 and 2012

The variables used for this research include inflation and money supply. 

The relationship between real GDP and inflation

This is given by the equation obtained through regression analysis:

                           y= 5.934955X-0.219151

The negative gradient implies a negative relationship between the real GDP and level of inflation.

 

            The relationship between the income level and the inflation

This is given by the equation obtained through regression analysis:

                              Y=13.46X+0.00021

The negative gradient implies a negative relationship between the income levels and level of inflation

 

DATA SOURCES

The data used in this research have been collected from various verified financial records based in the United States dating back to over 30 years of age. Among the data that was collected include inflation rates date both on quarterly basis and annual basis for the past 30 years from 1982 up until 2012. Data on the United States real Gross Domestic Product and the mean wages for the citizens were also used.

The rates of inflation used for the research had been pre-calculated using the Current Consumer Price Index. The used data had been published with monthly records by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. According to the information retrieved from the source site, the data recorded had been last updated in May 2013 and covered up until the month of April 2013 (Krugman 56).

 

 

EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

For this analysis, the yearly data was used. This is because the data collected for the past 30 years are very large and complex to deal with. The use of quarterly data would have implied 120 different classes of data used for the project. There are also other data that do not have records on quarterly basis and, therefore, in this case forming comparison basis would be difficult. The data collected over the past 30 years were sufficient enough to make comparisons, make interpretations and draw conclusions which are sound enough.

            From the results from the graphs, it is very evident that inflation to a certain limit depends on the money supply and circulation in a country. For this research data, the United States was used to develop the relationship between money supply and inflation rates in a country and in the determination of whether or not the inflation faced in a country is dependent on the money supply. The apparent relationship and connection for the above variables is that for each and every additional supply of dollar money, there is a proportional and comparative increase in commodity prices. It is however notable that when there is an economic growth in a country or an increase in a countries productivity, then the relationship changes. In the charts on inflation and money supply, someone would take it like the numbers of the two decades are larger than that of the annual rate of inflation.

A deduction from the charts indicates that there has been a cumulative total inflation for the years 1990 until the end of 2000 of 33.4% which is a representative data for 10 years. From 1982 to 1992, a cumulative total inflation of 44.3% was recorded. The value is however lower between 2002 and 2012 where the cumulative inflation sums up to 26.0%. These figures are quite less and minimal compared to the inflation rates in the 1970’s where the cumulative inflation was at 102.9% over the entire decade. The numbers in two of the decades, from early 1980s coming up to early 2000s, there is a noted huge rate of inflation in the country. Values rose from 2% to over 5%. Though there has been a fluctuation as a result of rising and falling rates of inflation, it is still worth noting that a yearly incremental rate of inflation cumulatively results to a huge inflation rate using an earlier base year. To a level, it is evident that though there has been an increasing amount of money in circulation through the treasury adjustments to cater for developments and as a result of improving production rates within the country. Inflation patterns are also dependent on quarterly financial periods.

Deeply analyzing the different graphs derived from the data collected on the national statistical records on inflation and money supply indicate differently. Over the years dating to 30 years back indicate that as much as there has been an increasing rate in the supply of money to the circulation channels, there has been a noted decrease or reduction in the levels of inflation within the country.  

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

            This research was based on the relationship between inflation rates and the money supply in the country. Though other constants such as economic growth of the country and the Current Consumer Price Index and income rates were introduced in the research, it was only in a bid to understand the other economical underlying factors that may as well be affecting the influence. The other factors are, therefore, not used to back the economic growth in the research. The prices of commodities are found to decrease when there is economic growth due to increased economical productivity. When there is an increased money supply while at the same time there is an economic growth, then the result is unwavering prices; money supply growth above economic growth will lead to increases in prices.

            Price inflation comes as a result of money supply increase in excess of a countries economic growth. When the money supply released by the central commercial institution of a government is at or below the economic growth, then there is no resultant inflation. But when there is a release of huge amounts of money beyond the economic growth then there is a resultant inflation to that effect. This may well be in the countenance of a developing economy or a waning economy. There is indeed a relative relationship flanked by money supply growth and economic growth. Inflation therefore depends on the money supply in a country. The actual explanation for the rapid economic inflation for the past 30 years is similar to the explanation for economical inflations in the early and late 1970’s. There has been unregulated release of money by the Central Banks even when the economy was poorly performing and declining. As a result, there has been an excess release of money into the economy leading to economical inflation. Therefore, even when the money supply increment has not been massive, it has been in excess relative to the principal financial system and has led to price inflation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Bruce,  Smith. Money and inflation in colonial Massachusetts federal bank of   Minneapolis. Quarterly review, 1984.

Krugman, Swann. GDP and the Economy: Advance Estimates for the Third Quarter of 2007, 2007, pp. 45-68.

Gottfried, Harberl1er. Inflation its causes and cures. Chicago: American enterprise association Washington, 2005.

 Nienke, Oomes and Franziska Ohnsorge, 2005. Money demand and inflation in dollarized economies: the case of Russia. Retrieved from      <www.worthpublishers.com/krugmanwells>

Steven, Andrews. Adjusting for Inflation: Price Deflators and Real Estimates. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. Print.

Taylor, Lawn. Reconstructing Macroeconomics. New York: Springer, 2007. Print.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDICES

Year

Avg

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

2013

1.50%

1.59%

1.98%

1.47%

1.06%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2012

2.07%

2.93%

2.87%

2.65%

2.30%

1.70%

1.66%

1.41%

1.69%

1.99%

2.16%

1.76%

1.74%

2011

3.16%

1.63%

2.11%

2.68%

3.16%

3.57%

3.56%

3.63%

3.77%

3.87%

3.53%

3.39%

2.96%

2010

1.64%

2.63%

2.14%

2.31%

2.24%

2.02%

1.05%

1.24%

1.15%

1.14%

1.17%

1.14%

1.50%

2009

-0.34%

0.03%

0.24%

-0.38%

-0.74%

-1.28%

-1.43%

-2.10%

-1.48%

-1.29%

-0.18%

1.84%

2.72%

2008

3.85%

4.28%

4.03%

3.98%

3.94%

4.18%

5.02%

5.60%

5.37%

4.94%

3.66%

1.07%

0.09%

2007

2.85%

2.08%

2.42%

2.78%

2.57%

2.69%

2.69%

2.36%

1.97%

2.76%

3.54%

4.31%

4.08%

2006

3.24%

3.99%

3.60%

3.36%

3.55%

4.17%

4.32%

4.15%

3.82%

2.06%

1.31%

1.97%

2.54%

2005

3.39%

2.97%

3.01%

3.15%

3.51%

2.80%

2.53%

3.17%

3.64%

4.69%

4.35%

3.46%

3.42%

2004

2.68%

1.93%

1.69%

1.74%

2.29%

3.05%

3.27%

2.99%

2.65%

2.54%

3.19%

3.52%

3.26%

2003

2.27%

2.60%

2.98%

3.02%

2.22%

2.06%

2.11%

2.11%

2.16%

2.32%

2.04%

1.77%

1.88%

2002

1.59%

1.14%

1.14%

1.48%

1.64%

1.18%

1.07%

1.46%

1.80%

1.51%

2.03%

2.20%

2.38%

2001

2.83%

3.73%

3.53%

2.92%

3.27%

3.62%

3.25%

2.72%

2.72%

2.65%

2.13%

1.90%

1.55%

2000

3.38%

2.74%

3.22%

3.76%

3.07%

3.19%

3.73%

3.66%

3.41%

3.45%

3.45%

3.45%

3.39%

1999

2.19%

1.67%

1.61%

1.73%

2.28%

2.09%

1.96%

2.14%

2.26%

2.63%

2.56%

2.62%

2.68%

1998

1.55%

1.57%

1.44%

1.37%

1.44%

1.69%

1.68%

1.68%

1.62%

1.49%

1.49%

1.55%

1.61%

1997

2.34%

3.04%

3.03%

2.76%

2.50%

2.23%

2.30%

2.23%

2.23%

2.15%

2.08%

1.83%

1.70%

1996

2.93%

2.73%

2.65%

2.84%

2.90%

2.89%

2.75%

2.95%

2.88%

3.00%

2.99%

3.26%

3.32%

1995

2.81%

2.80%

2.86%

2.85%

3.05%

3.19%

3.04%

2.76%

2.62%

2.54%

2.81%

2.61%

2.54%

1994

2.61%

2.52%

2.52%

2.51%

2.36%

2.29%

2.49%

2.77%

2.90%

2.96%

2.61%

2.67%

2.67%

1993

2.96%

3.26%

3.25%

3.09%

3.23%

3.22%

3.00%

2.78%

2.77%

2.69%

2.75%

2.68%

2.75%

1992

3.03%

2.60%

2.82%

3.19%

3.18%

3.02%

3.09%

3.16%

3.15%

2.99%

3.20%

3.05%

2.90%

1991

4.25%

5.65%

5.31%

4.90%

4.89%

4.95%

4.70%

4.45%

3.80%

3.39%

2.92%

2.99%

3.06%

1990

5.39%

5.20%

5.26%

5.23%

4.71%

4.36%

4.67%

4.82%

5.62%

6.16%

6.29%

6.27%

6.11%

1989

4.83%

4.67%

4.83%

4.98%

5.12%

5.36%

5.17%

4.98%

4.71%

4.34%

4.49%

4.66%

4.65%

1988

4.08%

4.05%

3.94%

3.93%

3.90%

3.89%

3.96%

4.13%

4.02%

4.17%

4.25%

4.25%

4.42%

1987

3.66%

1.46%

2.10%

3.03%

3.78%

3.86%

3.65%

3.93%

4.28%

4.36%

4.53%

4.53%

4.43%

1986

1.91%

3.89%

3.11%

2.26%

1.59%

1.49%

1.77%

1.58%

1.57%

1.75%

1.47%

1.28%

1.10%

1985

3.55%

3.53%

3.52%

3.70%

3.69%

3.77%

3.76%

3.55%

3.35%

3.14%

3.23%

3.51%

3.80%

1984

4.30%

4.19%

4.60%

4.80%

4.56%

4.23%

4.22%

4.20%

4.29%

4.27%

4.26%

4.05%

3.95%

1983

3.17%

3.71%

3.49%

3.60%

3.90%

3.55%

2.58%

2.46%

2.56%

2.86%

2.85%

3.27%

3.79%

1982

6.16%

8.39%

7.62%

6.78%

6.51%

6.68%

7.06%

6.44%

5.85%

5.04%

5.14%

4.59%

3.83%

 

 


[1] Inflation is briefly expressed as positive ∆ MV i.e. increase in Money quantity × Money circulation velocity of a given economy at a particular time. A sharp increase in M results in a great increase in inflation rate. However V is subject to much slower movement thus no substantial inflation occurs without a substantial increase in M. M is a sum total of the currency outside of commercial banks and demand deposits. V refers to the number of times a unit of currency is spent on annual income payments. 

Communications and media

 

 

 

 

Communications and media:

 

Name:

Institution:

Date:

 

Question 1: Why is Facebook losing millions of users?

            The dominance of facebook is coming down in the social media due to threats caused on other emerging new services such as Path and Instagram. Facebook is losing millions of its     users monthly and its biggest market is weakening. Other social networks are attracting the interests of people who are looking for new online playgrounds (Christopher, 2011). Facebook that is the giant social media has reached its saturation point and beginning to lose people. Most people in UK and America who intend to sign up have already signed up. People are trying to look for something new because there is boredom in facebook. Many people are leaving facebbok in order to look for other alternative social services like Path and Instagram. About six million American users      have abandoned facebook during last year while about 1.4 million users in UK have left the site.  Active users are declining to use facebook in Japan, Germany, France, Spain and Canada.  However, in certain regions, facebook is getting more people such as in India and Brazil.

 

Question 2: The difficulties of creating Apps for short term

            The mobile app is developed for short term period and is made of a particular purpose such as for selling something, an event, an election, conference registration and others. These are   perishable single use apps that have one chance to have it right; thus not improving its performance can ruin a business. This can cause users to lose trust for the business brand.    According to Christopher (2011), revenue can be lost whenever an app event registration is not in a position to handle more registrations. Short term and single use app has only one chance for delivering business value.  The shelf life of single use and short term apps implies that traditional remediation and   monitoring will not able to work. This means that the app will face its expiry prior to be fixed.

 

Question 3: Should government agencies censor Wikipedia?

            It is not appropriate for government agencies to censer Wikipedia because Wikipedia is     playing a crucial role of dissemination information to the world, a role which other institutions are not performing. There many cases were articles published by Wikipedia are not controversial, and Wikipedia is doing much better than other media houses and colleges for informing the public. Censoring Wikipedia does not solve the problem. There are certain problems regarding the manner in which Wikipedia handles certain subjects which require much improvement. In case Wikipedia solve such problems, it can become a bigger resolution rather than censoring Wikipedia (Christopher, 2011). Wikipedia should establish rules which forbid special interests from bringing interference.   

 

Question 3: Should individuals publish anything they want on an Internet?

             Some people think that writing online anonymously give them the freedom to say whatever they want in the internet. People who disseminate false information in the internet are hurting the public and the rule of law should prosecute them (Christopher, 2011). Effective rules should be enacted to eliminate cases of defamation in which people make comments that hurt reputation of others.   People are encouraged to write in the internet but they should maintain integrity, respect     human rights and comply with approved regulations. Damaging other people’s professional and personal reputation is criminal offence, thus not legally allowed.

 

 

 

Question 4: how will new mobile phones, technology such as Google Glass influence social networks like Facebook and Twitter?

            New mobile phone and technology such as Google Glass influence social network like   twitter and facebook. Such new devices appear futuristic oddity, but when they gain popularity they could develop a significant impact on social network like facebbok and twitter. Google glass is becoming a buzz  because  it  is wearable having eyeglasses and can activated in a computer that enable users to send massages, take pictures, translate language, ask questions, and seek directions. Christopher (2011) views that the popularity of the Google Glass is increasing that may lead to the declining significance of LinkedIn, twitter, and facebook. Google Glass is becoming a dominant site in the social network. Google Glass can take pictures that can be shared to any person connected to Google. Google Glass can be used for video chat. Google Glass provides affordable portability and accessibility; and thus email, phone and video and other social media service are more convenient in Google Glass thus it is gaining more market than other social media sites such as facebbok and twitter.

 

 

 

Reference

Christopher, H. (2011). A history of communications: Media and society from the Evolution of Speech to the internet. Journalism and mass communication quarterly, 88(3), 23-47.