Assignment Part


Part 2Awareness and Assessment: Your Leader Self-Insights (approximately 500 words)

You are required to complete the assigned sequence of self-assessment exercises called Leader’s SelfInsight (copies of these are to be found in the core textbook by Richard Daft, and they will also be posted online for your access). These exercises relate to aspects of your leadership abilities, attributes, and potential for continued development. First, you must complete and report the results (scores or other indicators) for each Leader’s Self-Insight. Then, you will write a brief interpretation of what this means for you (using at least five assessments), along with an integrating conclusion. Choose the FIVE assessments that you feel are most insightful and (or) relevant to your continuing leadership development plan. Of course, you are welcome to write interpretations for more than five assessments if you wish.


Number & Title of Leader Self-Insight

Numerical Scores and/or other Outcome Measures

1.1  Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences – in brief, what do the results mean?





Logical-Mathematical = 2


= 3

Interpersonal = 2

Intrapersonal = 3


= 0


1.2  Your Leadership Potential- in brief, what do the results mean?



 Count of Mostly True (even-numbered questions) = 5

Count of Mostly True (odd-numbered questions) =6


1.3  Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count of Mostly True:

People Skills = 15

Count of Mostly True:  Working with Authority = 13

Count of Mostly True:  Networking = 17


2.1  Rate Your Self-Confidence– in brief, what do the results mean?



Total Score =5

Count of Mostly True: 1, 7, 9 10 = 2

Count of Mostly False:  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 = 3


2.2  What’s Your Leadership Orientation? – in brief, what do the results mean?


Consideration Behavior Score (Mostly True, items 1-4) = 3


Initiating Structure Behavior Score (Mostly True, items 5-8) = 2





4.5  Personality Assessment using Jung’s Typology/Myers-Briggs

Your four-letter MBTI type is:___INFJ_____    – in brief, what do the results mean?




Total for I: 33%

Total for E:


Are you more I or more E?

More I than E

Total for S:

Total for N:25%


Are you more S or more N?


More N than S

Total for T:

Total for F: 50%


Are you more T or more F?


More F than T

Total for J: 33%

Total for P:


Are you more J or more P?

More J than P


4.2  Measuring Locus of Control– in brief, what do the results mean?




Your Score = 5


3.1  T-P Leadership Questionnaire: An Assessment of Style– in brief, what do the results mean?





Your “T” Score (Mostly True for 1-5)


Your “P” Score (Mostly True for 6-10)



3.2  Are You Ready? – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your “Readiness” Level = 3


10.2  Assess Your Team Leadership Skills– in brief, what do the results mean?




Total Score = 6

Count of Mostly True for 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 =  3

Count of Mostly False for 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 = 3


10.3  How Do You Handle Team Conflict? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Score  for Competing (Items 2, 4, 15) =  1

Score for Avoiding (Items 1, 5, 9) = 1

Score for Compromising (Items 4, 7, 11) = 2

Score for Accommodating (Items 8, 12, 13) = 3

Score for Collaborating (Items 3, 6, 10) = 3


9.2  Listening Self-Inventory – in brief, what do the results mean?


Your Total Score (out of 12) = 7

Count of NO’s for Items 1, 2, 3, 5 , 6 ,7, 8, 9 = 4

Count of YES for Items 4, 10, 11, 12 = 3


7.1  The Power of Followership– in brief, what do the results mean?


Independent Thinking: High, Middling, or Low? Middling

Active Engagement: High, Middling, or Low? Middling to High

à Followership Style = Active


Score for Independent Thinking (Count of Mostly True, items 1, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16) =4

Score for Active Engagement (Count of Mostly True items 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13) = 5


7.3  Receiving Feedback– in brief, what do the results mean?




Score for Feedback Seeking (Items 1, 4, 7) = 2

Score for Feedback Avoiding (Items 2, 5,  8) = 1

Score for Feedback Mitigating (Items 3, 6, 9) = 2


9.3  Communication Apprehension– in brief, what do the results mean?



Total Score = 8

Count Mostly False (2, 4, 5, 8, 9) = 4

Count Mostly True (1, 3, 6, 7, 10) = 4


12.3 Your Leadership Orientation (FRAME preference) – in brief, what do the results mean?




Structural (sum all of the “a’s”) = 2


Human Resource (sum all of the “b’s”) = 3

Political (sum all of the “c’s”) = 1

Symbolic (sum all of the “d’s”) = 0


6.1  What’s Your Mach? (Machiavellian score) – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your Total MACH score = 7

Count Mostly False for items 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 = 3

Count Mostly True for items 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 = 4


6.2  Your Servant Leadership Orientation– in brief, what do the results mean?



Count Mostly True for items 4, 8, 12, 16 à Your Score for Authoritarian = 2

Count Mostly True for items 2, 6, 10, 14   à Your Score for Participative = 3

Count Mostly True for items 3, 7, 11, 15  à Your Score for Stewardship = 3

Count Mostly True for items 1, 5, 9, 13 à Your Score for Servant Leadership = 2


Cultural Intelligence– in brief, what do the results mean?






Cognitive CQ


Physical CQ


Emotional / Motivational CQ



4.3  Instrumental and End Values– in brief, what do the results mean?






End Value 1: Equality

End Value 2: Self-Respect

End Value 3: A sense of accomplishment

End Value 4: Pleasure

End Value 5: Social recognition

Instrumental 1: Self-Controlled

Instrumental 2: Responsible

Instrumental 3: Intellectual

Instrumental 4: Capable

Instrumental 5: Broad-Minded


5.1  Mindfulness– in brief, what do the results mean?





Your Score for Open or Beginner’s Mind = 2

Your Score for Independent Thinking = 2

Your Score for Intellectual Stimulation =3


5.2  Emotional Intelligence– in brief, what do the results mean?


Count Mostly True for items 1, 5, 11, 13 à

Your Score for Self-Awareness = 3

Count Mostly True for  Items 2, 8, 12, 14 à Your Score for Self-Management = 2

Count Mostly True for  Items 3, 6, 9, 15 à Your Score for Social Awareness = 3

Count Mostly True for  Items 4, 7, 10, 16 à Your Score for Relationship Management = 3


5.3  Love or Fear? – in brief, what do the results mean?





Count Mostly True for Items 1-5

à “Fear of Failure” score = 3

Count Mostly True for Items 6 -10 à “Love of Task” (Flow) score = 2


6.3  Assess Your Moral Courage– in brief, what do the results mean?






Count Mostly True responses = 4


14.1  How Spiritual Are You? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True responses =5


11.1  Values Balancing– in brief, what do the results mean?





Count Words in Column 1 à Score for Personal Initiative = 3

Count Words in Column 2 à Capacity for Collaboration = 5


11.3  Social Values– in brief, what do the results mean?


Average your Results  for Items 1, 2, 3 à I-C Score (Individualism / Collectivism)  = 2

Average your Results  for Items 4, 5,6 àUA Score

(Uncertainty Avoidance) = 1

Reverse/Average Results for Items 9 & 10 àM-F Score (Masculinity / Femininity)  = 1

Average Results for Items 11 & 12à PD Score

(Power Distance)  = 2


13.1  My Personal Vision– in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly Trues à Your Total Score = 4



13.2  Visionary Leadership– in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True for odd-numbered items à Your Score for Creating a Vision = 3

Count Mostly True for even-numbered items à Your Score for Implementing a Vision = 4


15.2  Are You a Change Leader? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True responses = 6


15.1  How Innovative Are You? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Your Total Score = 6

Count Mostly True for Items 1, 2, 8, 9, 10 =  3

Count Mostly False for Items 3, 4, 6, 7 =  3


15.3  Do You Have a Creative Personality? – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your total Creativity score (which may be positive or negative, but must be between +18 and -12) = +5

Add 1 point for choosing words numbered  2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30. Your score = 9

Subtract 1 point for choosing words numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 20, 27, 29, 29. Your score = 4







Awareness Through Leader Self-Concepts


Since my results for managerial qualities outweigh the leadership qualities, I am a more capable manager than leader. As a manager, I may possess the qualities of responding to organizational problems in a more objective, non-personal way, and to make rational decisions directed at sustaining the conditions of stability and efficiency in my organization. These features may be contrasted to the personal stance of a leader, and a creative, innovative, and often risky approach to organizational vision and change. It is of vital importance for companies to have effective managers because they form the foundation for leaders’ performance enhancement without shaking the fundamentals of the company’s daily functioning (Daft 2008, p. 16). My confidence level is moderate – 5 out of 10; these results suppose that I am not a highly confident person, though in my managerial practice, I am more apt to double-check and use only sure variants for development than take risks only because of my personal, subjective confidence about some issue. I think that at present, I lack personal confidence to a certain extent because I am not experienced and I cannot rely on my personal judgment as the ultimate source of truth. However, I expect to increase my personal judgment along with getting more applied experience in workplace management and leadership issues.

The MBTI scale showed to me that I am more of an introvert person who relies on intuition rather than sensing, and more often relies on feeling rather than thinking, which was a surprise for me because I have always thought of myself as a balanced and rational person. However, the moderate preference of judging over perceiving qualities showed that I am still more of a rational person, though often ignoring facts and emphasizing my personal feelings and emotions about a certain situation. I act as I implicitly feel is right to act; hence, I believe that in cases when I am experienced enough to make some decisions, my intuition and introvert considerations can help me make the right decision. However, some situations in which a discussion and consultation with more knowledgeable and experienced people is needed, I may feel a challenge and hesitation in decision-making because it is not an accustomed decision-making mode for me. The locus of control I possess is moderate; I am apt to believe that many things are in the power of people, and the way they do their work, try to achieve a promotion, and gain a leadership position mostly depends on them. However, I am also a dedicated believer in the things that are totally or mostly out of people’s own control, such as governmental activities, acquiring some position in a new company, etc. There are many situations in which being in the right place at the right time indeed plays the decisive role, though I am sure that such success stories are attributable more to the “magical”, “sensational” success, while moderate success is totally the outcome of personal work and effort.

From the testing results, I can say that team leadership skills I possess are moderate; I am really comfortable with teams that I know and that share my beliefs and ideas. However, as soon as I need to work with unknown people in a team, if I come across the need to manage an interpersonal conflict, or there is a problem of the majority of the team not sharing my opinions, it becomes increasingly challenging for me to come to an optimal, fruitful outcome in the team management effort because of my emotional nature. I am highly interested in receiving feedback, and I often seek feedback from my colleagues and administration. I want to make my work flexible and sensitive to the organizational needs; hence, I never avoid feedback even if it is very bad. I am an avid learner, and even when some initiatives fail, it is important for me to receive feedback on the issue, and to understand what I will need to do better next time to succeed.

My emotional intelligence, cultural intelligence, and communicative skills are strong, which means that I am a skilled communicator, and I can handle the variety of issues connected with managing people, negotiating, and resolving conflict really well. I possess strong communication skills and I can communicate my opinions, ideas, and viewpoints to the interlocutors. This way, I can often get the work done the way I want it because organizational communication lies at the core of activities’ alignment and goal achievement. Dealing with team conflict is a challenging activity for me, but I favor the accommodating and collaborating conflict management styles most. I totally do not accept the avoiding style because the conflict never vanishes in case it is ignored. It can bring about only the aggravation of an interpersonal situation in a team. Hence, collaboration on conflict resolution is the best way to resolve the conflict, though accommodation has to be used in case one party is more assertive and not willing to negotiate.


Counseling Psychology Comprehensive Examination












Counseling Psychology Comprehensive Examination















Psychologists need to understand what the patients require through applying different testing techniques during the psychological assessment process (Groth-Marnat, 2009). This ensures that there is thorough comprehension of the underlying problems affecting the well-being of the patient. In this vein, psychological assessment is presented as a practice of categorically collecting information regarding a person with relevance to his/her background in order to make conclusions founded on this data, which is in the individual’s best interests. Several questions are significant to consider by a clinical psychologist including the past, present and expectations of the patients in the assessment process. Nevertheless, to examine issues arising from the questions methodically, a procedure was developed carefully and analyzed through the psychology field. According to Framingham (2011), to instigate the assessment process, the patient must meet a psychologist to enable him/her to get information from the formulated set of questions.

            The patient must not perceive the process as being told to visit a psychologist due to failed somatic evaluations of their problems. This is because they may infer this as being stigmatized or being “shoved off”. A large part of psychological assessment involves developing a good rapport with the patient and non-verbal communication. Researchers and theories have identified that body language of non-verbal nature for instance maintaining a comfortable distance, attending additional non-verbal cues, leaning toward the patient, eye-contact, and mirroring body language conveys empathy and enhances trust (Gallagher, 2004). Additionally, research studies have demonstrated that patients who perceive their therapist as caring and empathic are more prone to treatment benefits. Nevertheless, the therapist-patient relationship is also responsive for deterioration or improvement of the patient’s condition even with the application of a particular treatment approach. With this in mind, the therapist should apply different approaches, only when the case of the patient is fully known (Ong & Keng, 2003).

            Accordingly, a psychological assessment embraces identification of possible biological, psychological and social facets of the patient’s problem. This aids in painting a clear picture of the expectations of the assessment, while applying diagnostic procedures that can enable accomplishment of these objectives. As Julie’s therapist, I would first analyze her case to identify the three facets of the assessment. The main concern highlighted in the case suggests interplay of issues arising from Julie’s early childhood years, the onset and chronic back pain, the subsequent symptoms arising from these issues, which have led to influence of her current medical and social status. With this regard, I would perform a biopsychosocial assessment of the patient. This will aid in attaining a complete image of the chronic pain syndrome with relevance to all the affected facets including behavioral, cognitive, affective, and somatic and the individual outcomes for the patient. Each of the biopsychosocial dimensions can be additionally subdivided into detailed treatment interventions (Ong & Keng, 2003).

            The medical chronic pain management usually revolves around three fundamental constituents. These include the electrical, chemical and physical treatment aspects. The physical element entails all the therapeutic interventions that can directly influence the musculoskeletal structure. They include exercise, traction, massage, and chiropractic manipulations among others. They are intended to correct the body imbalances brought about by the chronic pain (Groth-Marnat, G. 2009). The significance of this intervention is the capability of identifying the root pain cause even in the chronic phases of the problem. The chemical treatment element attempts to decrease the chronic pain through influencing certain chemical structure imbalances that emerge from the pain conditions. The applied approaches comprise antidepressants, anti-inflammatory, membrane stabilizers, and narcotics. There is topical, oral, and intraspinal administration of these elements.

            According to Gatchel (2004), the electrical element of treatment is presented on the theory that there is electrical conduction of all pain signals to the patient’s central nervous system (CNS). Psychosocial approaches towards chronic pain rotate around four major elements. They include managing social outcomes, chemical dependency concerns, characterological and cognitive factors, and treating affective distress of the chronic pain. Inside the area of anxiety, depression and affective distress can be treated and managed with both medication and psychotherapy (Keller, 2002). It will be significant as Julie’s therapist, to explain the biopsychosocial pain nature with her during the early duration of the treatment.

Relevant Background Information and Assessment


            The cultural background of Julie is African American. She is 72 years old. In addition, she is a divorced woman with two previous marriages. She has three children living away from her. In addition, she works as a psychiatric nurse working two 12-hour night shifts at the hospital. Different psychological assessment tools will be applied in testing the biopsychosocial status of Julie.

Psychiatric/Psychological History

Julie has exhibited anxiety as one of her previous psychiatric and psychological problems, following her surgery intended to treat the left leg numbness and chronic pain. With regard to this, she was prescribed Welbutrin, an antidepressant that ceased working two years ago. This resulted to a replacement of the antidepressant with Celexa. She has not had her family around during these occurrences, which translates to feelings of sadness and loneliness. In order to identify more information regarding Julie’s psychological history, I would apply the P-3™ (Pain Patient Profile) assessment tool. The tool measures somatization, anxiety and depression. It is applicable in evaluating psychological factors associated to chronic pain disorders. The tool is able to recognize patients in need of anxiety and depression treatment and those prone to somatization. In addition, it provides a basis for comparing the degree of somatization, anxiety and depression.

Since according to the information provided there are manifestations of stressors that may lead to anxiety, other psychological assessment tools will be used including PDS™ (Post Traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale) and PAI™ (Personality Assessment Inventory) and a genogram among others.

Medical History

            The medical history section of the biopsychosocial assessment aims to evaluate the biological dimension of Julie and her family history in relation to chronic pain (Gallagher, 2004). Hospitalizations experienced by Julie are because of the surgery that led to numbness in her left leg and chronic pain. These are the most significant illnesses identified, and that seem to be the underlying causes of both psychological and social problems. No member of her family has been identified to have these conditions. I would consult Julie’s physician to identify any additional diseases that can be linked to her current somatic condition. Julie also experiences fatigue following each 12-hour shift. In addition, I would discuss the likelihood of the interplay of different conditions that may result in her current state. Since biopsychosocial assessment is a three-dimension process, a surgeon, specialist, a physical therapist, a pain medicine specialist, a rehabilitation psychologist, a health psychologist and a psychiatrist should be involved (Corales, 2005). All these people should give their views regarding Julie and her condition and recommend different steps to facilitate her healing process.

Personal History

            The personal history of the patient ranges from her childhood and occurrences that may trigger her current psychological problems. Julie describes the family she grew up in as very strict, and any affection in the family was given to her younger sister, who according to Julie could do no wrong in their parents’ eyes. Julie, on the other hand, felt like she could not do anything right for her parents, no matter how hard she tried. Julie’s family was extremely active in their conservative church while she was growing up, but Julie now describes herself as an atheist. There is a transformation noted from her childhood to her current decisions that attempt to deviate from the ways through which she was brought up. With regard to this form of history, I would apply MMPI-2™ (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- 2nd edition ™) tool, used in a more comprehensive evaluation of a patient. It enables linkage of the patient’s background to possible causes of delayed treatment outcome (Weiner, 2003).

Lifetime history

            Julie has gone through various stressful events ranging from her childhood to her current chronic pain condition. To assess the relation of these events to her current condition, I would use the Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI™2) tool. It is applied in the general assessment of patients to identify different stressors in both the past and current status of the patient (Weiner, 2003). Julie has also gone through two marriages, which she describes as disasters. This has discouraged her to date again, which elicits different emotional responses. These are marked by feelings of sadness, loneliness, anxiety, anger and low self-esteem. Using Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI™2), I would be able to assess how different psychosocial stressors all through Julie’s life have resulted in poor treatment outcomes.

Mental Health Status/Behavioral Observations

            A mental health evaluation of the patient enables to create a general image of their emotional wellbeing. This encompasses their level of remembering, reasoning and thinking, generally outlined as cognitive functioning (Katsounari, 2011). A mental health status assessment is created in order to identify and recognize existing or potential health problems like anorexia nervosa, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, depression and anxiety. The assessment is also intended to tell apart both physical and mental health problems. This is done through identifying different problems existent either at home, work or school of the patient. Behavior disorders seem to manifest in people with psychological disorders. Krippner, Daniel and Jeannine (2012) outline that different elements should be considered in the evaluation of the patient’s mental status within the biopsychosocial dimensions. Cognitive processes comprise perceptions of others, perceptions of self, perception of control and contingency, beliefs regarding events cause and intellectual functioning.

            Emotional processes in the mental health assessment comprise emotional reactivity, trait emotions levels, and mood states (Zaers, Melanie & Ulrike, 2008). On the other hand, overt behavior measure includes standardized task performance, observations of a patient’s conduct in simulated circumstances as well as the natural environment of the patient. Additionally, the different environmental aspects are multi-dimensional. These focus levels include distal, intermediate and distinctions environment and subjective versus perceived or objective environmental features. In Julie’s case, I would ask her questions that focus on her relationship with friends, family and other people. Additionally, she also frequently gets very upset when driving.

            Julie describes feeling nervous and angry at how inconsiderate and dangerous other drivers behave, to the extent that she often finds herself yelling and screaming at other cars when she is driving. On two occasions, she has become so upset that she has turned around and gone home rather than complete her trip. This outlines anxiety, which results from different people behaving in ways that she does not see appropriate. She also exhibits feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and possible depression observed through her behavior after a 12-hour night shift. I would apply a PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation for Mental Disorders) to assess the possible mental disorders that may be affecting Julie. The tool considers the observation of affect, reported mood, thought content, thought process, judgment, reasoning, level of insight, style/quality of speech, memory, orientation, level of alertness, attitude, general behavior and general appearance (Katsounari, 2011).


            After conducting a psychological assessment of Julie according to the case provided and identifying the appropriate tools for a comprehensive examination, the subsequent step is to perform differential diagnosis. The differential diagnosis involves identification of the vital issues in the case, and categorize them to enable identify the underlying causal factors. After a comprehensive assessment of Julie’s, the symptoms lead into a possibility of PTSD and GAD in the patient. Julie explains that due to her surgery, the results have been chronic back pain and numbness in her left leg. These two results are directly linked to her back pain surgery, which presents as one of the traumatic events that have occurred in Julie’s life. In addition to this, other occurrences can also be perceived as traumatic. The interplay of these occurrences would be favorable for the onset of anxiety, which can then lead to PTSD or GAD (Zayfert & Carolyn, 2008). Arrival at a conclusion on the two disorders was made following evaluation of the symptoms of other anxiety disorders. They include panic disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and specific (simple) phobia.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents as a psychological disease in the categorization of anxiety disorders. Conversely, it develops due to a terribly alarming, critical or otherwise highly precarious experience (Corales, 2005). People affected by this disease have a predisposition of evading some people, places and elements that trigger memory of the traumatic events. They are also exquisitely susceptible to ordinary life experiences also perceived as hyperarousal. The defects affect all sexes and genders if there has been an occurrence of one or series of traumatic events. These events include rape and sexual abuse, war, physical domestic violence or witnessing a violent event. People who experience PTSD may be familiar with intrusive reminiscences of the traumatic incident, feel less psychologically responsive than prior to the occurrence and feel augmented irritability, anger and anxiety (Borkovec & Ruscio, 2001).

Many people who have anxiety disorders undergo physical symptoms linked to anxiety and consequently visit the healthcare providers. Regardless of the high predominance rates of the disorders, there are usually the undertreated and under-recognized medical problems. The DSM-IV-TR categorizes the disorders into; Anxiety caused by a clinical condition; Anxiety disorders due to substance-induction; Panic disorder; acute stress disorder; Generalized anxiety disorder; Posttraumatic Stress disorder (PTSD); Social phobia (Social anxiety disorder); Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), specific phobia and adjustment disorder. DSM-IV-TR has classified the specific phobias into the different types (Gum, King-Kallimanis & Kohn, 2009). Anxiety disorders may be embodied by contact with bio-psychosocial factors. These may include genetic susceptibility and trauma or stress to create medically important syndromes

Anxiety disorders that have been mentioned above belong to Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR. While there are various disorders that fall under Axis I, PTSD and GAD disorder present as the most likely disorders being suffered by Julie. As she explained, Julie frequently gets upset especially when driving. The emotions of anger and nervousness are directed at doctors who drive dangerously and are inconsiderate to other drivers. In some cases, she has become upset to the extent of turning around and going back home. While PTSD mostly emphasizes on the patient’s earlier traumatic experiences, GAD is a condition in which the patient usually complains of either anxiety or bitterness at times (Börjesson-Hansson, Waem & Östling, 2011). This occurs even when they have previously consulted physicians. The patients become easily jumpy and startled, and sudden movements or loud noises can be particularly alarming or irritating to them. Therefore, the patient may have sleepless nights due to inability to relax. Without treatment interventions, the patient may develop chronic GAD (Byers, Yaffe & Covinsky, 2010).

However the following factors are linked with augmented probability of developing an anxiety disorder during the old age; being divorced, single or separated (in comparison to being married); having numerous chronic medical conditions; being female; stressful life events; neuroticism; lower education; bodily restrictions in daily activities; impaired subjective health; and unpleasant events in childhood (Börjesson-Hansson, Waem & Östling, 2011). In Axis I, Julie also has sleeping disorders marked by a lot of sleeping. Sleep disorders entail chronic disturbance in normal patterns of sleep. In Julie’s case, she is suffering from hypersomnia, which falls under Dyssomnia. It is a condition characterized by too much sleeping.

In Axis I, Julie also presents somatoform disorders. This includes frequent complaints regarding medical concerns or physical symptoms that have not been completely tackled from a medical perspective. Julie’s chronic back pain falls under this category. The last category suffered by Julie in Axis I are other conditions that receive clinical attention focus. These are problems or conditions, which require the patient to seek professional help. They include relational problems, psychological factors influencing medical condition and others such as occupational, religious, academic, bereavement and problems relating to phase of life.  Axis II disorders are personality disorders. According to Julie’s behavior, she exhibits fearful or anxious behavior, which is avoidant and obsessive-compulsive in nature. She tends to avoid facing problems that involve other people. On the other hand, she exhibits anxiety and anger in cases where people do not perform tasks her way.

In Axis IV of the DSM-IV-TR, Julie’s problems belong to four categories. The first problem category is problems emerging from the adult primary support group. In this category, Julie has gone through divorce and tensions with her two previous husbands. In the category of parent-child with primary support group, Julie experienced partial neglect as a child when compared to the treatment given to her younger sister. On the occupational problems category, Julie faces job dissatisfaction, with chronic back pain and left leg numbness being the major cause of it. In the category for problems associated to her social environment, Julie lives alone, which is a form of social isolation. This is confirmed when she outlines that she feels sad and lonely in her current condition.

In Axis V, this is the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Julie’s level of symptoms rates at 41-50. This is characterized by serious symptoms available or any extreme impairment in school, occupational and social functioning. It is essential to ensure that the medical and psychological history of the patient is thoroughly evaluated as a therapist. This ensures that accurate diagnosis is made. This will ensure that there is accuracy in conducting treatment interventions that are appropriate enough to ensure that there are improved outcomes.

Diagnosis for Julie

Axis I – 300.02 Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Pain disorders, Hypersomnia, Relational problems, Psychological factors influencing medical condition and other conditions, NOS

Axis II – 301.9 Personality Disorder, NOS

Axis IV– problems with primary support group (adult), problems with primary support group (parent-child), problems related to the social environment, occupational problems

Axis V- GAF- 55 last known GAF-unknown

Theoretical Conceptualization

            Focusing on theoretical conceptualization of Julie’s case can help to identify different issues that are linked together to cause the current condition (Byers, Yaffe & Covinsky, 2010). In addition, they can help in her biopsychosocial assessment. This is the best method through which her treatment plan can be based on. The major element that can help in a more comprehensive understanding is the relationship between chronic pain, PTSD, and GAD.

Chronic Pain

            Pain presents as a perceptual, subjective and complex occurrence with several facets. They include personal meaning, impact, time course, quality, and intensity (Byers, YafFe & Covinsky, 2010). These are distinctively experienced by every individual. Therefore, they can only be evaluated indirectly. Pain occurs as a subjective phenomenon. It is not possible to quantify it objectively. As a result, patient pain assessment relies on their overt communication, including behavioral and verbal. Given the complexity of the pain, a person ought to evaluate the sensory (somatic) elements but also family member responses, resources, coping efforts, attitudes, moods and the effect the pain has had on their daily lives. This impact can now be measured by the occurrence of disorders that may be indirectly caused by the occurrence of pain (Ayers, Andrew & Helen, 2006).

            Therefore, the biological, psychological and social effects of pain embrace the events that occur before and after the phenomenon. The response of the individual towards different factors and occurrences in their childhood, adulthood can help to discern the underlying functions of the pain in the onset of different disorders. Patients who experience chronic pain can undergo treatment in a diversity of settings. For instance, Julie’s pain keeps on reoccurring, which translates to frequent visits to the hospital to seek professional help. However, since this process has not yet yielded the desired results changing her treatment method into a more interdisciplinary setting may be necessary (Byers, Yaffe & Covinsky, 2010). This would be necessary since practices such as holistic caring of the patient given that the pain is chronic can help in ensuring that the treatment touches on the three dimensions.


            Krippner, Daniel and Jeannine (2012) outline that various rationalizations of PTSD focus principally on the process by which traumatic incidents influence the mind. Theorists speculate upon experiencing devastating trauma, the mind becomes incapable of processing feelings and information in a normal manner. The characterization reveals that the causal traumatic event seems to take on an individual form that intrudes on the perception causing distress. Julie developed a chronic pain following a back surgery. The relationship of this to PSTD is that different traumatic occurrences in life trigger the disorder (Fletcher, Mark & David, 2010). In this case, her childhood was marked with neglect from her parents, which affected her self-esteem negatively. Additionally, life events such as her two marriages that resulted to divorce played a big role in affecting her self-esteem too. Her perception towards life does not portray enthusiasm. Therefore, the result of PTSD is largely affiliated to chronic pain and these experiences.

            Pre-traumatic psychological causes such as low self-worth may exacerbate this process. For instance, in the occurrence of divorce, physical beating or rape, there may be reinforcement of low self-worth with the person feeling that the reason for this traumatic incident is their worthlessness. In different cultures, there are particular beliefs that may play a role in the development or aggravation of PTSD (Krippner, Daniel & Jeannine 2012). For example, in some cultures there is a perception that demonstrates a woman as ‘dirty’ due to the experience of rape or divorce. In this case, this acts as a post-traumatic response by the community or family towards the patient after the occurrence of the traumatic event. The self may also act as a causal factor towards PTSD where a resulting physical discomfort may be a constant rejoinder of the trauma. It also plays a principal responsibility in influencing the persistence of the symptoms. Chronic pain may be used as a rejoinder by Julie, reminding her of the traumatic events that have occurred.  Researchers hypothesize that only subsequent to fruitful reprocessing of the distressing incidents do PTSD symptoms reduce.

Katsounari (2011) depicts that neurological elucidations also demonstrate how the mind and brain are significant in PTSD development. Current studies accentuate on two brain compositions namely hippocampus and amygdala. The amygdala is responsible for how people gain knowledge about fear. This composite is hyperactive in people with PTSD. The characterization of amygdala is as a false apprehension. On the other hand, hippocampus takes the important responsibility in the construction of memory. In people who experience PTSD, there is proof of a loss of quantity in this composite perhaps explaining some deficits in memory and other PTSD symptoms.

            Another explanation of the PTSD causes is the neurochemicals that take part in development of PTSD. Research that focuses on this factor reveals that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA); a hormonal coordination axis becomes interrupted in PSTD (Garske, 2011). Usually, this coordination occurs in normal stress responses and its interruption in PTSD appears to be also a false apprehension. Conversely, suggestions from researchers are that HPA coordination dysfunction leads to hippocampal harm in people experiencing PTSD.

General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

            GAD is a chronic disorder characterized by symptoms waning and waxing over years. It is usually not clear whether this may occur as an episodic illness typified by long intervals devoid of symptoms. GAD is also recognized as “chronic anxiety neurosis” and attributed through free-floating anxiety, which is chronic in nature. In some cases, it is accompanied by diaphoresis, tachycardia and tremor (Garske, 2011). This disorder may occur in childhood or adolescence years. Nevertheless, it is capable of also appearing during the early years of an adult. Symptoms develop insidiously and gradually. Complaints from the patient exhibit both anxiety and bitterness. This is observed with Julie’s inability to cope with the behavior of other people. She believes that these people should follow certain guidelines in order to perform tasks the right way. The disorder requires a clear defined intervention method that can help in getting rid of anxiety onsets. The underlying element in the treatment of chronic pain, PTSD and GAD involves identification of different events that are responsible for triggering the onset of anxiety (Mowery, 2011). Through this, a clear defined treatment plan can be created for Julie.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

            The aim of CBT is to recover control of responses to stimuli and stress, hence decreasing the helplessness feeling that frequently comes with anxiety disorders. CBT acts on the theory that the patient’s thoughts that elicit and sustain anxiety can be identified and changed through the application of different methods that transform behavioral reactions (Scott, 2011). These methods also get rid of anxiety reaction. Medication and CBT presents as effective individually. However, numerous research studies demonstrate that a combination made of medication and CBT is the best strategy for anxiety disorder treatment. However, the combination is best suited when treating adolescents and children (Zayfert & Carolyn, 2008). Evidence clearly shows the benefits for combination approach for treating children with obsessive compulsory disorders, social phobia, separation anxiety and GAD.

             Studies advocate that there are positive benefits attained from CBT in patients who possess extra conditions for instance alcohol dependency, another anxiety disorder or depression. However, in these cases there is a tendency of the treatment to take a long period before it shows the positive outcomes. Nevertheless, the therapy can be offered along medication treatment often. CBT is divided into basic cognitive therapy approaches, systematic desensitization, modeling treatment and anxiety management therapy (Scott, 2011).

Basic Cognitive Therapy Approaches

This form of treatment mainly takes approximately 12-20 weeks. In the treatment, the necessary cognitive therapy goal is to comprehend the realities brought about by situations that provoke anxiety. In addition, there is a reaction to reality with novel actions founded on reasonable anticipations (Börjesson-Hansson, Waem & Östling, 2011). Initially, it is important for Julie to learn how to identify anxious thoughts and reactions as they take place. One method of achieving this is through maintaining a daily journal that identifies the anxiety attacks occurrences and any events or thoughts linked to them. These automatic and entrenched thoughts and reactions must be understood and challenged. The approach of this method involves play back and recording of the anxious thoughts or acts of Julie. Through this method, she can be over exposed to them leading to a decrease in their impacts.

One effective treatment approach for patients who have been diagnosed with GAD marks their intolerance of insecurity and aids them create approaches of coping with this problem (Gatchel, 2004). Patients are mainly provided homework assignments of behavior to assist them alter their existent problematic behavior. As the patient carries out the assignment, they view any unrealistic thoughts and fears elicited through that form of an occurrence. As the patient keeps on performing the self-observation, they start to understand the underlying false assumptions in anxiety. During this stage, the patient can start replacing novel coping ways with the feared situations and objects.

Systematic Desensitization

            This presents as a detailed approach that collapses the connection between the anxiety- aggravating stimulus as well as the anxiety reaction (Gatchel, 2004). This approach needs the patient to confront the feared object progressively. In order to accomplish this, there are three fundamental components of the procedure.

  1. Relaxation training
  2. A record comprised through the patient that precedes anxiety-inducing circumstances through a fear degree
  3. The desensitization process itself, tackling each item present on the list, beginning with the event that shows the most harmless stress (Blanchard, et al., 2003)

This treatment approach is particularly efficient in PTSD, social phobias and agoraphobia.

Exposure and Response approach

            This is aimed at eliciting anxiety while allowing the patient to go through the feared situation or object frequently, either using visualization and/or imagination. This treatment method applies the most fearful motivation first. This is different from the process of desensitization since it fails to include a gradual approach or relaxation to the anxiety source (Blanchard, et al., 2003). Exposure treatments are generally identified either as graduated or flooding exposure:

  1. Flooding usually exposes the patient to the stimulus that produces anxiety for a period of approximately 1-2 hours.
  2. With relevance to the approach, graduated exposure offers the patient a larger control degree over the frequency and length of exposures.

In both circumstances, the Julie can attain an anxiety experience recurrently until the provoking circumstance finally loses its impact. Merging standard cognitive therapy with exposure may be predominantly beneficial (Zaers, Melanie & Ulrike, 2008). This advance has assisted some patients who belong in most categories of anxiety disorder, for instance PTSD.

Anxiety Management Therapy

This form of treatment approach of CBT that can be applied as a substitute for CBT intended for GAD (Zaers, Melanie & Ulrike, 2008). The approach includes subjection to stimuli that provokes anxiety, relaxation training, and patient education but does not comprise cognitive retraining exercises. CBT will work effectively on the treatment of Julie’s condition likelihood. This is because; it has been ranked as a treatment approach that ensures the comprehensive assessment and treatment of Julie according to the symptoms she is exhibiting. In relevance to this, since the main concern lies with PTSD, and GAD caused by anxiety, CBT has been recognized as the best treatment approach for these disorders. A combination of the approach and medication when tackling GAD is vital.

Treatment Plan

In order to create a systematic treatment plan for Julie, there needs to be addressing of both GAD and PTSD. PTSD treatment generally starts with a specified evaluation and the creation of treatment criteria that satisfy the distinctive needs of Julie. The treatment plan is based on the CBT concept in order to ensure that there is harmonization of the both PTSD and GAD. Generally, PTSD and GAD treatment is introduced only following the safe removal of the survivor from a crisis circumstance (Krippner, Daniel & Jeannine, 2012). The crisis involves homelessness, abuse, community or domestic violence. In this situation, Julie is still undergoing a continuous trauma exposure, which involves her chronic back pain and anxiety. Therefore, it is significant to tackle these forms of crisis issues as an initiation of the first treatment phase. The first phase embraces educating the patients as well as their families regarding how PTSD and GAD are acquired, their effects on loved ones and survivors and other issues related to the disorders.

            It is vital to note that PTSD and GAD is a medically identified anxiety disorder experienced by normal individuals undergoing severe stressful circumstances. This ensures that the treatment given is efficient (Katsounari, 2011). Subjection to the occurrence using guided imagery will permit Julie to go through the event again but in a controlled and safe environment. This will occur while I am carefully monitoring her beliefs and reactions in relation to the occurrence. One dimension of the initial PSTD and GAD treatment phase is to ensure that Julie herself examines and determine strong feelings like guilt, shame and anger. Another phase in the treatment plan is to teach Julie to deal with post-traumatic feelings, reactions, reminders and memories without being emotionally numb or overwhelmed (Krippner, Daniel & Jeannine, 2012).

            During treatment of PSTD and GAD, health professionals prefer to combine psychotherapies with medication use. This is because; medications help in the relieving symptoms, such as feelings and flashbacks of original trauma. Antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) which comprise of sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine. They decrease panic, depression and anxiety. Atypical antipsychotics are the most widespread alternative medications to antidepressants. They are inclusive of quetiapine, risperidone and olanzapine. These medicines are the most practical for people who have dissociations, intense paranoia, agitation, or brief psychotic reactions. Other less directly efficient medications for handling PSTD comprise of mood stabilizers such as divalproex sodium, Gabitril and Lamictal (Fletcher, Mark & David, 2010).

Effectiveness of Working with Julie’s Background

            With the application of a treatment plan based on CBT for Julie, it is clear that since she has a problem dealing with her anxiety, she can be able to understand all the causes and how to deal with them. In addition, the treatment plan will work if Julie is helped to identify the use of a holistic and interdisciplinary care to enable a comprehensive therapy (Hillerbrand & Stone, 1986). This would ensure that the recurrent episodes of chronic back pain and leg numbness are treated along with anxiety.

Limitations of Working with Julie’s Background

            While the treatment plan is intended to help resolve all the health concerns experienced by Julie, the limitations of the plan are her religious background. A holistic and interdisciplinary assessment needs to incorporate the religious background of the patient. With respect to this, there should be communication with the patient on the most appropriate method of dealing with her sentiments towards the church and her status of an atheist.

Interpersonal Effectiveness – Self-Awareness

            In a therapy background, transference is presented as re-bearing of the feelings of the client from an important person to a therapist (Arundale, & Bellman, 2011). Hence, manifestation of transference is as an erotic appeal towards a therapist although it can be identified in many other modes like extreme dependence, parentification, mistrust, hatred, and rage. It also involves placing the acting therapist in a guru or god-like status. When Freud first observed transference in psychological assessment, he perceived it as a hindrance to success of treatment. However, he learnt that transference evaluation was the work to be accomplished (Arundale, & Bellman, 2011).

            The psychodynamic psychotherapy focus is largely the client and therapist identifying the transference association and evaluation the relationship meaning. As Julie’s therapist, I realize that the transference association takes place an unconscious extent. Julie has a childhood memory that is embodied by neglect and low self-esteem. Due to this, I will apply the transference relationship in exploring these relations and ensuring that these issues are resolved. It would be significant to begin treatment after considering the different occurrences that took place from Julie’s childhood.

            On the other hand, countertransference is outlined as a rebearing of the feelings of the therapist towards those of the client (Wiener, 2009). In general, it translates as an emotional entanglement elicited by a therapist to the client. The attunement of the therapist to his individual countertransference is almost as crucial as his transference understanding. This does not only assist the therapist to moderate their emotions that arise in the therapeutic association, but also provides valuable insight to the therapist. The insight is regarding the form of emotions that the client tries to provoke in them. Once there is identification, the therapist can inquire what form of feelings exists toward the therapist (Wiener, 2009). In addition, the therapist evaluates the client’s feelings and the means through which they associate to unconscious fears, desires and motivations. In Julie’s case, I will work towards ensuring that I understand the feelings and thoughts that might be directed from her to me.

            Through understanding these feelings, I can find ways through which I can engage her to recognize the source and intention of the client. I will work towards identifying ways to ensure that the motivation of Julie to continue with her therapy is sustained. This will enable me to evaluate her closely in order to identify the underlying issues that may influence her quick or slow recovery.


            While providing my services as a therapist, I have encountered numerous patients who find it relatively difficult to reveal their problems to a counselor due to confidentiality issues. Such clients need constant assurance that their problems will not be shared to any third party without their consent. In this case, “without assurance of confidentiality, clients would be unlikely to self-disclose the thoughts and feelings so essential to therapeutic change” (Guindon, 2010, p. 77). According to Hawtin (2000), confidentiality is the premise that whatever a patient says to the counselor will stay with the counselor and at no point will the information be discussed with other individuals whatsoever. It plays a significant role in convincing patients to undergo the counseling process.

            In the process of dealing with Julie’s case, doctor-patient confidentiality will present a possible ethical dilemma. In this case, I strongly feel that other parties need to be involved in the process of treating Julie. Since the surgery, Julie finds working a 12 hour shift to be especially exhausting. Equally, she has been on antidepressant medication on and off for most of her life. She had taken Wellbutrin for a number of years, but she reports it stopped working about two years ago. She has recently begun taking Celexa. In this vein, Julie’s case requires more than counseling. A doctor has to be involved to establish the causes of Julie’s exhaustion after a 12 hour shift. Equally, the doctor will play a significant role in providing a medical recommendation as her body has developed resistance to Wellbutrin and she is now taking Celexa.

            Before involving the doctor as a third party in Julie’s case, Julie must be made aware of the possible confidentiality issues that will arise. Bond (2000) points out that in extreme cases when patients need medical attention other than counseling, client information may be shared with other parties responsible for providing the required medical attention. However, the nature of the medical attention required plays a significant role in determining whether the patient’s identity will be protected. In minor cases, the patient’s identity is protected, or he/she is advised to seek medical attention from another party that is not involved in the counseling process. The acute nature of Julie’s case calls for urgent medical attention; in this case, the doctor will be provided access to Julie’s information to ensure that he/she is fully aware of Julie’s medical problems. Nonetheless, this information will be provided to the third party with Julie’s consent.

            On overall, Julie’s case has to be treated with absolute confidentiality and high level of counseling professionalism due to the private and medical nature of the information provided by Julie. It calls for the application of an ethical decision-making model to provide guidance towards an ethical resolution. Cohen and Cohen (1999) observe that the available ethical decision-making models in counseling are indispensable to counselors facing ethical challenges in the counseling process. This is in line with the fact that the decisions and advice provided by the counselor to the patient play an integral role in guiding the patient towards the process of recovery. In this case, I will utilize a practice based ethical decision making model by Welfel (1998) as a step-by-step procedure of promoting reduced emotional impact on my ability to think rationally during the counseling process. This model will also ensure that my guidance complies with ACA Ethical Codes of Conduct. Finally, the model will provide a basis for support in case I have to testify in a civil or criminal action.

                The first step will entail the development of ethical sensitivity to the moral dimensions of counseling. In counseling, the basis of making an ethical decision lies on the ability of the counselor to recognize an ethical dilemma when it occurs. According to Welfel (2010), many counselors are inadequate in the identification of ethical dilemmas. In this case, ethical sensitivity is a highly significant skill that enables counselors to identify an ethical dilemma, as opposed to assuming that ethical dilemmas will be identified when they happen. Without ethical sensitivity, I would risk arriving at an unethical conclusion in Julie’s case hence reducing my efficiency in helping Julie to recover fully. In this case, I will review how my personal principles and worldviews will affect the decision making process.

            Having all these considerations in mind, I clearly understand that Julie’s case puts my ethical sensitivity into test. I clearly understand what Julie has been going through since the surgery. Equally, I understand all the challenges that Julie has faced in her upbringing and in her two marriages. As such, I am aware that the process of counseling and making effective decisions will encounter ethical dilemmas especially when dealing with confidentiality and sharing of information with third parties.

               The second step in this decision making process will involve the definition of the existing ethical dilemmas and different options that can be used to promote efficiency. After having been already sensitive to the dilemma at hand, the counselor is expected to identify and organize all the available information about the case particularly the social and the cultural dimensions of the case (Welfel, 2010). The central dilemma in this case is whether or not I need to disclose Julie’s exhaustion after work and the use of antidepressants to a doctor so that Julie can get medical help. I will ensure that I have all the necessary information that I am supposed to have about Julie. If I realize that somehow some information is missing, I will improvise effective mechanisms of retrieving such information from Julie. In line with the arguments of Welfel (1998), my reasoning will be guided by the available facts about Julie to ensure that I make an effective decision that will help Julie to recuperate efficiently.

              In line with the views of Arredondo et al. (1996), I will consider my experience in the counseling profession and my unlimited exposure to diversity as significant information when dealing with Julie’s case. Being a Christian, my perceptions and worldviews on religion would affect negatively on such a case because Julie regards herself as an atheist. However, I will consider my experience in helping out atheists to ensure that I provide informed and effective guidelines towards Julie’s recuperation. Julie is an African American woman aged 72 years, and I am a male counselor; in this case, I will examine my multicultural counseling competencies to identify the skills, attitudes, and knowledge whose application will be significant in helping Julie.

            According to Garcia et al. (2003), a stakeholder is an individual or a group of individuals connected directly to the patient and who might be harmed or helped by the actions of the counselor when dealing with a case. With this in mind, I will consider the impact of my response to Julie’s situation to other individuals related to Julie; these individuals are the stakeholders. Julie is a driver who encounters other drivers and pedestrians in the course of driving. Equally, she is a semi-retired psychiatric nurse who interacts with patients and fellow colleagues at work. She also has three children with whom she has good relationships. These individuals are Julie’s stakeholders. I have to ensure that my decisions have positive impacts on them.   

            In the third step, I will consider the central issues of the dilemma and the available options. The central dilemma in this case is whether I need to disclose Julie’s exhaustion after work and the use of antidepressants to a doctor so that Julie can get medical help.  The main issue contributing to this dilemma is the question of whether or not there are legal requirements to disclose such information to a medical practitioner so that Julie can get medical help. On this note, Hillbrand and Stone (1986) point out that a counselor ought to consider all the available options when dealing with the arising personal, professional, and legal dilemmas in the counseling process. In this case, my possibilities include; maintaining confidentiality and allowing Julie to decide what she intends to do with her medical problems, informing a medical practitioner about Julie’s problems while maintaining anonymity, advising Julie to share her problems with a doctor, sharing Julie’s problems with a doctor without anonymity, or waiting for more sessions to unearth more information and advice Julie further.

            Step four will entail making references to the existing professional standards, laws and regulations. Welfel (2010) argues out that reference to the existing professional standards narrows down a counselor’s options enabling the counselor to be more efficient when dealing with the patient. In this case, different professional codes (ACA, 2005; AMHCA, 2000; APA, 2002) have it that my primary responsibility is to assist Julie to recover fully. This responsibility is based on patient-doctor trust and is developed through effective and confidential working relationships. These professional regulations will guide me in establishing whether to break confidentiality and share Julie’s information to a doctor so that she can get the required medical help.

            In step five, I will consult with the existing professional literature on the prevailing ethical dilemma to guide my actions as I ponder on the way forward. The existing scholarly literature provides detailed answers on doctor-patient confidentiality, cultural diversity in counseling, and conflicts between the professional ethics and laws (Jain & Roberts, 2009; Nagy, 2000; Donner et al., 2008). My familiarity with the existing scholarly literature will guide my actions and will provide a basis for providing moral and legal explanation towards my actions.

            In step six, I will ensure the application of ethical principles to the prevailing ethical dilemma. In this case, the ethical and moral principles developed by Kitchener (1984) will guide the application of the necessary ethical principles to the prevailing ethical dilemma. As noted by Pipes, Belvins and Kluck (2008), these ethical and moral principles include; fidelity, justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-maleficence. They provide the counselors with an efficient framework of regulating their relationships with their parents. In line with respect for autonomy, I will respect Julie’s freedom and choices, non-maleficence will enable me not to harm Julie, beneficence will enable me to do well as a counselor, justice will guide me in treating Julie fairly, and fidelity will enable me to be faithful and honest to Julie in the course of the counseling process.

               Step 7 will provide me with the opportunity to consult my supervisor and senior colleagues on the prevailing ethical dilemma. In this step, Welfel (2010) points out that a counselor must maintain patient confidentiality when consulting. As such, I will consult in a manner that maintains confidentiality. In line with ACA Code (2005), consultation provides a counselor with an objective perspective. In this case, consultation will alleviate the feeling of isolation. I will identify colleagues who are willing to assist in solving the existing dilemma. I will weigh the nature of information received after consultations to ensure that I utilize the most appropriate information in the process of providing Julie with the most efficient counsel. According to Welfel (2010), this step can be employed in any stage of the model as it provides the counselor with insights on the way forward.

              In step eight, I will make deliberations based on the available information and decide on the best way to proceed. In this case, I will consider all the moral principles, virtue ethics, and personal values that may affect the process of decision-making. This step will be challenging since I will have to review all the available information alone; nonetheless, I will employ my experience in counseling to guide me in taking the most appropriate course of action.  In step nine, I will inform my supervisor, implement and document the actions. This step will call upon my “ethical courage” (Welfel, 2010) in implementing my decision regardless of the challenges or resistance that will be on my way. I will then proceed with the documentation of my decision, how I implemented it, the conversations I had with Julie, my conversations with my supervisor and colleagues, the justification for my decision and follow up notes for future reference. Step ten will be the last step where I will reflect on the experience. I will review my decision and establish other different ways of handling the situation. This will provide me with the required knowledge to handle future cases.


            In counseling, it is essential to understand other cultures. In this case, a culturally competent counselor is one who has cultural skills, cultural knowledge and is culturally aware of the existence of different belief systems. When handling a client from a different cultural background, the effectiveness of the counselor is determined by his/her awareness of the client’s way of life. Equally, it is of great significance that the counselor understands his/her personal bias and how it may affect his/her relationship with the client during the counseling period (Bond, 2000). Dobson (2009) explains that honest appraisal of their own biases and blind spots must be made by therapists who work with people who are different from themselves.         Though Julie and I are both Americans, we belong to different cultural backgrounds; Julie is an African American/black American while I am a white American. Understanding the cultural background of black Americans will eliminate cultural barriers hence playing a significant role in promoting my efficiency while providing counseling services. According to Adams (1995), culture defines how individuals view the world; as such, cultural differences must be addressed efficiently to promote effective counseling. Equally, counselors must have multi-cultural knowledge and skills in addition to extensive training on cultural values to harness competency in the process of dealing with individuals from other cultures different from that of the counselor. They should also understand clearly that the attainment of cultural competence is a process that can never be completed because culture is a complex and dynamic system (Betancourt & Lopez, 1993).

            Self-awareness has been labeled as the first step towards being a culturally competent counselor. Before embarking on the process of understanding others, one must sharpen his/her self-understanding. In this vein, interpersonal and intrapersonal dynamics are addressed as significant components in the understanding of one’s values, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes. When a counselor understands his/her thoughts and feelings, he/she is in a better position to understand the perceptions, viewpoints, judgments and other stereotypical viewpoints that will emerge in the counseling process. As an important step towards attaining cultural competence, self-understanding enables the counselor to evaluate personal perceptions that might interfere with his/her efficiency in the process of counseling a client (Adams, 1995). In this case, I clearly understand my values, perceptions, and worldviews on different societal issues. This understanding will help me in controlling my personal opinion that might interfere with my efficiency in the process of providing effective counseling service to Julie. I understand that I share different perceptions, value and worldviews with Julie; this understanding will be ultimate in the elimination of prejudices and judgmental ideas that may affect the counseling process.

            Awareness of one’s own culture also plays a significant role in promoting cultural competence in counseling. This is in line with the argument that counselors bring cultural baggage to the counseling situation. Cultural baggage makes a counselor take some things for granted or have expectations on how the client should behave. In this case, any behavior from the client that falls behind the expectations of the counselor is seen as an abnormality. However, awareness of one’s culture enables a counselor to understand and appreciate cultural diversity hence free him/herself from the stereotypical ideas and expectations that facilitate cultural baggage in the counseling process (Adams, 1995). Being a white American, my cultural ascription is very different from that of Julie. Understanding the values and the way of life that I subscribe to will be particularly vital in helping me to embrace cultural diversity and hence overcome stereotypical concepts that may interfere with effective counseling.

            According to Betancourt and Lopez (1993), over-generalizing values learnt about a specific culture as applicable to all members of the culture is the greatest pitfall of the novice counselor. Cultural group membership does not take away individualism and uniqueness; as such, counselors ought to consider their clients as unique individuals and as members of their particular cultural groups. There different cultural values that are identified with the African American people, but this do not imply that all the African Americans are similar. They are distinct in the fact that they have personal values that guide their interactions. This knowledge will help me acquire a deeper understanding of Julie’s problems hence provide wise counsel to Julie as a unique African American woman.

            To ensure that cultural differences existing between Julie and me, I will apply the trans-cultural integrative model (TIM) as discussed by Garcia et al. (2008). This trans-cultural model “draws primarily from the integrated model of ethical decision making developed by Tarvydas (1998), but added significant aspects that reflect multicultural theory” (p. 21). This model combines both the principle and the virtue ethics. It defines an ethical dilemma “as a conflict involving ethical principles that are in opposition to each other, such as when client autonomy conflicts with client non-maleficence” (p. 21). According to Garcia et al. (2008), this model has four significant steps that promote effective counseling in a multi-cultural society.

            Using this model, the first step will entail awareness and fact-finding. On this note, Garcia et al. (2008) point out that enhancing sensitivity and awareness entails many factors.  It is not only based on becoming aware of the ethical component of a dilemma but also the effect of a dilemma on the different stakeholders involved.  The cultural values and identity together with the gender role socialization of the counselor play a significant role in determining the degree to which the counselor perceives a situation as a dilemma. In this case, differences in cultural values between two counselors may lead to differences in the perception of a situation as a dilemma. Equally, differences in gender role socialization between counselors may also lead to differences in the perception of a situation as a dilemma (Sue & Sue, 2003).

               Sue and Sue (2003) further opine that the gender identity perspective and the ethnic identity perspective lead to differences in perceiving a situation as a dilemma. Equally, the culture of the client may bring out particular reactions in the counselor based on the existing differences between the counselor’s and the client’s culture. In this step, I will ensure that I clearly understand my cultural values and Julie’s cultural values and embrace the existing differences. This will help in eliminating any expectations that I may have, and those that might affect the entire counseling process.

            The second step of this model entails the establishment of appropriate courses of action and the best ethical decision. This step will be guided by the cultural information collected about the client in the first step (Garcia et al., 2008). I will pursue the following procedures in this step; critically analyze all the cultural information I will have gathered about Julie in step one, analyze the existing laws and regulations particularly against discrimination, ensure that the considered course of action is in line with the views and perceptions of the relevant stakeholders, evaluate the pros and cons of the opposing courses of action in line with the cultural perspective of Julie, seek for the views of other cultural experts, and decide on the most appropriate course of action. In this step, Cottone’s (2001) three step interpersonal process can also be applied in cases where reaching on a decision is quite challenging. The process entails; arbitrating, consensus seeking, and negotiating. Nonetheless, this model is not applicable in Julie’s case since I will be the only counselor who will be making decisions on the psychological wellbeing of Julie.

            The third step involves the identification of the competing non-moral values that may hinder successful implementation of the selected course of action. In this case, I will identify the most suitable courses of action that will be compatible with Julie’s cultural values. This will ensure that Julie’s culture does not challenge the implementation of the selected course of action. The fourth and the last step involve the implementation, documentation, and evaluation of the plan of action. In line with cultural values, Garcia et al. (2008) note that this step involves securing clients’ culturally relevant resources. It also involves developing counter-measures for the identified potential contextual barriers in other steps. In this step, I will empower Julie and the involved stakeholders (including her patients and her children) with mechanisms of dealing with emerging prejudices and stereotypes to ensure that she is strong in the process of recovering from her psychological problem. 

Research Problem


            In the urban areas, counseling services have continued to be significant in enabling the urban dwellers overcome some of the major challenges faced in urban areas including; drug abuse, crime, sexually transmitted diseases, lack of employment, high costs of living and so forth. Particularly, such challenges are common to low-income urban dwellers because the high costs of living in urban areas and their low income force them to inhabit urban slums and other areas of sub-standard housing where the cost of living is relatively cheaper. Such areas are characterized by lack of basic amenities, overcrowding, and other similar characteristics that negatively affect the human wellbeing. In line with this argument, counseling services play a significant role in enabling low-income urban dwellers to deal with the pressures of urban life effectively.

Study Aim

            The aim of this study is to establish the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers. Particularly, this study examines the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers.    

Literature Review

Overview and challenges of low-income urban dwellers

In the last three decades of the 20th century, low-income urban communities in large urban areas of the United States have live in deteriorating social conditions characterized by; high poverty and unemployment rates, high prevalence of diseases and violence, drug abuse and drug trafficking, deteriorating housing among others (Cohen & Cohen, 1999). The low-income urban dwellers in the US are from a variety of racial and ethnic backgrounds; majority of them are poor immigrants who are in the US illegally. This group of individuals has been identified with the worst health of any group of individuals in the US and has the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in the United States (AMHCA, 2000).

Being illegal immigrants, many fail to seek medical attention for fear of deportation. This results to high prevalence of acute diseases in low-income urban areas where they live. Equally, their racial and ethnic backgrounds present language and cultural barriers that challenge culturally incompetent outsiders from providing the much-needed medical assistance (AMHCA, 2000). To overcome such challenges in low-income urban areas, counselors have a huge responsibility of providing their much-required services to these individuals to ensure that they conform to the societal expectations. Equally, with the existing cultural obstacles, culturally competent counselors are the most appropriate professionals to help the low-income urban dwellers because they understand the precautions required while providing counseling services to individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds.

Benefits of counseling to low income urban dwellers

            Low-income urban areas are characterized by high crime prevalence. As a result, many individuals living in these areas are in constant fear of the social evils that they are exposed to. Counseling services provide the victims of crime with an opportunity to recover from crime-related trauma that affects them in their day-to-day activities. It is during the counseling sessions that these victims identify the criminals responsible for these atrocities hence aiding the authorities in prosecuting these criminals. This eventually leads to justice and reduced crime in low-income urban areas. This is because many criminals are locked up in jail while others are undergoing transformation through counseling.

            Equally, the low-income urban areas are identified with drug trafficking and abuse. Counseling services thus play a significant role in rehabilitating drug addicts to become reformed individuals in the society. Due to the existing doctor-patient confidentiality in counseling, majority of low-income urban dwellers reveal confidential information to counselors and due to the legal dilemma surrounding the nature of such cases, the information is used to prosecute criminals hence reducing the prevalence of crime in these areas. Overall, many low-income urban dwellers are illegal immigrants who fear deportation to their countries of origin. In this case, counseling provides them with the much required safety and confidentiality in the process of getting professional help.


Research approach and philosophy

This study will employ an inductive approach in establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. The study will start with data collection to provide descriptions to the research phenomenon. This process will be followed by the data analysis process to provide clear conclusions from which study hypothesis and theory explanation will be based. Using this approach in the study will promote flexibility (Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007) as there will be no pre-determined theory or hypothesis to control the research process.

Interpretivism research philosophy will be used in establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. This philosophy will enable the study to establish the reality behind the research problem. It will also promote the use of a research sample that will be evaluated keenly to understand the views of the entire research population.

Research design

            A qualitative research design will be employed in the process of establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. Qualitative research involves an inquiry process of constructing a holistic description of the research phenomenon under investigation. Qualitative research is conducted using a variety of research skills such as observation, document reviews, participation and interviews among other skills. The main advantage of qualitative research is that the research phenomenon under investigation is studied in its natural settings. As such, the assumptions, definitions, or limitations of the researchers are not imposed upon the phenomenon under investigation (Bryman, 2001).

Research strategy

A case study research strategy will be used to establish the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. The case study will involve 20 low-income urban dwellers who have successfully sought for counseling services within the past two years. Through the case study, the research phenomenon will be studied in its immediate context hence increasing the validity and reliability of the collected information.

Research population and sampling

A research population refers to the total number of subjects, participants or individuals being investigated by the researcher in the process of answering the existing research questions (Meriwether, 2001). In this study, all low-income urban dwellers who have successfully sought for counseling services within the past two years will be the research population. However, due to the constraints of time and other resources, a sample of 20 low-income urban dwellers who have successfully sought for counseling services within the past two years will be selected to participate in the study. These participants will provide the required information and guide in establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers.

According to Meriwether (2001), a research sample is a proportion or a sub-group of the entire research population that is selected to participate in the study.  It is selected from the target population scientifically to avoid bias and thus promote the validity and reliability of the research findings. Bias in the selection of the research sample leads to lack of effective representation of the target population resulting to acquisition of research findings that do not represent the views of the entire target population. To this end, simple stratified random sampling technique will be employed in the selection of the 20 study participants.

Data Collection

            Data collection process is highly significant in research studies as it enables the researcher to gather relevant answers to the prevailing research questions (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). A researcher can utilize either, both, or any of the two methods of data collection namely; the primary and the secondary methods of data collection. Primary method of data collection will be employed to collect data with the intention of establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. Primary data collection enables a researcher to collect study data using firsthand experience. The uniqueness of primary data collection is that the researcher collects specific data in line with the research questions. Some of the methods used in the process of collecting primary data include questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, case studies and so forth (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). 

Collection and instrumentation

Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect data from the research participants. The use of the semi-structured interviews will promote a two-way communication between the interviewer and the interviewee. This will provide the involved parties, the interviewer and the interviewee, with the opportunity to ask questions and provide expressions in an understandable manner. The interviews will also inform the study through confirming what is already known and through providing an efficient opportunity for learning more. In the same vein, the information from the interviewee will not only provide answers for the posed questions but also efficient reasons for the answers. Through semi-structured interviews, the interviewees will be in a better position to discuss other sensitive issues about benefits of counseling to low-income urban dwellers that would not have been captured using any other method. Semi-structured interviews will also provide a chance for the interviewers to be acquainted with the research participants hence promoting access to more confidential information that the participants would not have disclosed to strangers.

Data Analysis

            After the data collection process, the collected data will be analyzed using the interpretive approach to give explanations and descriptions. The use of an interpretive process in analyzing the research data qualitatively will make the data more meaningful and illustrative. The data collected will be analyzed in line with the research aim to ensure that the research findings clearly address the research problem.

Study Constraints and Limits

Calling upon their participation of 20 participants in the research procedures will be a challenging activity. Equally, the process of data collection will be time consuming. In the same vein, the limitations of resources will not pass without being realized in the course of this research process. To facilitate effectiveness in the process of establishing the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers, all the limitations present will be addressed effectively. To save time in the data collection process, the final semi-structured interview questions will be adjusted to make them more comprehensive as a means of saving the respondents’ time. This step will also encourage increased respondent participation in the study. Effort will be expended in utilizing the available minimal resources in terms of time, personnel and money to collect valid and reliable data. 

Research Ethics

            Ethical considerations in the research processes have been perceived by some researchers as a hindrance to their research activities (Gillham, 2000). Nonetheless, Schicktanz and Dusche (2011) point out that a majority of individuals fails to understand that ethical considerations in the research processes ensure that the conducted research procedures are in line with the rules and regulations of research. Research ethics are particularly significant when the researcher is using questions to inquire about a certain research phenomenon from a respondent or a third party (Groth-Marnat, 2009). In this case, ethics have it that the researcher should seek the consent of that respondent and at the same time assure the respondent of his/her confidentiality (Schicktanz & Dusche, 2011).

            Before the participants are selected from the research population, the research aim will be explained to ensure that the participants are fully aware of what the study entails. The research study will further seek the consent of the respondents before proceeding with the process of data collection. On the same note, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity as well as the use of their responses for the purposes of research only. This will enable the respondents to open up and share their genuine opinion without fear of being implicated due to their views.


            This methodology will play a significant role in the establishment of the usefulness of counseling services for low-income urban dwellers and the level of benefits attained from counseling by low-income urban dwellers. The results, being an actual representation of the facts on the ground, will clearly outline the importance of counseling services to low income urban dwellers hence provide evidence of the value of the agency’s services in order to help secure ongoing funding for the agency.










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Equality, diversity and inclusion in work




Equality, diversity and inclusion in work


















Equality, diversity and inclusion in work

1)      Identify the current legislation and codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity?

There are different legislations and codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity. These are recognized internationally and are stated in the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989. Though most countries like the UK have ratified these legislations, they are still similar to those of the treaty.

One of these rules is the Disability Discrimination Act of 1995. This is a legislation which protects the rights of young people and children with disabilities. It also spells the duty of schools and other related institutions to create an inclusive setting. Another rule is the Disability Discrimination Act of 2005. This act helps in making schools understand that they have to create a Disability Equality Scheme (DES) which should also include an access plan. This also encourages schools to create an environment where all people can participate in different activities irrespective of their capability.

There is also the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act of 2001 which makes it illegal to discriminate children with special needs in an education setting. The Race Relations Act of 2001 is such another act which advocates for the value of diversity by spelling it that good relationship should be promoted between all people irrespective of their races. There is also the Human Rights Act 1998 which gives individuals the right to take actions against any institution that violates their rights. The Children Act of 1989 is also another legislation which spells the rights of children and that children with special needs should be protected to make sure that they are safe and their welfare is protected.

There is also another very important legislation which came into effect in 2010, the Equality Act 2010. This is a very important act in that it spells that the provision of equal opportunities to all citizens by public bodies is a legal responsibility. Anybody which fails to do so thus, can face a legal tussle.

2)      Describe the importance of supporting the right of all children and young people to participation and equality of access to education?

There are a number of merits of supporting the right of all children and young people to participation and equality access to education. One of these is that it raises their overall achievement in education. If equality is promoted between individuals they would be able to access the curriculum of their schools without any problem. All the pupils irrespective of their economic background get equal opportunities in the schools. Equality may also mean that the curriculum should meet all the needs of all pupils as a whole and also as per individual. Thus, equality and equal participation of different pupils is very important in raising their achievement.

Equality also ensures that the different people in the education setting participate maximally in all activities in education. Everyone in an education setting should participate in anything relating to them like the designing of the curriculum. This is mostly achieved through creating such event like parents’ meetings and also having student councils in the education system.  Children and young people can also be asked direct questions on how they feel things should be undertaken. Thus, it improves the participation of the different stakeholders.

Another importance is that, it develops a sense of identity among the young and the children. Participation of the young and children and the promotion of equality among them make them feel quite valued in the system and thus develop a sense of identity. They are also given time to learn independently in such a system thus developing their identity the more. In addition, it promotes the relationship between individuals and different groups in all the different settings. Thus, supporting the right of all children and young people to participation and equality of access to education is quite important.

3)      Describe the importance and benefits of valuing and promoting cultural diversity in work with children and young people?

The issue of culture is very important in all settings where people interact. By culture, we generally mean the ways of life which are shared in any given community. These shared values can include language, beliefs and also music and arts. These issues are very different in different communities and thus it is very important to value and promote them.

One of the reasons why promotion of cultural diversity is important is that it enriches learning in these groups and also promotes the understanding of all people. Everyone is taught in the best way which can make them understand and acquire knowledge easily. For instance, if some pupils in a school do not understand a certain language, then they are taught in the language which they can understand. It avoids cases where, teachers use certain languages to explain some points yet some of the students do not understand such a language well.

Another importance of valuing and promoting cultural diversity in work with children and young people is that, it helps one create an opportunity to learn about the cultural diversity of the different people they interact with. They come to learn that, no culture is more superior to another and that all people are and have equal opportunities. This thus, creates an opportunity of creating a very conducive environment to teach other of the importance of cultural diversity. In this way, it helps the different people learn how to challenge issues of discrimination or prejudice which may result from cultural diversity. Promotion of cultural diversity should thus be part of the curriculum to ensure that the different cultures of the groups are valued and hence help all the pupils to learn about the culture of the others in the society.

4)      Describe ways in which children and young people can experience prejudice and discrimination?

All the people interact with both the young people and Children should learn about the issues of prejudice and discrimination and the ways which these two groups experience prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is generally making assumptions about different groups of people which are not based on any strong evidence. On the other hand, discrimination is generally treating others in an unfavourable manner simply because they belong to a certain group. People are labelled different names which may even lead to higher levels of discrimination. Thus labelling can be a way in which young people can experience prejudice and discrimination.

Another way in which they can be experienced is by not giving the young people and children an equal opportunity. Regardless of the gender or age of the children and the young people, there should be no form of discrimination at any instance. For instance, is can be a way of discrimination in arguing that some subjects are done better by boys and not by girls.

Another way through which these two may occur is by not allowing them access parts of the curriculum simply because they are young. This is perfect example of how direct discrimination can occur between different pupils. For instance, a school may decline to enrol a student simply because of their disability or race.

Another way in which these two can occur is by running procedures without putting into consideration the circumstances of each individual in the group. This is usually a form of indirect discrimination as in most cases it may occur due to ignorance. For example, some schools may decide to a have a policy in which all people are required to wear a certain uniform. This may form a basis of discrimination and prejudice if it does not consider the religion of the different pupils.

5)      Describe the impact of prejudice and discrimination of children and young people?

There are certain impacts of prejudice and discrimination to children and young people. In general, these effects are very much negative. The main effect is a feel of disempowerment. This is because they usually feel much deprived of very important things like power or influence in the areas which they are in. This form of disempowerment makes them quite unhappy. Thus, prejudice and discrimination has such a great impact on children.

Young people and children are mostly in schools. If they experience prejudice and discrimination in such areas, their academic progress may be equally affected. Whenever they try to make an effort to improve in their studies, they feel that they are not given an equal chance like the others and thus shy away from participating in different academic forums. This thus, affects their progress academically.

Prejudice and discrimination can also affect the well-being and the health of children and young people. Whenever they are exposed to it, they get very much depressed. This leads to depression related health problems. In addition, they fear exposing their ailments at all times and thus affecting their well being and health the more.

Prejudice and discrimination also leads to loss of self-esteem in young people and children. This hinders then from developing as young people. In addition, prejudice and discrimination makes young people live with a lot of anger. This is because they find it quite unfair to them as they may lack a way out of it. They live a life of confusion and also lose motivation in all things they do. With this kind of live whereby they lack motivation, children and young people fail to take opportunities in life and thus hinders their overall development. Thus, prejudice and discrimination can only lead to negative effects to children and young people.

6)      Assess how own attitudes, values and behaviour could impact on children and young people?

It is the duty of all stakeholders in a school to ensure that they take care of the rights of the young and children in their learning environment. However, some people tend to ignore some issues like their own attitudes, their own value and behaviour and how they impact the other like children and the young in the schools.

In most cases, people tend to make some assumptions about the people they interact with. For instance, they may assume that their background and upbringing are very similar to those of the others. With this assumption, they tend to ignore the fact that the different children and young people they deal with are from different backgrounds. They therefore use this form of personal prejudice against others due to their low understanding of the diversity of the different people they deal with.

Own attitudes also impact on children and young people in the relation to their religious issues. They tend to assume that all the people in their own setting are from the same religious background and thus use their religious beliefs in passing their points. For example, one who believes about Islamic religion may assume that all the children and young people they deal with know about it yet this may not be the case. This negatively impacts the young people and children which they interact with.

Children usually take in any information which is given to them by their teachers. This means that the school must ensure that the information give to children does not mislead them. They should thus be given an environment full of positive messages in order to ensure that they are not negatively impacted. It is very important thus, to ensure that mutual understanding and respect is encouraged between different individuals.

7)      Describe the importance of promoting anti-discriminatory practice in work with children and young people?

It is very important to promote anti-discriminatory practice in work with children and young people. This should be done in all places even if it is the school setting. One of the reasons is to ensure that the young people and children gain some confidence and more on how they can challenge prejudice. It is very important for children to gain confidence on how they can challenge the discrimination and prejudice. This can be ensured by creating an environment in which everyone leading them promotes an anti-discriminatory environment.

Promoting anti-discriminatory practices also helps in making those who practice it have realistic expectations on young people and also on children. When all these groups of people are given equal opportunities, then they are usually expected to make very great success. The teachers and the parents of these people thus have realistic expectation of them as they are sure that they will not have a reason why they failed while others passed yet they were given equal opportunities.

It is important to promote anti-discriminatory practices in work with the young people and children in order to help create an ethos which is positive in the area where they are. This is very important in creating an atmosphere in which everybody feels valued as none is subjected to a negative ethos. This thus, makes everyone feel part of the system and is proud to play a role in making the system better. It also helps in making one realize that the young person is the centre of all the system. Anti-discriminatory practices also help in ensuring that when discriminatory practices happen can be easily recognized easily in the system.

8)      Describe how to challenge discrimination?

 It is very important to challenge any discrimination when it occurs in any system. If someone is discriminated and they expect you to help them challenge it yet you fail to do so, then it can be very dangerous and can lead to a greater level demoralisation. However, it is usually an easy thing to challenge this vice. This because it occurs in different areas and thus it can only be challenged using different approaches as per the situation in which it occurs.

In order to deal effectively with discrimination, it is very important to first understand what is right and what is wrong. The practices and procedures of challenging it especially legally should also be familiar. It is also important to learn why the discrimination has occurred because it may not be intentioned. Though you may not be able to change the way people view different things, it is very important to challenge any discrimination which they may practice.

Whenever challenging discrimination, it is very important to tell why whatever has being done or said is discriminatory. In addition, one should be able to tell the effect of such an action to the others so that they may understand how discriminatory it is. It is also important at this point to tell the people involved how they can practice anti-discriminatory practices. If you find that the rules applied in an institution like a school have any form of discrimination, it is important to point it to the general manager concerned. The best channel should be followed to avoid cases of inciting the people involved. Though the manager may not easily see it as a form of discrimination, it is quite important to tell how discriminatory it is in a simple and clear way.


9)      Describe what is meant by inclusion and inclusive practices?

In any setting, inclusion is all about allowing people to participate in different activities in the system regardless of their background or even the situation which they are in. All the people should be included in all activities in order to make them feel involved in all activities. Inclusion is not just about viewing the different people as one but more about giving different people equal opportunities in school and enabling them to access quality education like any other person in an education setting. This is thus, an environment in which everyone is recognized in their efforts. They should also be accepted and any difference or similarity between the people should be celebrated by all the people in the system. Thus, inclusion is more about given the involved parties equal opportunities, recognizing them and also accepting any difference they may have.  

Inclusive practices in the other hand is a process in which all the barriers to equal participation of different people are identified, understood and broken down to create an inclusive environment. These practises are based on the social model of disability in which schools and their heads are expected to always make reasonable judgements which will help in removing all the barriers in their setting and thus make all children be able to get equal opportunities to participate in different programs. These adjustments should be very broad and should relate to different areas like the physical environment, the curriculum and also on information circulation. Thus, inclusion practice should take great considerations of the needs of all the children and young people. It is just about meeting the needs of children with special needs but should go further than that.


10)  Describe features of an inclusive setting for children and young people?

An inclusive setting is very important in any education setting in order to make young people and children feel in the best place. This setting should use whole-school approach in teaching the students in order to create conducive environment. All the barriers in the setting should be recognized and the very effective strategies made to overcome such barriers.

In general, one of the key features of an inclusive setting is the recognition of the barriers present. Different children may have different barriers hindering them from learning effectively. They may not be able to n access the curriculum used in their education setting. Thus, it is very important to recognize these barriers. Another feature is the formulation of effective strategies to make remove or minimize these barriers. This can be done through a number of ways like adapting to this environment or even given personal support to the disadvantaged.

Another feature is education all children together regardless of their disabilities. Even when they need support, none should be segregated as this can lead to greater problems. The voice of all children and young people should be listened and given a lot of value to make them feel included in the process.  They can even be given a chance to form some student bodies or young people’s clubs in order to ensure that they can channel their voices.

An inclusive setting should also include clear policies and procedures. These should be flexible enough to be reviewed according to the needs. Another important feature is retraining the human personnel dealing with the young people and children on their values. All the stakeholders should also be involved in all activities if at all they need to create an inclusive setting since the views of all can be very important. In addition, other service providers like language therapists may be an important feature of an inclusive setting.


11)  Describe how inclusion works in own sector of the children’s workforce?

Inclusion in a sector of the children’s workforce works in a number of ways. However, for it to develop, all the people who work with children should be able to understand the principle and features of inclusion. Though these may differ from one organisation to the other, it is very important for all the people involved to understand the general concepts in this process. The children should thus be the main focus in ensuring inclusion in the children’s workforce.

Inclusion works through meeting all the needs of all the children in relation to their personal welfare, their development and also their learning. Every child is included in all activities and no child is disadvantaged in any way. It also works by making children aware of their individual targets.

Inclusion works also in making all the children have a similar system like a general curriculum which recognizes the all the pupils and also meets their needs and interests. This curriculum should thus, be quite inclusive and should not neglect the well being of the children. This curriculum should prepare the child to cope in a working environment which is full of people from different backgrounds. 

It also works through giving children a personalized learning. In personalized learning, all children are given a lot of support to make them progress in their activities. This is done without any form of partiality in terms of race, gender culture or any other thing.  Every child is given equal opportunity in inclusion and makes them stay health, safe, and also able to achieve their economic well-being. Inclusion thus, works by making every child matter in the system in the children’s workplace.


















Introduction to Law

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Australian Legal System

The Australian law is made up mono-cultural legal institutions and traditions which reflect the English origins. The British were influenced by Sophism, private ownership and contemporary ideas from the international law and hence, referred to the Aboriginal people as primitive without the capability of having lawful possession of Australia. This is a clear indication that they greatly influenced the colony of New South Wales and the entire law system of Australia. The English law was received and clarified by Australian Court Act 1828, providing the enactment of all laws and statutes in England to be applied to the courts of New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land. This is how the criminal and civil courts of the time were established, at the beginning of the New South Wales colony, which was adaptive, military and rudimentary in nature. The courts had the power to limit the powers of the Governor, although legality was not observed all the time (Vines, 2009). As a result, the colony’s law was sometimes more egalitarian in Australia than in Britain.

Following the formation of the New South Wales colony, the court system was also constituted in accordance with the English model, which had been incorporated through the Acts of British Parliament. The newly formed New South Wales Act 1823 warranted the establishment of a Supreme Court, which had the power to handle civil and criminal matters, with the same magnitude of the English courts. This resulted in a lot of transformations in the Australian law with many inferior courts being formed and the local legislature being changed to match the English one. Slight modifications in the system led to the development of the Australian legal system.


During the period, there were many doctrines from the English common law which continued to be used in representing the local Australian law. An example is the doctrine applied in the famous Donoghue v. Stevenson case, whereby the common law that was latent at the time was replaced with the modern negligence law from the English doctrines. Despite the fact that the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia was at the time an Act of the British Parliament, there was an observed increase in the nominal role of Britain in the Australian government by the 20th century. Therefore, the Australian Act was established after independence, hence the provisions of the statutes were not invoked by the Commonwealth till then. This can be justified by the fact that in 1986, Queen Elizabeth visited Australia to sign the legislation herself.

In 1901, the colonies of Australia became a federation after the British Parliament successfully passed the Commonwealth of Australia Act. This federal constitution was an evident product of almost ten years of discussion, which had its roots in both Australian democracy and British legal tradition. The constitution thus, provided for the manifestation of the Common wealth legislative power which was vested in the federal parliament, made up of a Senate, the Queen and a House of Representatives. Therefore, the Constitution had the power to deal with the powers of the federal parliament. It is pertinent to note that Australia’s legal system follows the Westminster system law and government, which was previously received from the original colonizers of the continent, who were British. This also covers the presence of two main and majority of minor political parties.



The Commonwealth was formed from the legislative act of the U.K. Parliament, which used the Australian Constitution to join the habitants of New South Wales, South Australia, Tasman, Victoria and Queensland. The Commonwealth was therefore, the one indissoluble federation formed by the six states, constituting the country’s judicial system. The reason why the Australian colonies decided to federate the constitution was that they expected to achieve the benefits of a central government. Although the Australian Constitution was written by delegates from the country, they are said to have been influenced by the traditional English legal system. The English legal tradition governed the establishment of the Australian colonies, which were the reason for the development of a completely new Australian legal system.

The ultimate legal system of Australia has undergone significant changes, which can be traced to the western ideas and other western influences, from its traditional origins (Vines, 2009). The traditional western law caused a lot of transformations in the Australian legal system, particularly the common laws and those regarding the aboriginal population. This is based on the fact that Australian law was converted to British law by the settlement of colonies and not by conquest. Australia happens to possess a common law legal system which has its roots from the western traditional law, but is slightly differentiated from it by the fact that it relies on precedent; this is through the doctrine of precedent. This common law is what forms the basis of the Australian legal system. The law therefore, results from the inheritance of the British parliamentary system, which was able to develop separately from the monarchy and canon rule of the church.




The main reason why New South Wales is considered to mark the place where the British influence on the Australian law begun is the fact that; it was the first British colony, which had military government during the early settlement years. The six states identified in the previous page were created from the New South Wales, because of the large size of the country and hence, formed six separate colonies.  Each of these colonies had a governor who was appointed by the British Parliament, who strictly followed the British legal system being above the Australian law and not answerable to any of the Australian leaders (Vines, 2009). It is during this period that free settlers started requesting for their own governments, which was later granted by the British Imperial Parliament. During the period, New South Wales underwent the establishment of dual houses of parliament, the legislative council and the legislative assembly. The former was made up of appointed members while the latter constituted of elected members.

The establishment of separate state government is what led to the concept of federating the law and the following formation of the Commonwealth. However, the legislative power of the individual states governments belonged to the Australian Parliament, which was under the scrutiny of the British law. Although the British legal system is responsible for the development of the Australian law, the law has undergone tremendous changes from other western influences over the years, particularly in the 21st century. Therefore, the Australian Commonwealth is a jurisdiction of the common law, which is a federation forming part of the British Commonwealth, whereby Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state. The queen may not be in Australia but she has a representative, who is the Governor-General.



The background of the Australian law is the Constitution, which is embodied by the doctrine of separation of powers, enacted by the British Act of Parliament in 1901. Although there was a widespread of indigenous population in 1788, Australia happens to have been first settled as a British penal colony during the time. It is evident that the degree of influence by the western traditional law is huge, owing to the many changes and western legal ideas incorporated into the Australian legal system. The Australian Constitution may have an English background but it owes a lot to both Canada and United States, as well as the federation of Switzerland (Vines, 2009). These three federations existed during the period it was being drafted and therefore, had significant contributions to its contents.

This shows that other western laws have also played major roles in the current legal system of the country. Moreover, the Australian Constitution has also been used as a model to direct the formation of later federations such as Pakistan, Malaysia, India and Nigeria. This makes the constitutional case law of the mentioned states an object of interest for the Australian lawyers. Despite the fact that Australia as a country has a president who is suppose to be the head of state, Queen Elizabeth remains its head of state because of the British nature of the constitution and the Parliament. Any changes that have been tried to detach the constitution from the British law have been vain because of the lack of voting majority to back them up. This has been made more difficult by the presence of two houses in parliament who have to agree on the course of action before any changes can be enacted.




On another note, the legal system of any country, other than Australia, is open to international influences. Despite the fact that such influences may be unrecognized and unacknowledged, they manifest their effects in the adjectival and substantive law applied by the judges in the judiciary. This means that although the formative, original influence of the Australian legal culture came from the Great Britain, it became part of the international legal community when it received the common law from England. The international legal community is made up of United States, Canada, New Zealand, India and Ireland (Vines, 2009). Thus, the societies that make part of this community have received distinctive influences from the law, which has resulted in substantial improvements in their judiciaries.

Although most of the Australian judges who are not happy with the influences have showed negative attitudes towards the international legal community, those who have observed the benefits have been eager to respond to the new forces brought in by the influences. Therefore, this is the reason why New South Wales was initially made part of the British Bar, since all members of the colony were part of it. The fact that New South Wales did not have an Australian born Chief Justice until the time when the Parliament was formed was the reason why all members of the English Bar had automatic entitlement to admission into the New South Wales Bar. Before the Australian Act was enacted, the Privy Council’s Judicial Committee formed part of the judicial structure of Australia. This shows how much the global influence has helped the Australian legal system in attaining its juridical independence, although they have not completely detached from the British influences.





Vines, Prue, Law and Justice in Australia: Foundations of the Legal System (Oxford University: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, 2009).

Female Paedophilia






Female Paedophilia

Chapter One


            Generally, research surrounding female sexual offending is limited. Much of what many scholars have been interested in over the last many years has been on male sexual offenders. While research on male sexual offending is somehow scant, less often is research pertaining to sexual offenses committed by women. Available literature has generally indicated female-perpetrated sexual abuse as a rare occurrence. Research has shown that most sexual offending normally involves male perpetrators (Denov 2004). However, there is need of further research in order to expand our understanding of female sexual offending.

            Only few research studies have explored female paedophilia. Most of the knowledge we have about paedophilia is only based on mainly male perpetrators. However, our conceptions of women offenders who act outside expected sexual scripts are normally formed by the existing femininity stereotypes (Gannon et al 2012). This paper is aimed at expanding the existing literature in area of female paedophilia, while examining how females are constituted as far as child sexual offending is concerned.    

            Research has clearly acknowledged that the few resources available to address the issue of female sexual offending have been due, partly to conceptions in the society about women perpetrators. Before 1980s, females were perceived as being unable to sexually abuse (Hird 2002). Therefore, research committed to women sexual offending is limited up to date. Our traditional gender stereotypes and norms that inform us about our daily experiences and actions depict women as non-aggressive and sexually passive, while males are often portrayed as over-sexed as well as the key initiators of violence and sex.

It is hence hard to figure out a female sexual offender based on our sexual stereotypes of femininity involving females who are expected and supposed to be nurturing and caring. These stereotypes and norms surrounding femininity normally exclude females as sexual offenders (Hird 2002). Since there is scant research surrounding area of female sexual offending, it may be important to examine at the manner in which various criminal justice system responds to such offenses.

            The prevailing research has given evidence that men normally do have deviant and aberrant behaviour than women. It is also clear that the number of men who are paedophiles is far much compared to the number of women who are paedophiles (Gannon et al 2012). In past, females were not perceived to be perpetrators of sexual offenses except in very rare cases. Women who committed child sexual abuses were seen by the society as being seriously mentally disturbed. Maternal incest in particular was considered to be very rare. However, recently, there has been more discussion of women being possible perpetrators of sexual abuse. Some researchers have suggested that this problem is not rare as it had been previously assumed. But there is still confusion and disagreement about how frequently women abuse children and why the problem of female paedophile has been under reported in the appropriate criminal justice systems and institutions. 

            Notable scholars have been interested in this field and have investigated the role of sexual norms as well as female sexual offending. Some of these researchers who have investigated this area include E. D Nelson (1994) and Myriam Denov (2004). Research has further investigated how stereotypes operate through media reporting and the law. This paper provides critical analysis which combines sexual stereotypes focused on media and legal discourse.

Research goals

            The main aim of this research is to give contribution to the existing or available literature adjoining female sexual offending. It will investigate how female sexual offending is interpreted through news media reporters and criminal justice officials. Certain theories such as structuration theories are very important in analyzing female offenders in this research. Available research illustrates that media reporting and legal proceedings mainly rely on societal norms and structures to sanctify hegemonic discourses. This process influences how individuals conceive female sexual offending. Furthermore, this research will explore the existing discourses surrounding various child sexual abuse cases. As such, it will examine how females are constituted as far as female sexual offending is concerned. The research will analyze several electronic news articles and court transcripts of female sexual offending so as to meet the intended goals.

Research questions

Research questions that will be addressed by this work are as follows:

  1. Has implicit sex-role stereotyping prevented detection of female paedophilia?
  2. Why do women become paedophiles?
  3. Can we prevent and cure this illness?


Chapters’ overview

Chapter 2 is literature review and provides broad overview of research concerned with female paedophile and female sexual offending. General research clearly lays underpinning for this chapter, illustrating in detail what we currently understand about female paedophile. In addition, the literature review particularly analyzes research focused on law and societal norms being discursive by examining at sexual stereotypes involved in various legal proceedings. To start this review, it will outline subsequent information that is presently known about women sexual offenders. Offender typologies, victim characteristics and demographic characteristics are explained in detail.

Chapter 3 describes methodology which is used in this paper. This chapter provides overview of how data was obtained and analyzed and clearly specifies how data was coded.  Available data from books, article journals, court transcripts and news journal were used. Power-knowledge theory of Foucault is outlined to inform discourse analysis used in the methodology. Furthermore, Discourse analysis of electronic news report and court transcripts has been employed in this paper. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the methodology. This includes retrieval data, codes used and operational definitions, discussion ethical issues and method used in the analysis.     

Chapter 4 provides discussion of research findings. This chapter specifically outlines themes as well as links theme to available or existing literature. In addition, it discusses further ideas for viable future research, benefits, limitations and even theoretical contributions.

Chapter 5 is the concluding remarks. It shows how the problem of female paedophile has been persistent though few researchers have been interested in this area. It further show how there is limited research in this area of female paedophiles. In addition, it summarizes the how implicit sex-role stereotyping prevents the detection of female paedophilia. This chapter as well provides recommendation of how this issue of female paedophile can be fully addressed and how it requires further research. This chapter discuss each theme as well as draw connection to broader literature of female paedophilia. Important aspect in this chapter will be discussion of theoretical contribution developed by this paper. It will as well explore benefits and limitation of this study.



Chapter 2

Literature review


            As far as female paedophile is concerned, women are generally viewed as betraying their sexual and maternal norms. Women who sexually abuse children not only act outside their motherly role of being trustworthy and caring, but also outside their gender roles of being sexually passive (Denov 2003). Due to this, discursive manoeuvring in such cases differs from cases where women commit other various forms of violence without any sexual nature.

While body of literature related to female paedophilia and sexual offending is scarce, few studies have attempted to explore this topic of female paedophile. It will investigate some of the research related to women paedophilia. I will explore the victim characteristics, typologies, and demographic characteristics of women sexual offenders. Generally, this review indicates that explanation of female paedophilia can be based on the existing social conception and stereotypes surrounding femininity. Thus, social stereotypes of femininity that normally defines women sexual offenses should be investigated through research.

In reviewing research on women paedophiles, Denov (2003) point that females may be perpetrators of children sexual abuse than it is realized, but believes that there are several barriers such as societal conceptions and stereotypes that prevent recognition and detection of female paedophiles by the criminal justice systems and the society. Another barrier he suggested is overestimation of incest taboo, whereby taboo is believed to be strong in that sexual abuse by females is a rare aberration. The next possible barrier to detection and recognition of women paedophiles is the exaggeration of feminist explanation of sexual abuse. In this case, children sexual abuse may be considered as due to direct result of cultural socialization which results to male dominance (Gannon & Rosea, 2009). In addition, there is overgeneralization of empirical observation that female sexual offenders are rare. This report frequency in literature does not accurately reflect the actual occurrence of female sexual offenses. Though it is evident that there are far few women sexual offender than men sexual offenders, the number of women who perpetrate sexual offenses may be still significant.  

To start this review, I will outline subsequent information that is presently known about women sexual offenders. This information will include: offender typologies, victim characteristics and demographic characteristics are explained in detail.

Female sexual offenders

Offender typologies

            Over the past years, there have been efforts to group types of women sexual offenders into various specific typologies. These attempts have been developed by scholars so as to describe characteristics of offenders more accurately. Researchers commonly identify three main categories of female paedophilia: those who are coerced into offending mainly by male partner, pre-disposed offenders (those with history of victimization) and those who normally abuse against young children or adolescents (such as a teacher, nurturer or lover).

            However, Vandiver and Kercher (2004) researched 471 registered women sexual offenders in Texas and categorized them into six categories. From their study, they identified six main categories so as to classify female paedophiles. The first category was referred to as heterosexual nurturers and encompassed 146 female sexual offenders. Heterosexual nurturers only abused against males, and they were mainly engaged in nurturing and care giving roles towards their targets or victims. This group included individuals such as mentor or teachers. Female in this group do not either believe or think their behaviour is offensive towards adolescents and children they target.

            The second group is referred to as noncriminal homosexual offenders. This category of sexual offenders encompassed 114 women. This category targeted females and never had subsequent arrests immediately after their initial arrests due to child sexual abuse. Such women were unlikely to commit sexual assault. According to Vandiver and Kercher (2004), it is more likely that these women were committing such offenses with male accomplices. However, they claimed that there was no enough evidence that could underpin this argument.

            The third group of female sexual offenders was women who Vandiver and Kercher termed them as female sexual predators. They were 112 in total, and the women categorized in this group exhibited sexual offending behaviours after their arrests following a child sexual abuse. Generally, this category exhibit higher arrest rates that all other categories.

            The fourth category is referred to as young adult child exploiters. 50 women categorized in this group had offended against small or young children (both female and male victims). Women in this category were more likely to have used sexual assault while committing their offenses. This group included females who were closely related to the victims, such as mothers, while others were never related.

            Fifth group is termed as homosexual criminals. In their study, Vandiver and Kercher classified 22 women in this group. This group of offender exhibited the greatest rate of arrest, both after and before arrest for related child sexual abuse. They as well victimized even older children. These women were mainly arrested for coercing children victims into prostitution, but not for sexual assault. The researchers claim that this category may commit their sexual offense with economic gain being their key motivating factor.

            The last group is referred to as aggressive homosexual offenders. Vandiver and Kercher (2004) classified 17 women in this group. Victims in this group were female adults and were more likely to have used sexual assault.

            Ford (2006) stresses on the fact that unlike other researchers, Vandiver and Kercher did not categorize female offenders into a distinct group that encompasses women who are forced into offending by males. Because of the limited research available about female paedophile typologies, and inconsistencies between research studies, it is hence quite clear that more research need to be taken on populations of female sexual offenders.

Demographic characteristics

            Available data indicate that women typically commit sexual crime when they are young. Demographic research on female paedophiles shows that the average age range for female sexual offenders is during their 20s and 30s (Gannon & Rosea, 2009). However, some other studies have documented females perpetrating sexual crimes from tender age of 4 years to women aged 70 years.

            Most of the research on female paedophiles has reported that most female sexual offenders are Caucasian. Vandiver and Kercher (2004) investigated victim and offender characteristics of female paedophiles registered in Texas. The scholars reported that 12% were African American while 88% were Caucasian.

            However, only few studies have documented marital status of female paedophiles during the time they committed the offense. Faller (2006) examined 72 female paedophiles undergoing treatment after abusing 332 children. Demographic characteristics indicate 27 (37.5%) of the females were married, 23 were single (32%), 3 were separated (4.2%), 1 was windowed (1.4%), 12 living with partner (16.6%) and 6 were divorced (8.3%).

Victim characteristics

            Available research indicates that female paedophiles normally tend to target children. Vandiver and Kercher (2004) examined 40 cases of female paedophiles from Arkansas. They found out that all the victims were less than 16 years.

            Faller (2006) conducted a study in which he researched females in clinical setting particularly who had abused children. In this research, he analyzed 72 women who particularly had sexually abused total of 332 children. The study indicated that female offenders had victimized average of 4.5 children. In addition, most of the offenders in that sample, (48.6%), had abused both male and female victims. 40.3% had abused female victims only while 11.1% had abused males only.

            However, there is no agreement within the research if women consistently commit such crime alone or they collude with partner. Prevailing research does not claim that women victimize children who can be easily assessed or who they are close to them (Gannon et al 2012). However, some research proposes that female paedophiles may be acting out of self interest and alone. But some may act with a partner or accomplice. Literature proposes that female paedophiles may gain access to the children through seeking employment in institutions involving children. Faller (2006) analyzed women undergoing treatment after abusing children. Out of total of 72 women examined, he found that 33 of them involved numerous intra-familial offenders, that is, involved accomplice or man related to victim. 16 of the offender on the other hand offended their victims, involving numerous extra-familial offenders (accomplice not related to the victim).

            Fascinatingly, high rate of mental retardation or mental illness among studies of the clinical population suggest that most of these offenders might have sexually abused children not due to sexual deviance but because of male dominance, since they committed such offenses with leadership of males (Faller 1995: 27).

            But research indicates that when it comes to female paedophiles, female victims are slightly more than male victims. Research on female sexual offenders as well indicates that female paedophiles normally commit crime against victims they know, though they rarely offend against strangers. In addition, research indicates that females tend to offend against their victims over the long-term, but offend over short duration of time. Literature further claims that in many cases involving female paedophiles, violence is not used. But there are some studies that report that female sexual offender sometimes use violence when trying to abuse their male victims. Research further indicates that men are less likely to be diagnosed with certain psychiatric impairment compared to female sexual offenders.

However, it is worth noting that most of the studies are mainly drawn from clinical samples. Due to that, these studies may have reported high levels of mental illnesses among female sexual offenders (Gannon & Rosea, 2009). Only few studies that have made effort of quantifying prevalence rates of females who have sexually offended have reported prevalence level as less than 5% percent of the overall sex offenders.

Self-report studies in most cases tend to produce a higher incidence of female paedophiles. This can be as a result of the fact that most of the prevalence rates are normally based on the population of female paedophiles (Gannon et al 2012). But it is broadly acknowledged that female paedophiles are underreported to necessary authorities. Hence, research proposes that self-reports can be accurate in giving evidence of prevalence of female paedophiles due to underreporting of such crimes.

Female paedophiles and sexual scripts

            Due to existing sexual scripts, women are generally stereotyped by the society as being unable to commit sexual offenses against children. Empirical research has indicated this stereotype is widely held among police, legal, court professionals, media and public, psychiatric and clinical professionals as well as among the sex abuse victims.

            Female offender may often be deemed as normal or mentally capable depending on her conformity to sexual script regardless of crimes committed. For instance, in Baxter (2003), a female criminal charged with manslaughter, arson and murder was discussed as follows: “a decent straightforward girl….open-minded with normal emotions and good social skills. I could not detect any sign of mental illness or any other abnormal behaviour that could be described as personality disorder (Baxter 2003). In contrast, reports on counterpart male offenders normally include few psychological statements as compared to women reports.

            Furthermore, discourse surrounding dangerousness of women following a certain violent crimes is typically absent. Discourse normally encourages treatment of women to be completed in their home due to their family roles such as childcare, despite the striking fact that the children they will be caring may be at risk of becoming violent crime victims (Gannon et al 2012). This serves the role in that female paedophiles are discursively suited to societal place of a woman, which is taking care of the family.  

            Re-alignment of female paedophile’s sexual transcripts is normally done for various reasons. For instance, when female paedophiles sexually abuse, this should be seen as more dangerous than when men abuse children sexually. Women are generally perceived as caring and trustworthy, and as individuals who can be relied on especially in times of help. Due to that, female sexual abusers hence shatter the feeling of safety and security for children, thus making it hard to accept.

Neutrality of the law

            Extensive research has been conducted pertaining how law operates ostensibly under basic principles of equality in access to justice. Law should over utmost neutrality level when responding to legal matter issues. Upon close examination, legal proceedings appear to be sometimes based on deep-seated bias, where by law place preference to some types of people.

            Some studies points to the clear fact that criminal justice system and law has traditionally maintained patriarchy social order. Researchers have highlighted this chivalry hypothesis as a good illustration of why there are just few females who enter criminal justice system as offenders. This chivalry hypothesis presumes that women are usually dealt with more softly than males when they perpetrate crimes stereotypical to their own femininity (Baxter 2003). On one hand, females who commit crimes which do not represent femininity societal conceptions are treated severer than males who commit same offense.

            Stereotypical femininity notions depict females as not being harmful or dangerous. As such, this translates into some legal officials being sympathetic to female paedophiles. As a result, greater penal leniency is provided to some women who have committed offenses while severe penalties are given for women who commit offenses which violate traditional femininity conceptions like sexual offenses (Gannon et al 2012).

            Harsher penalties for female paedophiles as compared to males develop the notion that criminal investigators are less tolerant to female as sexual abusers. Furthermore, research indicates those females who commit crimes against their sexual scripts in most cases are judged in accordance to psychological fitness. 

Media reporting

            This section examines how news media uphold various stereotypical conceptions regarding gender. Research has explained how journalists and news media try to remain objective and neutral while reporting their news. Implicit within their reporting are certain social values which are reproduced and translated among their news. Therefore, experts who need to remain neutral in media like reporters develop news stories based on certain subjective meanings which are then applied in social events (Baxter 2003).

            Research has admitted that news media normally have impact on perception of the society towards child sexual offenders. In his research of child sexual offending perceptions, Gavin (2005), points that male sexual offenders are normally labelled as evil by the media. This consequently impacts notion of people to the male sexual offenders. It yields into perception that sexual offenders are violent strangers who target vulnerable females.


            Literature related to female paedophile is very limited. Prevailing research recognize that the few studies that have been interested in the area of female paedophiles normally take into account the obvious gender scope to child abuse. However, research has started to recognize that legal and social responses to female paedophiles are greatly based on gender’s societal expectations. It is worth noting that media, law and the society work together in reproducing, maintaining and substantiating patriarchal values as well as upholding various societal conceptions and stereotypes of gender (Baxter 2003). These societal conceptions and stereotypes have impacted and prevented detention of the female paedophiles in the society. This is because the law enforcers and criminal justice systems have been having gender biasness which has made the process of detecting female paedophiles to be difficult. Even when law enforcers apprehend a person who has committed female sexual offense, they have been dealing with that case with a lot of legal leniency. This is the reason why we have only few cases that are reported in the appropriate institutions such as criminal justice systems and juvenile correctional institutions.     


Chapter three



The first part of research process was to conduct extensive review of international literature related to female sex offending. The NSPCC library catalogue was searched and other academic databases such as BIDS, Child data, BIDS and Web of Science. Additional literature was as well identified through use of various other listed references by authors in books, journal articles and websites. The review drew attention on the need of developing clear understanding on manner in which criminal justice system and child protection respond to female paedophiles across the world, and to identify means in which this can be improved.

            Due to that, multi-strategy research process was created that encompassed review of existing policies relating to female paedophiles within criminal justice systems and child protection including: electronic surveys, official statistics and in-depth interviews. Main aim of interviews was to examine perceptions of professionals on the level of their awareness of the issue of female paedophile. The aim of surveys on the other hand was to explore overview of various policies and how they help in addressing the issue of female paedophiles in various nations across the globe. The use of available research from books and journal articles was to examine the issue of female paedophile and identify differences in risk assessment as well as management process among both male and female sexual offenders.      

Furthermore, Discourse analysis of electronic news report and court transcripts has been employed in this paper. This chapter provides a detailed overview of the methodology. This includes retrieval data, codes used and operational definitions, discussion ethical issues and method used in the analysis.

Retrieval of court transcripts

            This dissertation uses reported legal proceedings of various cases heard in courts across the globe. These cases were obtained from mainly state of Wisconsin because of the availability of female paedophilia cases to the public. These cases could be easily found using online public offender registry.

            So as to obtain court transcripts related to these criminal cases, numerous steps were carried out. First, this state allow public to access their online sex offender registry. Immediately after assessing the sites, the names of all searched. Search of all last names of the offenders revealed that sex offender registry had 2,600. Within the list of sex offenders, majority were men while just 41 offenders were female. Two cases were obtained from the sample of 41female paedophile.

            However, not all cases of female paedophile are listed in Wisconsin sex offender registry. This may be due to the fact that there are certain recent cases that could not have been entered into database. Thus, news articles involving female paedophiles within the states were hence searching using Google and other search engines. Terms search as female paedophiles, and female sexual offenders in Wisconsin were used so as to determine if other cases existed in that State.

The cases analyzed in this case were obtained in news article databases LexisNexis and Factiva, using key terms such as location and last name of the offender. Some of the cases which this study examined include:

  1. USA vs. Roger Smith,
  2. State of Wisconsin vs. Anne Knopf,
  3. State of Wisconsin vs. Marnie Staehly, and USA vs. Carrie Wheaton.  

            Most cases within the registry were not selected. This is mainly because there was less or no news article with information of the case. Once a certain case was discovered with enough or various news articles, court reports were derived by requesting the court clerk to assist with information concerning that offense. These reports are publicly available. Court reporters prepared transcripts linked with such cases, but for a minimal fee. Fee was calculated based on number of pages and cost of each page. Once those transcripts were complete, they were sent to the researcher.

            Cases were chosen for various reasons. It is important to include numerous forms of female paedophiles including. In our case, cases include: female and a partner accused of offending three female children, female mentor accused of victimizing one female adolescent, and a female educator accused of offending two male adolescent. These cases were chosen because they are unique and they provide good analysis of different forms of cases involving female paedophiles.

A theory of loss

            Methodology of multiple case study materials is used in starting stages of any research effort. Case studies are important because they provide basis for development of hypothesis and theory that may be effectively used to controlled experimental approach (Best 2008). The below case studies were specific instances whereby we can suggest that a major loss experienced by women created a readiness and vulnerability to become involved in acts of paedophile.

            One type of offender observed is a female who has a long history of background losses combined with lack of secure childhood relationships and lack of health. This woman may not be having psychotic disorder but may be apt to be emotionally isolated and insecure (Gannon et al 2012). Female paedophile behaviour may be stimulated by a specific loss and relationship between victim and female perpetrator is sexual and emotional as well as appears to be involved in primarily to satisfy her emotional needs.

            Though there may appear as if there is no adequate research data available to support this hypothesis, various studies reveal a relationship between experience of mother with stress and the increased risk for child abuse. From observation of a child-stepmother interactions, these studies further suggests that remarriage of a stepmother by a biological father, this may put the boys to be at risk of being sexually molested than the girls in that given family.

            Those studies represent many efforts of locating regularities on how parents interact with their children and how child abuse occurs. This methodology proposes that stress is a major factor that contributes to women to molest and abuse children. It suggests that experience of stressful life may cause abusive relationships (Gagnon & Simon 2005). Loss is an event that can trigger stress. Under influence of tremendous emotional loss, a female may be less controlled, more responsive and needy to a relationship that could be misperceived as positive and affectionate. Given, opportunity, availability of victim or child, and environmental stimuli, a woman can progress in step by step gradual movement into full exploitation of a child.         

Retrieval of news articles

            The analysis as well relies on assessment of electronic articles adjoining cases used. So as to retrieve those news articles, last name of the offender was entered as key search terms in Factiva and LexisNexis databases. Furthermore, the search terms were as well entered into various search engines such as Google search engine in order to maximize news articles linked with each case. Therefore, this paper relies on analysis of media news, electronic articles, books and journal articles.

Statement of facts

            Court transcripts normally give information on actual legal proceedings of each case involved. However, court transcripts sometimes do not include certain statements of facts such as information surrounding how the offender committed the crime (Baxter 2003). Therefore, it was essential to derive information on such cases outside the news articles and court transcripts. So as to obtain this important information, the primary researcher called police departments involved in such cases.


            All the information used in this paper including electronic news article and court transcripts was available to public. University ethics approval was therefore required since publicly accessible stored documents were in this paper as sample data. So as to protect the vulnerable individuals in the court transcripts, names of victims and witnesses were not disclosed. We used Pseudo-names was provided to these people.

Strategies for analysis

            This part describes detailed method of discourse analysis. So as to do so, concepts such as text and discourse are defined. In addition, connections are made from theoretical concepts and discourse analysis. Discourse analysis methodology is described in detail.

            It is essential to explain discourse analysis so as to better understand methodology in this research. Discourse analysis is broadly used to examine communication found in mediums like texts (Widdowson 2007). This form of analysis is concerned with investigating how a specific set of linguistic related to an object and manner of depicting it shape the way we can comprehend that object (Bryman 2004). Discourse analysis examines at certain meanings portrayed through communication, which in turn discursively reproduces and constitutes societal conceptions. Discursive analysis is mainly concerned with production of social ideologies, not only on how these ideas are developed but also how they are maintained overtime.

            Widdowson (2007) argues that people cannot make logic out of sex by simply focusing on language itself. Therefore, it is important to understand meaning behind text. These messages, meanings, beliefs and ideas inherent within texts are what are referred to as discourse. Texts may be used to impose and express various ways of perceiving the world. This discourse or meaning may be interpreted in various ways by individuals. These interpretations may be based on social context in which producer and the receiver of the discourse is located. Therefore, it is association between discourse and the social world which reveal how people are constituted in various contexts.

            Discourse analysis mainly relies on Michel Foucault’s theoretical work, as process in which this method may be contextualized and for which importance of discourse may be understood. The work of Foucault exhibit how sexual scripts can be produced discursively. Discourse is normally upheld by individuals and social institutions (Widdowson 2007). Social structures develop social standards of the suitable gender behaviour, substantiated as well as reciprocated by people who in turn conduct gender based on such social conceptions.

            Foucault examines institutional knowledge serving to constitute and produce subjects. Social institutions produce truths that are in turn closely relates to specific identities. Individuals hence speak of a subject through a discourse on basis of knowledge produced from social institutions (Baxter 2003). Hence, discourses refer to practices that analytically form object which they are speaking of. Through discourse analysis, an individual can define and determine how people are constituted through social institution.

            Sexual scripts that essentially define how females and males are expected to behave in the society create discourse that can serve to constitute individuals on the basis of their gender dichotomy. Females who act outside the perceived or assigned sexual scripts are hence regarded as socially wretched (Widdowson 2007). In addition, claims to truth and discourses enable people who fall out of their societal norms, like deviant sexual behaviour, to be controlled by disciplinary practices so as to re-align them with contemporary sexuality conceptions.

            We can investigate court proceedings in order to determine how people are represented as legal objects. Discourse Analysis is of great importance in revealing how certain institutional knowledge is maintained through news reporting and legal proceedings. Discourse Analysis is important tool of use in this research. Discourse Analysis lends insight social conception of masculinity and femininity, and how this can be exhibited during sexual abuse and court proceedings cases (Widdowson 2007). This paper examines discourse used by defence lawyers and crown during court proceedings. This paper analyzes news media in order to determine societal gender conceptions as they relate to offense commission.

            The table below shows codes used in this paper for measurement, which revealed initial codes that helped in guiding news articles and court transcripts. These codes further provide definition of themes.

Codes used for measurement

Code Title



Mentally Ill

Prevailing research has identified psychological characterization process whereby females who offend outside their assigned sexual scripts are regarded as having mental illnesses. Statements in court transcripts and news articles related to mental unfitness of female paedophiles are coded as mentally ill.  

Denov 2004


In most cases, it is assumed that female offenders are not able to commit female sexual offenses on their own, and is likely to be forced to offend a male partner. The female sexual offenders are sometimes portrayed as victim of circumstance beyond their control. The code forced is used when it is deemed that there is attribution to other circumstances beyond control of the offender to justify the offense. 

Ford 2006


Numerous studies have emphasized, women sexual offenders are generally perceived as harmless compared to male sexual offenders. The code harmless identifies subjects where actions of women sexual offenders are justified as harmless to the victim.  

Vandiver and Kercher 2004


Numerous studies have identified that female paedophiles are perceived or viewed as seducing victims, rather than construed as assaulting or sexually abusing their victims. This action is generally seen as relationship. The code seducer is used when the female paedophile is assumed to have involved in consenting relationship with the victim or child.  

Denov 2004, Ford 2006

Good mother

Research indicates that crimes of female offenders are justified because they are good mothers. If they conduct stereotypical familial duties such as child care, they are less likely to be punished since they do not step out of their sexual scripts. This code is used when analyzing cases related to female paedophiles mother duties, as well as expected results such as caring and passive.

Comack and Balfour 2004


Literature states that female paedophiles are in most cases perceived as being evil or cold due to the striking fact that they offend outside their stereotypical sexual script of being helpful and caring. Non-maternal code is used in circumstances where the offender is deemed as being evil, non-caring and not acting as responsible mother.

Gavin 2005


Cases that involve female paedophiles who commit violent sexual crimes are normally depicted as unusual. Female paedophiles who commit violent sexual offenses are treated as anomaly. This code is often used in severe cases whereby women offenders of most of the child sexual crimes are deemed to be unusual because women should not be sexually molesting children by examining at their stereotypical role in the family.

Denov 2004, Ford 2006


Women who act in contrast to their sexual scripts are normally deemed as masculine. Society often believes that males are the ones who normally abuse children sexually, due to the image of un-restrained and over-sexed person who cannot control himself. When a female perpetrate a crime that supports male sexual scripts, they is labelled as masculine. 

Hird 2002


Literature highlights that female offenders are not perceived as having sexual interest in molesting and abusing children. The society does not expect certain cases such as female paedophilia to happen. This code is used in cases where offense was not attributed to sexual interest.

Denov 2004, Hird 2002

Prior victimization

Prevailing research suggests that legal officers find cases of female sexual offender cases easy to defend. This is mainly because lawyers normally use previous victimization incidences to mitigate culpability of female. This code is used in instances when reliance on past history of victimization and abuse of the perpetrator is used so as to justify her offenses. 

Comack and Balfour 2004


Plan of analysis

            The next step is to analyze news articles and court transcripts. The following chapter details background of various cases. Details of the offender and victim are outlines as well as charges and outcomes of the cases. 





Results and Discussion

Extend of female sexual offenders

            Since sex victimization is generally underreported, reliable information concerning cases of sex crimes offended by women is difficult to derive. Despite that, a number of sources can be used to collectively provide enough estimate of scope of this problem, including available data from juvenile and criminal justice agencies, victimization reports and representation in various sex offender treatment agencies.

            The national criminal justice statistics disclose that of all offenders who reach the appropriate criminal authorities, men account for more than 90% of these cases. Particularly, women arrests account for 1% of forcible rape and 6% of other related sex offenses (Oliver, 2007).

It is interestingly to state that while the general arrests of adult females for sex crimes has significantly decreased over the last three decades, number of girls in adolescence coming to juvenile courts due to committing sexual offenses has tremendously increased. Between 1997 and 2002, the number of juvenile cases involving women-perpetrated non-violent sex offenses, forcible rape, and violent sex offenses increased by 42%, 6% and 62%, respectively (Nathan & Ward 2002).

In contrast, about 140,000 men are incarcerated in various prisons due to sex crimes, while only 1,500 women are approximated to be in prison due to these offenses. They only represent 1% of adults in prison for sex offenses. Similarly, girls in their adulthood represent 2% of all sex offenders in juvenile residential across the nation. In the community, females represent 12% of paroles and 23% of probationers. Since sex offenders represent fraction of adults under supervision, fraction of adult female sex offenders under supervision is very small. Data available in sex offender treatment programs across the entire nation show that about 33% of programs mainly provide service to women sex offenders. 

Theoretical contribution

This paper further contributes much to theories pertaining female paedophile. Messerchmidt (2004), crime and structured action is important in conceptualizing various cases of female sexual offenders. Female criminality conceptions may be based on expectations of femininity. The ways in which people justify female sexual offending can be often based on various social constructions in regard to sexual scripts. 

            Messerschmidt asserts that our gender conceptions are normally upheld by individuals at micro-level and by social institutions and macro-level. These conceptions are normally regenerated in a dualistic structure whereby individuals such as media reporters and legal officials, and institutions such as media and law institutions maintain and uphold stereotypic gender conceptions (Messerschmidt 2004).

            This theory can be applied in numerous cases of female paedophiles. The paper showed that legal officials can discursively position female sexual offenders into their traditional sexual scripts and stereotypes of being harmless, passive and maternal individuals.

Factors influencing recognition of female-perpetrated sex offenses

            Generally, available information asserts that adolescent girls and adult women represent less percentage of sex offenders. Enduring question is whether the available data is a true reflection of the under-occurrence or women sex offending is under-recognized, with main factors contributing to may seem as under-representation of women as sex offenders. Both appear to be true. Generally, sexual crimes, which majority of all arrests encompass men, seems that there is no any reason to perceive that women would be responsible for greater fraction of sex crimes (Oliver, 2007). Furthermore, there is enough evidence that show that sexual victimization committed by women is more likely to be unrecognized or under recognized. There are several factors that contribute to under recognition of female-perpetrated sex offenses including cultural stereotypes, difficulties with research methodologies, unique dynamics and professional biasness that impact disclosure of victims.

Socio-cultural influences

            Traditionally, sex offending has been perceived by the society as a crime for men only. This is partly due to the pervasive stereotypes of gender role about women as caring, trustworthy and nurturing individuals, and by their nature, they are unlikely to involve themselves in harmful or aggressive behaviour towards other people (Denov 2004). In addition, there are potential and operating sexual beliefs that portray women as submissive and passive recipients while men as controlling sexual encounters.

            There are also misconceptions about ability of females to sexually abuse males, with some people believing that males cannot be physically aroused especially if they are not willing. This does not only reflect scant knowledge of physiological responses, but as well proposes narrow view of women committed sexual victimization as only involving males (Gagnon & Simon 2005). Another contributing factor to under-awareness of the society to female-committed sex crimes is the imbalance and sheer volume of cases involving men as main offender who are normally brought to attention to appropriate legal authorities. 

Professional biases

            Perceptions and beliefs at macro level can further influence the responses and perspectives at micro level. In fact, there is enough evidence that the wider cultural biases play great role in willingness of treatment and criminal justice professionals to acknowledge female paedophile or any other female sex offenses. For instance, researchers have found out that training of various law enforcement officers is mostly geared at females as victims and men as perpetrators of sexual offenses (Wijkman etal 2010). As such, the combination of professional biases with the existing role stereotypes, impacts responses of law enforcers to female-committed sex offenses. Particularly, research disclosed that law enforcers react with disbelief to any allegations involving females. The research has further showed that police officers do minimize seriousness of reports. In addition, police officers view women suspects as less harmful and dangerous and are prone to label female-perpetrated crimes as unfounded. 

            Furthermore, similar models have been spotted within mental health and medical fields, whereby interacting impacts of training, criteria, cultural and diagnostic stereotypes are thought to affect consideration of professionals about various sex offenses perpetrated by women. When certain cases are presented to clinicians and psychiatrists, they are sometimes met with a lot of marginalization and scepticism, and females who perpetrated such crimes perceived as less harmful or less culpable (Nathan & Ward 2002).

            Due to that, cases of child abuse committed by adolescent girls or adult women may not be likely to be reported, and if they may be reported, they may be dealt with less aggressively within criminal justice, child welfare or even juvenile justice institutions. 

Research limitations

            Recognition of female paedophiles is also limited by the manner in which the research is conducted and designed. In particular, investigators can inadvertently define paedophile in manner ways that only reflects behaviours that normally involve the male perpetrators. In some other cases, investigators examining paedophile fail to ask about gender of the person of committed the crime (Oliver, 2007). Potential as well exist of gender bias in the research methods, in which, males are only asked about experiences of perpetration while females only asked about their experience of victimization.

            Additionally, ability of increasing the awareness of this mostly neglected gender population of the sex offenders has hindered significantly by the few numbers of adolescent and adult female sex offenders which is available for research (Gagnon & Simon 2005). Previously indicated statistics show that male sex offender far outweighs female sex offenders who are in prisons, specialized treatment programs and juvenile correctional institutions. This significantly greater sample sizes of male sexual offender, (which makes the research outcomes and findings to be more general, publishable and robust, combined with efficiency, accessibility, and methodological convenience), has hence made studying female paedophiles to be less attractive to many researchers.  

Individual concerns

            These professional biasness, limited research, and cultural stereotype influence barriers to reporting female paedophile at level of an individual. Underreporting of female paedophilia is as result of interaction among these dynamics and other factors that are well known to negatively affect victim disclosures to sexual abuse such as shame, fear, threat as well as guilty (Gannon et al 2012).

            For example, adolescent girls may not be may not be willing to reveal their sexual abuse experience perpetrated by peer female or a woman because they may start to be sceptical or fear that the other girls may start to question about their sexuality. Similarly, boys sexually abused by adult women may as well feel emasculated or may be worried on how other boys will think about their masculinity (Gagnon & Simon 2005). Furthermore, if they felt physiological arousal, they may feel ashamed, and be sceptical as to whether this experience was sexual abuse. Adolescent boys may also fear that these disclosures might be met by a minimization or disbelief.

Why women become paedophiles

            Paedophiles may be anyone, poor or rich, uneducated or educate, young or old, and professional or nonprofessional. Paedophiles normally demonstrate same characteristics, though it cannot be necessarily assumed that all people who share characteristics of paedophiles are as well paedophiles (Oliver, 2007). However, understanding the characteristics of paedophiles, combined with questionable behaviour may be used to tell if an individual is a paedophile.

Female paedophile can be grouped into three main different categories that include: those who target kids of less than six years, those who target adolescents and those who molest children with help of their partner. It is worth noting that each group is surprisingly different in their feelings as well as motives towards their victims (Gagnon & Simon 2005).

Women who normally hurt little children are sadistic and they get satisfaction and enjoyment from pain of their victims. This is what drives them to become paedophiles. This category of paedophiles can be further divided into two groups: those who prey to predator (those who were victimised by their care giver or parents) and those who are self-made (those who find sexual pleasure by abusing children). When their victims become disobedient, female paedophile perceives it as deliberate rebellion or malicious (Nathan & Ward 2002). She hence uses sexual abuse in order to punish or as means of revenge. Some female paedophiles in this group became paedophiles because they hate their child for reasons such as due to divorce. 

The second category of female paedophiles is the women who seek adolescents. This includes the group of lovers and teachers. This group become paedophile may be due to physiological disorders. They tend to feel as if they are in the same level with the victims they are abusing. Paedophile in this category tends to entice and trick the child because in most cases they are always together (Oliver, 2007). If they realize the child does not like the intimate, they continue enticing them with gifts and affection until she is able to force the child into sexual encounter. They also threaten a child does not comply with her deluded sexuality dreams.

The third group of female paedophiles are females who molest with another partner. They normally have romantic relationship with another person who is as well a child molester, and most cases the partner is a male (Nathan & Ward 2002). In order to maintain this relationship, the female paedophile has to take part in child molestation or even help the partner to get his target victims. Sometimes, the female paedophile involved in child sexual offense in order to make her partner happy. Women in this category tend to be overly-depended and easily manipulated.

However, some women in this category are pressurized to become paedophile. They normally start out in order to please their partner. The partner may continuously force her to molest or move out of the relationship. Since she may be very needy to an extend that, she consider the worst thing is for the partner to leave her, she is hence forced to continue molesting children. But there are other women who are not forced to become paedophiles. This partner abuses children alone or together with a partner (Wijkman etal 2010). A good example is a mother who perceives that her daughter might be having better sexual relationship with her boyfriend or father. The feeling of jealousy and competitions may drive her to sexually abuse the victim by her own when the husband is not near before the husband return to abuse the child as well.

How female paedophile can be prevented and cured

            Paedophilia, just like any other mental disturbances, does not have absolute or complete cure. Sexual urges mainly associated with female paedophilia may never disappear permanently, and sexual reorientation and preferences of an individual may be totally difficult to re-orient completely. Presently, treatment of female paedophilia mainly focuses on preventing other future offenses but not changing sexual preferences and orientation (Gannon et al 2012).

            However, there are various behaviour modification therapies that can be administered to female paedophiles. In early stages of administering behaviour modification therapy, female paedophiles may be slightly viewed as being drawn to inappropriate individuals. These aversive stimuli have been provided to individuals undergoing for paedophilia therapy. However, this approach has not been successful (Wijkman etal 2010).

            The common form of treating female paedophilia is what is referred to as psychotherapy, but is a lifelong treatment (Gagnon & Simon 2005). This form of treatment however is not effective in inducing female paedophiles to alter their behaviour. Increasingly, female paedophiles have been prosecuted under various criminal institutions and sentenced to prisons to serve their terms. Though their imprisonment somehow removes female paedophiles from the community for a certain time, this does not help in removing their tendencies of paedophilia (Nathan & Ward 2002). Many States have now begun to names of individuals released from prisons and juvenile correctional facilities after completing their term for paedophilia. This can help to prevent female paedophilia by ensuring that parents are protecting their children from those people. 

            Prognosis of ending paedophilic habits successfully among individuals who have this problem is not favourable. This is because many paedophiles tend to continuously repeat their predation acts (Oliver, 2007). Rate of female paedophiles being prosecuted in criminal justice systems and institutions has tremendously increased over the recent year. Female paedophiles are at great risk of being abused or beaten by the other inmates in the prison. However, knowledge of the great likelihood of being beaten or killed by prison inmates does not serve as effective deterrent for paedophiles.

            The main method that can help to prevent paedophilia is through avoiding conditions that can promote acts of promoting paedophilia. Children must not be allowed to closely interact with adults other than a trustworthy member of the family or their parents. In addition, children must be taught to run or even yell when they are faced with unpleasing situation (Wijkman etal 2010). They can be taught that it is acceptable to call for help or scream in such situations. Another effective way of preventing female paedophilia is through education. Children should be taught how to avoid any situation that can place them at risk to female paedophiles. In addition, adults who closely work with children should be taught to avoid any situation that can be seen as encouraging or promoting paedophilia (Nathan & Ward 2002). 

            States and nations across the globe should as well adopt legislation that would require periodic investigation of adults who closely work with youths or children. These individuals may be compensated, such as teachers or may be working as volunteers in youth-serving organization. The government should also try to develop training programs so as to address the problem of paedophilia.


            The research has indicated that acts of female paedophile have increased over the current years. However, despite the fact that there is significant number of females who sexually abuse children, such cases are usually underreported. This can be attributed to the societal stereotypes and conceptions whereby women are perceived to be nurturing, caring and maternal (Gannon et al 2012). In addition, the research on female paedophiles has been scant since many scholars have not been interested in this area due to number of reasons. Therefore, there is need to conduct more research in order to determine how implicit sex-role stereotyping prevented the detection of female paedophilia. 


Chapter 5

Concluding remarks


            Through discursive analysis of news articles, journals and court transcripts of various sexual offender cases, various themes consistent with prevailing research emerged. New themes that had not already recognized in literature review as well emerged. This chapter will discuss each theme as well as draw connection to broader literature of female paedophilia. Important aspect in this chapter will be discussion of theoretical contribution developed by this paper. It will as well explore benefits and limitation of this study.


            First theme identified in the analysis is the general acknowledgment that female paedophilia is a rare or unusual occurrence. This theme is consistent with literature which has as well found that female paedophilia or sexual offending in general is a rare occurrence as compared to male paedophilia (Denov 2004). Prevailing literature further supports findings of the study. The available research has clearly indicated that female paedophilia is treated as anomaly because of the societal conceptions of female sexual scripts and criminality.

Harmless offender

            Research that focused individuals such as legal professionals and police officers reveal that these officials often perceive offender as unable to commit certain crimes such as female sexual offending. This stereotype has prevented the detection of female paedophilia. In certain times, this biasness results to trivialization of offenses which have taken place. Trivialization occurs because of the traditional masculine sexual scripts that depict males as powerful, aggressive and over sexed (Wijkman etal 2010). On the other hand, women are expected to be caring, trustworthy and maternal. They are not expected by the society to initiate sex since they only perceived to be recipients of sex. This stereotype has affected the way law enforcers perform their work when dealing with female sexual offenders and this is why many female paedophiles are under-reported.  

Benefits of the study

            This research is of great importance in various ways.  First, the available literature of female paedophile is limited hence this research has added something in the existing literature regarding female paedophilia ad to the body of literature pertaining to discursive analysis of traditional gender norms and sexual scripts (Hird 2002). In addition, diversity of examples used as well as qualitative research developed in analysis and findings is of great benefit to the studies of female sexual offenders.

Upholding gender stereotypes and norms as far as female paedophiles are concerned is problematic and it can result to underreporting and biasness of female paedophiles and trivialization of such offenses (Gannon et al 2012). Disclosures found in this study can spark limitations to construction of stereotypes and gender norms, particularly related to the constructions of female paedophiles.   

Theoretical contribution

            This paper further contributes much to theories pertaining female paedophile. Messerchmidt (2004), crime and structured action is important in conceptualizing various cases of female sexual offenders. Female criminality conceptions may be based on expectations of femininity. The ways in which people justify female sexual offending can be often based on various social constructions in regard to sexual scripts. 

            Messerschmidt asserts that our gender conceptions are normally upheld by individuals at micro-level and by social institutions and macro-level. These conceptions are normally regenerated in a dualistic structure whereby individuals such as media reporters and legal officials, and institutions such as media and law institutions maintain and uphold stereotypic gender conceptions (Messerschmidt 2004).

            This theory can be applied in numerous cases of female paedophiles. The paper showed that legal officials can discursively position female sexual offenders into their traditional sexual scripts and stereotypes of being harmless, passive and maternal individuals.

Though this is true, I think that legal officials should not be discriminative in dealing with either males or females. Since the acts of paedophiles have increased over the current years, legal officials should not perceive that females cannot conduct certain sexual offenses. Even if it is clear that the number of males who are paedophiles far outweighs the number of females, there is still significant number of female paedophiles but the problem is because cases involving them are usually underreported.     

Relationship between law and media

            The relationship between media and law in upholding views towards various crimes has significant impact to the social constructions of female paedophiles. From social constructive point of view, Best (2008) illustrates law and media mutually support each other in creating and reporting law on basis of social order.

            This paper has illustrated that media and law work support each other in upholding gender scripts. Messerschmidt (2004) asserts that individuals at micro-level, along with social institutions at macro-level, work together in dualism to maintain and uphold social norms. Hence, it appears that media and the law as social institutions, alongside their media reporters and legal officials at micro-level work in a dualistic structure.     


            Generally, most individuals who involve themselves in paedophilia are males though a small fraction of women are also paedophiles. There was a time when females were not believed whether they can be paedophiles mostly due to their lack of over-sexed behaviours unless they had some kind of psychotic disorder. When researchers studied the sexually inappropriate behaviour towards children, they initially termed those behaviours as child molestation or sexual abuse, but not paedophilia. From sexual crime federal data, women were reported to be child molesters in all juvenile cases that were 6%. Out of the 6% of the juvenile cases, only 1% was found to be women, though this fraction was considered to be low considering the systematic underreporting of females for child molestation (Gannon et al 2012).

            One of the main reasons why acts of paedophilia perpetrated by females are underreported is due to the fact that most of these acts are not recognized or detected because they occur in the course of regular care giving and nurturing activities, like when dressing or bathing children. Another main reason is because when adult women involve in sexual acts with the adolescent boys, many of them do not perceive those activities as abuse. They normally perceive these activities as lucky rite of passage. However, the law and the media see it otherwise.  

            There are other stereotypes in the society that makes it hard for the criminal justice system to detect female paedophiles. One of them is the perceived role of women in the society since they are deemed as being caring, nurturing and sexually passive (Nathan & Ward 2002). Even when females perpetrate sexual offenses against children, the law enforcers tend to be too soft with the matter and the crime sometimes ends up not reaching the appropriate criminal justice agencies. Women are as well perceived as harmless and hence many people do not think if women can sexually abuse especially adolescent boys. These stereotypes in the society are as well another reason that prevents detection of female paedophiles.

            However, acts of paedophiles are evil that need to be eliminated in the society because it has far reaching negative effects to the victims. Abusing children sexually can result in both long term and short harm, like psychopathology in future (Gagnon & Simon 2005). The main indicators of these effects include eating disorders, sleep disturbances, anxiety and depression. Though the problem of female paedophilia cannot be fully treated immediately, the law enforcers and criminal justice systems and all individuals should be actively involved to protect children. Governments need to enact new policies and severe penalties for female paedophiles in order to minimize if not fully prevent acts of paedophilia in the society. Criminal justice systems should be dealing with the cases of female paedophile in the same way they deal with cases of men paedophilia in order to ensure there is equality and justice for all people.  




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Court scripts

USA vs. Anne Knopf

            Anne Knopf was born in 1968 and was charged in Wisconsin later in her life. At the she was arrested, she was married and had two children. Her occupation during that time was a substitute teacher in Wisconsin.

            She was charged with second degree of sexual assault for abusing a child in 2007. In Wisconsin Statute Law, this offense is considered as class C felony. State law claims that this felony can be applied to whoever has sexual intercourse with an individual who has not reached 16 years.

            The victim was born in 1993 and by that time was 13 years. The victim, David, had dated daughter of Anne Knopf, Michelle, previous in years before charges were laid against Anne Knopf. David had not dated her girl friend Michelle in a year before charges were laid. Parents of David shared custody and hence he equally resided with his father and mother.

It came to attention of David’s parents that there was a rumour of David having an affair with Anne Knopf. This made them to question communication and behaviour of their son whom they believed had a romantic relationship. For instance, it happened that one day at around 1:00 A.M, David was phoned by Anne Knopf and they had a lengthy conversation.

David mother approached principle of the school to convey her concern but she was told to give proof of the matter. This made father of David to install spy ware in computer which David used to access daily, in order to monitor emails and chats.

On May, 2007, mother of David discovered that her car was missing and David was nowhere to be seen. He was later found in residence of Anne Knopf. Upon interviewed by the police, David revealed that they had been having sexual relationship with Anne Knopf. Anne was then arrested and charge.

In Waiver of the preliminary hearing, Anne Knopf pleaded not guilty. She amended plea to guilty in plea hearing and sentencing. She was sentenced for 9 month jail time and 5 years period of probation after her release.

State of Wisconsin vs. Marnie Staehly

            Marnie Staehly was 19 to 20 years old when she committed sexual offenses. She graduated from Southwest High School. During the time of her charges, she was an assistant coach of Southwest High School girls’ basketball.

She was charged with two sexual offenses: second degree sexual assault (Class B/C felony).and sexual assault of a child by school instructional staff (Class D felony). Class D felony applies to various occupational posts such as teaching children, youth counselling, coaching children, and school bus driving as well as playground recreation among others. The States sentencing hearing held Marnie Staehly liable of Class D felony.

Second degree sexual assault applies to whoever has sexual intercourse or sexual contact with an individual who is less than 16 years old, and is guilty of Class C felony. Within Criminal Complaint, facts that made Marnie Staehly to be charged with sexual offenses are described. For the purpose of this paper, the victim will be referred as Helen. Marnie was Helen’s coach at Southwest High school. They became friends because Marnie was coaching basketball team. Helen was born in 1981 and she was 16 to 17 years when this sexual offense was committed.

In 1997, December, Marnie and Helen planned to watch a movie together after a game. While driving to the movie, Helen fell asleep. As she woke up, she found Marnie holding her hand. During the movie and while driving her back home, she still continued holding her hand. Helen was worried but Marnie later apologized. However, Marnie continued to make various sexual advances toward Helen. Her behaviour increased to rubbing Helen on the stomach and back.

In 1998 February and 1999 May, Marnie continued her sexual advances up to a point where she touched Helen’s breasts, penetrated her fingers to Helen’s vagina and also kissed her. Helen told the police that she never enjoyed what Marnie was doing to her but she instead get confused and humiliated about the role which Marnie as a coach was playing in her life. Helen later found out that Marnie was also doing the same to her friend, Jane.

Jane was born in 1984 and in the time of the charges, she was 15 years old. Similar to Helen, Jane told the police that she used to spent time socializing with Marnie. She told the police that Marnie started by holding her hand. Jane perceived Marnie as her role model simply because she was their basketball coach. Marnie sexual advances progresses eventually to digital penetration. Jane told her that they should stop their relation because she felt that was wrong.

Marnie Staehly was found guilty. She was sentenced for 500 hours community service work, duration of 5 years probation and to comply by registering herself as sexual offender.

USA vs. Carrie Wheaton and Roger Smith

            At time of occurrence of the offense, Carrie Wheaton was aged 30 years. Roger Smith, her partner, was aged 37 years. During plea and sentencing hearings, it was realized that Carrie Wheaton had studied in Carl Sandburg College and had earned herself an Associate’s degree. Also during that time, it was disclosed that had two twin daughters who were aged 6years and she was by then pregnant again. Carrie had recently divorced with her ex-husband who was father of the twins.

Carrie Wheaton and Roger Smith were charged with child sexual offending and violating title 18, section 2251 of United States code.  This title deals with sexual exploitation and other related child abuse. Wheaton was additionally charged with violating subsection B of the same title.

            During plea and sentencing hearing, facts of this case were disclosed. Roger Smith was under investigation due to his attempt of exposing sexual activity to a child over the internet. This involved Smith sharing his sexually explicit photo to undercover police officers posturing as minor. Search warrant was issue in 2008, February, where child pornography was found on numerous memory cards and cameras within residence of Carrie Wheaton.

            Further interviewing and investigation of Carrie Wheaton revealed that the victims in the case were the twin daughters of Wheaton. These children were aged six years when their pictures were taken. The lawyer explained that Carrie sexually abused her children by accepting Roger Smith to take pictures of the children in order to develop child pornography. Smith and Carrie also administered a cough syrup to the children to enable them to be abused sexually without being responsive and coherent. While these pornographic pictures were taken in State of Illinois, were eventually moved to residence of Wheaton in Wisconsin. That is why this case was charged at federal level in Wisconsin.       








By Name











This project aimed to investigate whether changing durations of aerobic exercise on had an effect on the blood pressure and heart rate of a wide range of participants. The investigation used 550 male and female participants between the ages of 25 and 65 years who completed different durations of aerobic exercise. Readings of blood pressure and rate of heart beat were recorded using pulse and blood pressure monitors. The analysis of results indicated that an increased duration of exercise resulted in an increased heat rate and blood pressure among participants. However, the results showed an increase in blood pressure with an increase in age. In conclusion, the duration of exercise has a significant effect in increasing the heart rate and blood pressure.











The aim of this investigation is to unveil the effect of the duration of aerobic exercise on the heart rate and blood pressure of human beings. Human physiology is a subject that has undergone intensive research over the last several years, with more developments emerging each and every time. Some of the most prominent areas of concern include cardio-vascular, respiratory, and gastro-intestinal system (Catai et al. 2002, p.88). These areas are interconnected and related, and they affect the heart rate, as well as the blood pressure; thus, they are of uttermost importance in the subject of human physiology.

Exercise is considered one of the things that have an effect on the general physiology of the human body, with substantial evidence as to the effect of exercise on various aspects of the human body (Catai et al. 2002, p.90). However, the physiological mechanisms that involve the benefit of physical exercise are not entirely understood and should be the subjected to further research in development of physiological theories. With the increasing importance of addressing issues dealing with cardiovascular disease, two important features for measuring the cardiovascular health of human being are the heart rate and the blood pressure of individuals. Physical exercise has a tremendous effect on the heat rate and blood pressure of participants. Therefore, exercise is an important aspect of dealing with questions regarding the cardiovascular health of human beings.

Several studies indicate that exercise has a variety of short-term impacts on the nervous system, as well as the hormonal system concerned with the control of the heart rate. A direct link exists between exercise and the rate of the heartbeat, which affects the stroke volume, thereby determining the cardiac output. The heart rate is defined as the rate of the heart beat while the stroke volume refers to the blood volume pumped at each heartbeat (Catai et al. 2002, p.89). On the other hand, the cardiac output refers to the product of stroke volume and heart rate. When the body exercises, the cardiac output increases rapidly, and this has several benefits. For example, muscles gain a faster access to oxygen and glucose from the blood. In addition, muscles are able to get rid of carbon dioxide and lactate at a faster rate (Heyward, 2006, p. 58). The process is controlled by a section of the nervous system known as the cardiovascular center, which also acts as the respiratory center (Catai et al. 2002, p.87). The process involves the transmission of nerve signals received from receptors throughout the body to the nerves in the heart. Whenever the body is subjected to exercise, the cardiovascular center of the brain responds to the increased body activity. Muscles respire at a faster rate causing several changes in the body such as a decrease in oxygen concentration. As a result, chemoreceptors situated on the walls of the aorta and other arteries send impulses to the cardiovascular center, which responds by increasing the heart rate. The need for more oxygen for muscular activity causes an increase in the amount of blood that flows to capillaries situated in the muscles (Heyward, 2006, p. 59).

Exercise also has an impact on the breathing rate. In this case, chemoreceptors, which are located in the carotid and aortic bodies, detect the increase in the rate of respiration. Consequently, the stretch receptors in the muscles receive an impulse that increases the anticipation for an increase in the rate of breathing even before any considerable change in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood occurs (Catai et al. 2002, p.91). Hormonal effects are also profound on the heart rate. During physical exercise, the adrenal glands produce adrenaline. Before and during physical exercise, the hypothalamus part of the brain detects some level of excitement and sends nerve signals for the adrenal glands to produce adrenaline in a fight or flight mechanism. The release of adrenaline increases contraction of the heart muscles thereby increasing the heart rate.

Therefore, the body responds to exercise by increasing the heart rate and the systole blood pressure. These responses can be measured and recorded. Therefore, in this investigation, the effect of the duration of exercise on both the heart rate and blood pressure of healthy 25-65 years old individuals with different eating and drug habits will be investigates and the results measured using pulse and blood pressure monitors (Martin, 1983, p. 69).


This study involves formulation and testing of the hypothesis that is geared to enable the drawing of objective and valid conclusion. The test of hypothesis focuses on the dependent and independent variables. This is due to the fact that the control variable was not subjected to any form of treatment during the experiment (Heyward, 2006, p. 56). As a result, several factors were held constant, and these factors played the role of controlled variables. For instance, the steppers were set at 15 cm level in order to ensure that the desired cardio-vascular impact is attained in accordance to the differences in the duration of the exercise. The reason for this is that it effectively controlled the intensity of the exercise. Other factors such as the frequency, mode, volume, and duration of the exercise controlled the intensity of the exercise through controlling the heart rate, and the consumption of oxygen during the exercise. The use of similar equipment and apparatus among participants was an essential part of the control variable. The instruments used included the stepping board, metronome, pulse monitor, stopwatch, and blood pressure monitor. In addition, the exercise was carried out in a room temperature at 5.00 pm time of the day. This was to ensure that the exercises were carried out under constant temperature. Moreover, all participants dressed in vests and bikers in order to ensure uniformity in the effect of clothing in terms of perspiration rate among participants (Martin, 1983, p. 45).

The independent variable was the duration of the exercise while the dependent variables were the change in heart rate, and the change in blood sugar. The hypothesis was formulated in terms of the null and the alternative hypothesis. The following are the two hypotheses that were formulated for this study. Ho denotes the null hypothesis while the alternative hypothesis is denoted by H1 (Catai et al. 2002, p.76).

  1. Ho : The change in heart rate is dependent on the duration of exercise

H1: The change in heart rate does not depend on the duration of exercise

  1. Ho : The recorded blood pressure is dependent on the duration of exercise

H1: The recorded blood pressure is not dependent on the duration of exercise

Health and Safety

The investigation of the heart rate and blood pressure involves the use of different medical equipment, and thus the validity, and credibility of this investigation requires the researcher to adhere to health and safety measures. Therefore, this investigation is designed to ensure that the investigator does not engage in unsafe practices such as the use of sharp objects such as syringes (Heyward, 2006, p. 56). Another safety measure involves the use of pulse and blood pressure monitors according to the needs of subjects. This included the use of cuffs of different sizes depending on the size of participants. The equipment must also be properly maintained, and the correct technique of using the monitors is observed. It is also important to measure the accuracy of the device before using it, as well as ensuring that the control environment is optimal so that all participants are subjected to the same level of exercise (Martin, 1983, p. 68).

Materials and Methods

Among the materials used to collect data during and after exercise are the blood pressure monitor that had a manufacturer error of +/-3 mm Hg and a heart are meter that has a manufacturer error of +/-5%. These materials were used to collect data directly from materials during and after exercise in order to establish effects of aerobic exercise on heart rate and blood pressure. As such, use of experimental technique was utilized in this research. Moreover, the use of direct interview was utilized in obtaining data regarding the age interval, dietary behavior, smoking habits, and the physical fitness status of participants. Moreover, a critical discourse study was conducted to establish the background information as provided by the existing literature regarding the effects of exercise in the physiology of human beings (Martin, 1983, p. 65).


The participants of the study included adult volunteers aged between 25 and 65 years. There were 550 participants. Among them, 200 were aged between 25 and 35 years, 150 were aged between 36 and 45, 110 participants were aged between 46 and 55 years, 90 were aged between 56 and 65. 20% of participants were smokers while the rest were non-smokers. Moreover, 45% of participants had healthy dietary habits, which included consumption of a balanced diet and plenty of fluids. Moreover, 35% of the participants were physically fit. On the other hand, all participants were free from any form of physical diseases and ailments.



The study was conducted under ethical approval of the institution. In addition, the research was conducted under ethical code of conduct which involved handling of subject, informed consent, confidentiality of the results, as well as sharing of all necessary information with the participants. The first step involved answering of interview questions by the participant. This information revealed their health status, fitness, eating habits, age, and smoking status of the respondents. This interview revealed the frequency in exercise, reasons for participation, as well as the benefits associated with participating in regular exercises. The resting heart rate and blood pressure are taken using heart rate meter and blood pressure monitor. These readings are collected before exercise in order to eliminate miscalculation based on post-exercise hypertension outcome. Due to the fact that the time of day causes variation in blood pressure, all data were collected between 5.00 and 6.00 pm. The exercises were carried out within 30 days duration, which entailed one-hour aerobic exercise session from 5.00 to 6.00 pm every day. The readings were weekly in order to establish the consistency and reliability of data (Catai et al. 2002, p.86).

Statistical Analysis

The use of ANOVA model came in handy in establishing whether the duration of aerobic exercise and other factors such as age interval, fitness, smoking habit, and dietary behavior have affected the resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as the resting heart rate. All these analysis were carried out at 5% significance level.



Results and Discussion

Table 1: effect of various factors on heart rate and blood pressure

The following results were obtained by the end of experiment. The mean standard errors are provided in the brackets.


Mean Heart Rate (Beats/min)

Mean Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg)

Mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg)


76.55 (+/-2.3)







Participants with Healthy Eating Habits




Participants with unhealthy Eating Habits




Aged between 25-45 years




Aged Between 46-65 years





The ANOVA results on the effect of interval on heart rate showed (F= 1.22 and p=0.98) no significant association between age interval and heart rate. The blood pressure interaction with age interval gave the results (F= 0.26 and p= 0.61) indicating a significant association between blood pressure and age interval. The results involving the eating habit and blood pressure (F= 2.3 and p= 2.0) indicated no significant association. In addition, results (F= 3.20 and p= 1.02) indicate that eating habit had no significant effect on heart rate. The results involving smokers showed a significant association between smoking and blood pressure (F= 6.50 and p= 6.88). Moreover, these results revealed no significant association (F=5.2 and p=1.02) between smoking and heart rate. The results involving fitness showed that fitness has a significant interaction with both blood pressure and heart rate.

Table 2: mean heart rate and blood pressure with duration of the exercise period

The following is a table that indicates the effect of exercise on mean heart rate and blood pressure over the exercise period. The standard errors of the mean are provided in the brackets


Mean Heart Rate (Beats/min)

Mean Systolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg)

Mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (mm Hg)

Week 1

75.00 (+/-2.3)



Week 2




Week 2




Week 3

75. 80(+/-1.2)




The results indicate that exercise has a direct positive interaction with both blood pressure and heart rate as indicated by the blood pressure (F= 11.10, p= 0.65), and heart rate(F= 3.95, p=2.00) results. As such, fail not reject the first and the second null hypothesis and conclude that both blood pressure and heart rate are dependent on the duration of exercise.


The overall findings of the result confirm the hypotheses that an increased duration of aerobic exercise increases the heart rate and blood pressure of participants. The procedure used was valid as it provided an upward trend of expected results. Most of the results were consistent according to the drug habit and health status of the participants with only insignificant levels of anomalous results.

The limitations of the investigation included the inexperience of the researcher in using instruments such as the pulses and blood pressure monitors. As a result, an adequate amount of training and familiarization had to be undertaken before the investigation could commence. The inexperience also led to some instrumental errors (Martin, 1983, p. 65). In addition, the lack of resources resulted in a variation, in the conditions, under investigation such as the room temperature since a controlled room temperature was unachievable during some occasions. The stepper used was also adjustable to suit the different height levels of participants and this may have distorted the results of short participants. Other distortions involving the resting heart rate could have been avoided by taking the measurement of heart rate long before the exercise to avoid the change of resting heart rate due, as a result of the release of adrenaline (Martin, 1983, p. 65). The sample of participant used in this study was adequate to produce valid results since it involved a huge number of participants within a wide range of age groups. Any anomalous results may have occurred due to the inexperience of the investigator in using the medical apparatus for this research.

Future studies should involve the use of different durations of exercise to investigate the effect it has on the final heart rate and blood pressure of different age groups. Advanced studies on the same subject should use more participants in the range of thousands so as to come up with credible results. In addition, more repeats of measurement should be undertaken if the resources allow, to get rid of any form of anomalous results. Moreover, the use of advanced materials and apparatus such as treadmills and manual methods of recording data may produce more accurate results in future studies.





Catai, A. M. et al. (2002). Effects of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability during wakefulness and sleep and cardiorespiratory responses of young and middle-aged healthy men. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 35, 741-752.

Martin, C. M. (1983). Systolic blood pressure response at selected submaximal heart rates during arm versus leg exercise. Thesis (M.S.)–University of Wisconsin — La Crosse, 1983.

Heyward, V. H. (2006). Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics.



Business Systems and Process/Operations Management Assignment 3- Individual Assignment


Justify why there is a need for using databases in an organisation and discuss what potential benefits databases bring to support management decision-making. Give concrete examples to illustrate your discussion.


Databases are a staple of the modern business world and are used in small and large companies alike. However it is insufficient to say that their widespread use alone indicates their usefulness; attention needs to be paid to analysing their precise function and value. When answering the question outlined above, the extent to which databases can aid a company will be evaluated and their role with regards to management decision-making will be assessed. A conclusion will be drawn as to exactly why they are considered to be so essential to such a wide range of different organisations.

In the Journal of Information Technology Education, Bartholomew, Johnson and Miller (2005) point out that knowledge of databases is included in some criteria for computer literacy. They highlight the fact that computer literacy has been defined as the information or skills regarding computers that an individual needs to possess in order to adequately function in society. Randall McCoy (2001) states in the Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal that computer literacy is now a necessity in the business world. This fact alone is enough to justify the usefulness of databases, as it is essential for companies to have the tools in place to enable them to exist within the increasingly competitive global marketplace.

In International Business Information: How to Find It, How to Use It, Michael Halperin and Ruth Pagell (1999) theorise that one way in which databases support management decision-making is that the vocabulary contained within them is easier to update than that which is contained within manually written records, for example, changes to names of nations that might affect international businesses’ ability to retrieve information. Indeed it is the case that text contained in databases can be altered simply and quickly, whereas written records cannot. This means that it can aid the speed at which decisions can be made based upon a piece of information.

Shahid Muhammad and Nazir Mohsin (2012) express the view in ‘Fundamental Research on Distributed Database’ that distributed databases accommodate the growing desire for accessible and reliable information systems. A distributed database is a database that is stored on a variety of different hard disks at either the same or at different locations but presents a single view to its users. These systems can aid the smooth transfer of information and add to the cohesion of an organisation. One of the functions of databases is to enable everybody within an organisation to read from the same page. In Principles of Information Systems, George Reynolds and Ralph Stair(2011) highlight the fact that Boston-based employment agency Aquent uses its database to store data sourced from all over the world. This would be considerably more difficult to do when using any other system.

Databases can also be used to collaborate with other organisations. In some situations, in order to make an effective decision, a manager needs information that cannot be provided from internal sources. In these instances, it might be necessary to work with other businesses. According to Lizhen Liu, Yanmei Liu and Hantao Song in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (2001), this was the case for those within the costume industry in Wenzhou, China. Companies fulfilling different roles within this sector shared a database that contained mutually beneficial information.

In conclusion, databases are an invaluable asset to organisations and aid significantly with management decision-making. They are an essential facet of data storage and enable information to be kept up to date with minimum effort in as efficient a manner as possible. Databases are also useful for improving the ease with which data can be retrieved and are an integral part of modern organisations.


Choose one industry sector and discuss the benefits that data mining techniques can bring to that specific sector. Give concrete examples to illustrate your discussion.


The term ‘data mining’ refers to the practice of discovering patterns that exist in large sets of data and utilising them for a purpose. In the context of business, it can often be used to determine key selling practices and ascertain which demographics are best to target. I have chosen to discuss the benefits that it can bring to the banking industry, as according to Qasi Ahmed and Kazi Moin (2012) in the International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, this industry has began to realise that this method can be extremely effective. Leading banks utilise data mining for customer segmentation and to maximise profitability. They also use it for detecting fraudulent transactions, predicting payment defaults and credit card approval and scoring.

Ahmed and Moin suggest that data may be amongst the most precious resources that are available to banks but that the key is to know how to gain access to the knowledge that it holds. They state that data mining helps banks to unlock this knowledge, which leads to optimised business decisions. It can also raise the value of each communication and each customer and help to improve customer satisfaction.

According to Sherry Chen and Xiaohui Liu (2005) in the International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining, the theory behind data mining for business purposes is that hidden relationships exist within large databases that can be crucial for numerous different applications. Ahmed and Moin (2012) state that one of these applications is the determination of which products or services should be promoted to which customers. They claim that in the case of the banking industry, this question can be answered in a time efficient manner by utilising data mining.

Ahmed and Moin also state that data mining is particularly useful with regards to detecting potential frauds. Neural network-based clarification or decision tree algorithms are often employed in this approach. James Rogers (2001) of Computer Weekly magazine has highlighted the fact that Barclays bank use this method of fraud detection. Officials at the bank claim that it is the most effective means of fighting fraud, which highlights just how important this technique is for ensuring that financial institutions do not lose customers due to criminal activity affecting their businesses.

Data mining is also widely used in risk management. It is essential for bank executives to be able to formulate knowledge regarding whether the people that they deal with are reliable. Ahmed and Moin (2012) point out that decisions made by a financial institution are risky if the executives at the institution have no idea who they are dealing with. Data mining can help to remedy this problem and provide a clearer picture of the risk that each individual poses. This can enable banks to make more informed decisions about a range of different issues regarding customers.

Another application of customer profiling using data mining is targeting credit cards at people based upon their personal circumstances and attributes. According to Anne-Marie Crawford (1999) of Marketing magazine, this method is employed by Natwest. It means that a bank can aim marketing of credit cards towards the people who are most likely to use them without having to waste time marketing them towards people who are significantly less likely to use them.

In summary, data mining is useful to financial institutions in a plethora of different ways. It can enable them to detect fraud, direct products and services at the groups that are the most likely to desire them and assess the risk posed by each customer. The range of different used for this technique make it an extremely advantageous and beneficial tool. The fact that it is already used by large companies like NatWest and Barclays is testament to its effectiveness.


Using one industry sector as an example, discuss ethical issues related to database use that you think are particularly important to address. Give concrete examples to illustrate your discussion.


I have chosen the supermarket industry to focus on, as it has received considerable media coverage on account of its data mining practices. Many supermarkets keep databases of customer information and use them to inform marketing techniques. This is considered by some people to be unethical because it borders upon invading shoppers’ privacy. I will be examining the moral implications of supermarkets employing this practice.

In The Service Industries Journal, Hokey Min (2006) states that in order to remain competitive, supermarkets must develop viable strategies for retaining customers. Min claims that one way of doing this is by building a relationship with customers to guarantee their loyalty, which can be achieved through putting together a database of their grocery purchasing behaviour and using data mining techniques to analyse the data. Mehmet Cudi (2008) states in the Journal of Yasar University that one of the key considerations when deciding if data mining is ethical in a given instance is whether or not the person whose data is being mined is granted a degree of anonymity. In order for products to be targeted at an individual, this anonymity cannot be granted to them. Therefore supermarkets could be said to be behaving in an unethical manner with regards to this issue.

However Min’s statement that this measure is required in order for supermarkets to remain competitive suggests that it could be a necessary evil. If it is impossible for a supermarket to stay afloat if it withholds from this practice then to do so would simply not be viable. It is arguable that this factor justifies the lack of anonymity that exists in some cases.

Data mining is also used by supermarkets to identify what products sell at what times, for example Sue Tabitt (2009) of The Guardian newspaper has stated that Walmart has used the technique to pinpoint a specific time when beer and nappies sell especially well because fathers leave work early and buy them partway through their journeys home. Again, drawing conclusions of this nature relies upon compiling databases of people’s shopping habits. However in this instance, it is not necessary for a store to associate the name of a customer with each piece of data. This means that the customers from whom the data has been obtained are potentially able to retain a degree of anonymity, meaning that this purpose for using databases is arguably relatively ethically sound.

According to Andrew Dubrin (2009) in Essentials of Management, Tesco compiles databases of customer information gathered via their store card applications and uses it for marketing purposes. This could be said to be manipulative because it is not made apparent to shoppers. It also leaves them open to having their data stolen by unscrupulous individuals, although this issue can be minimized by supermarkets taking adequate steps to secure their databases and ensuring that the data contained within them cannot be compromised.

From examining the ethical considerations involved in the use of databases by the supermarket industry, it is clear that many of the practices that are in place are morally dubious. However it is arguable that it is not possible for a supermarket to remain in business without employing these tactics. Whether or not this justifies their utilisation is a subjective issue. Ultimately, the more immoral a supermarket acts with regards to data mining, the more its public image will suffer and the more customers it will lose as a result.








Ahmed, Q and Moin, K 2012, ‘Use of Data Mining in Banking’, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 738-742


Bartholomew K, Johnson, D and Miller, D 2006, ‘Improving Computer Literacy of Business Management Majors: A Case Study’, Journal of Information Technology Education, Vol. 5, pp. 77-94


Chen, S and Liu, X 2005, ‘Data Mining from 1994 to 2004: An Application-Orientated Review’, International Journal of Business Intelligence and Data Mining, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 4-21


Crawford, A, 1999. ‘NatWest Aims to Build Loyalty Ties With Retail Deals’, viewed 27 April 2013, http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/article/62720/NatWest-aims-build-loyalty-ties-retail-deals.


Cudi, M 2009, ‘On Ethical and Legal Aspects of Data Mining’, Journal of Yasar University, Vol. 3, No. 11, pp. 1455-1461.


Dubrin. A 2009, Essentials of Management. South-Western, Mason.


Halperin, M and Pagell, R 1999, International Business Information: How to Find It, How to Use It. The Oryx Press, Chicago.


Liu, L, Liu Y and Song, H 2001, ‘HDBIS Supporting E-Collaboration in E-Business’, in Barthes, J., Kamel, M, Lin, Z and W Shen (ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design. NRC Research Press, Ontario.


McCoy, R 2001, ‘Computer Competencies for the 21st Century Information Systems Educator’, Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 21-35.


Min, H 2006, ‘Developing the Profiles of Supermarket Customers Through Data Mining’, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 747-763.


Mohsin, N and Muhammad, S 2012, ‘Fundamental Research on Distributed Database’, International Journal of Research & Reviews in Computer Science, Vol. 3, Issue 2, p 1557


Reynolds, G and Stair, R 2011, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design. Course Technology, Independence.


Rogers, J 2001, ‘Data Mining Fights Fraud’, viewed 27 April 2013, http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Data-mining-fights-fraud.


Tabbitt, S 2009, ‘Data Mining: How Retailers Are Fighting Thieves and Fraudsters’, viewed 27 April 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/jul/01/software-data-retail-theft-prevention.

Running Head: Leadership Development Plan






[Your Name]

[Instructor’s Name]


Leadership Development Plan















The present paper represents a leadership development portfolio in three parts. The first part represents the reflection on the use of different leadership styles in five scenarios of the SimuLearn’s vLeader simulation aimed at the development of leadership skills. Each scenario presents a unique challenge for the learner such as asserting himself in the new working team, resolving the conflict in a team, pushing his own ideas in the teams with members possessing more formal power, managing the adoption of sound decisions under pressure of the upcoming merger, and the crisis management after a fire in Nortic. Hence, the first part contains reflections on which leadership style was more appropriate and effective for which scenario, with general conclusions on which outcomes the use of each leadership style usually brings about. The second part of the present work is dedicated to the personal reflection on the leadership qualities based on the assessment via Daft’s (2008) Leader’s SelfInsight tool. The strengths and limitations of the researcher’s leadership qualities are presented in the second part. The third section of the present work is dedicated to an extended leadership reflection in which the researcher’s personal leadership model is presented and explained, the theories of leadership personally used by the researcher are discussed, the gaps between practice and theory are delineated, and an action plan for improving the researcher’s leadership qualities is presented. The theories of particular interest to the researcher are the trait theory and contingency theory. The gaps in leadership skills refer to little focus on social needs, low team conflict resolution skills, and low emphasis on the stewardship and servant leadership in the leadership style. Steps to tackle these limitations are presented at the end of the third section.




Part 1: vLeader Practice and Reflection

Scenario 1: One-on-One

The first scenario “One-on-One” sets the scene of Corey’s development as a leader in team of the new company to which he came, and the choice of any leadership style in Nortic, specifically during his first encounter with Oli, an employee also willing to take the leadership position in the company, determines the way in which the future course of action will develop. It is of high importance for Corey to assert himself in a team, but not to push subordinates away by adopting a directive style at once; hence, the best variant of leadership in this scenario is that of participating leadership. On the one hand, Corey shows his strong emphasis on certain organizational objectives he aims at pursuing; on the other hand, Corey shows understanding and sympathy to some personal matters of his subordinates in Nortic, thus showing the awareness of the close connection between personal issues and the employees’ productivity at the workplace. Once the personal issue is resolved, the employee morale may go up significantly, which will ultimately have a positive impact on the overall organizational performance.

Moreover, it is essential to understand that the participative style in this scenario fosters Oli’s idea sharing, but at the same time keeps him within the limits of a subordinate position. Corey should take into account that Oli is a very energetic and ambitious employee who is well known in the company, and who can easily grasp the initiative once Corey adopts a delegating leadership style, thus undermining the authority of a new boss. However, the directive style increases tension and prevents Oli from sharing highly valuable ideas of much benefit for the company. Hence, the participatory style in communication with Oli is the best alternative for Corey if he aims at identifying himself as a leader but at the same time winning trust and cooperativeness of his new subordinates.

In the present scenario, effective steps that can be taken to assert Corey as a leader but at the same time not to alienate from employees is the adoption of the participative leadership style. Only in this style, this scenario develops effectively. The key learning point in scenario one are that a leader should not overtly assert himself in a new team through a directive style as this may isolate some employees and hinder idea sharing. Another learning point is that subordinates share ideas more eagerly when they are relaxed, so it is in the interest of the leader to relax tension, and to achieve more productive outcomes this way. The present findings are consonant with the steward and interactive leadership theories that emphasize power sharing among subordinates and the leader to achieve more productive cooperation results.


Scenario 2: Staff Meeting in the Break Room

The scenario of a meeting in the break room presents Corey with a serious challenge of resolving a conflict between his two direct reporters, and building proper alliances in the conditions of conflicting interests. The key learning point in the present scenario is the fact that building an alliance with any of the conflict parties is potentially disadvantageous for Corey because by getting close to one of his subordinates, he will automatically alienate the other one, which will ultimately result in grave climate deterioration, and the conflict will only intensify. The present learning point is in alignment with the theory of conflict management strategies in teams – accommodating and compromising strategies are less beneficial than the collaborating one. Hence, the only effective step that could be taken by Corey in this scenario was to find the common ground for the two persons in conflict, and only then pass on to the critical work tasks that need to be completed.

The most appropriate leadership style at the beginning of this scenario is that of participation – Corey has to find out the core reasons for the conflict between Rosa and Oli, and reduce tension in the team by finding the common ground, a joint goal for both subordinates. Only once the conflict is resolved and the common ground is found, Corey may successfully endorse his goal of raising customer retention to 65% – under these conditions, both Oli and Rosa will be actively involved in that idea’s passing, which will ensure the overall acceptance of the objective. Hence, the team’s alignment and commitment to the pre-established goal of Corey is possible only after conflict resolution, and Corey may then adopt a directive leadership style to firmly push his idea of customer retention and further support it until he gets the unified acceptance thereof.


Scenario 3: Meeting in the Conference Room / Challenging the Status Quo

In contrast to the previous two scenarios in which he acted as an indisputable leader among his subordinates in Nortic, in the present case, he is more of a follower because his bosses Will and Herman are present in the conference room. Nonetheless, on the other hand, Corey is still a leader because Oli and Rosa are also present in the conference room, and they are the subordinates of all others present. Here, Corey faces the double jeopardy – either not fulfilling his business objectives (he sees very clearly that the Call Center initiative is highly beneficial for Nortic, though Will is against it) or failing as a leader in the eyes of his subordinates (Oli and Rosa are tense in the room where too many bosses are present, but they still watch Corey as their boss, and in case he fails to prove his point, his reputation as a leader will surely be undermined). The key learning point in the third scenario is that the influence is not always in the hands of the person holding the most formal power, but still, more powerful people should introduce ideas for them to gain weight and be considered. Moreover, the learning point is that the subordinates will support their boss in the conditions of a safe environment only; in case they feel unsafe, they will choose the strategy of non-intrusion facing a conflict of opinion between their bosses.

The present scenario is highly informative from the learning viewpoint, as it shows that people may be able to push their ideas through even in case they are not formal leaders in some situation. Here, the most effective step is about building alliances and supporting the right person without alienating another boss, thus preventing the trigger of his self-protection reactions. The most appropriate course of the development action in scenario three thus seems the adoption of the participative leadership style at first. By artificially increasing the tension in the room, Corey may make a call for brainstorming for new ideas and beneficial options. If such conditions are created, Herman may be pushed to voice the idea about the Call Center, and Corey’s objectives of “Call Center Work” and “Rosa on Sales Call” may be passed in that atmosphere of idea search. After the ideas are offered, and Corey has voiced his strong support for those ideas, he can adopt a delegating leadership style to prevent the alienation of Will, while the proposal about Rosa on Sales Call is likely to attract Will’s attention because of his position of the Head of the Sales Department. This way, Corey will achieve all his objectives without causing discontent of his bosses, and not losing respect of employees. in such conditions, Corey may be seen as fulfilling both task focus (promoting the idea of Call Center Work) and relationship focus (pushing Rosa to the sales position). The present scenario is consistent with the contingency theory of leadership (Daft 2008) under which leaders should rely not on their characteristics and skills, but on the unique set of variables of their environment, people present, the level of tension, etc. to achieve their purposes.


Scenario 4: Meeting at a Retreat / Merger of Cultures

In the fourth scenario, Corey is challenged with making his ideas endorsed in the environment where he enjoys the least formal power, though he is also a leader by nature, as those present are. In the conditions where the fate of Nortic is decided, Corey has to apply his best leadership skills to ensure that the right, wise decisions are made. In this scenario, the most effective steps by Corey can be made only through a participative leadership style by entering an alliance with Alan and achieving a higher position of influence once he and Alan push the same ideas. Alan is the person with the highest level of formal authority in the conference room, so alignment with him may give Corey much weight in the discussion. Here, the benefit will be of purely political, diplomatic nature, since entering an alliance with Herman and Will is not likely to bring any benefit to Corey and the three of them – Alan may grow protective after seeing that his authority is challenged, and may adopt a directive leadership style. In terms of objectives, it will be good for Corey because he agrees with Alan about the future of Nortic; however, in terms of relationships, such a strategy will be destructive, and will separate Alan as the boss from his subordinates Will and Herman, which is unhealthy for the corporate relationships. Logically, Corey should use the participative and delegating leadership styles in this scenario to achieve his objectives and to reserve a relaxed, positive working climate and interrelationships among the executives.

Consequently, here the learning point is to apply the trait theory blended with the contingency theory to create the favorable course of action for Corey on his way to asserting himself, gaining influence on other people’s opinions, and finally leading the discussion to the most proactive decisions. According to Daft (2008), a leader should possess such social characteristics as sociability, interpersonal skills, cooperativeness, and ability to enlist cooperation with tact and diplomacy (p. 41).


Scenario 5: Meeting in the Board Room / Crisis and Opportunity

The present scenario poses Corey into a situation of a conflict between his bosses, and the dilemma of who will report to the press, and how much truth will be communicated. The most effective step for Corey is to apply the directive leadership style from the very beginning of the conflict and to take the issue off the agenda by assigning some person, either Herman or Will, and instilling the focus on saying all truth to the press. The principles of dealing with the crisis from a leadership perspective state clearly that being calm, focusing on the future, and telling the truth are the basic preconditions of successful pursuit of a way out of the crisis (Daft 2008). After this issue has been resolved, Corey again should apply directive leadership to draw the focus of the employees on the critical work that needs to be done to get out of the crisis. If the participative or delegating leadership style is adopted in such a situation, the team will get too much involved in their problems, and will never find the way out, yielding to panic and being paralyzed by it.

After the direction of looking for the future of the company is set, the most effective decision for Corey is to take a participative leadership style to help the team make common decisions, thus increasing their sense of belonging and commitment to dealing with the crisis. Deciding on the relocation, and making decisions regarding best products, best service, and low-cost providers are among the strategic objectives for Corey at that moment. Nevertheless, other leaders such as Herman, Will, and Alan are present at the meeting as well, so after the situation is taken under control and tension is decreased, so the most appropriate decision for Corey in preserving the respect to his bosses in the team is to take a delegating leadership style to help Will and Herman regain their confidence and formal leadership positions in the conditions of a crisis. The key learning point of this scenario is that managing a team in the times of a crisis may be not a bad experience, but a path to opportunities – the outcome depends on the strategic thinking of the leader and his or her ability to focus the team not only on the present problem, but also on the future potential, thus reducing the tension.

The fifth scenario is a pure example of contingency theory of leadership according to which the leader’s position in the situation is dictated not by responsiveness to the needs of each separate employee involved, but the destiny of the overall company. In such a situation, the leader should be firm and calm, and the best choice in such a situation is the directive style of leadership, since it is the surest way to save the situation, and help the subordinates and bosses to focus not on the present panic, but on the future fate of the whole organization.


Part 2: Awareness Through Leader Self-Concepts

The testing through Leader’s SelfInsight tools in the book of Daft (2008) revealed many important and at times surprising aspects of my personality as a leader. First, I discovered that my level of self-confidence is 7 out of 10, which is highly reassuring for me – I did not ever think that I was such a self-confident person, though I am quite assertive in the issues in which I am sure, and about which I am experienced. The present feature is of highly value for me because, as noted by Mumford (2010), self-confidence as a belief in one’s ability to fulfill a certain task is the key to a leader’s success (p. 95). However, every leader should keep in mind that too much self-confidence may be mixed with arrogance and impudence, which is not healthy for leaders’ relationships with other people.

Another interesting result for me was my preference of certain team conflict management strategies. I have always thought that I was an effective conflict manager, but as the results of the test indicated, I prefer competing and avoiding more than compromising and accommodating. However, the reassuring result was achieved regarding the collaborating conflict management style – I gained the maximum number of scores for it, which means that I most often choose to collaborate, compete, and avoid the conflict. According to Yarbrough (2008), the competing style is assertive and uncooperative, collaborative style is both assertive and cooperative, and avoiding style is neither cooperative nor assertive (p. 65). Hence, I see that I have to make some conclusions from these results, and make more effort to focus on the collaborative conflict resolution style, since two others seem not highly effective in terms of the overall conflict management outcomes.

The result of testing regarding my communication apprehension surprised me in a positive way because I am always striving to achieve the improvement of my communicative skills, but I did not know that I would score that high on the test. I believe that communicative skills present the core skills for any person in any situation in which interaction with other people is involved. Communicating one’s idea properly is half of success in getting something done, since communication breakdowns and inconsistencies are the most frequent reason for certain objectives’ failures. Moreover, as Malloch and Porter-O’Grady (2009) indicated, “interpersonal communication includes a wide array of relational and communication skills that result in constant investment and engagement and inclusion of individuals in decisions and actions” (p. 34). Hence, nobody should underestimate the role of interpersonal communication because of its strategic influence on the work outcomes and relationships.

The analysis of my end values as a leader showed that I am more focused on my personal values such as exciting life, pleasure, self-respect, and sense of accomplishment. True friendship, another end value I chose, is of ambiguous nature and borders on social and personal values. Hence, as one can see, personal values are of much more importance for me, so I think my developmental focus should be made stronger on social values than on personal ones. As for instrumental values, they are also mostly concerned with competence than morality – I chose ambition, logic, and self-control as competencies, and responsibility and helpfulness as morality features. These results show that I am both focused on morality and my own competence, while the personal focus is still stronger than the attitude to other people.

The self-centered nature of my leadership profile can also be proven by my test on servant leadership; as the test results stated, I am more of an authoritarian and participative leader, while stewardship and servant leadership features are present in my leadership profile to a minimum. I scored 3 out of 4 for authoritarian style, 4 out of 4 for participative style, 1 out of 4 for stewardship, and 1 out of 4 for servant leadership. According to Lussier and Achua (2009), stewardship and servant leadership are directly related to charisma and transformational leadership skills of a leader; these skills may empower the followers for exercising leadership and accomplishing the organizational goals (p. 356). However, my lack of focus on these leadership styles signals about my extreme preoccupation with maintaining my personal power as a leader, and unwillingness to delegate authority and power to my followers. Consequently, I feel I need to work more on these features of leadership to strengthen my leadership profile, and to gain a more favorable reputation among my followers.


Part 3: Integration and Extension: Personalized Leadership Approach and Development Plan

After the completion of the vLeader simulation and the series of personal testing inventories for leadership qualities, I have come to a clear and coherent understanding of my own leadership model that I want to pursue and in compliance with which I want to bring all my skills and behaviors. Upon studying a number of theories of leadership, I have decided to take the core of my model in the trait theory of a leader, since not every person can be a leader, and some inborn and consciously developed features distinguish a leader from other people. Hence, I concentrated on the traits I saw as indispensible ones for a leader and included them in the central part of my leadership model. I believe that no matter how well a person manipulates the behavioral features and the environmental variables, he or she will never be recognized as a leader in case he or she does not possess such basic features as knowledge in the field of work, sober and analytical judgment, experience of work, decisiveness and enthusiasm to lead his or her followers to the estimated objective’s completion, as well as politeness and tact often necessary to navigate the flows of power for the attainment of certain objectives. Leaders also have to be honest with their subordinates, and should be highly sociable, that is, possess strong communication skills, to succeed as leaders. Hence, these are the traits I included in compliance with trait theory – see Figure 1.

Figure 1. My Personal Leadership Model
















The features of a leader are at the core of my scheme; nevertheless, I am also a proponent of a contingency theory of leadership that states that leaders cannot be evaluated in a vacuum, separated from the environment in which they exercise their leadership qualities. Hence, following the contingency theory, I have figured out a series of typical leadership roles in which various leadership styles are exercised under varying conditions. Thus, for instance, the two key foci of a leader at the workplace are to manage people and manage tasks. An effective leader has to take care of both relationships and task, which at times is unattainable within a single leader effort. Sometimes, making some virtuous outcomes happen for the organization means remaining blind to the needs of employees, while the focus on relationships with employees is highly dangerous for a leader in terms of his or her loss of organizational focus, and extreme preoccupation with what employees, think, feel, or do at the expense of the organizational welfare. Consequently, as the vLeader simulation showed, there are some situations in which both the interests of the company and the needs of employees can be satisfied, though such outcomes require a delicate and wise strategic leadership behavior. Therefore, I focused my attention on these two fields of leader’s activities in my model.

Two other aspects of leader’s activity, as I perceived it from the vLeader simulation, are conflict management and crisis management. These two fields of leader’s responsibilities differ significantly from their regular tasks at hand, and leaders have to take into account a variety of variables, features, and their own skills to devise a workable strategy that will lead to the achievement of the most effective outcomes in these situations. Team conflict management is obviously one of the basic skills that a leader should possess, because work is usually done in teams, and leaders have to take a direct part in contributing to the teams’ cohesion, viability, and satisfaction. In case the leaders fail to take an active role in the life and functioning of their teams, both in times of peace and conflict, the trust and respect to a leader may reduce, which threatens his or her leadership position.

Leading the people in the times of a crisis is a separate role that any leader should possess, and that can come unexpectedly – as in vLeader, the fire unexpectedly destroyed Nortic’s building, and the need to decide on the company’s destiny was evident. Hence, in these conditions, the leader was a vital head of the desperate team welded in panic that could not decide on the easiest problems. For this reason, I have included crisis management in my model – I believe that every leader should have skills of managing people under stress and uncertainty, which is of strategic importance in some emergency situations, and wrong decisions under the influence of panic may lead to disastrous consequences for the firm in the long run.

Since I have recognized my gaps in leadership skills such as the excessive personal focus instead of the social orientation, lack of skills in proactive team conflict management, and the lack of focus on the stewardship and servant leadership, I have designed the following personal development plan to accomplish the goal of becoming a proficient and capable leader of modernity, and to comply with my model of leadership I have designed. The steps are as follows:

  1. Develop a socially oriented focus of my leadership

  2. Acquire more transformational and visionary leadership skills through focusing more on stewardship and servant leadership

  3. Work more on effective conflict management strategies

  4. Work more on my emotional intelligence to manage relationships and my own personality better

Each of these steps is of key importance, taking into account the modern pressures on leaders and the environments in which they are urged to exist and manage people and processes. Hence, each of them should be considered separately for the sake of clarity in my future activities on achievement of a higher leadership skills’ level:

Develop a socially oriented focus of my leadership. Sears, Sears, and Clough (2010) admitted that a more socially oriented leadership focus can be obtained by means of adopting an interactive leadership style characterized with intense emphasis on interpersonal communication, involvement, and interpersonal respect. Daft, Hendrik, and Vershinina (2010) also emphasized the benefit of interactive leadership as a path to servant leadership skills – the key features of interactive leadership include minimizing personal ambition and developing others, favoring a consensual and collaborative work process, and deriving influence and power from relationships rather than formal authority (p. 567). Ruminski and Holba (2011) also emphasized the critical role of information sharing in the interactive leadership style – the information flows are reciprocal, flowing in two directions as a symbol of power distribution. Though the present leadership style has been traditionally associated with female leaders, at present, it is seen as a valuable choice for both male and female leaders, since it offers highly necessary values such as personal humility, inclusion, relationship valuing, and personal care about each other at the workplace (Daft et al. 2010, p. 567).

Acquire more transformational and visionary leadership skills through focusing more on stewardship and servant leadership. Inbarasu (2008) emphasized that service is at the heart of the servant leadership style, which makes it more of a moral obligation than a formal duty of a leader in a company (p. 62). Servant leadership and stewardship are closely related concepts; servant leaders should incorporate the features of stewardship in their daily activities to become more socially oriented in their work. Taft and Ellis (2012) admitted that in their understanding, stewardship in leadership is connected with the acceptance of accountability for the impact of one’s own actions, as well his/her company and the industry, on the larger community. Similarly, Atwater and Waldman (2012) associated stewardship with the partnership in which power and control shift from formal leaders to the company’s employees in appropriate situations (p. 93). However, in case servant leadership integrates the concept of stewardship, the latter concept is seen as having the increased benefit for the company and the leader. Servant leadership thus presupposes helping followers to grow and develop professionally and personally, which makes them better servants for the customers’ and clients’ needs (Atwater & Waldman 2012, p. 93). As stated by Wheeler (2011), being a steward leader requires everyday emphasis on ensuring that resources are efficiently used by the company staff; moreover, the focus on stewardship requires constant work for the future fate of the business (ch. 11). Stewards can be both leaders and followers, while the concept of leader succession is of critical importance for stewardship, which I have to keep in mind to become a servant leader successfully. Hence, I believe that in case I manage to focus more on developing stewardship skills and adopting the servant leadership style, I will encourage growth and encouragement of my subordinates, which will ultimately lead to a significant improvement of their job satisfaction, loyalty, commitment, motivation, thus the corporate performance.

Work more on effective conflict management strategies. The state of conflict in a team is the disagreement over issues of substance that may or may not be accompanied with strong emotional antagonism (Schermerhorn 2011, p. 352). There is an urgent need for leaders to take advantage of the research findings available on the issue of conflict management in teams because leaders have to be personally interested in effective conflict resolutions. As Tekleab, Quigley, and Tesluk (2009) found out, there is a direct relationship between conflict management and team cohesion; successful conflict managements strategies employed by formal and informal leaders in a tam lead to the moderated relationship between relationship conflict and team cohesion, which in its turn affects the quality of team’s performance, satisfaction within the team, and the team’s viability (p. 170). These findings suggest that I as a leader can play a decisive role in managing intra-team conflict and contribute to the accomplishment of certain organizational goals, as well as to the increase of my subordinates’ job satisfaction directly related to intrinsic motivation.

As Kolb (2013) recommended based on her empirical research results, action on conflict resolution should be taken early in the conflict cycle, and the effective conflict management process can be facilitated by the involvement of ground rules for productive discussion of disagreements (p. 79). Moreover, there is a need to distinguish the interpersonal and work-related conflict, and to discuss the personal aspect of conflict in the group only in case it is concurrent with the group’s purpose, time availability, and skill set of the group. In other way, there is a threat of distraction from the work-related conflict roots, and the danger of personal offense and shame that will further disable the team’s work (Kolb 2013, p. 79).

Work more on my emotional intelligence to manage relationships and my own personality better. The need to possess emotional intelligence is repeatedly emphasized by researchers and practitioners in the modern business world. Williams (2007, p. 13) admitted that the core value of emotional intelligence (EI) for a leader is in the ability to understand, manage, and respond to emotions, which is of vital importance for a leader as a human being working with other human beings. The most comprehensive and clear definition of EI was proposed by Mayer and Salovey (1997, p, 10), and stated that EI is

“the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth”.

To become emotionally intelligent, leaders have to keep in mind four prime areas of EI – self-awareness (understanding yourself), self-management (managing yourself), social awareness (understanding others), and relationship management (managing others) (Nadler 2007, p. 15). Hence, I am planning to focus on the development of these four core areas to become a better emotionally intelligent leader; I believe that these skills will help me better understand myself, and will equip me with the inventory for understanding others’ emotions, thus enabling me to make more emotionally sensitive decisions.






Atwater, LE & Waldman, DA 2012, Leadership, feedback, and the open communication gap, Psychology Press, New York.

Daft, RL 2008, The leadership experience, 4th edn, Cengage Learning, Mason.

Daft, RL, Kendrick, M & Vershinina, N 2010, Management, Cengage Learning EMEA, Hampshire.

Inbarasu, J 2008, Influence of servant-leadership practice on job satisfaction: A correlational study in a Lutheran organization, ProQuest, Ann Arbor.

Kolb, JA 2013, ‘Conflict management principles for groups and teams’, Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 45, iss. 2, pp. 79-86.

Lussier, RN & Achua, CF 2009, Leadership with Infotrac: Theory, application, and skill development, 4th edn, Cengage Learning, Mason.

Malloch, K & Porter-O’Grady, T 2009, The quantum leader: Applications for the new world of work, 2nd edn, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Sudbury.

Mayer, JD & Salovey, P 1997, ‘What is emotional intelligence?’, in P Salovey & D Sluyter (Eds), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3-31), Basic Books, New York.

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Nadler, RS 2007, Leader’s playbook: How to apply emotional intelligence – keys to great leadership, Richard Moss Seminars, Santa Barbara.

Ruminski, EL & Holba, AM 2011, Communicative understandings of women’s leadership development: from ceilings of glass to labyrinth paths, Lexington Books, Plymouth.

Schermerhorn, JR 2011, Exploring management, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Danvers.

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Tekleab, AG, Quigley, NR, & Tesluk, PE 2009, ‘A longitudinal study of team conflict, conflict management, cohesion, and team effectiveness’, Group Organizational Management, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 170-205.

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Appendix Awareness and Assessment: Your Leader Self-Insights

Number & Title of Leader Self-Insight

Numerical Scores and/or other Outcome Measures

1.1 Your Learning Style: Using Multiple Intelligences – in brief, what do the results mean?





Logical-Mathematical = 3


= 2

Interpersonal = 3

Intrapersonal = 1


= 2


1.2 Your Leadership Potential- in brief, what do the results mean?



Count of Mostly True (even-numbered questions) = 7

Count of Mostly True (odd-numbered questions) =5


1.3 Are You on a Fast Track to Nowhere? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count of Mostly True:

People Skills = 12

Count of Mostly True: Working with Authority = 15

Count of Mostly True: Networking = 13


2.1 Rate Your Self-Confidence– in brief, what do the results mean?



Total Score =7

Count of Mostly True: 1, 7, 9 10 = 2

Count of Mostly False: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 = 5


2.2 What’s Your Leadership Orientation? – in brief, what do the results mean?


Consideration Behavior Score (Mostly True, items 1-4) = 2


Initiating Structure Behavior Score (Mostly True, items 5-8) = 3





4.5 Personality Assessment using Jung’s Typology/Myers-Briggs

Your four-letter MBTI type is:___INFJ_____ – in brief, what do the results mean?




Total for I: 35%

Total for E:


Are you more I or more E?

More I than E

Total for S:

Total for N:20%


Are you more S or more N?


More N than S

Total for T:

Total for F: 49%


Are you more T or more F?


More F than T

Total for J: 32%

Total for P:


Are you more J or more P?

More J than P


4.2 Measuring Locus of Control– in brief, what do the results mean?




Your Score = 5


3.1 T-P Leadership Questionnaire: An Assessment of Style– in brief, what do the results mean?





Your “T” Score (Mostly True for 1-5)


Your “P” Score (Mostly True for 6-10)



3.2 Are You Ready? – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your “Readiness” Level = 4


10.2 Assess Your Team Leadership Skills– in brief, what do the results mean?




Total Score = 8

Count of Mostly True for 1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 = 5

Count of Mostly False for 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 = 3


10.3 How Do You Handle Team Conflict? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Score for Competing (Items 2, 4, 15) = 2

Score for Avoiding (Items 1, 5, 9) = 2

Score for Compromising (Items 4, 7, 11) = 1

Score for Accommodating (Items 8, 12, 13) = 1

Score for Collaborating (Items 3, 6, 10) = 3


9.2 Listening Self-Inventory – in brief, what do the results mean?


Your Total Score (out of 12) = 8

Count of NO’s for Items 1, 2, 3, 5 , 6 ,7, 8, 9 = 5

Count of YES for Items 4, 10, 11, 12 = 3


7.1 The Power of Followership– in brief, what do the results mean?


Independent Thinking: High, Middling, or Low? High

Active Engagement: High, Middling, or Low? Middling to High

Followership Style = Active


Score for Independent Thinking (Count of Mostly True, items 1, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16) =6

Score for Active Engagement (Count of Mostly True items 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13) = 5


7.3 Receiving Feedback– in brief, what do the results mean?




Score for Feedback Seeking (Items 1, 4, 7) = 2

Score for Feedback Avoiding (Items 2, 5, 8) = 1

Score for Feedback Mitigating (Items 3, 6, 9) = 1


9.3 Communication Apprehension– in brief, what do the results mean?



Total Score = 7

Count Mostly False (2, 4, 5, 8, 9) = 3

Count Mostly True (1, 3, 6, 7, 10) = 4


12.3 Your Leadership Orientation (FRAME preference) – in brief, what do the results mean?




Structural (sum all of the “a’s”) = 2


Human Resource (sum all of the “b’s”) = 1

Political (sum all of the “c’s”) = 1

Symbolic (sum all of the “d’s”) = 2


6.1 What’s Your Mach? (Machiavellian score) – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your Total MACH score = 8

Count Mostly False for items 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 = 3

Count Mostly True for items 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 = 5


6.2 Your Servant Leadership Orientation– in brief, what do the results mean?



Count Mostly True for items 4, 8, 12, 16 Your Score for Authoritarian = 3

Count Mostly True for items 2, 6, 10, 14 Your Score for Participative = 4

Count Mostly True for items 3, 7, 11, 15 Your Score for Stewardship = 1

Count Mostly True for items 1, 5, 9, 13 Your Score for Servant Leadership = 1


Cultural Intelligence– in brief, what do the results mean?






Cognitive CQ


Physical CQ


Emotional / Motivational CQ



4.3 Instrumental and End Values– in brief, what do the results mean?






End Value 1: Exciting life

End Value 2: Pleasure

End Value 3: Self-respect

End Value 4: A sense of accomplishment

End Value 5: True friendship

Instrumental 1: Ambition

Instrumental 2: Helpfulness

Instrumental 3: Logic

Instrumental 4: Responsibility

Instrumental 5: Self-control


5.1 Mindfulness– in brief, what do the results mean?





Your Score for Open or Beginner’s Mind = 3

Your Score for Independent Thinking = 2

Your Score for Intellectual Stimulation =1


5.2 Emotional Intelligence– in brief, what do the results mean?


Count Mostly True for items 1, 5, 11, 13

Your Score for Self-Awareness = 4

Count Mostly True for Items 2, 8, 12, 14 Your Score for Self-Management = 1

Count Mostly True for Items 3, 6, 9, 15 Your Score for Social Awareness = 2

Count Mostly True for Items 4, 7, 10, 16 Your Score for Relationship Management = 4


5.3 Love or Fear? – in brief, what do the results mean?





Count Mostly True for Items 1-5

 “Fear of Failure” score = 2

Count Mostly True for Items 6 -10 “Love of Task” (Flow) score = 4


6.3 Assess Your Moral Courage– in brief, what do the results mean?






Count Mostly True responses = 5


14.1 How Spiritual Are You? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True responses =4


11.1 Values Balancing– in brief, what do the results mean?





Count Words in Column 1 Score for Personal Initiative = 4

Count Words in Column 2 Capacity for Collaboration = 4


11.3 Social Values– in brief, what do the results mean?


Average your Results for Items 1, 2, 3 I-C Score (Individualism / Collectivism) = 2

Average your Results for Items 4, 5,6 UA Score

(Uncertainty Avoidance) = 2

Reverse/Average Results for Items 9 & 10 M-F Score (Masculinity / Femininity) = 1

Average Results for Items 11 & 12 PD Score

(Power Distance) = 1


13.1 My Personal Vision– in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly Trues Your Total Score = 5



13.2 Visionary Leadership– in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True for odd-numbered items Your Score for Creating a Vision = 2

Count Mostly True for even-numbered items Your Score for Implementing a Vision = 3


15.2 Are You a Change Leader? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Count Mostly True responses = 5


15.1 How Innovative Are You? – in brief, what do the results mean?




Your Total Score = 7

Count Mostly True for Items 1, 2, 8, 9, 10 = 4

Count Mostly False for Items 3, 4, 6, 7 = 3


15.3 Do You Have a Creative Personality? – in brief, what do the results mean?



Your total Creativity score (which may be positive or negative, but must be between +18 and -12) = +8

Add 1 point for choosing words numbered 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30. Your score = 13

Subtract 1 point for choosing words numbered 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 20, 27, 29, 29. Your score = 5






































Competitive Strategies and Government Policies

(Insert Names)

(Institutional Affiliations)










Competitive Strategies and Government Policies in Automobile Industry

This paper looks at automobile industries and it helps us in understanding and analyzing various issues. In it we examine the government policies and regulations which include taxes and regulations in order to address issues related to externalities. This is important because it helps us determine whether they are effective or not and if they add any benefits to the society at large, through provision of income to the government and services to the people.

In the automobile industry, this has been one of the largest industries affecting both the government and the society as a whole. Thus government has put in place various regulations and policies to govern it. These include regulations on import of vehicles and the age of the automotives. For example, some countries have put up regulations where you cannot import an automobile beyond a certain age limit since it was manufactured. This ensures that old automotives likely to dangerously pollute the environment are not allowed to enter the country, thus protecting the environment and the community (Parry et al, 2007). This is geared towards protection of the environment from air pollution which has been one of the biggest challenges. In this industry, governments have also put stringent measures which ensure that all vehicles on the road undergo frequent inspections to determine their road worthiness.

Because of the need to contribute to the national economy due to increased government and other public expenditure, government collects taxes from all the parties involved in the industry at various levels. For example, the manufactures of the automobiles pay taxes to the government through licenses and also for the units they produce. There are taxes imposed on all imported or exported vehicles which are paid by the exporter or the buyer. Such funds are used for infrastructure like road constructions and maintenance.

In the future there should be clear policies which will protect the environment, as a result of air pollution which greatly affects the communities. The government should enact policies which ensure that there are heavy fines for those find in violation of the existing policies. Secondly, the government in the future can buy off such automotives in order to ensure that they are completely eliminated from the roads. The vehicles can then be destroyed or recycled.

The industry comes along with negative externalities due to the effects of pollution. It is a negative externality because it affects people and other industries yet the automobile industry does not pay for this negative cost (Parry et al, 2007). People are affected by the pollution, they get sick, use their money to seek treatments yet those involved do not contribute towards the expenses incurred. There are however positive externalities involved and these bring positive impacts to the lives of people and the government. For example, the automobile industry has provided a large market for fuel products. The industry has also tremendously improved businesses by provision of smooth movement of goods, people and services from one place to another. Thus businesses have greatly benefitted from this industry.

In conclusion, we can say that the industry has got various advantages as well as its advantages due to the impact it has created to the government and the community. Therefore, in future the government should come up with policies and regulations which are geared towards protection of both the industry and the community so that it can grow while the society enjoys its benefits. This will greatly reduce the negative externalities and impact on positive externalities.







Parry, I. W., Walls, M., and Harrington, W. (2007). Automobile Externalities and Policies. Retrieved 6 May 2013 from http://www.rff.org/Documents/RFF-DP-06-26-REV.pdf




Physiological Psychology














Cell Base Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease

The article by Greene Paul 2009 suggests a cell base therapy in addressing the Parkinson’s disease. His argument is based on replacing dead or dysfunctional brain cells, which are seen as the cause of Parkinson’s disease, by transplanting healthy cells. This is a medical practice that has been researched unsuccessfully since the 19th century. The article cites a research conducted in 1976 that indicated that cell therapy would be practical considering that a rat fetal monoaminergic neuron survived after transportation into the brains of an adult rat. This findings prompted research works aimed at finding a viable treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Most of the research conducted in the 1980s and that which was based on this theory concluded that in many patients, fetal cell transplantation was successful in replacing dopamine, improving the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, and brought benefits that medical prescription was unable to provide. However, subsequent reports have mostly proved otherwise. Most research especially the one conducted in the early 2000s has shown and analyzed the failures of the theory and has attempted to define future course for cell transportation in Parkinson’s disease. Advocates of this medical practice believe that stem cell therapy has more benefits than medical therapy because cell transportation is able to reduce the growth of dopamine, and patients are able to develop disabling motor fluctuations.

This article suggests that fetal cell transplantation may produce positive results to patients of Parkinson’s disease with the ability to reduce dyskinesias. According to the article, the three blinding research confirms a net benefit of stem cell transplantation and reveals serious problems of increased dyskinesias that may not be managed by medication. These findings have suggested that application of stem cell therapy in Parkinson’s disease is not yet capable of addressing the issue, and hence, more research need to be conducted on its effects.

The Hypothalamus

The Hypothalamus is a small part of the brain located below the thalamus and right above the brain stem. It forms the anterior part of the diencephalon and controls the nervous system as well as the endocrine system, which is linked to the pituitary glands. The hypothalamus is responsible for autonomic function control that mostly entails unconscious motion and visceral control and includes heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, and salivation amongst others. The hypothalamus coordinates circadian rhythms, which also involve several circadian patterns, temperature, and hormonal regulations. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclear is the main anatomic structure for chronobiological regulation in the hypothalamus and influences various parts of the brain, and induces endocrine and autonomic function through the neuronal connection. These functions of the hypothalamus make the human body responsive either normally or abnormally to internal and external factors affecting the body (Holle, 2011).

A study by Qiu and colleagues (2013) show that hypothalamus is not involved in abnormal behavior like cluster headache in the body. He used the voxel-based morphometry, which is an automated and unbiased whole brain technique that allows the comparison of structural brain images in regards to the volume and density of the gray and white matter. According to him, the hypothalamus is not involved with such kinds of abnormalities, which were found to be related to other parts of the brain. I do agree with his sentiments because the hypothalamus is involved in controlling the relationship between the body and its internal and external factors. Given that it affects sensory functions, hypothalamus influences other parts of the body to react to biological interferences that may result into abnormal behavior.

















Green, P. (2009). Cell base therapies in Parkinson’s disease. Current Neurological and Neuroscience Report, 9:292-297.

Holle, D. & Obermann, M. Cluster headache and the hypothalamus: causal relationship or epiphenomenon? Expert Review of Neurotherapeitics, 11.9: 1255-63.

Qiu, E., Wang Y., Ma L., Tian L., Liu R., (2013). Abnormal Brain Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Cluster Headaches. PLoS ONE 8(2): e57896.