Business Ethics and Organization Ethics

 

Business ethics and values is a vital part of the day-to-day activities in Marriott Hotels. Marriot International is known as an excellent world leader in hospitality as it upholds its conducts through responsible business policies in employment and through values that support integrity, pursue excellence and put people first. This is achieved by adhering to high ethical standards, without compromising the required legal standards. In fact, Marriott International maintains its business ethics by providing its employees, with sufficient guidelines on ways to conduct business ethically. This ensures that the company commits to Human rights, legal standards, code of ethics, and the principles of responsible business (Marriott.com).

The theory of utilitarian can be applied in understanding Marriott International business and ethical policies. According to Brenkert and Beauchamp (2010), one of the central focus of utilitarian theory is happiness. The theory takes happiness to be the only fundamental goal, and as a result, it defines what actions or policies should be considered right or obligatory. According to the theory, Marriott International moral and ethical policies maximize the balance of happiness over unhappiness in the world. The theory insists that in order to do the right thing, organizations or individuals must ordinarily make estimates of the good and bad consequences of their actions in order to maximize on the overall happiness and not misery.

The application of rights and duties in Marriott International portrays a high ethical standard. The organization has established policies and codes of conduct offers guidelines to managers and associates on what is right and wrong. More so, the organization offers training to employees, which helps to communicate their rights, their commitment to the law and human rights among others. According a sustainability report update (Marriott, 2013) has managed to maintain its ethics in rights and duties, even in the diverse and inclusive workforce by celebrating the cultural and traditional differences of all its associates without discrimination.

References

Brenkert, G. G., & Beauchamp, T. L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marriott International Website http://www.marriott.com/corporate-social-responsibility/corporate-values.mi

Marriott (2013). 2013 sustainability report update. Retrieved from:http://www.marriott.com/Multimedia/PDF/CorporateResponsibility/Marriott_Sustainability_Report_Update_2013.pdf

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Body Weight Regulation and Anorexia

 

Body Weight Regulation and Anorexia

 

Name:

Institution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Body Weight Regulation and Anorexia

Obesity describes the context in which the body has too much body fats. This shows a clear difference between being obese and overweight. Being overweight means a body has extra muscles, bone, or water as well as having too much fat in the body (Dugdale and Vorvick, 2012, p 2, Para 8).  This shows that body weight is higher than the healthy levels recommended medically.

On this view, the scientific findings shed some facts on the problem of body weight regulation, which include:

  1. Eating more food than one body can use and utilize causing the accumulation of excess fats
  2. In addition the consumption of too much alcohol which the body liver cannot break down
  3. The view of not getting enough exercise due to the lack of free time on the daily schedule

The metabolic rate of an individual body changes with calorific intake. This is because the human body stores all the un-burnt calories in the form of fats. When an individual consumes low calories, the body homeostatic reacts by rather finding the other sources of energy to keep the energy levels at an optimum level (Dugdale and Vorvick, 2012, p 3, Para 8). Hence, this enables the vital organs like the heart, liver and kidneys to function well. This is by adapting to the catabolism of the muscles, which can lead to starvation, and emaciation of the body tissues. In addition, when large calories are consumed, the body uses some for normal cellular metabolism and stores the remainder as fats in the blood. This relative changes leads to changes in the calorific metabolism.

Some factors influence the body weights are:

  1.  Underactive thyroid gland treatment- this is caused by medical problems in the treatment process, which can lead to weight gain.
  2. Menopause for women, which can lead to the gain of 12-15 pounds during the first few months of the condition
  3. Medicines such as birth control pills antidepressants and antipsychotics, which cause the low calorie, break down in the body metabolism leading to overweight.
  4. Stress, anxiety, feeling sad and not sleeping well causes low calories break down leading to overweight.

Finally, cultural influences might contribute to eating disorders in the context whereby a culture is developed and many people consume heavy fatty foods and snacks, which the body cannot utilize them all and this consequently leads to overweight and eating disorders(Dugdale and Vorvick, 2012, p 4, Para 10). In addition, lack of aerobic exercises such as jogging, running and playing various games leads to high calories level accumulation, which consequently leads to obesity and related eating disorders. 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Dugdale, D. and Vorvick, L. (2012). A.D.A.M Medical Encyclopedia. Obesity. (pp. 1- 6). Atlanta: PubMed Health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth

 

STROKE

 

Part A:

Question 1

According to the AHA guidelines, I would collect the patient and the family’s significant medical history beginning with the OPQRS that is: What activity the patient was doing when the symptoms were first observed what time (how long ago) and whether the onset was sudden or progressive. I would also ask the family whether there was anything that they had done that made the symptoms better or worse. Another question that would matter is the description of the quality of the patient, how the pain on the patient’s head could be described and where it is emanating from. In addition, I would ask the parents to describe the severity of the pain the patient was experiencing. In addition, I would also inquire which medication if any the patient had been using.

Question 2

The first out of the three-step test checks for facial flop that requires the patient to glance in a medic’s direction and perform a facial expression such as a smile. A patient fails when motion from one side does not synchronize with the other. The second step involves arm drifting by the patient by elevating their arms. If one of the patient’s arms drifts different from the other, it is an abnormal occurrence. The third step highlights the speech of the patient with slurry and incoherent expression being a failure of the test. A stroke is present if there is a failure in any or all the tests.

Question 3

First, I would determine the status of the patient’s vitals (blood group, heart rate etc.), which is crucial as well as initiate a quick evacuation of the patient to a surgical equipped neurological center. I must ensure the patient remains stable and provide any services necessary. If the patient has difficulties in breathing, then oxygen administration will be necessary. If the patient is conscious, my crew and I will offer reassurance that all will be well which will go a long way in calming the patient and thus may prevent stroke attacks. Speed and efficiency will ensure that the patient gets to the health facility in perfect shape for the next phase of diagnosis and treatment processes.

 

Part B Responses:

Q#1

I agree with the AHA guidelines. This is because collecting a patient’s medical history helps determine their health conditions at an earlier stage and avoid complications later. A neurological analysis will determine how to proceed with the diagnosis upon confirmation.

Q#2

I agree this tool is necessary when screening for a stroke. However, it can prove a challenge to a paramedic who is not familiar with the concept. I would urge a routine exercise to familiarize the paramedics with the tool.

Q#3

I agree a paramedic should follow the status of the patient and organize quick transport to the receiving center for proper treatment. This entails comforting the patient despite the fear of the stoke case being confirmed

 

Discuss two or more media texts that you would define as postmodern and explain why you would give them this label.

McDougall, J. 2012. Media Studies: The Basics. Routledge, New York.

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=Qfw9obCga14C&pg=PA90&dq=postmodernism+media+text&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p2ljUofvLYXUkwXZvoCgBQ&ved=0CEEQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=postmodern&f=true

Goody, A. 2013. Technology, Literature and Culture. Wiley, Hoboken.

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=hFEWY27HOcsC&pg=PT163&dq=big+brother+tv+show+postmodern&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BOxjUqGJGcnOkgXDw4HYDQ&ved=0CEcQuwUwBA#v=onepage&q=big%20brother%20tv%20show%20postmodern&f=false

Flynn, R. and Brereton, P. (2007). Historical Dictionary of Irish Cinema. Scarecrow Press, Lanham.

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=bQT4XcCPDrYC&pg=PA174&dq=intermission+film+postmodern&hl=en&sa=X&ei=AQBkUoCkNoTTkAW5-IH4DA&ved=0CF8Q6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=intermission%20film%20postmodern&f=false

 

Degli-Esposti, D. 1998. Postmodernism in the Cinema. Berghahn Books, Kent.

 

http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=J0pqFfuEebYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=postmodernist+film&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PRdkUt-XNI7xlAXBuoCwAw&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=postmodernist%20film&f=false

Discuss two or more media texts that you would define as postmodern and explain why you would give them this label.

Name:

Instructor’s Name:

Course

Date (Day/Month/Year)

Discuss Two or More Media Texts That You Would Define as Postmodern and Explain Why You Would Give Them This Label

            A large part of what makes the human personality so impressive is its capacity to conform and even oppose to the conditions of its environment. This is perhaps why, through the course of history, we have come to witness the emergence and disappearance of eras or different periods marked by distinctive characters wherein people held on to certain ideals which define their cultural values and political situations. This malleability of the human personality was the same phenomenon which brought forth the style and concept of postmodernism in the late 20th century. The purpose of this essay is to provide a thorough discussion on postmodern media texts. The major points for discussion will start with the exploration of the postmodernism concept. This will be followed by the significance of time and space and how such themes are represented in postmodern works. Lastly, this paper will examine how postmodernism is being represented in films by exploring three selected movies from the European cinema.

Postmodernism: Exploring the Term

There is no general definition for postmodernism except that it is a variation of the standards or norms of the modernism, a movement which developed during the late 19th and early 20th century periods which transformed traditional beliefs particularly those related to the ideals of the Roman Catholic Church (Oxford University Press 2013). But what is modernism in relation to postmodernism? Modernism is the product of what others would refer to as an experience called ‘modernity,’ wherein time, space, the self, and others are confined in an environment that assures adventure, power, joy, growth, and transformation while uniting mankind. However, this objective for unity would actually turn out to be suffocating, an issue which postmodernism has attempted to address (Harvey, 1989, p. 10).

Some critics of postmodernism actually viewed it as a cultural and historical human invention marked by superficial philosophical theories that mocks the standards of modernism. On a more favorable note however, there were also who considered postmodernism as that which affirms the role of a diversified culture in giving freedom and equal rights to every individual. This is opposed to the totalitarian principles of modernism which tends to become submissive to a centralized and dictatorial system (Harvey, 1989, pp. 7-8).

In Todd Gitlin’s (1976, p. 67) The Postmodern Predicament, at least nine styles and qualities of postmodernism are presented:

  1. Pastiche which is work of art that imitates a previous work;
  2. Blankness or emptiness of feeling;
  3. A sense of exhaustion which usually paves the way to a process of rediscovery;
  4. Mixture of levels, forms, and styles which provides volatility or unpredictability;
  5. Relish for copies and repetitions which is concerned more on making better replicas rather than maintaining original works;
  6. Knowingness that dissolves commitment into irony;
  7. Acute self-consciousness about the formal, construed nature of the work;
  8. Pleasure in the play of surfaces; and
  9. Rejection of history.


Postmodern Media Text

Postmodernism was brought about by the process of rediscovery as well as the shifting of already existing ideas on the origins and social relationships of human beings, resulting to a broader perspective of other disciplines such as the sciences of philosophy, history, mathematics, ethics, politics, and other studies (Harvey, 1989, p. 9). Its emergence was due to the reaction against the strict standards of traditional modernism (Jameson, 1982, p. 1). Furthermore, unlike the modernist concept, postmodernism principles are presented on beliefs that personal views, interpretations and opinions should be without restrictions. Therefore, any idea of truth during the modern era should be deconstructed and challenged. This is the same premise where the structure of postmodern media text is based upon, wherein the content of an original material is no longer an issue since it is basically a process of using classic genres in an altered form, some examples of which are the parody, a form of satirical mimicry and homage, an artistic work reproduced in order to show advantage to the original one. The main concern of postmodern media is to stimulate the imagination of the audience by allowing them to visualize different competing versions of a certain story, text or image. However this does not necessarily guarantee that whatever truth is being represented in postmodern texts is already the absolute one (McDougall, 2012, p. 90).

Time and Space in Postmodern Works

            It is almost hard to imagine how certain shifts in economic trends can also affect the composition of media texts. For the past decades, there has been the increasing demand to accelerate turnover time when it comes to the production of mass products (e.g. clothing, ornaments, decorations) and services (e.g. entertainments, spectacles, happenings). The turnover time for these goods and services even became faster with the increase in speed communications and information technology. In relation to media works, particularly with advertising, these economic and technological trends have allowed capitalists to manipulate the taste and opinion of the market group through the bombardment of images that are deemed acceptable in the society. Unfortunately, this focus on image defeats the purpose of informing and promoting reliable products and services to the public. Postmodernist Jean Baudrillard even emphasized this reality by stating that the Marxist analysis of commodity production is outdated due to such focus on images and signs rather than the goods themselves. This is why success and image building has been one of the most profitable formula in trading nowadays. It also paved the way for the production of counterfeit goods such as the case of a firm in California which successfully manufactured and sold imitation car telephones because the latter has become a status symbol to the public. This only proves that the public is no longer concerned mostly on the product itself but on the image it provides on the individual, thus it is no longer an issue if that product is just a replica (Harvey, 1989, pp. 285-289).

Simulacrum

            The aforementioned issue is being addressed by the concept of ‘simulacrum,’ a concept which means “a state of such near perfect replication that the difference between the original and the copy becomes almost impossible to spot” (Harvey, 1989, p. 289). In relation to this concept, Baudrillard also presented the idea of hyperreality which was described by using Disneyland as an example. Disneyland is real place which occupies a physical space but at the same time it is just a replica of Disney’s magical world as seen by the public on television shows and illustrations. Postmodernists assert that the world we live in is made up entirely of simulacra or imitations of the real world thus there is no longer a distinction between what is real and what is imaginary (McDougall, 2012, p. 90). This also brings to mind the acknowledged television genre called reality TV. One of its best examples was Big Brother wherein the participants get to be part of an unscripted show, thus allowing the audience to relate better with the cast unlike those with movies or TV shows. Big Brother creates the impression that anyone can be part of this media presentation. However despite the seemingly authentic selfhood being projected by the participants of this reality TV, the real self is actually still being manipulated and projected as would be deemed favorable in front of the camera, another demonstration of how the real and the hyperreal can be easily confused (Goody, 2013, no page).

            Media scholar Henry Jenkins provided this interesting view on the realities of postmodernism (McDougall, 2012, p. 91):

We are entering a period of prolonged transition and transformation in the way media operates. Convergence describes the process by which we sort through those options. Audiences empowered by these new technologies, occupying a space at the intersection between old and new media, are demanding the right to participate within the culture.

The internet is one example of media tool which has become easily accessible to the public. From desktop computers, this technology is already within reach 24 hours a day through gadgets like portable laptops and cellular phones. People are constantly exposed to media representations in their day-to-day activities whether at home, at work, or even while travelling. Postmodernists argue that because of this situation, the distinction between actual and virtual media representation already becomes confusing and sometimes even completely lost (McDougall, 2012, p. 92).


Film Analysis

            Some of the privileges of postmodern films is that they exist in an era that is blessed with many technological advantages that allows the information storage in great quantities. Computer graphics, CD-ROM, computer memory, and imaging have allowed postmodern artists to create more while saving time and money. These technological facilities have allowed the postmodern cinema to create films with scenes and stories that offer diversified perspective for the audience. There is also a different level of attention when it comes to details which are constantly scrutinized through an almost endless process of rereading and rewriting. The difference is also seen with the manner in which the narrator treats his audience, whose perspective is carefully analyzed through the camera lens, unlike the modernist cinema where the focus is merely on the actors (Degli-Esposti, 1998, p. 6). Technology and the audience’s opinion are important elements in the creation of a postmodernist film. In order to demonstrate the influence of these two, the following discussion will examine three films which, at the same time, will also demonstrate the theories of postmodernism. The movies to be examined are films from the European cinema starting with Germany’s Wings of Desire by Wim Wenders and Run Lola Run by Tom Tykwer, and Ireland’s Intermission by John Crowley.

Wings of Desire

            Wim Wenders’s movie tells the story of Damiel, an angel who falls in love with a mortal. The story occurs in Berlin where the two separate worlds of angels and humans coexist albeit both beings are unable to make physical interaction. Under the theories of postmodernism, this setting is a demonstration of cultural fragmentation, wherein the spaces and culture of very different worlds seem to fold upon each other. This is shown in the film through alternate scenes of black and white and colored films, as well as with the existing mental and emotional strain between the celestial and earthly beings. Author and geographer David Harvey further affirms the movie as being a postmodern text although partly modernist on its second half which, according to him, tries “to resurrect something of the modernist spirit of human communication, togetherness…” (Caldwell & Rea, 1991, pp. 46-47). Damiel and his friend Cassiel, who is also a divine being, are able to see, hear, and read the minds people. During such scenes in the movie where the angels are reading the minds of mortals, the focus is more on the Berliners. But when the angels are done listening to people’s troubles and they interact with each other like ordinary humans, their characters become significant. Time-space compression also comes to mind, at least from the angels’ perspective, wherein the latter can simultaneously hear different human thoughts, an example of overcoming time and spatial barriers. If one takes a closer look at the film, several aspects are actually symbols of certain realities in human life. For example, Berlin represents all the cities in the world where inhabitants are constantly connected by information, transportation, and communication which serve as tools to bridge the gaps of human division. The film ends with Damiel becoming human and finally being with his love interest, Marion. From a postmodernist point of view, this final part of the film is like liberation from the indifferences of the modernist culture. Furthermore, the characters’ openness to learn new things about each other is similar to rediscovering old modernist concepts in order to create a more lively and colorful environment. In essence, postmodernism is actually an uninterrupted connection of modernism (Olivier, 1992, pp.1-5).

Run Lola Run

            Perhaps not everyone was very happy with the conclusion of the box office hit Titanic where Leonardo Dicaprio’s character died at the end of the movie. It would be possible also that many of those who watched the film had wished for a different ending but unfortunately that was the only way to make the story end. But for hyperfilms like Run Lola Run, the possibilities are endless. The film is composed of three scenarios with three different endings. The plot’s flexibility which made use of styles called circularity, repetition, and quanta is another demonstration of postmodernism because of the way it presents different options on how the story is going to turn out. There was also the clever use of time and space which were used in order to allow the retelling of the three versions of the story, wherein the third and last one had a happy ending while the first two did not. The overall result was a creative storytelling of a somewhat very simple movie. Run Lola Run is among the many different movies such as the remake of Bedazzled back in 2000 which makes use of alternative endings and hyperrealistic styles. Filmmakers nowadays are very lucky in such a way that they can change the original endings of their stories but without having to get rid of them. By allowing the audience to see different viewpoints, they are also provided with non-traditional perspectives which may either be artistic on one hand or humorous, immoral, and inappropriate on the other. Furthermore, despite the inappropriateness of some stories, the audience has already become more tolerable of multiple options and possibilities. In fact the issue no longer lies on how realistic the story is but rather, possibly, how real can a story get? The purpose of the film is geared toward the playful experimentation of hyper-reality and multiple perspectives which does not only tell the audience of what really happened in the story but also what will, could, would and, should happen (Lauer, 2003, pp.1-12). Furthermore, the system of arrangement is chaotic rather than organized in order to create a sense of individual freedom, a trait which definitely invokes the concept of postmodernism.   

 

 

Intermission

            This 2003 film has an ambitious plot with over 11 interconnected storylines and 54 characters. The movie has been shot in a documentary film format which invokes a sense of reality which the audience can easily relate to (at least with Irish natives). It begins with the scene of a seemingly casual romantic conversation between Lehiff and a shop assistant. Just when the latter was already showing signs of giving in to the romantic gestures of Lehiff (and presumably the audience was enticed as well), the latter suddenly punches her in the face and goes straight to the cash register to steal some money. This offensive act from the actor is a deliberate representation of the postmodernist concept and has drawn different reactions from the audience such as shock from the scene’s unexpected violence or amusement from its dark humor. The opening scene is followed by interwoven chain of events with twist and turns that captivate the audience who are caught unaware of what might happen next due to the chaotic transitions and contradictions of the scenes, until the movie becomes meaningful in its conclusion (Flynn & Brereton, 2007, p. 174). The film’s interweaving plot also brings to mind Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction, another epitome of postmodernist film. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

            There is no doubt that the objective of postmodernism in liberating the minds of the people through mediums like TV shows and films has its advantages. After all, expressing one’s opinion about certain issues or against any established universal truth is a right and not a privilege, especially if this will help pave the way toward social equality. However, a word of caution: the present technological condition has allowed limitless social networking and media information. Countless information are being thrown from different parts of the world regardless if their sources are credible or not. These agents of postmodernism must still take into consideration the possibility of endangering the important values of human nature where great characters are built upon. Without these values, the society will be vulnerable to corruption and other forms of degradation. It is therefore recommended that whether it be in written or visual mediums, the practice of good values must still be encouraged. The destruction and reconstruction of any established truth may however be tolerated. After all it is only mankind, who has the tendency for manipulation, who created these standards for truth, which are not necessarily free from error.

 

Works Cited

Caldwell, D. and Rea, P. 1991. ‘Handke’s and Wenders’s Wings of Desire: Transcending Postmodernism,’ The German Quarterly, vol. 64, no. 1, pp.46-54

Degli-Esposti, D. 1998. Postmodernism in the Cinema. Berghahn Books, Kent.

Flynn, R. and Brereton, P. 2007. Historical Dictionary of Irish Cinema. Scarecrow Press, Lanham.

Gitlin, T. 1976. ‘The Postmodern Predicament,’ The Wilson Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 67-76.

Goody, A. 2013. Technology, Literature and Culture. Wiley, Hoboken.

Harvey, D. 1989. The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Blackwell, Cambridge.

Jameson, F. 1982. Postmodernism and Consumer Society. viewed 15 October 2013, http://art.ucsc.edu/sites/default/files/Jameson_Postmodernism_and_Consumer_Society.pdf.

Lauer, A. 2003. ‘Run Lola Run at the Dawn of Postmodernity,’ Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-9.

McDougall, J. 2012. Media Studies: The Basics. Routledge, New York.

Olivier, B. 1992. ‘Postmodern Cinema and Postmodern Culture: Information-Communication, Otherness and History in Wenders’s Himmel über Berlin (Wings of Desire),’ Literator, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1-12.

Oxford University Press 2013. Oxford Dictionaries, viewed 15 October 2013, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/modernism?q=modernism.

California English Language Development Test Process

Abstract

Learning a second language can at times be a bit challenging considering the intensity of learning something new under a new environment. The California English Language Development Test (CELDT) was developed to help students who want to learn English as a second language or those whose first language is not English. However, according Krashen and Cummmins, language acquisition and learning takes place in a different way and CEDLT is more of a language learning program. In another exciting twist and turn of events, acquisition and learning can interact in an intricate way in acquiring and learning a new language. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The CELDT

The California English Language Development Test (CELDT) is a process use to test the proficiency of English principles to students whose first language is not English. Students’ grading, CELDT was developed in 2001 to identify and help students who are trying to learn English; by determining their level of skills in the language as well as their English language proficiency development. English learners are tested in areas of listening, speaking, as well as reading and writing. The CELDT test is given after a month (30 days) once a student is enrolled and is determined that English is not his/her first language (Ellis, 2011).

More also, CELDT is also administered to those who have had no prior testing in English language. It is there after given every year to check on the progress of the student and decide whether they have attained the recommended English proficiency levels. After the CELDT has been given and the process completed, the test score results are categorized as the proficiency level or the CELDT for the student. The levels are numbered numerically, 1-5, in descending order as Advanced, Early Advanced, Intermediate, Early Intermediate, and Beginning (Ellis, 2011).

How CEDLT is used in California Schools

In California Schools, CELDT is administered to any enrolling student whose first language is not English which are listed on the Home Language Survey (HLS). All school districts are supposed to administer the CELDT every year up to when the students are classified to Reclassified Fluent English Proficient. The Grading and level span is as follows. 1; K-2 – listening and speaking, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The testing window is from July 1st to October 31st (Oxford, 2008).

Reporting of the results is done by informing the student’s parents and guardians not later than 30 working days upon the time when the tests information is received from the test contractor. The proficiency level results are then printed at the back of the proficiency level report. The results are also posted online after the annual assessment window (Lessow-Harvey, 2009).

Instruction in the CELDT is done through summative test giving a general view of a student’s performance, definition of construct, identification of areas which are testable on the CELDT. Also, the knowledge and skills assessed by the CELDT is a representation and not comprehensive nor inclusive. Classroom information and instruction is more specific and assessment is often than the normal CELDT administrations.

The CELDT results are used for reclassification where school districts use it as one of the ways for considering the English learners to fluent proficiency in English. Other ways include, parent opinion and consultation, teacher evaluation and basic skills. State Board of Education (SBE) is responsible for approving reclassification.  The 4 criteria used in reclassification in English Proficient (FEP) are, 1. Student’s mean score is early advance and above. 2. Each skill are score of listening, speaking, reading and writing from kindergarten to grade twelve is intermediate and above, in English Learner (EL). 3. Student’s mean score is below early advance, and, 4. The overall score is early advance and above though one or more of the skill score is below intermediate (Ellis, 2011).

Second Language Development – Krashen and Cummins

The second language development can be used to explain the disparities between why the formal teaching of grammar has not been efficient in improving students’ writing. Most language teachers feel at a loss when trying to bring together their students to blend well between writing mechanics and the Edited American English. However, one Stephen Krashen has come up with the second –language acquisition theory (Ellis, 2011&Krashen, 2010).

 The main feature that stands out in the Krashen theory is the distinction between language learning and language acquisition. According to Krashen, learning is a conscious process while acquisition is subconscious. Both play and integral part in second language competence, although acquisition is far important since language competence is acquired and by which it is also generated leading to language fluency. Language competence gained by learning is used to modify what has already been acquired. This shows that learning/monitoring is a limited function in acquiring language competence (Krashen, 2010).

Language learning takes place in formal study under rules, regulations and patterns governing one to talk and consciously use the knowledge gained. However, language acquisition occurs and develops exclusively through understandable input. Second-language acquisition is through exposure to comprehensible language that has meaning to the student. Second-language focus more on meaning and later the language form. This is because acquisition goes beyong language structure, which the students already have, from their first language. Despite all that, acquisition may be hindered where the students fail to filter and pick up the numerous emotional responses that may or may not hinder understanding of meaning. These include things such as motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, and self-image(Oxford, 2008).

According to Cummins’ dual iceberg theory, social language is easy to acquire than to learn and academic language. As research shows, it takes 1-2 years to develop a second social language that is used in everyday and for basic communication, and an additional 5-7 years to develop and academic language found in textbooks and used in schools (Oxford, 2008).

Krashen observed that language development occurs when children come up with a language acquisition device when acquiring a new language. In addition, he proposed that language input is either heard or written and it becomes easier for the learner to understand. This includes visual and pictorial accompaniment when learning new vocabulary and communication concept, including drama, gestures, and music in second language lessons. Repetition of new words and vocabulary, as well as translation is very helpful in language acquisition. Without input that is comprehensible, a second language learner student is left with a bunch of words that seem incomprehensible to the language acquisition device. When students are enabled to match what they hear and see, and what they experience, they access meaning required in language acquisition. The comprehensible input should be adjusted often so that the student acquires more and more language. This makes the learner to acquire a bit more than her/his her previous level of competence (Lessow-Harvey, 2009).

How CELDT Is a Sound and Valid Assessment for Determining English Proficiency

The nature of CELDT makes it the meeting point between language acquisition and language learning. Although it is largely a language learning technique, it has a balance in acquiring a second language. According to Krashen observation, sometimes learning can lead to acquisition in an intricate way, where second language students observe their language so well, such that they come up with their own grammatical and correctly understandable input (Krashen, 2010).

In addition, the continuous assessment from time to time (kindergarten to grade twelve) is enough time to have both the learning aspect of English language and to have that exposure to acquire the understandable meanings(Ellis, 2011). This is evidenced by the parent involvement, skills of listening and reading, writing and speaking which are social and have been incorporated in the CEDLT tests. Again, the tests are administered annually and therefore it means that they keep the social part of language acquisition as by Cummins open to exposure. If the test can be, more standardized and open, the CEDLT test would be a good language acquisition tool (Oxford, 2008).

How CELDT Scores Help Teachers in Developing Effective Instructions

The rich feedback from the parents, students and the teacher’s own evaluation, can be a great help in identifying the formal, social as well as filters whereby a student’s language competence is hindered. From the parent, the teacher can be in a position to identify student’s fear and shyness, and know what instructions to give in order to counter that. However through the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, the teacher can identify where areas where more emphasis is required in order to enhance proficiency in the language. With the proper mechanisms in place, CELDT Scores will be able to giving a helping hand to the teachers especially in coming up with effective instructions aimed at enhancing student’s proficiency in English language.

 

 

 

References

Ellis, R. (2011). Theories of second language acquisition.Understanding second language acquisition. (pp 248-276) Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Krashen, S. (2010).Bilingual education.A focus on current research.NCBE online library.

Krashen, S. (2010). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press

Lessow-Harvey,J. (2009). The foundations of dual language instruction.Whit Plains, N.Y: Longman.

Oxford, R. (2008). Language learning in a nutshell:  update and ESL suggestions.TESOL journal, winter, 18-22.

Sociology

Elements of culture refer to the factors that are related to social control. The first element of culture is language, which it forms the cornerstone of behaviors or patterns of communication for a particular community. It’s worth noting that all cultures have spoken language though it must not be necessary formal- written (Andreatta& Ferraro, 2013). From the fact that a society is made up of diverse communities, a vast range of local dialect- people speaking different languages exist. Therefore, language designates people to certain ethnic groups.

            Members of a society are known to organize themselves into sizeable numbers and strive towards attaining their basic needs. In a family set up for example, the young are expected to learn acceptable conducts and ethics from the elderly, and the married have an understanding of their roles in the extended family set up through their interaction with the other members of the society (Andreatta & Ferraro, 2013). The social organization is responsible for creation of social ranks and classes of people in a society according to their education and occupations among other social distinguishing factors.

The economic system of a society is another element, which dictates what its citizens are capable of producing, the radical changes in the production methods, and how they market it or basically who is the target for the produced products. People tend to consume less of the obviously limited resources in the scramble to satisfy their needs. Therefore, most societies overproduce what they rely on for survival. For example; gathering, hunting, herding cattle, making of tools and own clothes. This can be termed as the traditional economy. However, in as much as the government and individuals make concurrent economic decisions regarding the control and production of the goods, on the other hand the individuals will always have the lowest economic power (Andreatta & Ferraro, 2013). Other elements of culture include; religion, forms of government, arts and literature and customs/traditions of the society.

In conclusion, it’s advisable that the members in the society grow in all these seven dimensions of the culture. Cultural relativism refers to the tendency to understanding ones beliefs in terms of the individual own culture. On the other hand, ethnocentrism refers to the feeling of worthiness for one’s culture and the regard of this culture as a reference for others.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Andreatta, S., & Ferraro, G. P. (2013). Elements of culture: An applied perspective. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage.