Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date

Proposed Dissertation Title: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Section  1: Research Theme, Questions and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this Section . The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam 76).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations (Mohammad, 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca 180).
Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.

Section  2: Resources
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years (Mohammad 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf 6).

Section  3: Data Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as the methodical description of behaviors, events, and artifacts in the social environment chosen for study purposes (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Section  5: Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary information)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

 Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban Form in the Arab World: Past and Present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The Field of Cultural Production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The Search for Natural Regional Space to Claim and Name Built Urban Place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive Methods: The Happening of the Social. London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, Tyson.  Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, London: Open University Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Collin. How to do a Research Project: A guide for Undergraduate Students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Gillian.  Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East City: Ancient Traditions confront a Modern World. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A Digital Pedagogy for Learning Structures. Journal of Architectural Design, 74(1):112, 2004.

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Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date

Proposed Dissertation Title: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Chapter 1: Research Theme, Questions and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this chapter. The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
This section of the paper explains a comprehension of Frampton’s view on critical regionalism and why the author believes that although the ideas concerning the topic of study were developed in the early 1980s, they can still be realized and applied in today’s globalized world with its tendency towards modernism and aesthetics. The concept of critical regionalism proposes resistance to this homogenization of the built environment that results from modernization. It is against the individual forms of narcissism, modern architecture, scenography, abstract or visual that have become dominant and made it possible to export architecture around the world. One problem of a single world civilization is that it exerts a sort of attrition or wearing away at the expense of the cultural resources which have made the great civilizations of the past and therefore, critical regionalism proposes an alternative to the clearly aging modernism and post modernism by aiming to reground architecture evoking the oneiric essence of the site, and understanding the place and tectonics.
This approach suggests the condensing of the artistic potential of the region while reinterpreting cultural influences coming from the outside. The investigation of the local is the condition for reaching the concrete and the real, and for dehumanizing architecture. It does not propose a nostalgic summarization of local traditions, nor does it completely reject these traditions. Basically the concept stresses that architecture based on regional building customs is more ecologically sound as regional architecture is a successful spontaneous attempt to resolve a specific problem within a specific place. An example of that is the sustainable design of the local pitched roof which is conscious to local climate due to its capacity to protect walls, provide shade, and dispose rainfall and snow
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, there is an architectural design known as the Education city. This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
The other architectural scene is the Museum of Islamic Art (MIA. In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
The West Bay Business District is significant in relation to the concept of critical regionalism. This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Critical regionalism seeks a regionalism of liberation rather than a regionalism of restriction in order to be in tune with the emerging thought of time. We can achieve that by calling the place-defining elements and incorporate them strangely rather than familiarly to reach a regional innovative and modern solution. Contemporary architecture should neither be branded as internationalism nor as a folkloric or historical concept of region, but it should be more responsive to regional distinctiveness and the possibilities of meaning available at that locality.
That said and done, we cannot divorce ourselves from international culture and the homogenizing tendencies of technology. Therefore, the approach that should be taken involves
studying and learning from the vernacular and the same time translating and re-describing this in a contemporary way. Understanding the technical demands of the project in incorporates the environment, climate, and aspects that may be unique to that place.

Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.

Chapter 2: Resources
Critical Regionalism and World Culture
The field of architecture today can only be maintained as a significant practice if it presumes an arriére-garde position, that is, it distances equally itself from the myth enlightenment from the perspectives of progress and reactionary as well as unrealistic impulse of returning the architectonic forms during pre-industrial past. A vital arriére-garde should do away with the optimization of highly developed technology and the persistent tendency of regressing into evocative historicism otherwise known as the glibly decorative (). It is a matter of contention that only the arriére-garde has the capability of cultivating a resistant and identity-offering culture as well as possessing a discrete recourse of universal technique.
It is imperative to qualify this term arriére-garde in an attempt to diminish its vital scope from conservative policies such as Sentimental Regionalism of Populism with which it has association. In grounding this term, it is necessary to appropriate critical regionalism as stated by Tzonis and Lefaivre (1981) in cautioning against regional reformism ambiguity that was the order of the day during the 19th century. They coined the following profound statement:
Regionalism has dominated architecture in almost all countries at some time during the past two centuries and a half. By way of general definition we can say that it upholds the individual and local architectonic features against more universal and abstract ones. In addition, however, regionalism bears the hallmark of ambiguity. On the one hand, it has been associated with movements of reform and liberation. On the other, it has proved a powerful tool of repression and chauvinism. . . . Certainly, critical regionalism has its limitations. The upheaval of the populist movement –a more developed form of regionalism – has brought to light these weak points. No new architecture can emerge without a new kind of relations between designer and user, without out new kinds of programs. . . . Despite these limitations critical regionalism is a bridge over which any humanistic architecture of the future must pass (cited in Frampton 1981 p.1).
The fundamental approach of critical regionalism should be meditating on the blow of universal civilization coupled up with elements indirectly derived from the peculiarities of a specific place. It is thus clear that critical regionalism relies on the maintenance of a high-leveled critical self-consciousness. Critical regionalism may find its ruling inspiration from the quality and range of the local light, tectonic obtained from a unique structural mode or from the topography of a site (). It is a cultural strategy and bears a world culture as it vehicles the universal civilization.
Culture versus Nature: Topography, Context, Climate, Light and Tectonic Form
Critical regionalism obviously involves a directly more dialectical relation with the nature more than the abstract and formal traditions allowed by the modern architecture. It is evident that the tendency of tabula rasa of modernization gives priority to the optimum utilization of earth-moving equipment though the totally flat datum is considered as the mainly economic matrix where the rationalization of construction is predicated. In this case, one also considers the basic opposition between autochthonous culture and universal civilization. The bulldozing of the irregular topography to become a flat site indicates a technocratic gesture that inspires a situation of absolute placelessness and the terracing of the site receives a stepped form of a building engagement in the process of cultivating the site.
Such mode of acting and beholding clearly brings someone to the Heideggers’s etymology and at the same time evokes the technique of Mario Botta, a Swiss architect in the building of a site (). These techniques make one to argue that in the last instances of specific cultures of regions, that is, the history of both agricultural and geological sense; it becomes engraved in the realization and the form of the work. This engraving has got many significance levels for it has embody in its capacity in the built form the archeological past and subsequent transformation and cultivation as well as the pre-history of the area a cross time (). Through this approach of layering idiosyncrasies on the site, there is expression and not falling into the object of sentimentality.  
Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as the methodical description of behaviors, events, and artifacts in the social environment chosen for study purposes (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Chapter 5: Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary information)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

 Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban Form in the Arab World: Past and Present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The Field of Cultural Production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The Search for Natural Regional Space to Claim and Name Built Urban Place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive Methods: The Happening of the Social. London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, Tyson.  Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, London: Open University Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Collin. How to do a Research Project: A guide for Undergraduate Students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Gillian.  Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East City: Ancient Traditions confront a Modern World. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A Digital Pedagogy for Learning Structures. Journal of Architectural Design, 74(1):112, 2004.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

PROPOSED DISSERTATION TITLE: CONTEMPORARY TRANSLATION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE MIDDLE EAST

Name

Course
Professor
Institution
City, State
Date
  Research Theme, Questions, and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this chapter. The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to build environments being standardized, and in the process, grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles, and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam, 2008, p. 76).
The Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant factor emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan, Schneider, & Till, 2011, p. 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involved in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses are more than 90 percent of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80 percent being professional expatriates from other nations (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s, Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca, 200, p. 180).
Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant, or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca, 2000, p. 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.
Resources
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music, and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past 200 years (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd, 2008, p. 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris, 2006, p. 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson, 2007, p. 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner

Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality, and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty, 2000, p. 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier, 1996, p. 25; Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6). The angular volumes of a main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton, 2001, p. 37; Al-Asad, 2012, p. 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose, 2001, p. 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone, 2004, p. 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6).
  The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by the United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh, 2004, p. 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6).
  Data Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of the Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May, 1997, p. 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa, 1971, p. 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford, 2012, p. 38; Groat & Wang, 2002, p. 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu, 1999, p. 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as “the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for a study” (Marshall & Rossman, 1995, p. 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu, 1999, p. 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat & Wang, 2002, p. 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu (1999) approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.
  Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary materials)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

References
Adam, R 2008, ‘Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture’, The Architectural Review, vol. 223, no. 1332, pp. 74-77.
Awan, N, Schneider, T, & Till, J 2011, Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, Routledge, London, pp. 125-150.
Bianca, S 2000, Urban form in the Arab world: Past and present, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 137, 175-234.
Bourdieu. 1999, The field of cultural production, pp. 29-73.
Burd, G 2008, The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 130-144.
Chris, R 2006, Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design, Oslo School of Architecture, Oslo, Norway, p. 42.
Correa, C 1971, Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review, pp. 329-331.
Forty, A 2000, Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London.
Frampton, K 2001, Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, MIT, London.
Groat, L & Wang, D 2002, Architectural Research Methods, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Hillier, B 1996, Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lury, C & Wakeford, N 2012, Inventive methods: the happening of the social, Routledge, London.
Marshall, C & Rossman, GB 1995, Designing qualitative research, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
May, T 1997, Social Research: issues, methods and process, Open University Press, London.
Al-Asad, M 2012, Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, FL.
Robson, C 2007, How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Blackwell, Oxford.
Rose, G 2001, Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, Sage, London.
Saqaaf, A 1986, The Middle East city: Ancient traditions confront a modern world, Paragon House Publishers, New York.
Simone, A 2004, People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 407-442.
Vassigh, S 2004, ‘A digital pedagogy for learning structures’, Journal of Architectural Design, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 112.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date
Research Proposal: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Introduction
Background information
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam 76).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations (Mohammad, 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca 180).
Problem statement
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research main objective
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha
Specific objectives
The study will be guided by the following specific objectives:
To investigate the phenomenon of drama allegory of Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
To examine the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
 To examine the theatrical nature of Doha’s building structures.

Literature Review
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years (Mohammad 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf 6).

Methodology
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as “the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for a study” (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban form in the Arab world: Past and present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The field of cultural production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive methods: the happening of the social, London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, T.  Social Research: issues, methods and process, London: Open University  Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Cresend. How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Guata.  Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East city: Ancient traditions confront a modern world. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A digital pedagogy for learning structures. Journal of Architectural Design74(1):112, 2004.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date
Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Introduction
Background information
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Lo and Yeung, 1998).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development. In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations. Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries.
Problem statement
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage. Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia. These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research main objective
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha
Specific objectives
The study will be guided by the following specific objectives:
To investigate the phenomenon of drama allegory of Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
To examine the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
 To examine the theatrical nature of Doha’s building structures.

Literature Review
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years. It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation. Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design. The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense. Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour. The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard. The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline. The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night. The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition. As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure.
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast. Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment.

Methodology
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse. Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production. The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions. Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu).
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals. Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness. Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Data Analysis and Expected Outcomes

Works Cited
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, London: Routledge, 2011
Borden, Irving and Redi, Rosyter. The Dissertation: An Architecture Student’s Handbook, London: Architectural Press, 2006.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive methods: the happening of the social, London: Routledge, 2012.
May, T.  Social Research: issues, methods and process, London: Open University  Press, 1997.
Robson, Cresend) How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Guata.  Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-42, 2004.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Burd, Guardian. The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
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Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Introduction
Background information
Rapid urbanization and technological advances have resulted in more and more standardization of built environments, depriving human habitats of cultural and regional identity, in which the trend of standardization is becoming an international malaise as the same building methods, materials, and styles are applied. The art of building is forever high on the agenda of many of the conferences, symposia, and community group meetings searching for methods and concepts that could lead to better and more equitable cities. In recent years, world cities (global cities) and globalization have become key concepts of social scientists, architects, and economic geographers observing, experiencing, and describing the profound changes that new technologies have been causing for worldwide economic and spatial development. Planners soon followed the academic interest and tried to explore ways and means of promoting cities and city regions to world cities, followed in turn by architects analyzing and criticizing the negative local and regional impacts of such globalization (Lo and Yeung, 1998).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps positioning and re-inventing itself on the map of international architecture and urbanism with different expressions of its unique qualities in terms of economy, environment, culture, and global outlook. In many respects, it is pictured as an important emerging global capital in the Gulf region with intensive urban development processes. In this essay, I present a narrative of contemporary architecture of Doha that resembles a drama for a theater with performers contributing to scenes exhibited to the local public and the global spectator.
Historically, Doha was a fishing and pearl diving town. Today, the capital is home to more than 90% of the country’s 1.7 million people, with over 80% professional expatriates from other countries. Up to the mid 1960s, the majority of the buildings were individual traditional houses that presented local responses to the surrounding physical and socio-cultural conditions. During the 1970s Doha was transformed into a modernized city. However, in the 1980s and early 1990s the development process was slow compared to the preceding period due to either the overall political atmosphere and the first Gulf war or the heavy reliance of the country on the resources and economy of neighboring countries.

SHORT FILM SCRIPT ANALYSIS: THE THERAPIST

 

 

 

 

The script contains few aspects of concern that deserve some recommendations for improvement as follows. The foremost aspect centers on the general structure of the script where character positioning and directions on present scenes and flashbacks become unclear and effectively distort the flow of the story, primarily at the end of the story. Hence, a recommendation to improve the script centers on altering its general structure. For instance, switching the position of the stage directions and the actual monologue would ensure the directions are clearer relative to the conversation as often the case in traditional script structures. This involves moving the character lines prompt to the left and including a colon next to the words spoken rather than placing the character name on top of the dialogue. The version used, though reasonably unique, leaves the stage setting and directions underrepresented whereas the recommended inversion ensures they become active rather than the current passive state. This is important for the script mainly because it applies the continuous interchanging of stage direction and Dr. Vaughn’s monologue.

In terms of improving the story, some aspects of the script deserve evaluation to improve the flow of the story. For a complete script, this one lacks various aspects of character direction on set and clarity on the events in the present and in the few flashbacks used. The script clearly intends to ensure a lengthy sense of mystery until the end but unfortunately makes some aspects unclear including the part Dr. Vaughn plays in the death of Lucy or if in fact, the dead woman in the final scene is Lucy. The script clearly describes a scene where he murdered a woman by strangling her with a headlock. Moreover, the conversation seems to leave several questions unsatisfactorily answered, the main one being Dr. Vaughn’s secret and who exactly he thanked for having come to him alone. The implied secret seems to be the fact that Dr. Vaughn suffered some form of sexual attraction to corpses. Considering the conversation ends with him calling Inspector Heritage, it seems rather incomplete and confusing since earlier sections of the script implied that she was conversing with the Inspector all along.

Hence, the foremost clear aspect that requires some attentions is in the final section of the script before the flashback of Dr. Vaughn calling for the police. This section lacks direction on the fact that it is a flashback after Dr. Vaughn says, “That’s why I called you.” It immediately shifts and continues to ‘Dr. Vaughn pick up the phone and dials.’ This slight lack of direction builds confusion in the script since this pivotal moment that informs the viewer or readers (in this case) that the woman previously believed to be the one listening to Dr. Vaughn is in fact the victim, Lucy. In addition, the lack of clear direction builds confusion where Dr. Vaughn seemed to direct the entire conversation towards the corpse building confusion as to whether the deceased woman was in fact Lucy since it makes no logical sense for him to converse about her with her corpse. His earlier reference to the Inspector adds confusion by making it unclear as to whether Dr. Vaughn directed the conversation to the deceased woman or the Inspector especially when one considers the fact that the story ends with Dr. Vaughn conversing with the corpse.

Overall, the story would improve tremendously with less mystery and more stage direction and indication to instances of flashbacks and present scenes. As it stands, the only way the script would make absolute sense as in its current state is if Dr. Vaughn was in fact conversing with another character, possibly the mannequin. He could not have directed the conversation to an absent inspector or his victim, leaving only the mannequin, which he would then have had to christen as the ‘Inspector’ earlier mentioned where he says, “I’ve given you her file, Inspector. It’s all there.” In addition, perceiving the story from this perspective allows the development of the perceived agreement Dr. Vaughn mentions between him and Lucy being his turning himself in after murdering her. Essentially, making clearer what the secret and agreement were would significantly improve the story.