Archive for November, 2013

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date

Proposed Dissertation Title: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Section  1: Research Theme, Questions and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this Section . The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam 76).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations (Mohammad, 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca 180).
Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.

Section  2: Resources
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years (Mohammad 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf 6).

Section  3: Data Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as the methodical description of behaviors, events, and artifacts in the social environment chosen for study purposes (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Section  5: Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary information)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

 Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban Form in the Arab World: Past and Present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The Field of Cultural Production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The Search for Natural Regional Space to Claim and Name Built Urban Place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive Methods: The Happening of the Social. London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, Tyson.  Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, London: Open University Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Collin. How to do a Research Project: A guide for Undergraduate Students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Gillian.  Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East City: Ancient Traditions confront a Modern World. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A Digital Pedagogy for Learning Structures. Journal of Architectural Design, 74(1):112, 2004.

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Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date

Proposed Dissertation Title: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Chapter 1: Research Theme, Questions and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this chapter. The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
This section of the paper explains a comprehension of Frampton’s view on critical regionalism and why the author believes that although the ideas concerning the topic of study were developed in the early 1980s, they can still be realized and applied in today’s globalized world with its tendency towards modernism and aesthetics. The concept of critical regionalism proposes resistance to this homogenization of the built environment that results from modernization. It is against the individual forms of narcissism, modern architecture, scenography, abstract or visual that have become dominant and made it possible to export architecture around the world. One problem of a single world civilization is that it exerts a sort of attrition or wearing away at the expense of the cultural resources which have made the great civilizations of the past and therefore, critical regionalism proposes an alternative to the clearly aging modernism and post modernism by aiming to reground architecture evoking the oneiric essence of the site, and understanding the place and tectonics.
This approach suggests the condensing of the artistic potential of the region while reinterpreting cultural influences coming from the outside. The investigation of the local is the condition for reaching the concrete and the real, and for dehumanizing architecture. It does not propose a nostalgic summarization of local traditions, nor does it completely reject these traditions. Basically the concept stresses that architecture based on regional building customs is more ecologically sound as regional architecture is a successful spontaneous attempt to resolve a specific problem within a specific place. An example of that is the sustainable design of the local pitched roof which is conscious to local climate due to its capacity to protect walls, provide shade, and dispose rainfall and snow
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, there is an architectural design known as the Education city. This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
The other architectural scene is the Museum of Islamic Art (MIA. In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
The West Bay Business District is significant in relation to the concept of critical regionalism. This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Critical regionalism seeks a regionalism of liberation rather than a regionalism of restriction in order to be in tune with the emerging thought of time. We can achieve that by calling the place-defining elements and incorporate them strangely rather than familiarly to reach a regional innovative and modern solution. Contemporary architecture should neither be branded as internationalism nor as a folkloric or historical concept of region, but it should be more responsive to regional distinctiveness and the possibilities of meaning available at that locality.
That said and done, we cannot divorce ourselves from international culture and the homogenizing tendencies of technology. Therefore, the approach that should be taken involves
studying and learning from the vernacular and the same time translating and re-describing this in a contemporary way. Understanding the technical demands of the project in incorporates the environment, climate, and aspects that may be unique to that place.

Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.

Chapter 2: Resources
Critical Regionalism and World Culture
The field of architecture today can only be maintained as a significant practice if it presumes an arriére-garde position, that is, it distances equally itself from the myth enlightenment from the perspectives of progress and reactionary as well as unrealistic impulse of returning the architectonic forms during pre-industrial past. A vital arriére-garde should do away with the optimization of highly developed technology and the persistent tendency of regressing into evocative historicism otherwise known as the glibly decorative (). It is a matter of contention that only the arriére-garde has the capability of cultivating a resistant and identity-offering culture as well as possessing a discrete recourse of universal technique.
It is imperative to qualify this term arriére-garde in an attempt to diminish its vital scope from conservative policies such as Sentimental Regionalism of Populism with which it has association. In grounding this term, it is necessary to appropriate critical regionalism as stated by Tzonis and Lefaivre (1981) in cautioning against regional reformism ambiguity that was the order of the day during the 19th century. They coined the following profound statement:
Regionalism has dominated architecture in almost all countries at some time during the past two centuries and a half. By way of general definition we can say that it upholds the individual and local architectonic features against more universal and abstract ones. In addition, however, regionalism bears the hallmark of ambiguity. On the one hand, it has been associated with movements of reform and liberation. On the other, it has proved a powerful tool of repression and chauvinism. . . . Certainly, critical regionalism has its limitations. The upheaval of the populist movement –a more developed form of regionalism – has brought to light these weak points. No new architecture can emerge without a new kind of relations between designer and user, without out new kinds of programs. . . . Despite these limitations critical regionalism is a bridge over which any humanistic architecture of the future must pass (cited in Frampton 1981 p.1).
The fundamental approach of critical regionalism should be meditating on the blow of universal civilization coupled up with elements indirectly derived from the peculiarities of a specific place. It is thus clear that critical regionalism relies on the maintenance of a high-leveled critical self-consciousness. Critical regionalism may find its ruling inspiration from the quality and range of the local light, tectonic obtained from a unique structural mode or from the topography of a site (). It is a cultural strategy and bears a world culture as it vehicles the universal civilization.
Culture versus Nature: Topography, Context, Climate, Light and Tectonic Form
Critical regionalism obviously involves a directly more dialectical relation with the nature more than the abstract and formal traditions allowed by the modern architecture. It is evident that the tendency of tabula rasa of modernization gives priority to the optimum utilization of earth-moving equipment though the totally flat datum is considered as the mainly economic matrix where the rationalization of construction is predicated. In this case, one also considers the basic opposition between autochthonous culture and universal civilization. The bulldozing of the irregular topography to become a flat site indicates a technocratic gesture that inspires a situation of absolute placelessness and the terracing of the site receives a stepped form of a building engagement in the process of cultivating the site.
Such mode of acting and beholding clearly brings someone to the Heideggers’s etymology and at the same time evokes the technique of Mario Botta, a Swiss architect in the building of a site (). These techniques make one to argue that in the last instances of specific cultures of regions, that is, the history of both agricultural and geological sense; it becomes engraved in the realization and the form of the work. This engraving has got many significance levels for it has embody in its capacity in the built form the archeological past and subsequent transformation and cultivation as well as the pre-history of the area a cross time (). Through this approach of layering idiosyncrasies on the site, there is expression and not falling into the object of sentimentality.  
Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as the methodical description of behaviors, events, and artifacts in the social environment chosen for study purposes (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Chapter 5: Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary information)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

 Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: Other Ways of Doing Architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban Form in the Arab World: Past and Present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The Field of Cultural Production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The Search for Natural Regional Space to Claim and Name Built Urban Place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive Methods: The Happening of the Social. London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, Tyson.  Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, London: Open University Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Collin. How to do a Research Project: A guide for Undergraduate Students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Gillian.  Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East City: Ancient Traditions confront a Modern World. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A Digital Pedagogy for Learning Structures. Journal of Architectural Design, 74(1):112, 2004.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

PROPOSED DISSERTATION TITLE: CONTEMPORARY TRANSLATION OF TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE MIDDLE EAST

Name

Course
Professor
Institution
City, State
Date
  Research Theme, Questions, and Conceptual Framework
The research theme and questions as well as conceptual framework are discussed in this chapter. The section starts with conceptual framework, followed by research theme and finally research questions. The aim of this study is also indicated in this part of the paper. They are deliberated upon as follows.
Conceptual Framework
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to build environments being standardized, and in the process, grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles, and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam, 2008, p. 76).
The Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant factor emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan, Schneider, & Till, 2011, p. 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involved in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses are more than 90 percent of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80 percent being professional expatriates from other nations (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s, Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca, 200, p. 180).
Research Theme
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant, or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca, 2000, p. 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following research questions:
How is the relation between the phenomenon of drama allegory on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
What is the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization?
 How the theatrical nature of Doha is commensurate to its building structures?
Aim of Work
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha.
Resources
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music, and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past 200 years (Al-Asad, 2012, p. 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd, 2008, p. 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris, 2006, p. 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson, 2007, p. 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner

Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality, and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty, 2000, p. 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier, 1996, p. 25; Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6). The angular volumes of a main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton, 2001, p. 37; Al-Asad, 2012, p. 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose, 2001, p. 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone, 2004, p. 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6).
  The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by the United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh, 2004, p. 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf, 1986, p. 6).
  Data Gathering Method
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of the Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May, 1997, p. 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa, 1971, p. 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford, 2012, p. 38; Groat & Wang, 2002, p. 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu, 1999, p. 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as “the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for a study” (Marshall & Rossman, 1995, p. 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu, 1999, p. 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat & Wang, 2002, p. 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu (1999) approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.
  Time-Table
 
Activity/Month    November    December       
    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4    Week1    Week2    Week3    Week4       
Acquiring of resources (secondary materials)                                        
Conceptual Framework                                       
Theme Identification                                       
Gathering of Data                                       
Presentation                                     

References
Adam, R 2008, ‘Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture’, The Architectural Review, vol. 223, no. 1332, pp. 74-77.
Awan, N, Schneider, T, & Till, J 2011, Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, Routledge, London, pp. 125-150.
Bianca, S 2000, Urban form in the Arab world: Past and present, Thames and Hudson, London, pp. 137, 175-234.
Bourdieu. 1999, The field of cultural production, pp. 29-73.
Burd, G 2008, The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 130-144.
Chris, R 2006, Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design, Oslo School of Architecture, Oslo, Norway, p. 42.
Correa, C 1971, Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review, pp. 329-331.
Forty, A 2000, Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London.
Frampton, K 2001, Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, MIT, London.
Groat, L & Wang, D 2002, Architectural Research Methods, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Hillier, B 1996, Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Lury, C & Wakeford, N 2012, Inventive methods: the happening of the social, Routledge, London.
Marshall, C & Rossman, GB 1995, Designing qualitative research, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
May, T 1997, Social Research: issues, methods and process, Open University Press, London.
Al-Asad, M 2012, Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East, University Press of Florida, Gainseville, FL.
Robson, C 2007, How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Blackwell, Oxford.
Rose, G 2001, Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, Sage, London.
Saqaaf, A 1986, The Middle East city: Ancient traditions confront a modern world, Paragon House Publishers, New York.
Simone, A 2004, People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 407-442.
Vassigh, S 2004, ‘A digital pedagogy for learning structures’, Journal of Architectural Design, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 112.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date
Research Proposal: Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Introduction
Background information
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Adam 76).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development (Awan 127). In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations (Mohammad, 98). Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries (Bianca 180).
Problem statement
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage (Bianca 179). Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia (Mohammad, 100). These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research main objective
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha
Specific objectives
The study will be guided by the following specific objectives:
To investigate the phenomenon of drama allegory of Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
To examine the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
 To examine the theatrical nature of Doha’s building structures.

Literature Review
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years (Mohammad 90). It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation (Burd 131). Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design (Chris 42). The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense (Robson 68). Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia) (Forty 68). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour (Hillier 25; Saqaaf 6). The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard (Saqaaf 6). The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline (Frampton 37; Mohammad 90). The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night (Rose 121). The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition (Simone 410). As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure (Saqaaf 6).
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast (Vassigh 112). Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment (Saqaaf 6).

Methodology
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse (May 34). Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production (Correa 330). The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions (Lury & Wakeford 38; Groat 110). Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu 64).
This study will use participant observation as a method of data collection. Participant observation is defined as “the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for a study” (Marshall & Rossman 79). Making observations allow the researcher to give a description of existing conditions by the use of five senses thereby giving a “written photograph” of the condition under study. The process of participant observation enables a researcher to learn concerning the people’s activities under study in their natural setting by observing and even being involved in those activities.
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals (Bourdieu 66). Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness (Groat 110). Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Works Cited
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, London: Routledge, 2011, 125-150.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban form in the Arab world: Past and present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-234, 2000.
Bourdieu. The field of cultural production, 29-73, 1999.
Burd, Guardian. The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive methods: the happening of the social, London: Routledge, 2012.
Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,1995.
May, T.  Social Research: issues, methods and process, London: Open University  Press, 1997.
Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida, 2012
Robson, Cresend. How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Guata.  Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East city: Ancient traditions confront a modern world. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-442, 2004.
Vassigh, Swart. A digital pedagogy for learning structures. Journal of Architectural Design74(1):112, 2004.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

Name of the Student
Name of the Lecturer
Subject
Date
Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

Introduction
Background information
Quick urbanization and technological advances have led to built environments being standardized, and in the process grudging human habitats of regional and cultural identity since the standardization trend is evolving as an international depression as the same building methods, styles and materials are applied. The building art is perpetually high on the agenda of many of the symposia, conferences, and community meetings who search for concepts and methods that lead to better and more impartial cities. Recently, world cities (global cities) and the concept of globalization have become key aspects of architects, social scientists, and economic geographers who observe, experience, and describe the insightful changes that new technologies impart on global economic and spatial development. Planners soon follow the academic concern and try in exploring means and ways of promoting cities while architects analyze and criticize the local and regional negative impacts of such globalization (Lo and Yeung, 1998).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps on positioning itself on the international architecture and urbanism map with diverse expressions of its distinctive qualities with respect to the economy, culture, environment, and global outlook. In many aspects, the city is depicted as a significant emerging worldwide capital in the Gulf region coupled with rigorous processes of urban development. In this essay, I present an account of contemporary architecture of Doha resembling a drama conducted in a theater while performers involve in the scenes exhibit the local public and the global spectators.
Traditionally, Doha was a pearl diving and fishing town. Currently, the capital houses more than 90% of the 1.7 million country’s people, with above 80% being professional expatriates from other nations. Until the mid of 1960s, most of the buildings were traditional houses which are individually owned and presented local responses to the adjacent physical and socio-cultural circumstances. During the 1970s Doha was changed into a modernized city. Conversely, during the 1980s and early 1990s the process of development was slow as compared to the previous period as a result of either the overall political ambiance and the first Gulf war or the grave reliance of the nation on the resources and economy of bordering countries.
Problem statement
The Doha’s architecture may be metaphorically taken as a drama allegory. The term drama may be defined as any condition or sequences of events with stunning, conflicting, poignant or prominent outcomes or interests. Drama is a narrative which is performed by actors before an audience and engrosses a collaborative mode of production as well as a collection of reception. This is synonymous with the architecture of Doha. The drama in itself is the narrative at the rear of the public face of the buildings. The actors majorly are the international architects working for or with client organizations whereby representing different cultural positions and interests. There is a mixed audience and is symbolized by an average citizen, local community, expatriate professional, tourist visitor, and even the global world. Thus the Doha’s architecture includes cultural politics, which is an important element.
Qatar is an Arab country and part of Gulf Cooperative Council (GCC) hence has a strong connection of religious and cultural ties with the Mediterranean countries. This therefore means that, there is an amalgamation of influences that can be witnessed in the cultural politics models. There is also a “Pan- Arabism” influence, a secular Arab ideology which constitutes a country of different societies bound together with a common cultural, linguistic, and religious historical heritage. Moreover, there is an indirect “Islamism” influence offering ideology and largely displaces “Pan – Arabism” and is also seen emanating from the Contemporary Persia. These cultural politics have a bearing on the nature of architecture and urbanism adopted by Doha hence various building styles.
Research main objective
The main aim of the research is to investigate the influence of cultural politics on the building structures adopted by Doha
Specific objectives
The study will be guided by the following specific objectives:
To investigate the phenomenon of drama allegory of Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
To examine the influence of other oversea architects on Doha’s architecture and urbanization.
 To examine the theatrical nature of Doha’s building structures.

Literature Review
Theater is defined as a type of art which is collaborative in nature coupled with live performance of the experience of a real or imagined even or incident before the audience. Normally, the performers communicate the experience to the audience by different means inclusive of songs, speeches, dancing, music and gestures. In the narrative of the architecture and urbanism of Doha, it is clear that performers put across a real event to the audience (public) via architecture. This is explained under the following structures.
Scene 1: Souq Waqif
The reconstruction or remanufacturing of Souq Waqif is a vital scene representing the aspiration of conserving the past periods of a nation. The literal translation of this area is known as “The Standing Market,” and has existed in the past two hundred years. It contains various types of sub-markets for retail and wholesale traders and with buildings typified by high walls, wooden portals, small windows, and air stalls that are opened. With the initiative of the Private Engineering Office, the building has acquired a new grand image by reinstating it to its original situation. Moreover, the incorporation of traditional restaurants and cafes, art galleries, local concerts, and cultural events has attracted visitors and city residents.
Scene 2: Msheireb Project
This scene is meant for urban regeneration and reinterpretation of conventional architecture with its master plan developed by EDAW – AECOM planning and design. The scene was developed with the aim of bringing Qatari families back into the center of the city and at the same time restoring the community sense. Remarkably, in an attempt to balance worldwide contemporary aspirations as well as the reinterpretations obtained from traditional environments, the master plan project endeavors to recount visual and spatial language issues in an integrated manner
Scene 3: Museum of Islamic Art (MIA)
In a typical museum scene, the correlation between the buildings from inside and outside the spectacles seems to be quite paradoxical. Dedicated to reflect the full vigor, municipality and complexity of the Islamic world’s arts, the MIA preserves, collects, exhibits, and studies masterpieces spanning in three continents (Africa, Europe and Asia). The Museum resulted from a journey of discovery which was conducted by Pei whom had the quest of understanding the Islamic architecture diversity hence his world tour. The museum has two cream-colored limestone buildings, a two-story Education Wing, and a five-story main building connected by a central courtyard. The angular volumes of main building step back as they climb up around a five story high doomed atrium, reflect and capture patterned light in the dimensioned dome.
Scene 4: The West Bay Business District
This emerging business district is a building with multiple competitors. It is a new developed essential hub. This scene promotes new lifestyles, work, urban image, and a spectacular skyline. The West Bay Business District is a high solidity development that consists of high costly glass towers. Though it has generated a spectacular image of becoming a typical of the city, personal buildings are in competition in positioning themselves in the skyline front and offering a striking departure from classic designs of urban high towers. Some notable three major competitors to this building include the Al Bidaa Tower with a persistent twisting form as well as a rotating floor plan with multi-dimension curtain wall reflecting sunlight throughout the day and artificial internal light during the night. The second scene is Burj Qatar which is a 45 storey office tower with which its appearance is textured from a distance giving the building a more fragile traditional Islamic pattern in a closer proximity. Lastly, the third scene is the Tornado Tower with a dramatic external lightening scheme created by Thomas Emde. This spectacular system is able to display a total of 35,000 different light combinations.
Scene 5: The Education City
This unique scene is believed to be the first pattern globally where various international architects have worked contributing their theories and ideas through practices of creating learning, research, and nurturing environments. The overall appearance of the building indicates a masterful integration of skillful use of tone values and color as well as incorporation of solid geometry and this proposes a dialogue between modernity and tradition. As an architecturally dazzling intervention and visually striking, the building was designed using a theme developed by conventional Arabic mosaics which are evocative as they are made of crystalline sand structure.
Section 6: The Pearl Development
The scene was developed by United Development Company and covers an area of 4 million square kilometers and 32km towards the coast. Different hybrid and eclectic styles of European and regional architecture are used in introducing a distinguishing image within the development. The building has new lifestyle scenes such as luxury apartments, penthouses, town homes, five star hotels, villas, restaurants, and entertainment.

Methodology
It is of great significance that any theoretical tool should improve the understanding of problems that are inherent in the historiography of Middle East architectural needs in enquiring into the historically and socially established institutional framework while sustaining the activity of discourse. Moreover, the tool should broaden to the active facet, that is, to the scheme of agents of the discourse production. The cultural production agents (discourse) are fascinated agents who constitute their personified histories via the intervention of comparatively autonomous dispositions. Such a two-fold study of cultural production in a societal environment is of great importance (Bourdieu).
 Therefore, the study will use the subjectivism and objectivism analyses modes. Subjectivism also known as phenomenological analysis is geared towards understanding the social world by the primary experience as well as perceptions of individuals. Objectivism on the other hand engages one in an objective and systematic understanding of social structures which inform practice with no consideration on a personal human agency and consciousness. Since the social life is objectively conditioned and grounded and also objective conditions influence behavior extensively through the intervention of individual beliefs, experiences, and dispositions, the Bourdieu approach intrinsically considers the double dimension of social reality as the bedrock of understanding social structures.

Data Analysis and Expected Outcomes

Works Cited
Awan, Noton., Schneider, Ted & Till, Juyan.  Spatial Agency: other ways of doing architecture, London: Routledge, 2011
Borden, Irving and Redi, Rosyter. The Dissertation: An Architecture Student’s Handbook, London: Architectural Press, 2006.
Groat, Lyon., & Wang, Dyer. Architectural Research Methods, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
Forty, Annyer. Word and Buildings: a Vocabulary of Modern Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson, 2000.
Frampton, Kegler. Studies in Tectonic Culture: the Poetics of Construction in Nineteenth  Century and Twentieth Century Architecture, London: MIT, 2001.
Lury, Cyril. & Wakeford, Nerbert. Inventive methods: the happening of the social, London: Routledge, 2012.
May, T.  Social Research: issues, methods and process, London: Open University  Press, 1997.
Robson, Cresend) How to do a research project: A guide for undergraduate students, Oxford: Blackwell. 2007.
Rose, Guata.  Visual Methodologies: an Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Materials, London: Sage, 2001.
Simone, Armstrong. People as Infrastructure: Intersecting Fragments in Johannesburg Public Culture 16, 3: pp. 407-42, 2004.
Hillier, Bill. Space is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Mohammad, Al-Asad. Contemporary Architecture and Urbanization in the Middle East. USA: University Press of Florida.
Chris, Ryo. Ideas and Beliefs in Architecture and Industrial Design. Oslo, Norway: Oslo School of Architecture, p. 42, 2006.
Burd, Guardian. The search for natural regional space to claim and name built urban place. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 25 (2):130-144, 2008.
Bianca, Sylvester. Urban form in the Arab world: Past and present. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 137, 175-185, 208-234, 2000.
Adam, Rein. Globalization and Architecture: The Challenges of Globalization are Relentlessly Shaping Architecture’s Relationship with Society and Culture. The Architectural Review, 223(1332):74-77, 2008.
Saqaaf, Aliney. The Middle East city: Ancient traditions confront a modern world. New York: Paragon House Publishers, p. 6, 1986.
Vassigh, Swart. A digital pedagogy for learning structures. Journal of Architectural Design74(1):112, 2004.
Correa, Charles. Programs and Priorities. Architectural Review: 329-331, 1971.
Bourdieu. The field of cultural production, 29-73, 1999.

Contemporary Translation of Traditional Architecture in the Middle East

November 29, 2013

Introduction
Background information
Rapid urbanization and technological advances have resulted in more and more standardization of built environments, depriving human habitats of cultural and regional identity, in which the trend of standardization is becoming an international malaise as the same building methods, materials, and styles are applied. The art of building is forever high on the agenda of many of the conferences, symposia, and community group meetings searching for methods and concepts that could lead to better and more equitable cities. In recent years, world cities (global cities) and globalization have become key concepts of social scientists, architects, and economic geographers observing, experiencing, and describing the profound changes that new technologies have been causing for worldwide economic and spatial development. Planners soon followed the academic interest and tried to explore ways and means of promoting cities and city regions to world cities, followed in turn by architects analyzing and criticizing the negative local and regional impacts of such globalization (Lo and Yeung, 1998).
Middle East and especially Doha, the capital of Qatar, keeps positioning and re-inventing itself on the map of international architecture and urbanism with different expressions of its unique qualities in terms of economy, environment, culture, and global outlook. In many respects, it is pictured as an important emerging global capital in the Gulf region with intensive urban development processes. In this essay, I present a narrative of contemporary architecture of Doha that resembles a drama for a theater with performers contributing to scenes exhibited to the local public and the global spectator.
Historically, Doha was a fishing and pearl diving town. Today, the capital is home to more than 90% of the country’s 1.7 million people, with over 80% professional expatriates from other countries. Up to the mid 1960s, the majority of the buildings were individual traditional houses that presented local responses to the surrounding physical and socio-cultural conditions. During the 1970s Doha was transformed into a modernized city. However, in the 1980s and early 1990s the development process was slow compared to the preceding period due to either the overall political atmosphere and the first Gulf war or the heavy reliance of the country on the resources and economy of neighboring countries.

SHORT FILM SCRIPT ANALYSIS: THE THERAPIST

November 29, 2013

 

 

 

 

The script contains few aspects of concern that deserve some recommendations for improvement as follows. The foremost aspect centers on the general structure of the script where character positioning and directions on present scenes and flashbacks become unclear and effectively distort the flow of the story, primarily at the end of the story. Hence, a recommendation to improve the script centers on altering its general structure. For instance, switching the position of the stage directions and the actual monologue would ensure the directions are clearer relative to the conversation as often the case in traditional script structures. This involves moving the character lines prompt to the left and including a colon next to the words spoken rather than placing the character name on top of the dialogue. The version used, though reasonably unique, leaves the stage setting and directions underrepresented whereas the recommended inversion ensures they become active rather than the current passive state. This is important for the script mainly because it applies the continuous interchanging of stage direction and Dr. Vaughn’s monologue.

In terms of improving the story, some aspects of the script deserve evaluation to improve the flow of the story. For a complete script, this one lacks various aspects of character direction on set and clarity on the events in the present and in the few flashbacks used. The script clearly intends to ensure a lengthy sense of mystery until the end but unfortunately makes some aspects unclear including the part Dr. Vaughn plays in the death of Lucy or if in fact, the dead woman in the final scene is Lucy. The script clearly describes a scene where he murdered a woman by strangling her with a headlock. Moreover, the conversation seems to leave several questions unsatisfactorily answered, the main one being Dr. Vaughn’s secret and who exactly he thanked for having come to him alone. The implied secret seems to be the fact that Dr. Vaughn suffered some form of sexual attraction to corpses. Considering the conversation ends with him calling Inspector Heritage, it seems rather incomplete and confusing since earlier sections of the script implied that she was conversing with the Inspector all along.

Hence, the foremost clear aspect that requires some attentions is in the final section of the script before the flashback of Dr. Vaughn calling for the police. This section lacks direction on the fact that it is a flashback after Dr. Vaughn says, “That’s why I called you.” It immediately shifts and continues to ‘Dr. Vaughn pick up the phone and dials.’ This slight lack of direction builds confusion in the script since this pivotal moment that informs the viewer or readers (in this case) that the woman previously believed to be the one listening to Dr. Vaughn is in fact the victim, Lucy. In addition, the lack of clear direction builds confusion where Dr. Vaughn seemed to direct the entire conversation towards the corpse building confusion as to whether the deceased woman was in fact Lucy since it makes no logical sense for him to converse about her with her corpse. His earlier reference to the Inspector adds confusion by making it unclear as to whether Dr. Vaughn directed the conversation to the deceased woman or the Inspector especially when one considers the fact that the story ends with Dr. Vaughn conversing with the corpse.

Overall, the story would improve tremendously with less mystery and more stage direction and indication to instances of flashbacks and present scenes. As it stands, the only way the script would make absolute sense as in its current state is if Dr. Vaughn was in fact conversing with another character, possibly the mannequin. He could not have directed the conversation to an absent inspector or his victim, leaving only the mannequin, which he would then have had to christen as the ‘Inspector’ earlier mentioned where he says, “I’ve given you her file, Inspector. It’s all there.” In addition, perceiving the story from this perspective allows the development of the perceived agreement Dr. Vaughn mentions between him and Lucy being his turning himself in after murdering her. Essentially, making clearer what the secret and agreement were would significantly improve the story.

The Relationship between the Systems Life Cycle and Database Systems

November 29, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Relationship between the Systems Life Cycle and Database Systems

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Summary

This submission has basically outlined the meaning of a system, lifecycle as well as provided examples of database management systems utilized by organizations. Additionally, the research paper has outlined the measures an organization can take in instances where it does not have a formal database system. In relation to systems, this research paper defines a system as a set of independent or interacting components that create an amalgamated whole or else an array of elements or components as well as relationships that are entirely distinct from those between various sets or elements. It also explains the reason behind a sytem having a beginning and an end.

Additionally, it is important to integrate a lifecycle into the plan for the development of a database due to its ability to create an effective database in reference to functionality as well as user satisfaction. Apart from this, the submission also outlines two examples of database management systems (DBMS) used by organization alongside their lifecycles and effectiveness in meeting the intended objectives. Firstly, Microsoft SQL Server is a software-based platform specifically designed to store as well as retrieve data upon request. Furthermore, Oracle is an object-oriented database management system developed to treat a collection of data as an entity. In regards to an organization that does not use a formal database system in its operations, this research paper stresses the importance of conducting a risk assessment with the aim of developing apposite strategies to safeguard data safety and integrity. It is hoped that the findings contained herein will help augment understanding of database management systems and the alternatives available in the absence of one.

The Definition of Systems, Including Why Systems Have a Beginning and an End

Tarride (2006) defines sytems as a set of independent or interacting components that create an amalgamated whole or else an array of elements or components as well as relationships that are entirely distinct from those between various sets or elements. A system has a beginning and end because it is a set of interrelated components or tasks required to solve a particular problem based on a elaborately defined set of processes (Tarride, 2006). In this regard, in order for a sytem to offer solutions, it must start from the beginning or initial process all the way to the final process in a bid to arrive at a logical solution. The initial process is the beginning while the final process is the end. In a nutshell, a sytem offers solutions in a logical or methodical manner and hence the beginning and the end.

The Importance of Integrating a Life Cycle into the Plan for Development of a Database

The importance of integrating a lifecycle into the plan for the development of a database is predicated on the fact that a lifecycle is made up of an array of processes. It is geared towards realizing the task of creating a database that is sound in regards to functionality in addition to having the capacity to satisfy the needs of the user (Lundteigen, Rausand, & Utne, 2009). These processes include requirements, planning, development, design, installation, testing as well as maintenance.

When arranged in dissimilar orders, these processes represent various lifecycle forms. In this regard, it is important to take cognizance of the fact that when developing a database, the order of this set is very important as it determines the efficiency and the ability to correctly change the requirements of the user into a functional database. The ideal order should thus be planning, requirements, design, development, testing, installation and maintenance (Lundteigen, Rausand & Utne, 2009). In a nutshell, the importance of a lifecycle in database development is its ability to accommodate properties such as progressive enhancement, scope restriction, pre-defined structure as well as incremental planning.

Examples of the Database System an Organization Uses, its Systems Life Cycle and How They Are Related, and Why or Why not this is Effective

Database management systems used by an organization include Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle. To begin with, Microsoft SQL Server represents a relational database management systems created by Microsoft (Root & Mason, 2012). In regards to a database management system, Microsoft SQL Server is a software-based platform specifically designed to store as well as retrieve data upon the request of other applications within or without a system. In regards to its systems’ lifecycle, system is characterized by four processes that include start of the lifecycle, mainstream support, extended support as well as service park support end, all geared towards meeting the storage and retrieval needs. This database management system is effective because there are various editions tailored to meet the specific needs of different users as well as different workloads spanning from small single-computer applications to big internet-based applications underlined by concurrent users (Root & Mason, 2012).

Secondly, Oracle is a database system created as well as marketed by the Oracle Corporation. In this regard, it is an object-oriented database management system developed to treat a collection of data as an entity (Alhadi & Ahmad, 2012). It is therefore intended to store as well as retrieve data or other information. Oracle is a very effective database management system as it is designed to reliably manage large quantities of data within a multiuser setting. This allows many users to access the same information concurrently while at the same time delivering elevated performance.

 Additionally, Oracle database provides effective solutions in regards to breakdown recovery. Moreover, Oracle is designed to meet the requirements of enterprise grid computing and for this reason, it is the most cost effective and flexible method with respect to managing applications and information (Alhadi & Ahmad, 2012).

In regards to its lifecycle, the database management system is comprised of logical and physical structures that relate as well as support its core functions of storage and retrieval. Additionally, its comprehensive lifecycle provides solutions that allow the automation of the processes required to manage the system (Alhadi & Ahmad, 2012). Consequently, this eliminates the need for manual as well as time consuming activities related to initial provisioning, discovery, configuration management, patching as well as current change management. Moreover, the lifecycle creates a suitable framework for managing and reporting compliance standards in regards to regulation.

What an Organization Should Implement If It Does Not Use a Formal Database System

 If an organization is not using a formal database system, then it needs as a matter of urgency to conduct a risk assessment geared towards ascertaining the level of risk in regards to information security. After this is done, it is important for the organization to review relevant policies as well as regulations in regards to data protection as well as integrity (Fairfield, 2004). The next step will then involve the development of sound security measures to protect data from being deliberately or else accidentally compromised. These measures include but not limited to designing as well as organizing security to meet the requirements of protecting personal or sensitive data in the possession of the organization by eliminating any factors that may result in security breaches.

Secondly, it is important for an organization without a formal database system to clearly stipulate the person or department responsible in ensuring the security of information. Thirdly, the organization must ensure that the appropriate technical or physical security is supported by strong procedures and policies as well as well-trained and dependable staff members. Finally, the organization must institute appropriate measures to enable it respond to information breaches in a timely and effective manner (Fairfield, 2004).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Alhadi, N., & Ahmad, K. (2012). Query tuning in oracle database. Journal of Computer Science, 8(11), 1889-1896.

Fairfield, J. (2004). Databases. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 5(12), 407–409.

Lundteigen, A. M., Rausand, M., & Utne, B. I. (2009). Integrating RAMS engineering and management with the safety life cycle of IEC 61508. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 94(12), 1894–1903.

Root, R., & Mason, C. (2012). Pro SQL server 2012 BI solutions. Apress.

Tarride, M. I. (2006). A method for systems definition. Kybernetes, 35(5), 680-687.

 

 

Income Inequality and Distribution in the United States

November 28, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income Inequality and Distribution in the United States

 

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Income Inequality and Distribution in the United States

Income inequality is common in the United States and it dates back many years. Studies conducted in the country have revealed that the increase in the inequality has gradually been rising with the present time facing the greatest inequality ever. This is indicated by the one percent richest population receiving almost about a fifth of the income received by the households in the country. This is the highest record ever, beating the 1928 record. Similarly, the gap between the richest class in the society and the country’s poor is also at its peak. The top decile in 2012 was 50.4%, which is higher than any other period in the country’s history since 1917, even surpassing the record set in 1928 after the stock market crash.

LeRoy (32) notes that the measures that the country’s government employed in overcoming the crisis in the 1930s could have contributed toward reduction of the gap. However, the gap began increasing steadily since the 1980. The 2007-2009 recession affected all people in the economy. However, the richest were the hardest hit by the recession as the majority in this category lost about 36% of their incomes and assets. The 99 % of the population only lost about 11% of their incomes, which is a lower figure compared to the top 1% of the population. During the recovery from the crisis, the top one percent of the population was the first one to recover their incomes by recovering about 95% of their lost incomes during the initial periods of the recovery. A 2012 survey indicates that the larger population in the United States is yet to recover from the recession because the majority is still supported by the government under different welfare programs.

The congressional research points out that the over 80 programs on low-income programs reached a high of $746 billion in 2011 with the total being $1.03 trillion. Therefore, the government spending on welfare has made the programs the largest spending in the country, apart from other programs such as social security and defense. President Obama established a policy of taking from the rich and giving the poor. However, the program has not been effective because it takes more wealth from the middle class and gives the funds to the poor and some rich people in the country. The program established by Obama abetted the wide inequality in income that enriched the rich by 10%, 1% and 0.1%. However, the program has stuck with the middle income earners that keep falling back and becoming poor again thereby seeking and enrolling in government social services. The tragedy of inequality is that the income received by individuals is relatively small as a component of the entire income picture. On the contrary, the gains realized from invested capital make up a large chunk of the total income in the country. (LeRoy, 2005) notes that gains from capital, the taxes on income and the marginal rates are low with credit given to the previous and the current governments.

LeRoy (121) notes that the inequality in income cannot be solved by taking funds from the rich and giving it to the poor. It has all to do with development of a fair tax system that is simple, though progressive. The system should be progressive flat and creates gains from capital progressively.

The problem of inequality is common and is closely related to the level of unemployment in the United States. The level of unemployment is related to the difficulties that the economy experiences. Economic cycles especially recessions have always worsened the unemployment situation in the United States while the recovery or booms have improved the situation. The Bureau of labor statistics reports that the current level of unemployment in the country stands at 7.3 percent. The level has always fluctuated over time with 1982 recording an all-record high of 10.8% and a record low of 2.5% that was recorded in 1953. Most of the unemployed are usually enrolled under government welfare programs that provide subsidies. A good example of such program is the unemployment program in which the unemployed enroll and are given a sum of money on a monthly basis. This group of people increased after the 2007-2009 global recession where the level of unemployment reached 9.8%.

This research will identify indicators of the future of the real estate business in the United Arab Emirates. A synopsis of the current developments is instrumental in finding out this state of affairs. Therefore, the study will identify the most accurate indication of the future of the real estate business in the U.S. The effects of the global economic crisis of 2008 and have their bearing on the sector. The study will investigate these phenomena and derive a resourceful conclusion. It is important to study the U.S. real estate market since it is one of the most pronounced real property markets in the modern world. Dubai, for example, was ranked number two in Forbes’ rankings of ‘The Hottest Real Estate Markets on Earth’. This shows that the U.S. is a force to reckon with in the global real property industry.

Overcoming unemployment calls for concerted efforts to minimize unemployment and increase the level of consumption. The stimulation of the economy is done through different government programs under the fiscal policy. Such programs involve increased government expenditure on projects that aim at creating jobs among the unemployed in the population. The Federal government through the Federal Reserve empower different companies by giving them funds to increase production and create jobs.

 

 

 

 

 

References

LeRoy, G. (2005). The Great American Jobs Scam: Corporate Tax Dodging and the Myth of Job Creation. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November 27, 2013

Core Business Skills

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CORE BUSINESS SKILLS

The success of a business entirely depends on the ability of the management to exercise skills that are useful to ensure that it grows. There are a number of core skills that any business posed for success should have. These skills are the same irresponsible of the kind and magnitude of the business one is operating (Grudy, & Brown, 2004).

  1. Finance: Every business deals with money. Money is the driving force for any form of business. The drive to make profits is what drives people to engage in business activities. Finance skills are very useful as they help one in planning cash flow, management of relations with ones bank and accountants.

  2. Marketing skills: Marketing is an important aspect in the success of any business. A business that manages its advertisement well will attract more customers as they will get information on goods and services available

  3. Sales skills: Every business makes sales. Good skills in management of sales are core to each and every business. These skills include pricing, customer service, negotiations together with skills of competition tracking.

  4. Procurement and buying skills: Procurement and buying are essential operations in every business .Good procurement and buying skills will helps businesses in tendering processes, management of business contracts, planning of business inventory together with good control of stock.

  5. Administration skills: These skills are essential in any smooth running of a business. Good skills in administration will make it easy for the business owner to do a good work of preparing payrolls of its workers, bookkeeping together with billing.

  6. Personal skills: these skills are used in carrying out recruitments of employees, making resolutions incase of disputes arising from workers, motivating ones staff together with managing their training for better service delivery.

  7. Personal business skills: These are skills that are pegged on the individuals running the business. They are organizational skills together with written and oral communication. Computer literacy skills can also be included here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Grudy, T & Brown, L. 2004.The Ultimate Book for Business skills: The 100 Most Important Skills of Becoming Successful in Business. Chichester: Capston Publishing Ltd.