Archive for April, 2014

Gunston Hall Virginia history

April 28, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Gunston Hall: Its History and Importance

Name

Institution

 

 

 

Gunston Hall is located in Virginia. It is a stately mansion that stands in a 5500 acre land inherited by George Mason, regarded as America’s founding father, from his father in the year 1935 (Broadwater, 2009). The mansion is located in Fairfax County along the Potomac River. The construction of Gunston hall commenced in the year 1754 and took five years as it was completed in the year 1759 (Broadwater, 2009). The house is considered to be the one of the most elegant homes in USA during the colonial era. Since its completion, only a few changes have been effected, hence showing that most of the building has remained as it was when it was completed in the year 1959 (Broadwater, 2009). Gunston Hall was designed by two English craftsmen, William Sears and William Buckland in exchange for a free passage to Virginia. The two utilized various architectural designs that were popular in London, with Buckland using his knowledge in designs obtained from various source books, while Sears brought in his expertise in curving (Kornwolf, & Georgianna, 2002).

When George Mason IV constructed Gunston Hall, he intended the building to be retained within the family ranks as a symbol of family leadership. Despite this, the house was later sold to William Dawson and William Merrill in the year 1867 (Broadwater, 2009). Upon the death of George Mason in the year 1792, his son George Mason V inherited the property but unfortunately passed on four years later, in the year 1796 upon which the property was passed on to the grandson, George Mason VI. In the year 1834, George Mason VI passed on leaving the property to his second wife Eleanor Mason, who together with Mason Graham who owned part of the property sold the house to William Dawson and William Merrill (Kornwolf, & Georgianna, 2002). The two deeded the mansion to Edward Daniels in the years 1868 and later in the 1880’s the property was leased to Frank Smith, who used the house for boarding the residents in summer. In the year 1891, Edward Daniels sold the house to Joseph and Emma Specht who later handed over the property to their daughter Adelaide who sold it to Vaughn and Paul Kester in the year 1907 (Broadwater, 2009). Following the death of his brother, Paul Kester sold the mansion to Louis Hertle in the year 1912. In the year 1949, the house was handed over to the Commonwealth of Virginia, thus making the Hertle’s the last private owners of the Gunston Hall Mansion (Broadwater, 2009).

As indicated above, the house has a rich history, more so having existed in the colonial era and having housed the statesman, George Mason. This is an indicator that Gunston Hall is of significance not only to the state of Virginia, and the Fairfax County residents, but it is of essence to the American nation as a whole because it plays a large part in the country’s historical endowment. Gunston Mansion was erected in the middle of a 5500 acre plantation in which more than 500 people were housed. The census conducted in the year 1782 indicated that there were 30 other outbuildings in the plantation including a smokehouse, a schoolhouse and a kitchen (Broadwater, 2009). Among the five hundred people living in the plantation there were paid laborers, slaves, and indentured servants who worked on the Mason’s Tobacco farms. The slave community known as the Log Town lived a short distance away from the plantation building as indicated in the entity’s journals (http://www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason/slavery/slaves.html)

Therefore, according to the mansion’s building, it is evident that slavery was a major issue in the colonial period. It is eminent that the people in power such as George Mason supported slavery as he had dozens of them within his plantation despite having criticized it publicly (http://www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason/slavery/views_on_slavery.html paragraph 5)

The fact that slavery was excercised within the ranks of government resulted to increased slave trade within the American nation during the colonial era (Broadwater, 2009). Further, the two architects who designed the house, William Sears and William Buckland who came from Europe designed the house in exchange for free passage to Virginia. This shows the difficulty with which immigrants from other nations were given passage to live in America during the colonial era. Hence, this is an indication that during the colonial period there were various bureaucracy was rule of law in America, as well as other nations of that time.

Additionally, the Gunston Mansion has a great significance to the American nation by the mare fact that it housed one of the country’s founding father, George Mason (Kornwolf, & Georgianna, 2002). This fact has made the house an attractive phenomenon within and without the American boundaries. The house is of great social-economic value to the American nation. The house has social and cultural significance to the current and future American generations as they the history of the man regarded as the nation’s founding father, and since the mansion has been converted into a public museum, it offers an opportunity to the public to visit it and witness for themselves the splendor which stood as the monumental building in Virginia in the mid-1750s (Virginia Historical Society., 2011). The mansion also contributes to the economic well-being of USA because it is a tourism attraction site (Virginia Historical Society, 2011). Since the mansion was converted to a public museum, both domestic and foreign tourists flock the property to have a glimpse of the magnificence associated with the building and also to be part of the monumental building the American political arena as it housed one of the founding fathers of America, George Mason.

In Virginia, the premise is of no less social-economic importance. The building has put Virginia on the country’s political map by the mare fact that it housed America’s founding father George Mason. This fact has made Virginia to be regarded as the home of one of America’s founding father, an aspect that stirred more political enlightenment within the state. Together With Ohio, Virginia has been home to most American presidents including the first president George Washington, who was George Mason’s neighbor, living less than 8 miles apart. John Taylor and Thomas Jefferson among others also emanated from Virginia. Additionally, the fact that the building was converted to a public museum, this has been of immense economic benefit to Virginia as a state. Gunston Hall is a tourist attraction site that fetches revenue for the government of Virginia offering tourism services to people from America and outside the country (Virginia Historical Society., 2011). The mansion remains to be an architectural landmark in Virginia, with most buildings in the state after 1960s and in the post-colonial era seeking to emulate its design (Kornwolf, & Georgianna, 2002). The house stood as a magnificent architectural masterpiece of its time with many powerful people of the time travelling from far to have a glimpse of its magnificence. Thus it acted as a benchmark for architectural designs within and without Virginia after its completion in the year 1759.

In addition to the economic benefit derived by the Virginia government from the tourism services offered by the mansion, the house also acts as a form of heritage for the state of Virginia, and also contributes to the state’s historical milestones (Virginia Historical Society, 2011). The building is an artifact providing evidence of slavery within Virginia in the colonial era and also highlighting the plight of immigrants such as Sears and Backland who had to design the house and complete it in a bid to be grated pass to Virginia. After, the visit it is quite clear that the house is an architectural masterpiece that is rivaled by none of its time with eclectic interiors that illustrate the English Rococo comprising a central passage with neoclassical elements and a French touch. Elegant is just an understatement to the interior design of the hall, more so bearing in mind it is an ancient architectural structure. Thus, it can be deduced that Gunston Hall has immensely contributed the social, political and economic development of Virginia.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Broadwater J. (2009). George Mason, Forgotten Founder. North Carolina: University of North Carolina.

Kornwolf, J. D. & Georgianna W. K. (2002). Architecture, as well as Town Planning in Colonial America. The Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

Virginia Historical Society. (2011). The Garden Society of Virginia: Historic Restorations Gunston Hall. Retrieved on 19th April, 2014 from http://www.vahistorical.org/gardenclub/gunstonhall.htm

Gunston Hall. George Mason’s Slaves. Retrieved on 20th April, 2013 from <http://www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason/slavery/slaves.html>

Gunston Hall. George Mason & Slavery. Retrieved on 20th April, 2013 from <http://www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason/slavery.html>

Gunston Hall. George Mason’s Views on Slavery. Retrieved on 20th April, 2013 from <http://www.gunstonhall.org/georgemason/slavery/views_on_slavery.html>

 

 

sports economics(superstar effects and transfer fee in premier League soccer))

April 27, 2014

Name of Author:

Name of Professor:

Unit Name:

Date:                  

 

Sports Economics

Abstract

“The main reasoning that is prevalent in the English premier league lineage is that teams that buy superstars end up with the best results and that a person is a superstar given the amount that most of the clubs are willing to pay for him.” This statement has been justified in this research, as stated in the findings in this paper, teams that spend a lot of money on purchasing players often end up with good results. Players who perform well in various leagues are highly valued and are considered superstars. Teams with high numbers of superstars are successful than those with a few number of superstars. This is because superstars attract a large number of fans and this increases club revenue thus making the club successful. Superstars are also good performers on the field and this improves the positions of teams on the league table.

Introduction

Club performance is determined by the quality of players and the amount of money the club is willing to spend on their players and the acquisition of new players. This motivates the players and their performance on the field improves greatly and this in turn improves the confidence and morale of fans of a particular club. Clubs with the best players in the English Premier League often have good results. These clubs spend much money on buying these players so as to improve on their performances. A player is considered a superstar when many clubs are willing to purchase him and also the amount of money the clubs are willing to offer is a great determinant. Teams with players who have acquired the superstar status often perform better than those without superstars.

Literature Review

Transfers especially of superstars change a club’s attitude as a lot of confidence is built, and there are high hopes of the club performing well. If a club spends a large amount of money on players, it improves its performance, for example, Manchester City spent huge volumes of money on acquiring world class players and this helped them win the Premier League. It also increased their fan base and more people gained a lot of confidence in the club and this meant that the club made more money than before due to higher match attendances and other revenues.

The amount paid for a player is a topic that brings a lot of controversy during the transfer period. Arguments erupt on whether a player has been overvalued or undervalued; this may determine whether fans will be optimistic about the transfer or if they will be unsupportive. A club might spend a lot of money on a player who does not perform according to expectations and the club ends up facing sharp criticism from the fans. The amount paid for the transfer of a certain player may not necessarily determine the player’s performance, but the club’s value for a player will directly affect his performance on the field Blair, (2012). A highly valued player will perform better than those who are not highly valued. Fans always appreciate highly valued players and this motivates them to give their best performances during matches.

Highly valued players are players whom clubs spend a lot of money on. However, the effects of buying a superstar may not be felt immediately, it may take some time before the club begins feeling the effect of the player. A footballer may fail to perform during his first weeks in a new club, and this may kill the morale of fans who are usually expecting a lot from him. A club may spend huge volumes of money on a footballer, but the footballer may fail to perform as per their expectations, for example, Chelsea Football Club spent a lot of money on Fernando Torres but he did not perform as expected during his first weeks at the club.

He was a highly valued player and the managers at Chelsea as well as the fans expected a lot from him, but he only managed to score 6 goals, and this was an underperformance for a striker of his class. Other strikers who had cost a lot less, like Michu of Swansea, were performing better than Torres. Michu managed to score 12 goals which are double those that Torres managed to score, this was a great return on the part of Michu. Having superstar players is a key factor towards the performance of a club but there are also a lot of other factors involved for a club to be successful.

A club that performs well will have a wide fan base and as long as it keeps performing the fans will remain loyal to the club. The fans will always attend matches in large numbers to support their club as everyone feels happy when associated with the winning team. Large fan turnout means that the club will collect more revenue and thus it will be stable financially. Fans also motivate players during matches and the players will give their best during matches.

The amount of money spent during the transfer of players is recovered as the attendance of fans becomes higher while they come to watch the new signings their club has made so as to view their performance on the field. Also new players improve club performance and this increases their chances of winning trophies and this increase the club’s revenues in many ways, example the attendance will increase due to more fans attending matches.

Clubs that invest highly on players end up having good results and winning trophies. An example is Manchester City who spent millions of pounds acquiring world class players example Aguero who has had a great impact on the team. Manchester City yielded good results after their huge investment on players and they went ahead to win the premier league. Another example is Chelsea football club who also spent lots of money on improving their squad. This changed everything for them as they became a world class team and they have won various titles including the Champions League. The move by Chelsea to purchase Samuel Etoo who is a world class player has seen the team improve greatly in their recent matches as the Cameroonian striker has changed their game greatly.

Manchester United is also known to spend heavily on players and that is why they have been a top club for many years. They spent a lot of money acquiring Robin Van Persie from Arsenal and the Dutch joined the club and they proceeded to win the premier league during his first season in the club. He has been a highly valued player at Manchester United and that is why he is an excellent performer scoring goals in almost every game he plays.

Superstars have great effects on teams and the way they are treated matters a lot and it greatly affects their performance on the field. Cristiano Ronaldo for example is a world class player who impacts a great deal of influence on every team he joins. He was a world class player during his days at Manchester United and is still a great performer and a highly valued player at Real Madrid.

Football clubs should therefore focus more on acquiring world class players to improve their squads as this has proven to yield great results. Clubs should also value and treat their players well for them to give their best while in the field.

Model

Transfer of players can have a great impact on the economy of a country. An example is the case where Real Madrid that lured the player Welsh from an English team known as Tottenham Hotspur for a very high transfer fees that shocked the world. This amounted to $132million, an amount that kept the soccer industry on edge for a number of weeks. This transaction was highly criticized and condemned by others such as the new FC coach for Barcelona who argued that the deal did not portray a good image to the world.

This is because, most of the people especially in Spain are suffering from unemployment and most of the soccer clubs, including Real Madrid itself is suffering from heavy debts. As much as the player would create a good image for the club and attract more fans to support the club, this decision might lead to destabilization of the economy of Spain. More of the benefit in this case hence goes to the player as he is able to attain the status of a superstar. He will also be able to make huge volumes of money from the clubs that are buying him. On the contrary, the clubs themselves remain astounded as they are not so sure whether the player will earn as much money for them as they used in buying him.

The soccer industry can thus be said to be turning into what is referred to as a “winner-take –all market”, in which case, the few individuals who are at the top of their professions have the chance of winning very high wages while other individuals in this sector struggle to earn a living. The soccer market is hence currently regarded as getting out of control. This is due to the existence of a small number of very wealthy buyers who have an interest in a certain player in a particular team. As the club owners and presidents compete to outdo each other in signing ‘the biggest name’, they create bidding wars which are very hard to control making them their own enemies.

Some bets are, however, beneficial to the soccer clubs because one individual can have a lot of impact on the success of the club. An example is Bale, who was a consistent performer in the past season of Tottenham, in the English premier league and who is currently playing remarkably for the Spanish and Champions league. This player has attracted quite a large number of consumers to attend games which he is playing and hence spend money that flows to the club, meaning that he is a great income earner for the club. In this case, therefore, one high-profile star can have a lot of impacts on the bottom line of an increasingly global market whereby very few clubs compete for the attention of large numbers of soccer fans.  

 

 

                                                                                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Analysis and Results

Regression Results for various seasons in the premier league

Data 2003/2004

Team

Turn – over, £m

Wage bill

Table Score

Purchase Gross

Position

Arsenal

114.562

69.889

90

45.54

1

Aston Villa

55.859

33.767

56

7.37

6

Birmingham

 

 

50

 

10

Blackburn Rovers

40.843

31.308

44

16.5

15

Bolton Wanderers

48.763

23.48

53

500

8

Charlton

42.606

29.913

53

1.5

7

Chelsea

143.615

115

79

51.536

2

Everton

44.672

33.171

39

8857.2

17

Fulham

42.948

30.9

52

7.462

9

Leeds city

 

 

33

 

19

Leicester City

 

 

33

 

18

Liverpool

92.349

65.635

60

14

4

Manchester City

 

 

41

102.08

16

Manchester United

171.5

76.874

75

48.222

3

Middlesbrough

43.047

28.967

48

 

11

Newcastle United

90.468

50.222

56

 

5

Portsmouth

 

 

45

 

13

Southampton

 

 

47

 

12

Tottenham Hotspur

66.324

33.142

45

26.18

14

Wolverampton

 

 

33

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem034.csv

(5 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore purchasegross wagebill

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     11

————-+——————————           F( 3,     7) =   10.98

       Model | 17354.3065     3 5784.76882           Prob > F     = 0.0049

   Residual |   3686.7594     7 526.679914           R-squared     = 0.8248

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.7497

       Total | 21041.0659   10 2104.10659           Root MSE     =   22.95

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore |   .8945543   .8339449     1.07   0.319   -1.077412   2.866521

purchasegr~s |   .0000692     .00309     0.02   0.983   -.0072374   .0073759

   wagebill |   1.022883   .4331002     2.36   0.050   -.0012359   2.047002

       _cons |   -24.5464   36.25697   -0.68   0.520   -110.2805   61.18772

——————————————————————————

A coefficient is a multiplier of a variable in a mathematical expression.

In the regression chart above the turnover of teams is seen to affect other variables like the table score, purchase gross and the wage bill. The turnover has an effect on the table score of teams as it gives a positive coefficient of 0.8. It also has an effect on the purchase gross as it results to a positive coefficient. The regression chart also shows that the turnover of teams has a great effect on the wage bill as it gives a positive coefficient of 1.02. The wage bill will thus have a multiplier of 1.2 which means that the figure of the wage bill will be multiplied by 1.2 if the turnover increases. The table score will have a positive multiplier of 0.8.

The graph below shows the relationship between turnover and wage bill of teams in the 2003/2004 premier league season. Graph findings show that teams with a higher turnover had a high wage bill as compared to those with a lower turnover.

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Wage bill

Table Score

Purchase Gross

Position

Arsenal

132.112

83

67

25.55

4

Aston Villa

49.982

38.3

42

12

16

Birmingham

40.117

 

34

 

18

Blackburn Rovers

43.396

33.4

63

6.2

6

Bolton Wanderers

86.518

28.5

56

5.25

8

Charlton

41.925

34.2

47

6

13

Chelsea

130.41

114

91

58.2

1

Everton

58.123

37

50

17.75

11

Fulham

37.111

30.1

48

4.55

12

Liverpool

119.499

69

82

29.05

3

Manchester City

61.802

34

43

 

15

Manchester United

105.925

85.4

83

20

2

Middlesbrough

51.988

28.8

45

10.3

14

Newcastle United

82.882

52.2

58

37.3

7

Portsmouth

36.068

 

38

 

17

Sunderland

39.258

 

15

 

20

Tottenham Hotspur

68.885

41

65

19.9

5

West Bromwich

35.54

 

30

 

19

West Ham United

52.007

 

55

 

9

Wigan Athletic

34.852

 

51

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem0506.csv

(5 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm wagebill tablescore purchasegross

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     13

————-+——————————           F( 3,     9) =   10.80

       Model | 11256.0745     3 3752.02484           Prob > F     = 0.0024

   Residual | 3125.65389     9 347.294876           R-squared     = 0.7827

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.7102

       Total | 14381.7284   12 1198.47737           Root MSE     = 18.636

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

   wagebill |   .7646639   .5071851     1.51   0.166   -.3826686   1.911996

tablescore |   .5886002   .6784696     0.87   0.408   -.9462048   2.123405

purchasegr~s |   .0980685   .6389877     0.15   0.881   -1.347422   1.543559

       _cons | -.0883221   26.5709   -0.00   0.997   -60.19587   60.01923

————————————————-

                                      

In the regression chart above the turnover of teams has an effect on other variables. The turnover has an effect on the wage bill as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.76. It also has an effect on the table score as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.59. The turnover also has an effect on the purchase gross of teams as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.09. The regression chart shows that if teams have a high turnover, then they will have a high wage bill, a high table score and a high purchase gross. This shows that the purchase gross will have a multiplier of 0.09 and the value of the purchase gross will be multiplied by this figure to attain the new amount of the purchase gross. The coefficient is a multiplier of the variable.

 

The graph above shows the correlation between the turnover and the wage bill of teams. The graph shows that teams with a high turnover also have a high wage bill. The turnover of teams often determines their wage bills as shown in the graph.

 

  

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Wage bill

Table Score

Purchase Gross

Position

Arsenal

139.003

89.7

68

3.4

4

Aston Villa

52.674

43.2

50

 

11

Blackburn Rovers

43.303

36.7

52

 

10

Bolton Wanderers

43.087

30.7

56

8

7

Charlton Athletic

35.929

34.3

34

10.7

19

Chelsea

165.341

132.8

83

21

2

Everton

51.412

38.4

58

8.6

6

Fulham

39.228

35.2

39

2

16

Liverpool

133.91

77.6

68

2

3

Manchester City

56.952

 

42

2.6

14

Manchester United

143.823

92.3

89

18.6

1

Middlesbrough

47.838

38.3

46

7.75

12

Newcastle United

87.083

62.5

43

15

13

Portsmouth

40.245

 

54

1.7

9

Reading

49.909

 

55

1.35

8

Sheffield United

38.93

 

38

3.15

18

Tottenham Hotspur

103.91

43.8

60

10.9

5

Watford

28.824

 

28

3.1

20

West Ham United

49.427

 

41

4.1

15

Wigan Athletic

26.889

 

38

8.5

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem0607.csv

(5 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore wagebill purchasegross

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     11

————-+——————————           F( 3,     7) =   23.44

       Model | 21894.2498     3 7298.08325           Prob > F     = 0.0005

   Residual | 2179.24959     7   311.32137           R-squared     = 0.9095

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.8707

       Total | 24073.4993   10 2407.34993           Root MSE     = 17.644

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore |   .9439209   .5265692     1.79   0.116  -.3012173   2.189059

   wagebill |   1.068659   .2933147     3.64   0.008     .3750795   1.762238

purchasegr~s | -.9164046   1.021205   -0.90   0.399     -3.33117   1.498361

       _cons | -21.85281   20.82751   -1.05   0.329   -71.10204   27.39642

 

The above is a multiple regression chart result for the turnover, table score, wage bill and purchase gross of teams for the 2006/2007 season. The results show that the turnover had an effect on two of the variables as they both show positive coefficients of 0.9 for the table score and 1.07 for the wage bill. The purchase gross however shows a negative coefficient of -0.9. In this regression the purchase will have a negative multiplier and this shows that the turnover will not have a positive effect on it. The wage bill and table score will have positive multipliers and this shows that the turnover will have a positive effect on them which means they will increase in value.

 

 

The graph above shows the correlation between the turnover and the wage bill of teams. The graph shows that teams with a high turnover also have a high wage bill. The turnover of teams often determines their wage bills as shown in the graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Gate and Matc – hday income, £m

TV and Broad – casting, £m

Comm – ercial, £m

Wage bill

Table score

Position

Arsenal

222.5

95

68

31

101.3

83

3

Aston Villa

75.6

18.5

46

11

50.4

60

6

Birmingham

27.2

7

14

4

21.8

35

19

Blackburn Rovers

56.4

6.2

41.2

9

39.7

58

7

Bolton Wanderers

59.1

6.8

34.2

 

39

37

16

Chelsea

213.6

 

 

5.3

149

85

2

Derby County

11.2

 

 

 

37.1

11

20

Everton

76

20.5

46.6

8.9

44.5

65

5

Fulham

53.7

9.6

34

4.9

39.5

36

17

Liverpool

159

 

 

 

 

76

4

Manchester City

823

13.6

43.3

25.4

54.2

55

9

Manchester United

256.2

101.5

90.7

64

121.1

87

1

Middlesbrough

48

11.1

27

2.4

34.8

42

13

Newcastle United

100.8

32.3

41.1

27.4

74.6

43

12

Portsmouth

70.5

12

51.2

 

54.7

57

8

Reading

9

 

 

 

6.9

36

18

Sunderland

63.6

13.6

35.6

6.1

52.9

39

15

Tottenham Hotspur

114.7

28.6

40.3

8.3

21.8

46

11

West Ham United

57

17

24

9

44.2

49

10

Wigan Athletic

43

 

 

 

38.4

40

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

           insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem0708.csv

(7 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore wagebill position

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     19

————-+——————————           F( 3,   15) =   0.90

       Model | 91384.1228     3 30461.3743           Prob > F     = 0.4661

   Residual | 510041.613   15 34002.7742           R-squared     = 0.1519

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = -0.0177

       Total | 601425.736   18 33412.5409           Root MSE     =   184.4

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore | 1.107604   8.315402     0.13   0.896   -16.61626   18.83146

   wagebill |   .6193771   1.984609     0.31   0.759   -3.610716     4.84947

   position | -5.501691   25.40185   -0.22   0.831   -59.64445   48.64107

       _cons |   95.33155   662.0892     0.14   0.887   -1315.878   1506.541

——————————————————————————

The above is a multiple regression result for the turnover, the wage bill and the position of teams in the 2007/2008 season. The regression chart results show that the turnover has a positive effect on the table score as there is a positive coefficient of 1.1. The turnover also has an effect on the wage bill as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.62. The position however has a negative coefficient of -5.5. Teams with a high turnover had a high wage bill as well as a high table score. The regression shows that the table score and the wage bill will have positive multipliers which means that they both will increase with an increase in the turnover.

 

.

The graph above shows the correlation between the turnover and the wage bill of teams. The graph shows that teams with a high turnover also have a high wage bill. The turnover of teams often determines their wage bills as shown in the graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Gate and Matc – hday income, £m

TV and Broad – casting, £m

Comm – ercial, £m

Wage bill

Table score

Position

Arsenal

222.5

95

68

31

101.3

83

3

Aston Villa

75.6

18.5

46

11

50.4

60

6

Birmingham

27.2

7

14

4

21.8

35

19

Blackburn Rovers

56.4

6.2

41.2

9

39.7

58

7

Bolton Wanderers

59.1

6.8

34.2

 

39

37

16

Chelsea

213.6

 

 

5.3

149

85

2

Derby County

11.2

 

 

 

37.1

11

20

Everton

76

20.5

46.6

8.9

44.5

65

5

Fulham

53.7

9.6

34

4.9

39.5

36

17

Liverpool

159

 

 

 

 

76

4

Manchester City

823

13.6

43.3

25.4

54.2

55

9

Manchester United

256.2

101.5

90.7

64

121.1

87

1

Middlesbrough

48

11.1

27

2.4

34.8

42

13

Newcastle United

100.8

32.3

41.1

27.4

74.6

43

12

Portsmouth

70.5

12

51.2

 

54.7

57

8

Reading

9

 

 

 

6.9

36

18

Sunderland

63.6

13.6

35.6

6.1

52.9

39

15

Tottenham Hotspur

114.7

28.6

40.3

8.3

21.8

46

11

West Ham United

57

17

24

9

44.2

49

10

Wigan Athletic

43

 

 

 

38.4

40

14

 

 

 

           insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem0809.csv

(7 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore wagebill position

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     19

————-+——————————           F( 3,   15) =   0.90

       Model | 91384.1228     3 30461.3743          Prob > F     = 0.4661

   Residual | 510041.613   15 34002.7742           R-squared     = 0.1519

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = -0.0177

       Total | 601425.736   18 33412.5409           Root MSE     =   184.4

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore |   1.107604   8.315402     0.13   0.896   -16.61626   18.83146

   wagebill |   .6193771   1.984609     0.31   0.759   -3.610716     4.84947

   position | -5.501691   25.40185   -0.22   0.831   -59.64445   48.64107

       _cons |   95.33155 662.0892     0.14   0.887   -1315.878   1506.541

——————————————————————————

 

 

The above is a multiple regression chart result for the 2008/2009 season. The chart shows that the turnover has an effect on the table score and the wage bill. The two variables show positive coefficients of 1.1 and 0.62 respectively. Teams with a high turnover had a high table score and a high wage bill during this season. An increase in the turnover meant an increase in the wage bill and also an increase in the table score as well. The table score and the wage bill will have positive multipliers and this means that they will both increase with an increase in the turnover.

 

The graph above shows the correlation between the turnover and the wage bill of teams. The graph shows that teams with a high turnover also have a high wage bill. The turnover of teams often determines their wage bills as shown in the graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          

 

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Gate and Matc – hday income, £m

TV and Broad – casting, £m

Comm – ercial, £m

Wages as Prop – ortion of Turn – over (%)

Wage Bill

Table Score

Position

Arsenal

382

94

85

31

29

111

75

3

Aston Villa

91

24

52

14

88

80

64

6

Birmingham City

56

7.4

42

7

68

38

50

9

Blackburn Rovers

58

6

43

9

81

47

50

10

Bolton Wanderers

62

9

38

4

74

46

39

14

Burnley

9

 

 

 

144

13

30

18

Chelsea

213

 

 

5

82

175

86

1

Everton

79

19

50

10

69

54

61

8

Fulham

77

11

43

9

63

48

46

12

Hull city

52

21

16

15

90

46

30

19

Liverpool

185

43

80

62

65

120

63

7

Manchester City

125

18

54

53

106

132

67

5

Manchester United

286

100

104

81

46

131

85

2

Portsmouth

61

10

39

6

49

30

19

20

Stoke City

59

 

 

 

76

45

47

11

Sunderland

65

13

39

5

83

54

44

13

Tottenham Hotspur

119

27

52

8

56

67

70

4

West Ham United

72

17

38

13

75

54

35

17

Wigan Athletic

43

 

 

 

91

39

36

16

Wolverhampton

28

6

17

3

82

23

38

15

 

 

           insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem0910.csv

(8 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore wagebill position

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     20

————-+——————————           F( 3,   16) =   10.46

       Model |   109120.12     3 36373.3732           Prob > F     = 0.0005

   Residual | 55659.6803   16 3478.73002           R-squared     = 0.6622

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.5989

       Total |   164779.8   19 8672.62105           Root MSE     = 58.981

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore |   4.65596   5.157063     0.90   0.380   -6.276525   15.58845

   wagebill |   .8440911   .6559905     1.29   0.216   -.5465467   2.234729

   position |   8.043118   14.5102     0.55   0.587   -22.71713   38.80337

       _cons | -276.4014   395.1361   -0.70   0.494   -1114.053   561.2497

——————————————————————————

 

The above is a multiple regression chart result for the 2009/2010 season. The results show that the turnover had an effect on the other variables. There was a positive effect on the wage bill as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.84. There was also an effect on the table score as it shows a positive coefficient of 4.6 and also on the position as it shows a positive coefficient of 8. This means that teams with a high turnover had high wage bills, high table scores and better positions on the league table during this season.

 

Team

Turn – over, £m

Gate and Match – day income, £m

TV and Broad – casting, £m

Comm – ercial, £m

Wages as Prop – ortion of Turn – over (%)

Wage bill

Table Score

Position

Arsenal

256

93

85

33

48

123

68

4

Aston Villa

92

21

54

17

90

83

48

9

Birmingham City

56

7

42

7

68

38

39

18

Blackburn Rovers

58

6

42

9

86

49

43

15

Blackpool

52

 

 

 

48

25

39

19

Bolton Wanderers

68

9

45

 

82

56

46

12

Chelsea

222

 

 

0.6

86

190

71

2

Everton

82

17

53

12

71

58

54

7

Fulham

77

12

51

10

75

58

49

8

Liverpool

184

41

65

77

73

134

58

6

Manchester City

153

20

69

65

114

174

71

3

Manchester United

331

109

119

103

46

152

80

1

Newcastle United

89

24

48

16

60

53

46

13

Stoke City

67

 

 

 

70

46

46

14

Sunderland

79

12

48

10

77

60

47

10

Tottenham Hotspur

163

20

54

9

56

91

62

5

West Bromwich Albion

59

8

43

7

63

37

47

11

West Ham United

81

19

46

12

69

55

33

20

Wigan Athletic

 

51

 

 

78

0

42

16

Wolverhampton

64

10

44

5

59

37

40

17

 

             insheet using C:\Users\Jakiru\Documents\prem1011.csv

(8 vars, 20 obs)

 

. regress turnoverm tablescore wagebill position

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     19

————-+——————————           F( 3,   15) =   28.26

       Model | 96450.7976     3 32150.2659           Prob > F     = 0.0000

   Residual | 17061.9392   15 1137.46262           R-squared     = 0.8497

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.8196

       Total | 113512.737   18 6306.26316           Root MSE     = 33.726

 

——————————————————————————

   turnoverm |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

tablescore |   7.768428   2.262905     3.43   0.004     2.945159     12.5917

   wagebill |   .2608471   .3537677     0.74   0.472   -.4931909   1.014885

   position |   7.254508   4.037009     1.80   0.092   -1.350172   15.85919

       _cons | -380.9494   142.0021   -2.68   0.017   -683.6197   -78.27922

——————————————————————————

The above is a multiple regression chart result for the turnover, table score, position and wage bill of teams in the 2010/2011 premier league season. The results show that the turnover had an effect on the wage bill as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.26. It also has an effect on the table score as it shows a positive coefficient of 7.8. The turnover also has an effect on the position of teams as it shows a positive coefficient of 7.25. This means that teams with a high turnover also had high wage bills and performed well on the league table. The table score will have a multiplier of 7.25 and the wage bill will have a multiplier of 0.26. This shows that the wage bill and the table score are expected to increase with an increase in the turnover of teams.

 

The graph above shows the correlation between the turnover and the wage bill of teams. The graph shows that teams with a high turnover also have a high wage bill. The turnover of teams often determines their wage bills as shown in the graph.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2003-2012 multiple regression chart

regress wagebill purchasegross tablescore

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     122

————-+——————————           F( 2,   119) =   60.31

       Model | 88106.8594     2 44053.4297           Prob > F     = 0.0000

   Residual | 86928.9758   119 730.495595           R-squared     = 0.5034

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.4950

       Total | 175035.835   121 1446.57715           Root MSE     = 27.028

 

——————————————————————————

   wagebill |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

purchasegr~s | -.0000824   .0030718   -0.03   0.979     -.006165   .0060001

tablescore |   1.559736   .1423824   10.95   0.000     1.277805   1.841668

       _cons | -25.50706   8.191125   -3.11   0.002   -41.72631   -9.287817

——————————————————————————

 

The above chart shows the multiple regression results for clubs during the 2003-2012 seasons. According to the results the wage bill has an effect on the table score of teams as it shows a positive coefficient of 1.6. The purchase gross shows a negative coefficient of -0.0000824. Teams that had a high turnover had a high wage bill and a high table score during all the football seasons between 2003 and 2012.

 

 

 

 

. regress wagebill gateandmatchdayincomem purchasegross tablescore

 

     Source |       SS       df       MS             Number of obs =     100

————-+——————————           F( 3,   96) =   36.06

       Model | 59995.0555     3 19998.3518           Prob > F     = 0.0000

   Residual |   53247.339   96 554.659782           R-squared     = 0.5298

————-+——————————           Adj R-squared = 0.5151

       Total | 113242.395   99 1143.86257          Root MSE     = 23.551

 

——————————————————————————

   wagebill |     Coef.   Std. Err.     t   P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]

————-+—————————————————————-

gateandmat~m |   .2305124   .0960665     2.40   0.018     .0398218     .421203

purchasegr~s | -.0002894   .0026854   -0.11   0.914     -.00562   .0050412

tablescore |   1.288285   .1581069     8.15   0.000     .9744456   1.602125

       _cons | -17.27623   8.467013   -2.04   0.044   -34.08312   -.4693459

——————————————————————————

The regression chart above shows the results when the wage bill, purchase gross, table score and gate and match day earnings are regressed. It shows that the wage bill has an effect on the table score of teams as it shows a positive coefficient of 1.3. It also has an effect on the gate and match earnings as it shows a positive coefficient of 0.23. The table score will have a positive multiplier with a figure of 1.3, this shows that the table score will increase with an increase in the wage bill.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

The data collected from various seasons for teams in the English Premier League show that teams with high wage bills performed better than those with low wage bills. Teams that paid their players well ended up attaining higher positions in the league tables as compare to those that paid their players poorly. Teams with superstar players also performed better on the league than teams with no superstars. This shows that superstars have a great effect on a team’s performance and teams should invest more on their players so as to perform better on the league table.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Blair, Roger D. Sports economics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

 

 

 

FEA ( Lusas software )

April 27, 2014

 

 

 

FEA (LUSAS SOFTWARE)
Name
Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Problem statement
Question one

The free body diagram is clearly shown below:

 

 

There will be two forces acting against the force F; these are forces Fx and Fy.
Assuming a perfect rectangle as shown below, and then dividing it by 2:

 

 

 

From the similarity of force as well as relative dimension triangles
∑▒█(Ma=0,:F(5)-Fx(1.2) )
∑▒〖Fx=0:Fy-F=0〗
∑▒〖Fy=0:Fx+F=0〗
But according to the Rankine formula, F is gotten by:
F=(π^2 EI)/(KL)^2
From the above equation, F is the vertical force acting on the cantilever, E is modulus of a given elasticity, I is area for moment of inertia, L is the unsupported length of column, and K is the column effective length factor.
K for this case will be 2.0 since the cantilever is fixed at one end while the other end is free:
And the area of moment is;
(5*1.2*2)/2+(0.4*0.1)+(0.1*5)
= 6.54m2
F=(〖3.142〗^2*30*6.54)/(2*5)^2
F= 19.369kN.
Question two
2) Failure will be prone at the point where stress is maximum.
maximum stress M will be found by: (m*C)/I
From the above equation, m is the provided moment, I is the area for moment of a given inertia for the beam, while C is the distance from required centerline to the given point where the force is acting.
Moment m = F*L = 19.369 *5kNm
C= 5m
I =6.54m2
M = (96.845*5)/6.54
M = 74.0405kN/m
Therefore, failure of the cantilever will be prone at the point where stress is 74.0405kN/m. this is obviously at the point of where the cantilever is fixed.

Question four
With the addition of the steel bar, the moment of inertia of the beam will change and hence point of failure and magnitude of force
Area;
(5*1.2*2)/2+(0.5*0.1)+(0.1*5)
Hence I = 6.55m
F= (〖3.142〗^2*30*6.55)/(2*5)^2
F=19.39kN
M = (96.845*5)/6.55
M= 73.92kN/m

Question five
The total length for the steel bar is 5m.
To check for the best ratio, cantilever end deflection is checked for both cases:
Where deflection is given by 3(σu,t)(1-v)/E (L/T)^2
For t= ds1 and for t=ds2
For ds1=2m the deflection is 3.75
For ds1=3m the deflection is 3.89
For ds2 =2m the deflection is 3.90
For ds2=3m the deflection is 3.76
Therefore, the best ratio of ds1/ds2 is 3:2
In comparison to the case in question 4, the magnitude of force is increased due to the increase in thickness t hence change of failure point.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM)
Introduction
FEM can be termed as the numerical technique for obtaining approximate solutions to problems (boundary value) for differential equations. It makes use of variation methods, for example, the calculus of variations to reduce an error function and subsequently generate a stable solution. It is similar to the concept of joining together many tiny straight lines to approximately create a large circle and it encompasses all known methods for joining many simple element equations together over numerous small sub domains known as finite elements, to approximately determine more complex equations over a much larger domain. FEM has grown pretty rapidly to become the most essential numerical analysis tool for applied mathematicians and engineers because of its obvious advantages over the previous methods that were in use. The biggest merit that it has had been its applicability to arbitrary shapes of any number of dimensions. Moreover, the shape under study can be made of non-homogenous material or/and anisotropic material. The manner in which the shapes are restrained or fixed can be general and so can the applied sources. The applied sources include pressure, force, and heat flux among other things. The FEM brings forth a standard process for converting governing differential equations or governing energy principles into a multiplicity of matrix equations to be evaluated for approximate solutions. These solutions are very quick and accurate for linear problems. After getting an approximate answer, the Finite Element Method gives additional standard procedures for the calculations that follow after (post-processing) for example determining the derivative or integral of the gotten solution or at a specific point on the shape.
When the Finite Element Method is used in a given field of analysis for instance thermal analysis, vibration analysis, and stress analysis, it is referred to as Finite Element Analysis (FEA). An FEA is one of the most common tools for structural and stress analysis. Most fields of study are usually related. For example, the distribution of non-uniform temperature may induce non-obvious and unexpected loading conditions on solid structural members. Therefore, it is easy to conduct a thermal finite element analysis to obtain temperature solutions that in turn work as the input data for stress FEA. FEA has the capability of receiving data from other tools like the computation fluid dynamics systems and the kinetic motion analysis systems.
Basic Integral Formulations
The foundational concept behind the Finite Element Method is replacing all complex shapes with the summation (union) of large numbers of very basic and simple shapes like triangles that are put together to accurately model the original part. The basic, smaller, and simpler shapes are known as finite elements because every one of them occupies a small and specific finite sub-domain of the original part. The finite elements vary to an infinitesimal level and have been used for centuries to derive differential equations. To give a simple and straightforward example of the summing and dividing process, consider the determination of the area of an arbitrary shape below.
With the knowledge of the equations of the bounding curves, it is possible to integrate and get the enclosed area. Otherwise, one can divide the area into an enclosed collection of triangles that are covering the given shape with a mesh. Afterwards, the summation of the areas of the individual triangles can be done:
∑_(e=1)^n▒〖Ae= ∑_(e=1)^n▒∫▒dA〗
There are a couple of choices to be made concerning the triangles desired. One could either go with the cubic triangles, quadratic triangles (usually have edges that are parabolic), or the linear (straight sided) triangles. The area of a linear triangle is given by a simple algebraic expression. After numbering the three vertices in an anticlockwise order, the area is given by;
Ae = [x1(y2-y3) + x2(y3-y1) + x3(y1-y2)]/2 and the triangle’s centroid is located at Xecg =[x1+x2+x3]/3, Yecg = [y1+y2+y3]/3
Similar expressions provide the moment of inertia components. Therefore, one has to gather (extract) the given element vertices coordinates from a set of mesh data for use in the computation of the area of a linear/straight side triangle. It is comparatively easy to calculate the area of the curved triangle by use of the numerical integration. It is, however, computationally more expensive to obtain the area of the curved triangle than it is to obtain the area of the linear triangle. It is vital to note that the linear or straight-sided triangle mesh, estimates the area better than the other two methods. It, however, introduces geometric errors along the curved boundary. This boundary geometric error in a straight sided triangle mesh comes from replacing a boundary curve by a number of straight line segments. The error (geometric error) in straight sided triangles can be minimized to any preferred level by increasing the total number of linear triangles. That decision, however, increases the number of manipulations and calculations, and makes one trade off the sum of preferred area summations and calculations versus geometric accuracy.
Area is a scalar quantity, so it is within acceptable rules to sum its parts to find the total value as demonstrated. Other physical quantities like for instance strain energy, mechanical work, and kinetic energy can be added up in the same fashion. The Finite Element Method always involves a couple of governing integral statements that are converted to a matrix system by the assumption of how items differ within a typical element. That integration is equally converted to the total sum of integrals over all elements in the mesh. Starting with a governing differential equation still converts it to an equivalent integral formulation by the MWR (methods of weighted residuals). There are two very common weighted residual methods for finite element analysis and these are the Method of Least Squares and the Galerkin method.
Gather and Scatter Operators
An integral evaluation for a Finite Element Analysis requires a mesh. Characteristically, it is a triangular mesh designed for surfaces and with a tetrahedral mesh for solids. The outcome of a finite element mesh generation produces at least two sets of data. The first set of data (nodal data) is the numbered list of each generated vertex together with their spatial coordinates. The second set of data is an element set and is the numbered set of elements along with the numbered list of element vertex numbers to which it is connected. This is commonly known as the element connectivity list. The connectivity list is the vital data that allows the Finite Element Analysis calculations to be automated. All FEA use operations that deal with vertex numbers (specific node numbers) of a single element.
The two operations carried out are usually referred to as gather and scatter or assembly operations. The gather operation is useful in bringing the known nodal data found in the full mesh back to a unitary element. The velocities and coordinates used in the element integrals above were thought to be stored with the mesh nodal data. While the mesh may have a significant number of nodes, every linear triangle element only has three nodes. The gather operator made use of the element connection list to get the data for a given element in the summation to get its three nodal velocities. The assembly or scatter operation is the reverse of the gather operation. It is said to be the partial summation of element data to the given matrices associated with the mesh data. A scatter gets something related to the local nodes of an element and sums them with the corresponding matrix item at the full mesh level.
Geometric Boundary Errors
One may imagine that the geometric boundary error stated for the linear triangle is done away with by choosing to make use of the mesh of curved quadratic triangles. The parabola segments go through three points located exactly on the boundary curve but can easily degenerate to straight lines if in the interior. Therefore, the boundary shape error is minimized at the expense of more complex area calculations, but not done away with completely. Some geometric errors are maintained because most engineering curves comprise of circular arcs, nubs (non-uniform rational B-spines), or spines and, therefore, are not matched by a parabola. The commonest way to minimize mesh geometric error is to make use of numerous smaller elements. The default element selection in solid works (SW) Simulation is without doubt the quadratic.

 

 

 

 

References
Zienkiewicz, O. C., & Taylor, R. L. (2009). The finite element method for solid and structural mechanics (7th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

 

e-business Adoption module

April 24, 2014

E-Business Adoption module

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Tutor:

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Introduction

The contemporary global business arena is one characterized by high levels of competition, volatility and inconsistencies (Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari, 2007, p. 233). In order to gain a competitive advantage over competitors in the twenty first century, therefore, an increased number of small and medium sized commercial organizations have adopted electronic business models in order to increase their market presence and organizational proceeds (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). E- Business refers to the application of information and communication technologies, commonly referred to as ICTs, for purposes of supporting business activities. It describes the process by SMEs to utilize technology in order to improve, and further business interests (Freundt, Hillenbrand & Lehmann, 2013). In order to further and improve business in SMEs, information and communication technologies are utilized in organizational processes such as financial and administration systems, sales and marketing, human resources management, customers care and supply chain. ICTs are used in business relationships such as business to business (B2B), government to business (G2B), business to consumer (B2C) and government to consumer (G2C) (Frąckiewicz & Grzesiuk, 2013, p. 60).

The purpose of this paper is to utilize the case study of Swedish SMEs to critically assess the role of e-Business adoption models to assess e-Business capabilities of SMEs and also to make recommendations for future strategy and investment.

The role of e-Business adoption models to assess existing eBusiness capabilities of SMEs and make

Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari (2007, p. 234) describes internet based electronic business as “a system that provides business with a platform to connect with customers, business partners, employees and suppliers via the Internet, extranets and intranets”. An e-Business model, on the other hand, describes the “electronic methods and structures used by a company to remain competitive and generate revenue” (Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari, 2007, p. 234). There are different techniques that are utilized in the implementation of ICT in business. One such model is the stages of growth. The stage of growth model was formulated by Richard L. Nolan in the 1970s. In the year 1979 two more stages were added to the model in order to make it the 6 stage model of growth that is currently utilized in the implementation of information systems (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009).

                                      Nolan’s Stages of Growth Model

   I

II

III

IV

V

VI

INITIATIONS

• Users are “hands off” in approach

• Extensive IT/IS planning

• Cost reduction primary focus

• Functional application is in focus

• MIS dept/IS dept is not under strict management control

CONTAGION

•Proliferation of applications

• Little management control

• Huge allocation of financial resources

• Rapid growth of fundamental use of IT

• IS/IT performance below importation and several crisis occur

CONTROL

• IT/IS is considered as an important function

•Centralized controls are applied for IT/IS

• No reduction in IT/IS use

•Applications are often incompatible

• Unhappy users

• Use of database but with unsatisfactory outcome

INTEGRATION

• Greater use of database

• Greater IT/IS budget

• IT/IS dept now works on a professional utility model

• Formal planning and control within IT/IS dept

• Steering committees are widely used for application development.

DATA ADMIN

• Data in administration

•Applications are in sync with the organization

• Shift from IT/IS booking after DP to holistic information management

MATURITY

• IT/IS dept becomes partners of users in data management

•Applications reflect real information needs

• Strategic planning of IT/IS becomes important

• Managers of IT/IS dept considered at par with other dept

(Nolan 1979)

Later on, the third stage referred to as maturity was added. This is depicted in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1

(Nolan, 1979)

There are different ways in which e-Business models may be categorized. Additionally, many commercial organizations in different parts of the world, not just Sweden, make use of multiple types of e-Business models (Onetti, Zucchella, Jones & McDougall-Covin, 2012). E-Business models may be classified on basis of the value that they offer, the role fulfilled by consumers, the type of electronic commerce utilized or the main theme and key processes involved in the process. E-Business models may also be classified on the basis of the interacting players, for instance business to business or business to consumers (Wenxing, 2013).

  • Business to Business (B2B) e-Business Model

As indicated in figure 2 below, the business to business model of electronic business is characterized by a business selling its products to intermediate buyers who then sell the products to the end consumers (Banerjee, Wei & Ma, 2012). There are different types of e-Business models that are categorized under business to business e-business (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). These include e-distributors, single firm network, e-procurement, industry wide networks and exchanges (Helgueros, 2012).

Figure 2

(Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009)

  • Business to Consumer (B2C) e-Business Model

There are different types of e-Business models that are categorized under business to consumer e-business (Aburukba, Masaud-Wahaishi, Ghenniwa, & Shen, 2009). These include portals, transaction brokers, service providers, content providers, market creators and community providers (Zilber & de Araújo, 2012).

Portals describe the gateways that are used to gain entry into internet. In order to serve their functions effectively, portals make use of an integration of advertising and transaction fee models (Banerjee, Wei & Ma, 2012). Portals are very effective as they allow users access to very powerful, efficient and easy to use web searching instruments (Kiani, Gholamian, Hamzehei & Hosseini, 2009). In addition to their role as gateways, portals are also very important as destination sites and also in the provision of integrated sets of services and contents to users at a central location (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006).

The term market creators describe entities that act as “intermediaries” (Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari, 2007, p. 235). The success factor of marker creators depends on their character of speed and ease of operation as well as the capacity to attract and retain buyers and sellers. EBay.com and muzayede.com are examples or market creators (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). Market creators describe the business to consumer model that makes use of internet technology for purposes of establishing markets that bring together buyers and sellers in an online environment (Oliveira & Roth, 2012). The buyers and sellers brought together by market creators are able to exhibit their products, search for desired products and establish prices and costs for displayed products (Beverungen, Knackstedt & Winkelman, 2011). Market creators are a very commonly used form of business to consumer e-Business model since they are not characterized by production or inventory costs. They commonly incline towards the model of revenue referred to as transaction fee (Nėmcová & Dvořák, 2011).

Itis very important for the system integrate of electronic business to integrate well with the business. Evaluation of the success of effectiveness of this integration is valuation can carried out by use of several e-business adoption modules, for example, connect-publish-interact-transform (CPIT) (Wenxing, 2013).

Integration of E-Business Models

As is to be expected the adoption of e-Business models by SMEs will definitely necessitate a basic transformation in the manner in which the SMEs carry out their business operations (Nėmcová & Dvořák, 2011). In order for the e-Business models to bring about the desired outcomes for business, they must be well integrated. One of the techniques of doing this is ensuring that the e-business model is applied into the firm’ distribution channels in order to streamline the supply chains as well as the systems of manufacturing and procurement (Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari, 2007, p. 235).

The effective utilization of e-Business models requires that SMEs automate their business processes for purposes of lessening the costs of production as well as enhancing the efficiency of business processes. In their incorporation of e-Business models into business SMEs must also consider the importance of collecting, assessing and disseminating business intelligence regarding their clientele base and firm activities (Beverungen, Knackstedt & Winkelman, 2011).

Implications on SME

As indicated by Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari (2007, p. 233) SMEs adopt information and communication technologies in order to enhance their “operational efficiency, profitability, and to strengthen their competitive position” (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006, p. 400). It is however important to note that the adoption of web-based technologies by the small and medium business forms in Sweden have several implications for business, particularly the business capabilities of the concerned firms (Namysłowska, 2013). As already intimated in the introductory part, there are different models of e-business models, for instance business to business (B2B) and business to consumer (B2C) (Ying-Chan, Fen-May & Sheng-Yao, 2008).

The adoption of e-Business models by SMEs in Sweden has very significant implications on the capabilities of the businesses. Firstly, the integration of information and communication technology into business tends to greatly lessen the unit costs of the products provided by these firms (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). This is due to the fact that the need for a large number of workers is eliminated. The implication of this elimination is a reduction of the involved agency and business expenses in the SMEs (Nėmcová & Dvořák, 2011).

A second implication of adopting e-Business in SMEs in Sweden is the fact that the e-Business models enable the SMEs to experience increased efficiency and operational flexibility (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006). The utilization of electronic business models enables commercial organizations to become more responsive to the needs and requirements of important stakeholders such as suppliers and customers (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). Such responsiveness is crucial for business as it enables the SMEs to enhance their associations with consumers and suppliers for the benefit of the firm (Nėmcová & Dvořák, 2011). More over, it is much easier for the SMEs to amass and analyze important information regarding their consumers, for purposes of enhances process of marketing and customer care.

In the case study of SMEs and electronic business in Sweden, Behesheti & Salehi-Sangari (2007) reveal that in the survey conducted, the respondents were tasked with the duty of depicting the degrees of improvement experienced in their SMEs after the implementation of electronic business models (Nėmcová & Dvořák, 2011). This description was to be made using performance indicators such as marketing, promotions, retention of customers, distributions of costs, attainment of new customers and marketing (Jovarauskienė & Pilinkienė, 2009). The highest improvements in SME business operations due to the adoption and implementation of electronic business models were indicated in customer service (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006).

Recommendations for Future Strategy and Investment

If the small and medium business firms are to attain the full benefits and advantages associated with e-Business technology, it is crucial for the leadership and management in these business firms to formulate comprehensive organizational frameworks using e-Business applications. Such a process requires much attention to be paid to the activity of aligning the employee activities and tasks with the identified e-Business applications (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006).

It is therefore very important for the administration and management in SMEs to ensure that the corporate culture in their business firms is transformed in a manner that ensures all members of the organization, particularly employees, incline towards a similar set of values. This will cultivate the cohesion and harmony required to successfully carry out the required activities in the firm.

It is very difficult to adopt and implement electronic business models in a commercial organization unless the managements in SMEs are able to effectively manage the issue of cultural change. This is because electronic business models enable small and medium sized enterprises to shift from traditional models of business to more advanced models that are supportive of the processes of decision making, problem solving and shared decision making (Bertschek, Fryges & Kaiser, 2006).

Conclusion

In order to gain a competitive advantage over competitors in the twenty first century, therefore, an increased number of small and medium sized commercial organizations have adopted electronic business models in order to increase their market presence and organizational profits. E- Business refers to the application of information and communication technologies, commonly referred to as ICTs, for purposes of supporting business activities. This paper has made use of the case study of Swedish SMEs on order to critically assess the role of e-Business adoption models to assess e-Business capabilities of SMEs and also to make recommendations for future strategy and investment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Aburukba, R, Masaud-Wahaishi, A, Ghenniwa, H, & Shen, W 2009, ‘Privacy-based computation

model in e-business’, International Journal Of Production Research, 47, 17, pp. 4885-4906.

Banerjee, P, Wei, K, & Ma, L 2012, ‘Role of trialability in B2B e-business adoption: theoretical

insights from two case studies’, Behaviour & Information Technology, 31, 9, pp. 815-827.

Behesheti, H M & Salehi-Sangari, E 2007, ‘The Benefits of E-Business Adoption: An Empirical

Study of Swedish SMEs’, Service Business, 1, pp. 233-245.

Bertschek, I, Fryges, H, & Kaiser, U 2006, ‘B2B or Not to Be: Does B2B E-Commerce Increase

Labour Productivity?’, International Journal Of The Economics Of Business, 13, 3, pp. 387-405.

Beverungen, D, Knackstedt, R, & Winkelman, A 2011, ‘Identifying e-Service Potential from

Business Process Models: A Theory Nexus Approach’, E-Service Journal, 8, 1, pp. 45-83.

Frąckiewicz, E, & Grzesiuk, A 2013, ‘Model of the SME’s internationalization through e-

Commerce. Preliminary verification and development of the model’, International Journal of Management Cases, 15, 2, pp. 59-76.

Freundt, T, Hillenbrand, P, & Lehmann, S 2013, ‘How B2B companies talk past their customers’,

Mckinsey Quarterly, 4, pp. 12-15.

Helgueros, Y 2012, ‘E-Business Models As A Tool To Increase México Small And Medium Size

Enterprises’ Sales’, Global Journal of Business Research (GJBR), 6, 1, pp. 119-126.

Huizingh, EE 2002, ‘Towards Successful E-Business Strategies: A Hierarchy of Three

Management Models’, Journal Of Marketing Management, 18, 7/8, pp. 721-747.

Jovarauskienė, D, & Pilinkienė, V 2009, ‘E-Business or E-Technology?’, Engineering

Economics, 61, 1, pp. 83-89.

Kiani, B, Gholamian, M, Hamzehei, A, & Hosseini, S 2009, ‘Using Causal Loop Diagram To

Achieve A Better Understanding Of E-Business Models’, International Journal Of Electronic Business Management, 7, 3, pp. 159-167

Namysłowska, M 2013, ‘To B2C or Not to B2C. Some Reflections on the Regulation of Unfair

Commercial Practices from a Polish Perspective’, Journal of Consumer Policy, 36, 3, pp. 329-342.

Nėmcová, Z, & Dvořák, J 2011, ‘The Model of E-Commerce Strategy Focused On Customers’,

Economics & Management, 16, pp. 1292-1297.

Nolan, R 1979, ‘Managing The Crisis In Data Processing’, Harvard Business Review 57, 2, 115–

Oliveira, P, & Roth, A 2012, ‘The Influence of Service Orientation on B2B e-Service

Capabilities: An Empirical Investigation’, Production & Operations Management, 21, 3, pp. 423-443.

Onetti, A, Zucchella, A, Jones, M, & McDougall-Covin, P 2012, ‘Internationalization, innovation

and entrepreneurship: business models for new technology-based firms’, Journal Of Management & Governance, 16, 3, pp. 337-368.

Wenxing, W 2013, ‘The Development Strategies of Clothing Cloud Business Model. (English)’,

Modern Marketing, 3, 4, pp. 46-49.

Ying-Chan, T, Fen-May, L, & Sheng-Yao, P 2008, ‘B2B brand extension to the B2C market—

The case of the ICT industry in Taiwan’, Journal of Brand Management, 15, 6, pp. 399-411.

Zilber, S, & de Araújo, J 2012, ‘Small Companies Innovations in Emerging Countries: E-

Business Adoption and its Business Model’, Journal Of Technology Management & Innovation, 7, 2, pp. 102-115.

novel monoclonal antibody for a novel target (cancer therapy)

April 23, 2014

 

                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                      Development of a novel monoclonal antibody

Name

Institution

 

 

 


 

 

Introduction

Cells differentiate and proliferate in multicellular organisms. These cells either survive in certain organs or die after their lifetime in the body. The cells that do not survive result in the activation that cause apoptosis of the cell. The inception of molecularly targeted treatments has lead to the diversification of treatment of colorectal cancer. This is with integrations of novel monoclonal antibodies with cetuximab and bevacizumab. The ever increasing development of agents for the treatment of the cancer gives much hope in the clinical treatment. The integration into standard and meaningful clinical treatments has resulted to better results in treatment (Zouhairi, Aline, & Michael, 2011). In this paper, I will discuss the development of monoclonal antibodies for therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer.

Development of monoclonal antibodies

Tumors have been studied to show the need for angiogenesis, a process that recruits blood vessels. This does not occur in healthy people except in remodeling of tissues and wound repair. Angiogenesis calls for improved vessel permeability, cell proliferation and migration causing long capillaries. These process results to vessels that are highly branching and leaky. The circulation at the micro level is inefficiently causing the place to be acidotic thus creating pressure to the stroma. The control of this process is thus inevitable in the fight against the cancer. The control has mainly been studied through the use of the growth factors of the vascular endothelial VEGFs and the receptors VEGFRs (Zouhairi, Aline, & Michael, 2011).

The development of these antibodies through from the production to purification method takes approximately five months. There are five phases that have exit points if results are not met. Phase o entails the preparation of the protein for the antibody production. This protein is expressed in either mammalian cells or E.coli using bacterial vectors (Adams & Weiner, 2005). In phase 2, the mice needed are between five and ten are test bled and immunized for 5 weeks. This is followed with a test bled with Elisa. The composition of the IgM and IgG are determined through screening.

The choice of the two or three best bled animals are med out of the mouse were used. These animals that have responded well, their spleen cells, are harvested for hybridoma fusion. The Elisa test is then used to screen the positive supernatants from the cells to make 2ml, then preservation of the cell lines as frozen. In the third phase is made through the subcloning in the limitation of dilution to attain the cell lines. There are two versions of cloning that is through a single round and multiple rounds of dilution at the very same concentration to have the same isotype.

The production of monoclonal antibodies can be either by cell or in mouse abdominal culture to produce ascites containing antibodies. The culture in mouse will effect to up to 10mg in 3ml of ascites’ fluid. The monoclonal antibody is finally extracted through the purification from the ascites. Purification is achieved through protein G/A resin, ion exchange or antibodies that are of immunoglobulin. Thawing of the cell lines occurs after which the viability of the cells are tested through T-25 and their expression put onto test via isotype matching (Lavande, Itekar, & Agnihotri, 2011). The viability tested through T-25 is affirmed through cell isostrip and density irrespectively.

In a mouse, once the hybridoma viability has been assessed the immunization of a number of cells primarily takes effect. The optimization of cells and mouse strain also occurs in relation to the immunization. After the success in the infection process, the ascites’ fluid is collected to produce an approximate of between 3-10mg from each of the mouse. The purification of the antibody is performed under salt concentrations that are considerable. This allows for better and stringent binding to the antigen including the isotype.

 

The mechanism of action

The most predominant form of VEGF is VEGF-A, which is a common mediator of angiogenesis. They are growth factors that are produced by stromal cells. They act as attachment sites for extracellular domains of their receptors. Intracellular domains in these receptors contain tyrosine kinases that are catalytic. The binding of the endothelial growth factors results to the initiation of cascades that ensure cell survival. A monoclonal antibody, Bevacizumab, is targeted to VEGF-A to inhibit the process of angiogenesis (Zouhairi, Aline, & Michael, 2011).

The use of the antibody only produces partial results, but in conjunction with cytotoxic chemotherapy leads to suppression of the tumor. The combination induces apoptosis and normalizes the architecture of blood vessels. This in effect causes the reduction of the hydrostatic pressure thus enabling the release correctional cancer agents to the tumor.

The combination of IFL regime with bevacizumab in patience that had previously untreated tumors showed high levels of response and free survival progression. In comparison of 32 months to 20 months in patients who use the antibody progressively. Those who progressively used the antibody had a high OS count. The use of bevacizumab has got side effects that come with it. It results to myocardial infarctions and perforation of gastro intestines. Hypertension can also result in about 20% of the patients.  

Bispecific antibodies

 

The antibodies can recognize two antigens. They stimulate the cells responsible for cytotoxic effects of tumors. The antibodies will directly result to the binding to a specific cell resulting to immunity. The specificity of the antibodies can be altered by changing the specificities of the anti-target and anti-effectors components. The specificity of the antibody is directly to the target cell during the production (Lavande, Itekar, & Agnihotri, 2011). The mAbs in cancer therapy are directed against certain cell surface receptors and begin a physiological function. Bio-mimetic antibodies are the name for these, which are used as for effects to modify a biological response.

Screening

The achievement of the knowledge of the role of VEGF as a factor in antibody therapy of colorectal cancer is important. This is done through its activation using the novel monoclonal antibody targeted on its receptor. Research is done on patients with tumors with bevacizumab directly as agents of disease.

The standard monoclonal antibody development includes the Elisa test. This is determined the cells to use for the production of the antibodies. Elisa matched pair is one of the methods used for screening of the antibodies. In the case of needed immunoassay, suitably matched pairs are developed. More than 50 cytokine and other Elisa products are used. Biacore is used to screen the supernatant accrued from the positive fusions. This is by injection of the supernatant at a concentration of about 0.25mg/ml, over the IgGFc surface and subsequent addition of recombinant antigen.

Qualification taste is made through the antibodies being tested against the standard provided cell lines. These cell lines have a stipulated preparatory procedural condition for formalin fixation (Maine biotechnology services, 2013). Simple western blotting the cell lines qualification is affirmed, through the antibody reactivity pattern as well as the cells under standard conditions of preparation.

Specific examination

This occurs through an advanced method of western blotting. These samples are enhanced for locations with cellular specificity before the phoresis. The process accords for as many as five samples to be used in testing for the specific monoclonal antibody. This method is significant for the low concentration of the antibody (Booy, Johar, & Maddika, 2006). The cell lines are used in the direct targeting of tumors through their receptor factors. The antibodies can only be used for a specific cell thus increasing its specificity.

Clinical trials

A study done on two trials, 20 patients suffering from colorectal cancer at different levels of the disease are used. Phase II clinical trials the antibody in combination with irinotecan demonstrates an increase in RR of up to 77%. In relation to this use of bevacizumab with chemotherapy showed a bad outcome in patients who previously were on other treatments. It is still not very clear on the essence of VEGF in colorectal cancer treatment, but studies are being done to address this.

The role of bevacizumab in the management of this cancer is done in 2 phase III trials. The PETACC-8 and NCCTG, these are clinical studies of handling of the tumor in EXPERT-C trial, in patients. The VEGF monoclonal antibodies have well been absorbed, but they have resulted in the development of rash in most patients. The rates off RR and OS significantly increased with an advent rise in toxicity levels in the skin. The development of rash is a true show of efficacy in the patients (Zouhairi, Aline, & Michael, 2011).

Conclusion

The use of monoclonal antibodies in inducing proliferation of tumor cells, as well as its apoptosis, is rapidly developing. The remarkably high affinity of the monoclonal antibodies for their intended targets is the basis of action against cancer. The future clinical use of these immunotherapeutic presents rather powerful approach to the treatment of cancer. Not only are the antibodies used in therapy, but also on a daily basis to identify and detect the presence of tumor antigens. This means that they are of so much significance to any biological laboratory.

 

 

References

Adams, G. P., & Weiner, M. L. (2005). Nature biotechnology. Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer, 1147-1157.

Booy, E. P., Johar, D., & Maddika, S. (2006). Therapeutic antibodies. Monoclonal and bispecific antibodies, 85-101.

Lavande, J. P., Itekar, P. B., & Agnihotri, A. A. (2011). American journal of pharmtech research. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Treatment.

Maine biotechnology services. (2013). Retrieved 2014, from Monoclonal Antibody Development: http://www.mainebiotechnology.com/monoclonal/

Seimetz, D. (2011). Journal of Cancer. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Treatment: The Trifunctional An-tibody Catumaxomab (Removab®), 309-316.

Zouhairi, M. E., Aline, C., & Michael, P. j. (2011). Retrieved 2014, from Molecularly Targeted Therapy for Metastatic Colon Cancer: Proven Treatments and Promising New Agents: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070284/

 

 

novel monoclonal antibody for a novel target (cancer therapy)

April 23, 2014

 

                                     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development of a novel monoclonal antibody

Name

Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development of a novel monoclonal antibody

Introduction

Cells differentiate and proliferate in multicellular organisms. These cells either survive in certain organs or die after their lifetime in the body. The cells that do not survive result in the activation that cause apoptosis of the cell. Growth factors are responsible for the reactions that occur inside the cell in the processes of proliferation, differentiation and survival. Receptors communicate the extracellular signal to the cell through transduction. In effect causes a change in the behavior of the cell while withdrawal of the growth factors results to apoptosis (Naujokat, 2012). In contrast to these growth factors that are inappropriate result to loss of regulation thus the cells turn cancerous. In this paper, I will discuss the development of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy.

Development of monoclonal antibodies

The development of these antibodies through from the production to purification method takes approximately five months. There are five phases that have exit points if results are not met. Phase o entails the preparation of the protein for the antibody production. This protein is expressed in either mammalian cells or E.coli using bacterial vectors (Adams & Weiner, 2005). In phase 2, the mice needed are between five and ten are test bled and immunized for 5 weeks. This is followed with a test bled with Elisa. The composition of the IgM and IgG are determined through screening.

The choice of the two or three best bled animals are med out of the mouse were used. These animals that have responded well, their spleen cells, are harvested for hybridoma fusion. The Elisa test is then used to screen the positive supernatants from the cells to make one to 2ml, then preservation of the cell lines as frozen. In the third phase is made through the subcloning in the limitation of dilution to attain the cell lines. There are two versions of cloning that is through a single round and multiple rounds of dilution at the very same concentration to have the same isotype.

The production of monoclonal antibodies can be either by cell or in mouse abdominal culture to produce ascites containing antibodies. The culture in mouse will effect to up to 10mg in 3ml of ascites’ fluid. The monoclonal antibody is finally extracted through the purification from the ascites. Purification is achieved through protein G/A resin, ion exchange or antibodies that are of immunoglobulin. Thawing of the cell lines occurs after which the viability of the cells are tested through T-25 and their expression put onto test via isotope matching (Lavande, Itekar, & Agnihotri, 2011). The viability tested through T-25 is affirmed through cell isostrip and density irrespectively.

In a mouse, once the hybridoma viability has been assessed the immunization of a number of cells primarily takes effect. The optimization of cells and mouse strain also occurs in relation to the immunization. After the success in the infection process, the ascites’ fluid is collected to produce an approximate of between 3-10mg from each of the mouse. The purification of the antibody is performed under salt concentrations that are considerable. This allows for better and stringent binding to the antigen including the isotope.

The mechanism of action

The development of monoclonal antibodies to counter cancer through treatment is a unique approach. The bispecific antibodies that target the T cells as well as tumor cell resulting to lysis. This is achieved through the binding of T cells, tumor cells and accessory cells. The effect of monoclonal is through the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This occurs when antigens the antibodies are bound to antigens on the cancerous cells (Seimetz, 2011). Theses directly target proteins required for the growth of tumors or inhibit the growth of tumor by causing apoptosis. The T cell receptor complex can initiate an immune response by binding to class II MHC molecules (Adams & Weiner, 2005).

Monoclonal antibodies that give a cytotoxic effect that have a similarity TNF-alpha on the surface antigen of a human cell. The cell apoptosis was independent of activation through complement activation and had a reliance on a death receptor the CD95. Cross linking of CD20 with the anti CD20 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of Fc receptors can result to the inducement of death. In order to enhance the effectiveness anti-cancer antibodies certain processes are undertaken. This is achieved through the joining of proteins that are used to destroy the antibody to the antibodies.

These tumor destroying molecules like toxins and radionuclides. The cytokines have the ability to initiate an immune response against tumors with no toxicity that is associated cytokine delivery. The monoclonal antibodies are also engineered with surface liposome’s loaded drugs. Radiolabeled antibodies are used in radioimmunotherapy, they act as vectors for targeting the tumor antigens. This mechanism works through a high energy accumulation in the tumor that are emitted from the radionuclide. This is achieved through the conjugation with a gamma detector.

Another method is one that employs the use of immunoconjugate in relation to enzymes to do the activation of drugs in cancer treatment. It uses antigens that are present in tumor cells to target the sites with rumors. The antibody enzyme conjugate is delivered after which a prodrug is administered in use for the treatment.

 

Bispecific antibodies

The antibodies can recognize two antigens. They stimulate the cells responsible for cytotoxic effects of tumors. The antibodies will directly result to the binding to a specific cell resulting to immunity. The specificity of the antibodies can be altered by changing the specificities of the anti-target and anti-effectors components. The specificity of the antibody is directly to the target cell during the production (Lavande, Itekar, & Agnihotri, 2011). The mAbs in cancer therapy are directed against certain cell surface receptors and begin a physiological function. Bio-mimetic antibodies are the name for these, which are used as for effects in the modify biological response.

Screening

The standard monoclonal antibody development includes the Elisa test. This is determined the cells to use for the production of the antibodies. Elisa matched pair is one of the methods used for screening of the antibodies. In the case of needed immunoassay, suitably matched pairs are developed. More than 50 cytokine and other Elisa products are used. Biacore is used to screen the supernatant accrued from the positive fusions. This is by injection of the supernatant at a concentration of about 0.25mg/ml, over the IgGFc surface and subsequent addition of recombinant antigen.

Qualification taste is made through the antibodies being tested against the standard provided cell lines. These cell lines have a stipulated preparatory procedural condition for formalin fixation (Maine biotechnology services, 2013). Simple western blotting the cell lines qualification is affirmed, through the antibody reactivity pattern as well as the cells under standard conditions of preparation.

 

Specific examination

These occur through an advanced method of western blotting. These samples are enhanced for locations with cellular specificity before the phoresis. The process accords for as many as five samples to be used in testing for the specific monoclonal antibody. This method is significant for the low concentration of the antibody (Booy, Johar, & Maddika, 2006). The cell lines are used in the direct targeting of tumors through their receptor factors. The antibodies can only be used for a specific cell thus increasing its specificity.

Clinical trials

A clinical trial for the development of the antibody is performed in a series of steps. The antibody must first be administered to a human transgenic mouse to see its effects. In taking note of its effect and on the assurance of its safety, it is then transferred to a small group of cancer patients. At this stage, a determination of the dosage is done and side effects on humans are done. The doctors determine the therapy to be done in relation to the drug. The amount of time is given for the antibody to find its target tumor cell (Maine biotechnology services, 2013)

In the second phase, the antibody is administered to a larger group of people. This is after they have considered all the effects of it on humans, dosage and time to target the tumor. At this stage it effectiveness is determined as well as the safety. In the third phase, the antibody is used to a group of people and it is compared to other forms of treatment and therapy. In the final stage of the clinical trials, studies are done on the information collected on the antibody and any long time effects of the treatment are surveyed.

 

 

Conclusion

The use of monoclonal antibodies in inducing proliferation of tumor cells, as well as its apoptosis, is rapidly developing. The remarkably high affinity of the monoclonal antibodies for their intended targets is the basis of action against cancer. The future clinical use of these immunotherapeutic presents rather powerful approach to the treatment of cancer. Not only are the antibodies used in therapy, but also on a daily basis to identify and detect the presence of tumor antigens. This means that they are of so much significance to any biological laboratory.

 

 

References

Adams, G. P., & Weiner, M. L. (2005). nature biotechnology. Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer , 1147-1157.

Booy, E. P., Johar, D., & Maddika, S. (2006). Therapeutic antibodies. Monoclonal and bispecific antibodies , 85-101.

Lavande, J. P., Itekar, P. B., & Agnihotri, A. A. (2011). American journal of pharmtech research. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Treatment .

Maine biotechnology services. (2013). Retrieved 2014, from Monoclonal Antibody Development: http://www.mainebiotechnology.com/monoclonal/

Naujokat, C. (2012). Clinical & Cellular Immunology. Targeting Human Cancer Stem Cells with Monoclonal Antibodies .

Seimetz, D. (2011). Journal of Cancer. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies for Cancer Treatment: The Trifunctional An-tibody Catumaxomab (Removab®) , 309-316.

 

 

 

Art History

April 23, 2014

BrianWhitaker

Brian Young                                                      

History of Western Art

23 April 2014

Political

During the middle ages, there was a predominantly committed to the project dissemination and propaganda of Christianity European. The arts were the main method of communication; only the Catholic church was able to pay for the work of artists. There has been a crisis in some countries that deterred the development process. In other countries, the political base has been stable, which has made the use and application of different simple styles in art works.

Historical

Arts from different cultures is different. Each culture has developed its culture in a different way. The history of art places symbolism after almost without post-impression. Symbolism is different from the styles ((Liu, 2014, pp. 321-323). Greeks evolution is put many emphases on harmony and proportion (Kleiner, 2013). For example, various price of arts “her dignified manner”, Their nomadic mode of existence” involves different styles. These different works and culture make the artistic work interesting. The history concentrated on the western to the European context for than three millennia. The study limits the art works to studying other cultures to diversify the art works. This is a challenge because art is not limited to the by the search for an ideal and universal nature. The history of the artworks is interesting its study provides a comprehensive knowledge of different cultures and different periods

Social

The style has helped to study the social art of the people who lived in the early 70’s and late 80’s. Studying the different methods is very interesting and appealing to the individuals. It requires identifying the various religions and cultures to succeed in studying the different styles. The evolution of humankind is the main strength of developing the art works. The styles have been advancing as the human social life develops.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

 

 

Arts, A. Emilie Boone Emilie Boone is a PhD Candidate in Art History at Northwestern University. Her research focuses on the photography and art of the African Diaspora. emilieboone2016@ u. northwestern. edu. African Arts,47(1), 2014, 91-92.

Kleiner, Fred. Gardner’s Art through the Ages: The Western Perspective,|. Vol. 1. Cengage Learning, 2013.

Liu, A. Y. L. Teaching Music History at the School of Music at Soochow University: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Western Music as a Living Tradition. Journal of Music History Pedagogy, 4(2), 2014, 321-23.

Rasmussen, M. B. Art, War and Counter-Images, 2014.

 

 

 

Strategic Positioning in Social Commerce Increases Sales

April 18, 2014

Strategic Positioning in Social Commerce Increases Sales

Abstract

Electronic commerce has been growing in contemporary times and is being used by numerous of businesses in online transactions. Marketers are currently readjusting their strategies to incorporate social commerce in businesses. Pricing, positioning, promotion and product play a vital role in social commerce. The relevance of traditional marketing practices with incorporation of technology through ecommerce is seen to lead to increase in sales of commodities through impacting positively on consumers in making online fashion purchases. This paper aims to make contributions that enable understanding of ecommerce in relation to porters 5 ps. This is through expounding on sociological, psychological of consumers and promotional factors of sellers that have effect on fashion apparel purchases on the online platform.

Key Words

Social commerce, online purchases, electronic commerce, repeat purchases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

The internet platform has enabled virtual markets which provide an amicable avenue to buyers and sellers to sell their goods and services. Electronic commerce (e-commerce), transacting business online has been enabled by availability of internet as a medium of communication (Izquierdo–Yusta & Newell, 2012). It is carried out through e-mail, web services, social media, video conferencing, networking software which facilitates communication. The latter is facilitated through use of technological devices such as mobile phone Apps. Moreover, services are exchanged on virtual platforms and goods are shipped to respective destinations. Social media for example facebook and twitter are being put to use by both emptors and sellers in high value transactions (Robbins & Judge, 2011).Social commerce- the new retail frontier has grown exponentially and is the most strategic in market positioning and preferred method of carrying out online transactions by consumers.

Literature Review

Consumer online behavior is central in influencing purchase of apparels online. Social networking sites are popular thus having creating leverage for marketers to utilize it in order to reach numerous consumers. There is online infrastructure that facilitates service and product acquisition (Liang & Turban, 2011). In addition, sharing of shopping experiences through social commerce is appealing to consumers as it enhances communication and competitive edges for consumers. The result is in companies setting up interactive platforms in form of fan pages on facebook pages and twitter feeds to engage more with consumers.

Company influence in online shopping is being leveraged to access more consumers and retain their loyalty. Social media has enabled attraction of numerous prospective consumers using low costs as compared to traditional advertisements for instance in print magazines and newspapers. Importantly, there are vital factors such as consumer psychology and sociology that impact on online buying decisions.

Individual Psychological Factors that Influence Consumers’ Online Fashion Retail Purchases

There are several factors that influence consumers’ purchases. First, a consumer psychologically experiences need to possess a particular product to cater for a certain need. Needs in most of consumers are silent and often not evident. However, in social media such as facebook, need is activated by advertisement and community comments that are offered by previous buyers. Advertisements stimulate desires and make them dominant in psychological needs of an individual (Kimmel, 2012).

An important psychological factor that influences purchasing decisions of social commerce consumers is price of a commodity. Price change of a product has great impact on buying decisions. This is when consumers recognize that there is a gradual reduction in price of a product and probability of buying increases. Since people spend more time browsing on social sites, their attention is captured by products that are offered through advertisements. They then process information available on the product. Subsequently, this leads to re-visits on social sites such as facebook and prompt consumer to make a final purchasing decision which is done within a short duration (Roy, 2008).

Moreover, when a consumer experiences need for a particular product psychologically, this stimulates them into shopping. The ideal situation is when a consumer is content and has no need for a commodity. However, the converse in which lack of an ideal state is experienced will motivate a buyer to practice shopping (Hoyer, & Macinnis, 2008). For instance, when clothes are outdated and out of fashion, a consumer will go to sites such as facebook, Google plus to have their attention on latest trending fashionable apparels.

Lack of a satisfied situation has effect of prompting a consumer into making quick purchasing decisions. Consumers purchase when they perceive that a commodity will improve their lives (Yurchisin, & Johnson, 2010). Psychological needs for new apparels that are not within possession of consumers are fundamental in making purchasing decisions. This may be a result of personality of a person and stage at which they are in life. For instance, a teenager has more needs of belonging and expresses this behavior by purchasing attires that imitate an icon that they adore. These may vary from musicians, sportspeople or leaders, affiliation of teenager will lead to them purchasing apparels.

In social commerce, luxury items are advertised more and have an impact of making consumers make unintended purchases. Banners and advertisements on facebook sites initiate a consumer to recognize need to purchase a certain product (Noh, 2008). Eventually, this has the impact of convincing a consumer to buy a commodity. Using ecommerce, within a short duration, a consumer is able to access detailed information on a commodity with a lot of clarity. This is because on social sites many companies, new and old have facebook pages that contain information on commodities that are found in their physical stores. Specifications on the product, dimensions and quality are usually listed and information made available.

Further, experiences that a consumer has when purchasing from a particular store online has the effect of them making repeat purchases and leaving positive remarks on company’s social site, e.g. facebook page. Aesthetic appeals of products advertised on social media capture psychological appeal and motivate buyers into purchasing products. Popular apparels that are seen to be common among purchasers may influence a person into buying them (Yurchisin, & Johnson, 2010).

Aesthetic incongruity influences buying decisions of a consumer. A consumer buys a product that is from a reputed brand in the market. However, should product not suit needs that consumer wanted satisfied, it leads to alternatives. To compensate for this failure, a consumer purchases a similar product that will satisfy need that the prior product did not match. This is done through subsequent purchases on online social media that has catalogues and displays of products. Positive reviews from other users of the product enhance purchasing decision of consumers (Kim, Kim, & Shin, 2012).

Social media offers access to numerous product ranges for a consumer. The latter is able to compare commodities that are offered by different retailers before making decisions on purchasing. A customer after comparing different products is able to acknowledge psychologically that decisions that they arrive at finally will provide them with value for their money. Social media provides more penetration of products; stores that are sometimes inaccessible to people located in different regions are made accessible through the internet interface (Hoffman & Novak, 2011). In social media there exist great competitions among retailers; this then leads to aggressive selling through discounted coupons and product promotions.

Economics of an individual play a great part in determining purchasing decisions of commodities. Normative consumer behavior result in a consumer purchasing apparels that they can afford. Rational consumers purchase apparels that are within their means (Biswas, 2011).  However, consumers may end up using hedonistic approaches when shopping. These approaches revolve around purchasing as a result of emotional appeal and sensory appeal to consumers. Product e.g. latest apparels that are advertised in social sites such as facebook can have an emotional appeal to a consumer. The emotive imagery of advertisements may evoke sense of ownership by the consumer leading them to make a purchasing decision.

Sociological Factors that Influence Consumers’ Online Fashion Retail Purchases

Through engagement forums such as facebook pages of a particular company, consumers are able to access information on various products. Social media provides an interaction interface whereby people meet new friends and are able to sustain and revive old acquaintances. Such knowledge provided by social sites provides abundant information resource to consumers. This is because a person is sufficiently motivated into using a social site attributed to assurance that most of known people to them are using the same medium in communication (Sowma 2013). Thus, most consumers are comfortable with marketing information that is provided by internal social sites. Online reviews of products that are being sold through e-commerce provide a major influence on purchasing decisions.  

Imitation of purchasing habits occurs when a buyer purchases commodities that are considered belonging to a certain recognized brand. Consumers have tendencies to imitate what their peers are buying. Brand attributes and features of a commodity may lead a consumer to buy a product. Brands comprise of positive imagery for commodities, this builds trust and loyalty to a particular product. Affluent presentations of a commodity in advertisements on facebook may result in consumers wanting affiliation through purchase. Upselling advertisements that are linked to products may convince a buyer to make purchases. A consumer may buy apparel that they have seen being advertised on facebook such as clothes and additionally buy shoes to match with the new attire (Biswas, 2011). 

Buying decisions on facebook are influenced by curiosity. Consumers are told of several advantages of using a new product through featured advertisements. Mob psychology is then inculcated through numerous followers that the commodities have on their web pages. This then results in buying of products in order to experience its value. The value or brand of a product is enhanced by blogging of features and strength of commodities. Though blogging promotes and advertises products, it may result in information overload. This then leads a consumer to reach out to sites such as twitter and other social commerce websites to acquire information with regards to attitudes that are presented by other consumers. Interactivity of facebook enable a user to engage through customized group pages that are available and check relevance and novelty of information that is provided about commodities (Noor AL-Deen, & Hendricks, 2012).

Promoting and Advertising Products Using Social Commerce

Social sites are recognized culturally to offer B2C. Reputational threat exists for a company’s public image and brand especially if there lacks adequate monitoring of online content about the company and insufficient employee training. Companies implement strong, cohesive and integrated structures governing management of social media initiatives and crisis detection whereas indulging in communication which often outlines approaches used in managing threats on corporate image and brand reputation.

Positioning brand is done through social media. This is attributed to its accessibility to numerous numbers of consumers globally (Stephen& Toubia, 2010). It can be performed effectively by creating positive impressions of a product to target audiences. A company engages its community using social media through offering answers and participating in conversations on products available with its consumers. This has an impact of expanding brand loyalty of the product. In addition, engagement creates referral system of loyal consumers to friends and family (Barker, 2012).

Social media marketing, like other advertising media, is expected to make authentic advertisement and claims about products, thereby requiring constant monitoring of both company and consumer generated content on their user accounts. The advertising company is held directly legally accountable for any product claims and comments posted on its social media pages, with the social media provider only paying an agency role in facilitating the marketing medium. This is largely based on assumptions usually held by online shoppers that they are actually dealing directly with the company and not its advertising agency.   

Therefore, a company always ensures that information on their webpages is correct and can be accessed by consumers. Adapting use of mobile technology into marketing is applied to facilitate wide promotion of luxury segment to markets. This is through incorporating mobile apps that enable potential customers access detailed information on any product. The app another form of ecommerce describes location of the product in physical stores. There are interfaces such as chat that are friendly and assist customers in accessing customer care from stores. Technology is used to personalize customer information to their personal needs (Schmid, 2011).

Prestige pricing of products in luxury department stores seeks to convince potential customers on high quality of commodities in the stores. Moreover, prestige pricing portrays an image of commodities in stores are of highest value and not common to normal buyers (Pride & Ferrell, 2010).  Prestige pricing of products attracts customers who are traditionally seeking to buy high end worth and are not interested in goods that are priced in customary manner. Additionally, online retail stores adapt flexible pricing as a strategy of attracting customers. In this strategy, there are rewards that are set such as smart gifts that are given to loyal repeat customers who buy up to a certain amount of products’ worth.

Conclusion

Social commerce is enhancing business sales through various consumer behaviors while shopping online. Individual psychological factors contribute immensely in fashion apparel purchases. This is through consumer needs that are in existent. Moreover, advertisements make products appeal to consumers and ignite the need to buy them. Aesthetic incongruity in the form of product brands influences buying decisions of a consumer. Those from reputable brands appeal to consumers who eventually buy these apparels. Use of hedonistic approaches that comprise emotional and sensory approaches when shopping stimulate consumers to make purchases online.

Sociological factors through engagement forums on social media have the impact of influencing consumers to buy products online. This is because a consumer is sufficiently motivated into using a social site attributed to assurance that most of known people to them are using the same medium in communication. Imitation of purchasing habits occurs when a buyer purchases commodities through online discourses in various social communities. Interactivity of facebook enable a user to engage through customized group pages that are available and check relevance and novelty of information that is provided about commodities. A consumer may buy apparel that they have seen being advertised on social media such as clothes and additionally buy shoes to match with the new attire.

Promotional aspects of commodities on social media influence purchasing decisions of consumers on social media. Positioning brand done through social media provides accessibility to numerous numbers of consumers globally. Social media advertising requires constant monitoring of both company and consumer generated content on their user accounts. The advertising company is held directly legally accountable for any product claims and comments posted on its social media pages. Use of prestige pricing of products on social media attracts customers who are traditionally seeking to buy high end worth and are not interested in goods that are priced in customary manner. Lastly, rewards set such as smart gifts that are given to loyal repeat customers who buy up to a certain amount of products’ worth increase purchases of commodities and enhance customer loyalty.

 

 

 

 

References

Biswas, S. (2011). Relationship marketing: concepts, theories and cases. New Dehli, India, PHI Learning.

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2011). Marketing communication in a digital era. Marketing Management, 20(3), 36-43.

Hoyer, W. D., & Macinnis, D. J. (2008). Consumer behavior. Mason, OH, South-Western.

Izquierdo–Yusta, A., & Newell, S. J. (2012). User beliefs and motivations that affect repeated online purchases. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 270-292.

Kim, J. W., Kim, Y., & Shin, H. K. (2012). The Design of Business strategy Based on the User Context of Social Commerce. The Journal of Information Systems, 21(1), 93-116.

Kimmel, A. J.( 2012). Psychological Foundations of Marketing. Routledge.

Liang, T.-P., & Turban, E. (2011). Introduction to the exceptional Issue Social Commerce: A Research Model for Social Commerce. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 5-14.

Noh, M. (2008). Consumers’ Prior Experience and Attitudes as Predictors of Their Online Shopping Beliefs, Attitudes, and Purchase Intentions in a Multichannel Shopping Environment. ProQues.

Noor AL-Deen, H. S., & Hendricks, J. A. (2012). Social media: usage and impact. Lanham, Md, Lexington Books.

Pride, W. M., & Ferrell, O. C. (2010). Marketing. Australia: South Western Cengage Learning.

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2011). Organizational Behavior. Boston: Prentice Hall.

Roy, S. (2008). Essays on Empirical strategising of the Price-regulated UserDecision Making Processes. ProQuest.

Sowma, S. Online Consumer Information Search Behavior and the Source Site Target Codification Model. GRIN Verlag, 2013.

Stephen A. T., Toubia O. (2010). Deriving Value from Social Commerce Networks. Journal of Marketing Research: Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 215-228.

Yurchisin, J., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2010). Fashion and the consumer. Oxford, Berg.

 

Clapton Commercial Construction State Of Arizona

April 16, 2014

 

 

 

 

Clapton Commercial Construction Employment Law Compliance Plan

 

Name:

Course:

Instructor:

Date of Submission:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clapton Commercial Construction

State Of Arizona

Employment Law Compliance Plan

Objectives

  1. To uphold the commitment to honesty and responsible conduct for all construction employees and decrease unlawful and unethical behavior at work.

  2. To allow employees to report potential problems to allow for appropriate inquiry and prompt corrective action.

Purpose of the compliance program

To provide a uniform platform for all Clapton commercial construction activities for all workers through equal treatment during work and at pay.

Law Compliance Program Elements

  1. The doctrine of employment At-will

Employment is contractual in nature and is discharge at the consent of the employer or employee unless otherwise varied through a written contract (Loose, 2005, p. 237).

Any wrongful termination attracts an employee or employer’sclaim, whichmust be brought within one year after cause of action.

  1. Law on Wage and hours

  1. Minimum wage

All employers must pay a minimum wage of $7.90 to their workers. Clapton commercial construction must comply otherwise the federal punishment applies. The company should pay at least twice per month (Loose, 2005, p. 256).

  1. Overtime

The company must comply with a federal pay rate of one-half the regular for all hours worked overtime. Remarkably, Arizona State has no stipulated overtime laws relating to private firms (Loose, 2005, p. 259).

  1. Meals and breaks

It is the discretion of the Human Resource manager to decide whether to give the construction workers meals and breaks but in accordance with federal laws. The state of Arizona lacks laws requiring an employer to provide meal and breaks for employees. The meal and breaks should not be less than 20 minutes (Loose, 2005, p. 261).

  1. Discrimination In Employment

Every member of the staff is under protection any form of discrimination of regardless of their race, color, national origin, gender, and religion with reference to any term, set conditions or privilege stipulated in employment. This law applies for employers with 15 or more workers (Loose, 2005, p. 242).

Enforcement of the laws and noncompliance consequences

It is the duty of the Arizona federal state enforcement agencies to ensure that Clapton commercial construction applies them when hiring workers following the intention to expand workers with 20%, when construction begins and during the renewal of contracts for its workers. Fair Labor Standards Act, National Labor Relations Act, and Title VII policies are mandated to enforce the employment laws (Loose, 2005, p. 275).

In the event of violation of the elements cited above, Clapton commercial constructions risks intangible and tangible punishments. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission suggests at least six-figure fine because it has more than 15 workers. Willful child labor and unfair employment practices attract at least a cap of $300000 and a possible jail time (Loose, 2005, p. 288).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Loose, D. A. (2005).Arizona laws 101. Tucson, Ariz.: Fenestra Books.

 

satisfaction of international students abroad

April 16, 2014

Abstract

This study looks at the students’ attitudes towards expenditure and urban life of European University students of Lefke. The purpose of the study is to find the foreign university students’ attitudes towards urban life in Lefke in relation to gender, parent’ occupations, average monthly family income, students monthly spending and religion. This is therefore an attempt to learn the income and the expenditure of the students. Data collection method is questionnaire which will be used to clarify what is their real mean of living in a city or town. A sample size of 100 students from different places around the university and Cyprus has been taken randomly on the basis of convenience sampling. Results obtained from the statistical analysis corroborate using the optimal regression as a statistical tool which shows that research can be used by landlords, students and especially by the administrative governors of the Cities of Cyprus. This will help in understanding, and assessing what influences students’ attitudes, how they feel and view urban life.

Key Words: University, Students, Housing, Community Landlords/Landladies.

 

 

Introduction

There is a growing need to learn the students’ attitudes towards expenditure and urban life globally. Housing, for instance, is a basic human need in all societies and fundamental right of every individual. In advanced countries, housing is more accessible to all categories of people including the poor and the needy as a result of subsidiesfrom the government. The situation is not the same in developing countries of the world. In Lefke, for example, accessibility to housing by the students is quite a difficult situation which is worsened by the harsh economic conditions and poor enabling environment. Likewise, accessing housing facilities by European University of Lefke students is no exception, especially where such university operates a non – residential policy.

Attitudinal constructs account for and infer patterns of thinking, emotion and action. Attitude is a learned disposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner towards an attitude object (Koballa & Glynn, 2007).The attitude object may be a specific object, institution, person, issue or an event. Hence, an understanding derived from studying students’ perceptions of and attitudes towards urban living and expenditures may help in planning and tuning the curricular units to the cognitive levels of students in order to achieve meaningful learning (Ausubel et al., 1978).Westwards from Girne, the alluring towns of Güzelyurt and Lefke make a great tour out of the city. Güzelyurt is a quaint market town centered upon the citrus fruit business and further along the coastal road, a short diversion to Lefke is rewarded with the discovery of an un spoilt town of truly Turkish character with fine old buildings, three mosques and a curious circular British storehouse built to mark the coronation of King George VI in 1937 (The Colures of North Cyprus).

Lefke is a part of North Cyprus actually the local or foreign investments can develop the urban living in this place. There are many new services were added to lefke in increasing number of markets, houses and fun places. The education sector is also very important investment in lefke; such as the European University of Lefke which shows that the numbers of students are increasing each year.

So, these increasing in number of students actually need also increasing in the services like to increase number of houses, increase number of restaurants and to increase all the important services which is developing the urban living.

The main objective of this study, therefore, is to examine the student’s attitudes towards urban life using Lefke as a case study.In order to address the identified problems, the following research questions underlie the focus of this study 1The Average Monthly Family Income (TL), 2 The Adequacy of Transportation to the Campus, 3 The Adequacy of Internal and External Transportation to Lefke, 4 Quality and Hygiene of Places you eat food in Lefke. To achieve the stated objectives, the paper is divided into four parts. Apart from this introduction, other sectionsin this paper include; (2) literature review ((3) Research Methodology (4) Data Analysis and Discussions of theFindings, and implication of thestudy. Literature Review

Due to economic and demographic reasons, 1980s and 1990s saw an increase in poverty in urban settlements. Economic crisis and structural adjustment policies introduced in the Third World have had a disproportionate impact on the urban life. This resulted in rising food prices, declining real wages and redundancy in the formal labor market, and reduced public expenditure on basic services and infrastructure (Wratten, E., 2013, p 11).The change in the economic nature of a place also affect the relationship between income and expenditure like what happen in Lefke. The new buildings which will be ready in the near future will still not be enough to cater for the increased demand of housing.. This means that the education sector is growing rapidly in the recent years.

In administrative divisions, the Northern Cyprus is divided into five districts, the Lefkoşa (Nicosia), the Gazimağusa (Famagusta) , the Girne (Kyrenia), the Güzelyurt (Morphou) and the İskele (Trikomo)(Wikipedia, 2013). The students who live in the modern towns like Lefkoşa (Nicosia) or Girne (Kyrenia) have a higher expenditures than thoise that live in the Güzelyurt (Morphou) . the difference is in house rent and the prices of commodities. Moreover, the females expenditure differs from that of males.

Encouragement of foreign investment is among the primary objectives of the Northern Cyprus’ development policy. Among these investments tourism and the locomotive sector plays the major role. In this regard, priority is given to those projects that facilitate transfer of modern technology and new management techniques into Northern Cyprus that provide highest value added (S. Okan, 2010, pp.104).

Methodology

This section presents the methodology that was used in obtaining the data. The purpose of this study was to show the procedure employed in gathering data for the study. It laid emphasis on the following areas: population, sample and sample technique, data collection, instrument for data collection and data analysis.

Data collection method is questionnaire to clarify what is their real mean of filling the options; sample size of 100 foreign students from European University (EU) in Lefke from different places in Cyprus has been taken randomly on the basis of convenience sampling. Extensive literature review of textbook, newspapers, journals and some past project of graduated students who studies related to pie of the study were carried out which is the secondary source of data used primary data were sourced from respondents comprising students.

The study shows the income of the foreign student and their expenditure for house rent, transporting, foods in urban living in lefke. The study is based on the quantitative method using questionnaire forms in which the questions were divided in two sections. The first section includes the demographic questions while the second section covers the student’s attitudes urban living. After the data were collected by the previous method it was analyzed by using SPSS system.

Use of Questionnaires:

A questionnaire is a list of carefully structured questions, chosen after considerable testing, with a view to eliciting reliable responses from a chosen sample. The purpose of the questionnaires must be apparent: the respondents must know the contexts in which the questions are being posed Questionnaires are a popular method for collecting data.This is a variation of group distribution. The questionnaire samples are situated in one location so they were collected individually.

Hypothesis

Specific objectives are written that describe the expected results arising from the study and the outcome variables that will be measured. Once objectives have been set, researchers can formulate specific, testable hypotheses that specify the relationship between program interventions and outcomes.

A hypothesis is a statement about an expected relationship between two or more variables that permits empirical testing. While ultimate objectives identify the anticipated contributions arising from a study, and immediate objectives (stated in behavioral terms) specify what will be done or measured in the study, hypotheses specify the expected relationship among the variables (Fisher A. & Foreit J, 2002) .

Statistical hypothesis testing’s a decision making process for evaluating claims about a population. In hypothesis testing, the researcher must define the population under study, state the particular hypotheses that will be investigated, give the significance level, select a sample from the population, collect the data, perform the calculations required for the statistical test, and reach a conclusion.

There are three methods used to test hypotheses are:

1. The traditional method.

2. The P-value method.

3. The confidence interval method.

A statistical hypothesis is a conjecture about a population parameter which may or may not be true. There are two types of statistical hypotheses for each situation: the null hypothesis (H0), and the alternative hypothesis (H1).

  1. The null hypothesis, symbolized by H0, is a statistical hypothesis that states that there is no difference between a parameter and a specific value, or that there is no difference between two parameters.

  2. The alternative hypothesis, symbolized by H1, is a statistical hypothesis that states the existence of a difference between a parameter and a specific value, or states that there is a difference between two parameters.

The Time Horizon

  1. Start to separate and collecting the questionnaire forms (1- week).

  2. Analyzing data and discussion on the results (2- weeks).

  3. Submitted formal report & preparation of the final report (1- week).

The total of time frame will be necessary for completion this research project is one month.

 

Data Analysis

RESULTS

There were 100 samples test as foreign students from European University (EU) in Lefke who answered the questionnaire form. The questionnaires are associated with both positivistic and phenomenological methodologies.

We begin by examining how many male students and female students who were sampled in this study as the first section of demographic questions.

  1. Table 1 there are 37 females which is equivalent to 37% of respondents have answered to our questionnaire and 63% of respondents were males and were associated in this study in.

  2. According to the realty test table the realty is show 0 .762 which more than 0.700 it can be said the study is reliable table 17.

  3. From our data there are three factors which are more important variables than other variables. Form one to three are must important in this study the higher cumulative in extermination is total Initial Eigen values it is(3.446 , 1.618 ,1.001) and % of Variance Initial Eigen values it is(31.323 , 14.707, 9.096) and Cumulative % Initial Eigen values it is(31.323 ,46.031 , 55.126) 55.13% while the lost relative person 31.32% table 19 (4).

  4. From Kimo and Barrettes test for specificity the significant factors which meme this factors are normally distributed not summation for help and it is good factors variables table 19(1)

  5. From scree plot graph it explained how much variance are there, such as the first factor have high variance which mean the highest eigenvalue in graph 1.

  6. From correlation matrix table we can see there is a relationship between the variable such us if any variable from B to L in vertical calm have relation whit the variable also from B to L in horizontal table and so on for the other variables.

  7. According to the table 19(5) component Matrix the variables are dividing into three main factors which are: factor (f) is more important in matrix component 1, factor (C) is more important in component 2 and factor (i) is important in component3.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the stability of house rent is very important in Lefke, and the adequacy of internal & external transportation to the campus become the second important factor and the adequacy of garbage collection in Lefke is the third factor.

Lefke is part of North Cyprus actually the local or foreign investments can develop the urban living in this place. There are many new services were added to lefke in increasing number of markets, houses and fun places. The education sector is also very important investment in lefke; such as the European University of Lefke which shows that the numbers of students are increasing each year.

These increase in number of student actually need also increase in the services like the number of houses, number of restaurants and all the important services which are required in a developing town.The economy of Northern Cyprus is dominated by the services sector (69% of GDP in 2007) which includes the public sector, trade, tourism and education. The revenues gained by the education sector in 2011 were USD 400 million. Industry (light manufacturing) contributes 22% of GDP and agriculture 9% (Wikipedia, 2013).

There is a strong relationship between the urban life and the income and the expenditure for any country in the world. This relation depends on the import and export which contribute the GDP of that country. So, when the GDP of the country for example, increase the income should be increase because the expenditure directly will be increase based on the prices of goods and services.

Northern Cyrus is a small island economy and it suffers diseconomies of scale, and is dependent on economic development in the service sectors. Among these service sectors, tourism is supposed to play the main role. When the relevant period is considered it cannot be concluded that the performance of the tourism sector of Northern Cyprus has been sufficient even though the structure of the sector, gross output of the sector and net tourism revenues per tourist exhibited an absolute improvement in the period under investigation (S. Okan, 2010, pp.120).

 

References:

1-By Graham Norwood, Bricks, mortar and a place in the sun, P (8), By North Cyprus (2009), http://www.google.com. (Retrieved 24 October 2009).

 

2-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Cyprus.

 

3- Okan Veli Şafakli, Ignored Richness of Tourism in Northern Cyprus, E-Review Of Tourism (2010) Researchhttp://Ertr.Tamu.Edu. (Retrieved November, 2010).

 

4-Ellen Wratten, Conceptualizing urban poverty, Environment and Urbanization (2013), http://eau.sagepub.com (retrieved, December 10, 2013).

 

5-ISSN (Online), http://www.ijbmi.org Volume, (retrieved February. 2013).

 

6- http://www.google.com, info@visitnorthcyprus.org.uk.