Archive for May, 2014

Reflective Essay

May 31, 2014

 

 

 

 

Reflective Essay

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Cultural understandings of knowledge and learning

Museum is associated with the escalation of urban civil cultures in the previous two centuries. Our visit to the Grainger Museum was a great experience and this type of exposure to different mediums of art and culture is a great learning opportunity. Grainger Museum was designed by John Gawler an architect who also taught at the university, with funding from Grainger himself. The museum was built between the period from 1935 till 1939 University of Melbourne provide the land space for this museum, and it officially opened in December 1938. It is among a comparatively small number of autobiographical museums in the world. It was a good opportunity to look closely the collections of the Grainger Museum. Art Works consists of different collections which can be mainly distributed in categories for example Costumes, Ethnographic Collection, Musical Instruments, Decorative Arts & Furniture and Photographs. Everything in the museum is a work of art may it be an old chair, a desk, painting, letters, or photographs. All of these are like an cultural representation of that time, this collection is not only a way of understanding Grainger’s music, his life and his diverse and often amazingly unreasonable obsessions, but it also portrays the musical life of Melbourne in Grainger’s life time.

Learning ensues when individuals expand their minds to relate with their experiences, information and knowledge with what they see in a museum. In museums, visitors learn dynamically when they interact with the environment to articulate questions about the art work, make their own perceptive, reflect on their own impressions and ideas, make their own judgments, come up with their own interpretations, and try to find their own personal and individual connections. All these sorts of behaviors are called active learning. At Grainger Museum all the collections are a reflection of Grainger’s life and personality and also the reflection of the culture of that time. In prolonged learning experiences, a study says that active learning is imperative: individuals learn more profoundly and preserve knowledge for a long time when they are exposed to occasions to involve keenly with the experiences and information at hand. People do not learn effectively when they sit passively while an instructor attempts to fill their heads with information. Our brains are not biological computers, taking in data and storing these data for later use, subject to external retrieval commands. We are, instead, much more complicated than that: We take in information through the senses and our brains decide what to do with it in which cognitive category, that information belongs. It is at this point that we use our preexisting knowledge and associate the new information with it to form our own perceptions, assumptions and theories (White, 2004).

 

Percy Grainger’s Towel Costume

The most appealing collection for me was the Towel outfit worn by Percy Grainger, it attracted me in a very unusual way thou I have seen many costumes similar to Percy Grainger’s outfit but, this one seem pretty different. Thus for different individuals exposure to a same piece of art can have a different effect. I like the costume (Percy Grainger toweling costume) whiles someone else would have seen nothing significant in that costume to like it. Unless we do something with incoming information, one of two things will happen: Either the brain will attach that information to a memory that already exists, or it will discard it as irrelevant. Thus, humans don’t just take in knowledge, they construct it. They learn by doing by acting.

There are many museums in Australia, such as, the National Museum, the Australian Museum and the most popular and rich of all Grainger Museum. In order to expand our knowledge and to prepare us for the visit to the museum, the program included a number of activities in pre and post visit lessons, such as, remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. We worked in groups for developing ideas for a section of the exhibition in order to understand and learn in a more interactive way. I spent fascinating time and learned a lot regarding the many facets of this polygonal place. The great experience whilst studying the exhibits with keen interest was memorable event of our life. The welcoming receptionist was a delight to the trip experience, in addition, nearby, there are many good cafes, and it was a very informal and informative trip.

When looking at the costume recalls some other images of costumes that I had seen in the past and learned that what type of costumes were worn in different eras of human history. Material that has no emotional resonance for us is a signal that at an intuitive level we don’t have a strong need to know. Unless something tempers our curiosity, or knocks us off balance and creates disorientation, we’re not likely to pay much attention to it. Museums are technologies to produce social, governmental tools as many researchers claim to operate on records as civic and epistemological. That is museums organize objects to be viewed and organized while viewers. Where before the intended viewer saw through the eyes of the monarch and the museum thus encoded real power, civic agreements created the viewer as urban public. Museums helped create a shared sense of the world and knowledge of the world views. They worked to categorize and order the world, and object positioning in the changing world of the modern city. Museum displays deployed categorizations and classifications of objects in ways that seemed to convey universal truths secular. Typologies and classifications made legible cultures and stories to the public (Orlikowski, 2006).

Grainger Museum, the cataloging of ethnological artifacts served to help support the idea of ​​race, people and their movements and relationships. Epistemology of the disembodied gaze, depersonalized visual knowledge is transformed into physical form, where rooms and buildings specialized categories listed materials and objects as visual proof of the logic behind the museum. The extensive collection contains over 50,000 objects of communication with people like, Frederick Delius, Edvard Grieg, Richard Wagner Cyril Scott, and Pyotr Tchaikovsky. In total the Grainger museum’s collection largely encompasses about 100,000 objects, only a small section of which are on display. The rest of the collection is available for research and exploration by aforementioned arrangement. Large space is dedicated in the newfangled Museum to Grainger as gleaner and collector mostly of British folksong. A remarkable presentation is made of an Edison Standard Phonograph, sitting directly above almost fifty cylinder-shaped cases which encompass a collection of Grainger’s unique wax recording cylinders. Grainger incorporated this technique of gathering as it allowed him the indulgence of repetitive hearings, vital to netting the tones of his subject’s performances and rhythmic deviations. One more cupboard dedicated to folksong collecting has a photograph of Joseph Taylor. (Kleiner, 2009).

This became a form of cultural governance through the registration of the identities of positions like watching a public- and also a national technology for mass education in the democratic use of the intended objects to instill civic virtue through civic rituals. Therefore, the visitors’ galleries and museums became both an expression of civic belonging and a means to instill it. In addition to its internal organization, you can trace the ornamental outside of museums as temples to secular learning and the celebration of national virtues. During the nineteenth century, the hegemony of neoclassical portico and form established the museum as a sacred place, but to the secular values ​​of the state and the nation (Kiefer, 2005). Their claims of universal knowledge are symbolized by the debate between the classical universal forms, which exemplifies the values ​​of order through the symmetry and geometry, and competing national forms constructed, such as Gothic drills in Britain, considered as holding the particular history of the nation. The intertwining of universal and national values ​​can be seen, for example, at the main entrance to the south of the British Museum, which is a neoclassical facade pediment which Sir Richard Westcott interprets the progress of civilization; inside the entrance are monuments to personnel who gave their lives in two world wars (Kleiner, 2009).

If museums individually use their internal spaces to discipline the objects and make them useful for social narratives, then cumulatively formed part of what Bennett calls the popup exhibition complex in the modern city. So, along with zoos, world fairs, malls and department stores, museums are a place for the public display of objects. Thus, they become a means to appeal to urban management and care from eyeglasses to modernity. Also frame the world as something to be seen and, more fundamentally, as something that could be seen for treatment, in the words of Mitchell, the world as exhibition (Haney, 1995).

The connection can be exemplified in the construction of Albert polis as a museum complex, knowledge centers and exhibition spaces in South Kensington in London. It is named after its inspiration, Prince Albert, who was the patron of the first Universal Exhibition of 1851 (Haney, 1995).

Driver and Gilbert suggest this forms a point of what became an imperial triangle screen anchored in Kensington, Whitehall and Trafalgar Square creating a symbolic load zone in the city. They were part of a consciously imperial subway poles. Museums and collections create a sense of metropolitan centrality (Carroll, 2007). They became global knowledge technologies and power centers and representation and calculation for the world. The artifacts and specimens were taken from peripheral and exotic places around the world and placed together in these metropolitan centers, through networking and exchange between artifacts collection and knowledge (Bulmer, 1997).

Recently, there has been a move away from the ideals of civic museum with its implicit educational goals and national or imperial subjects. Instead, museums have become connected with the public, providing emotional encounters with reconstructions and models and a profusion of new forms designed to meet the varied demands of a public entertainment. The public is no longer directed to a singular mass audience but splintered by age, taste, cultural identity, and so on, with more museums specialists catering to different fractions. There have been no significant new investment and training of museums. Major initiatives and often do not speak with a national mission, but an art and global culture celebrity. Brands of museums like the Grainger have emerged, which can be coupled with dramatic architectural forms to offer flagship developments in urban regeneration (Bjelajac, 2001). The most appropriate example is the Grainger Museum which shows the different moods and shades of Percy’s life and also about the culture of that time, which is very fascinating. Moreover, the location in a regional capital, allowed the capacity of regional elites to use new institutions to renegotiate their political relations and urban cultural hierarchy (Bandana, 1997).

Amongst displays of published scores and antique manuscripts, field recordings, musical instruments, artworks, books, photographs and personal items, are Grainger’s whips and other items relating to his sado-masochism, Grainger use to call it Lust Branch, the objects of his bedside cupboard, and a whole gallery dedicated to his beloved mother’s suicide. There are some other sound/music making devices Percy use to experiment on making new musical instruments and innovative music. Development of Museums has become part of a calculation of the value of culture as a means of economic reconstruction (Bandana, 1997).

The evolution of museums tend to form state-led initiatives that are intended to attract visitors, while anchoring cultural industries quarter for media and creative class. But such initiatives specific museums blur the broader conservation districts, with mixed public and private control is created. New museums of the city as a museum, all speak to the public through the market as techniques of government, selling entertainment experiences and urban environments as commodities rather than the means of civic improvement.

 

 

 

                                                                     References

Bandana Shiva, (1997) The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge. Oxford publishers

Bjelajac, David. (2001) American Art: A Cultural History. New York: Abrams.

Bulmer, M., Solomos, J. (1997) Introduction: Race, ethnicity. Ethnic and Racial Studies 7–788

Carroll, K. L. (2007). Better visual arts education. Baltimore: Maryland State Education Department of Education (available through the National Art Education Association.

Haney López, I. F. (1995). The social construction of race. In R. Delgado (Ed.), Critical race theory: The cutting edge (pp. 191–203). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Kiefer A. (2005). Heaven and earth. Fort Worth, TX: Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth.

Kleiner F. S. (2009). Gardner’s art through the ages: The Western perspective. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Orlikowski, W. (2006) Material knowing: The scaffolding of human knowledgeability. European Journal of Information Systems15(5) 470–472.

White, J. H. (2004). Learning in the visual arts: Characteristics of gifted and talented individuals. In E. W. Eisner, ed., & M. Day (Eds.), Handbook of research and policy in art education (pp. 379–405). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

 

 

 

 

Gender, Management and Leadership

May 30, 2014

 

 

 

Gender, Management and Leadership

 

 

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Gender, Management and Leadership

Many researchers in the recent years have mainly focused their research on the challenges which women face in raising through their professional ladders and the discriminatory obstacles they have to overcome. Most of the previous researchers are in agreement that women face different challenges in the working environment and tend to climb the professional ladder with a lot of difficulties, something which is referred to be the glass ceiling (The Economists, 2014). However, little attention has been put on the issue of men rising very fast in all professions including those which were deemed female dominated, leading to the concept of the glass escalator. In this paper, the main aim is to consider the value of the concept of the glass escalator for understanding men’s experience in predominantly female occupations.

One may ask what the concept of the glass escalator is all about. According to Christine L. Williams, the originator of this concept, the glass escalator is the term she used to refer to the advantages which men receive when they enter into the so-called women’s professions including, nursing, teaching, librarianship and social work (Williams, 2013). Men tend to experience an escalator in advancing in predominated women professions while women to experience a form of a ceiling. This is seen as a great disadvantage for women especially in the current business world were the biasness between men and women in the working environments has been an issue of great concern (Goudreau, 2012).

In order to show the issue of the glass escalator, Christine Williams conducted a research of seventy-six men and twenty-three women in four main women dominated occupations (Kimmel, & Aronson, 2004). These occupation were nursing, elementary education, social work and librarianship. Using interviews as her research method, her results showed that men usually experienced a positive form of discrimination whenever they entered these fields (Kimmel, & Aronson, 2004). In this case, several men showed a higher preference in hiring men rather than women. In addition, her results showed that men were easily promoted in these jobs than ladies meaning that men usually attracted managerial positions compared to women.

However, her results also showed that men tend to experience some negative effects in these professions. For instance, men who work as nurses tend to be termed as gays which may negatively affect their productivity. Men retain their numerical superiority in this case while women tend to remain as tokens, with men having a high privilege and ability to prevent women from entering into these professions (Glauber at al., 2007). This thus shows there is a great advantage of being a male in the women profession, hence the glass escalator principle.

The concept of glass ceiling is also worth noting in understanding the glass escalator principle. Glass ceiling is a concept used in the same context as glass ceiling mainly to refer to the difficulties faced, mainly by ladies in rising in their carriers. In most cases, women are found to face great challenges in raising in different professions especially those dominated by women. This makes them not only disadvantaged in male dominated jobs but also in jobs they dominate.

Is the glass escalator principle really significant for understanding men’s experience in predominantly female occupations? This is usually depended on the situations and nature of the people considered in this case. One of the main advantages of understanding this concept is that it helps in making it clear why men tend to perform better in different professions. It can be something quite disturbing to see men work comfortably in different professions even those dominated by women yet women fail to perform well even in the jobs they dominate. Understanding the escalator principle this helps to explain this phenomenon.

The glass escalator concept is also a wake up to women who perform badly in male dominated professions yet men perform well in all jobs. It simply shows that all jobs can be performed by anyone and thus calls for women to move out of the tradition that some jobs are for men and thus move beyond the conventional glass ceiling in their work. Generally, the glass escalator is a concept which is simply as a result of gender discrimination or other limitation which are self-imposed. What this means is that women need to rise beyond these limits which they propagate themselves, thus making this concept explain the high dominance of men in female dominated professions.

The glass escalator is only a combination of self-imposed limitations and gender discrimination among different groups due to a number of reasons. For instance, structural factors in that men tend to be pushed towards the managerial post when in female dominated jobs can explain this. Men also tend to be exposed to a lot of mentoring when in the women dominated jobs thus improving their performance and hence attracting such things as promotions. Societal factors also help to shows that the glass escalator is just self-imposed limitations and gender discrimination in nature. Women are usually expected by the society to perform certain jobs like the kitchen jobs such that they get no enough time to work in other professions.

Personal reasons also explain that the glass escalator is self-imposed limitations and gender discriminatory in nature. Due to the relational nature of women, they tend to avoid stepping out of their comfort zones in fear of becoming uncomfortable. For instance, they fear being leaders as this would mean that they would be unpopular and be expected to speak up which may be uncomfortable to them. Thus, understanding the glass escalator can help in women understand that it is just a form of self-imposed limitations and gender discriminatory issues which they can overcome if they are committed to do exactly that.

The glass escalator is also of great value in preparing men face the challenges which they may face in working in the so called women professions. From the results of many researchers on this issue, it is clear that men face a number of challenges. However, these challenges tend to come from without these professions and not from within (Simpson, 2004). For instance, it will be very hard for a man to get full approval from the society when working in such jobs. This means that men will have to be prepared overcome these challenges.

One of the current hot topics is how to overcome the great discrimination of women in different jobs. Women have in the recent years faced great challenges in performing well in different jobs due to the great completion they face which end up pushing them to a few female-dominated jobs. However, the glass escalator principle can be seen as a way of encouraging men to take up roles which had been dominated by women. This would end up reducing the competition in those roles formally dominated by them and thus giving women an opportunity to rise. It is thus a concept which may be seen as an encouragement to women to be proactive in different jobs. However, this concept helps much in explaining the dominance of men in female dominated jobs.

This concept is also of great value in showing the importance of being strategic and flexible to fit in different working environments. Men usually have a high flexibility in adapting to the different challenges in female dominated jobs than women do in men dominated jobs. According to Simpson (2004), men tend to take the advantage of the assumed authority effect in getting position in female dominated jobs. They also take the advantage of the preferential treatment they receive in these professions and also the career effect in maneuvering their way into high position in these professions. Moreover, there is usually a comfort effect in this case in which men are usually found to be more comfortable while working with women. All these have been seen by men as real opportunities to establish their service in these professions. They simply mean that if women were strategic liker men then they could maneuver their ways in those professions which have remained to be male dominated for long.

The glass escalator is also a concept which has a great value in showing that there are different stereotypes which prevent different people from working in different professions. For instance, men who work in women dominated professions are usually seen as failures that fear the high competition in male oriented jobs. Women who also enter male dominated jobs also face such stereotypes like being taken not be real women (Goudreau, 2012). However, women tend not be much affected by these stereotypes as it is the case with men. Whichever the case, these are very dangerous impediments which can make men and women not productive in some jobs yet they have the ability to perform quite well in them.

The glass escalator principle may however be of no value especially in the current work environment due to a number of reasons. One of these is that this is a concept which was developed when the employment dynamics were different than they are right now. When Williams was developing this theory, she based her assumptions on the traditional work organizations (Williams, 2013). However, these have changed very much due to the fact that they have undergone massive transformation. The stable of stable employment no longer holds as assumed in the original case thus making the applicability of this model be highly in doubt. The career ladder assumption is also not a key feature in the current job market. In addition, the current public institutions no longer receive much support as it was the case when this concept was developed. All these makes it not much applicable in the current working environment and a lot has changed since then. There is thus a great need to develop a better concept which takes into consideration all these recent developments.

The glass escalator concept also fails to address a number of issues related the issue of gender and leadership among different jobs. For instance, in her revisit of this concept, Williams (2013) found out that it fails to address the issue of intersectionality adequately. For instance, it falls inadequate in addressing the issue of race, race and class in explaining this phenomenon. Studies have shown that male care workers from African background and those from the Arab background were different and significantly influenced by their consciousness of colonial perceptions of these two groups (Leonard & Sollund, 2012). There is thus a great need to revisit this idea and come up with a concept that would address these issues holistically. This means that the value of the glass escalator concept in explaining the male dominance in female dominated professions is not adequate.

It is worth noting that the glass escalator principle does not work uniformly for all men in women dominated jobs. According to a research by Wingfield (2009) on this issue, it was found out that the glass escalator is not uniform for all men and that it is usually a racialized and gendered concept. This shows that this is a concept which may be of no value in today’s business world as it is only but a way of promoting racial and gender biasness in the working environment. Thus, it may not be worth in explaining the high dominance of men in female dominated professions.

The glass escalator is short of explaining the dominant of men in female dominated jobs as it does not even show the aspects of the expertise of men in these fields. Some men tend to perform better than women in such jobs such that they are worth being promoted. This is a fact which Williams tend to have ignored in explaining the glass concept. If this was the case, women could also raise quiet easily in male dominated professions but this is not actually the case. Thus attributing the glass escalator to the issue of gender and concluding that men raise in such professions due to their gender has no basis. This, the glass escalator concept is not worth in explaining male dominance in female oriented professions.

In conclusion, the glass escalator concept, to a large extent has a great value in explaining the great dominance of men in female oriented professions. Men seemingly found it easy to climb through the professional ladder to high management roles when they enter into women dominated jobs unlike the case in women when they enter into male oriented jobs. This is due to a number of factors including the comfort men tend to have in these professions and also their huge flexibility in different jobs. In the case of women, they tend to face great challenges or simply to experience the glass ceiling due to issues like fear and wanting to stay at their comfort areas rather than taking the challenge. All in all, the glass escalator concept has a great value in explaining the dominance of men in female-dominated professions despite some of its shortcomings highlighted in the paper.


 

References

Glauber, R., Conley, D., Haney, L., & Wu, L (2007), Gender and race in families and at work: Fatherhood and men’s labor market outcomes. (Dissertation Abstracts International, 69-1).

Goudreau, J (2012), A New Obstacle for Professional Women: The Glass Escalator, The Forbes, Available at, < http://www.forbes.com/sites/jennagoudreau/2012/05/21/a-new-obstacle-for-professional-women-the-glass-escalator/&gt;

Kimmel, M. S., & Aronson, A (2004), Men and masculinities: a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia, Santa Barbara, Calif, ABC-CLIO.

Leonard, L., & Sollund, R. A (2012), Transnational migration, gender and rights, Bingley, U.K, Emerald.

Simpson, R (2004), Masculinity at Work: The Experiences of Men in Female Dominated Occupations, Work, Employment & Society Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 349-368.

The Economists (2014), The Glass-ceiling Index, Available at, <http://www.economist.com/news/business/21598669-bestand-worstplaces-be-working-woman-glass-ceiling-index&gt;

Thompson, M. E., & Armato, M (2012), Investigating Gender: Developing a Feminist Sociological Imagination,Cambridge, Polity Press.

Williams, C. L (2013), The Glass Escalator, Revisited: Gender Inequality in Neoliberal Times, Gender & Society, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 609-629.

Wingfield, A. H (2009), Racializing the Glass Escalator: Reconsidering Men’s Experiences with Women’s Work, Gender and Society, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 5-26.

 

CASE STUDY PAPER ON THE ETHICS OF ABORTION

May 30, 2014

CASE STUDY PAPER ON THE ETHICS OF ABORTION

Yes, it is morally acceptable for Steadman to perform an abortion. The morally acceptable thing to do in such a situation is to pursue the choice made by Steadman. As denoted by Aristotle, teleology indicates that nature has a way of leading individuals to the end. Individuals in this matter have the natural tendency towards certain end conditions. In this case, the end condition is achieving the desired status within the firms and it can only happen if Steadman manages to abort the baby according to her colleagues at work. In this situation, the end justifies the means. The ambition to achieve partner status within the firm has been Steadman`s desire long before the pregnancy came up, therefore she should follow her earlier ambition (White, 52-57). She also has plans regarding the position, to vie for a political seat and help the less fortunate within her society. Therefore, attaining the position, which is only possible after performing an abortion will present greater good to Steadman and the society and this makes it a morally acceptable thing.

Kant, in deontological ethics suggests that an action can be judged as morally acceptable based on some set rules and the actions adherence to the rules (White, 52-57). The rules or obligations guide an individual’s actions and working on that line of set rules determines whether the action is morally acceptable or not. In Steadman`s case, the issue of the terms determining the admission as a partner in the law firm act as set rules. The sole reason for her pursuit for an abortion is to adhere to the requirements, which will enable her to accomplish her set goals. For this reason, Steadman has the moral right to pursue the abortion. The actions are morally acceptable considering the rules and principles, which have been set by Van Patten. Steadman`s contemplated actions are morally acceptable considering the conditions which are set in order to factor in her ability to serve as a partner within her law firm.

Based on Steadman`s current priorities it is better for her to have an abortion than to keep the baby. Firstly, this stage of her life seems to concentrate on advancing her career and setting her career path within the organization, which will enable her to progress towards politics. Her energy seems to be channeled towards advancing and achieving a political position from which she can serve a larger population of people. In addition, with such a focus, the decision to keep the baby may derail her to a level of not being able to accomplish the current ambitions. With her energy focused towards the career advancement, the baby may not receive enough care and this may lead to other social problems of dealing with a neglected child (White, 52-57). With her decision to serve in the law firm and pursue politics, she understands that the reverse decision may lead her to raise the child poorly.

Utilitarianism as presented by Bentahm claims that actions that are aimed at the best course of action, should be on which maximizes the utility within any situation (White, 52-57). In this, case, the action presents minimal suffering to any individual, and maximum benefits to all individuals. According to this theory within moral ethics, the abortion by Steadman presents more benefits than the consequences. Firstly, considering that the fetus is not alive and not much harm will be caused from this approach. Secondly, the sole motivation for Steadman to achieve the partner position within the law firm is to be able to run for a political post, which will facilitate her to serve a larger group of people and represent the interests of the poor in her society. Considering the harm, which befalls only one character while the benefits befall Steadman, her husband who seeks family planning methods through birth control, her firm that will benefit from her services as a partner within the firm and the individuals she will represent through her political position later according to the ambitions she has set for herself. From the theory, it is also of great importance to consider the actions as either selfish or selfless. The selfish actions are not morally acceptable because one course of action benefits a single individual, while the selfless action, one course of action benefits multiple individuals (White, 52-57). In Steadman`s situation, the benefactors from her decision to have an abortion keep increasing on each point of consideration. From the first point, it is clear that the actions will benefit herself and her husband who have been trying to have birth control. Secondly, the actions will benefit the law firm, as she will add on her experience and expertise to the firm. Thirdly, with a successful run at the political position of her choice, she will be able to serve and represent the interests of the poor individuals in her society. The advantages of the decision revolve from being self centered and selfish to serving an entire population. With the progress to serve in political functions, she can decide to have a child later.

According to Ross, who dedicated his study towards the moral decisions made by well-educated people, he suggests that individuals make these decisions because of continuous moral considerations over the generations (White, 52-57). The earlier generations would probably consider the actions revolving around abortion as immoral since the woman’s priority was based on the family set up and working with the responsibilities of a family. With this regard, individuals found the woman best fitted in a situation where she had a family and raised her kids and the beginning of life was perceived to be at conception in the womb. However, modern generations hold a different perspective regarding the beginning of life and the role of a woman in the society. The modern generations present a feminist view towards women and perceive them as individuals who can equally pursue their careers and engage in activities, which were basically left to men in the past. The generational changes in human perception, especially issues regarding the roles of individuals within a gender have changed.

Similarly, the thought of the beginning of life has also changed and individuals perceive that life begins at birth in the modern generation (White, 52-57). For this reason, Steadman holds a similar perception regarding the beginning of life due to the generational changes in perception. In addition, Steadman has embraced the idea of a modern professional and wish to utilize her level of education and skills in securing a higher position within the organization. The dynamics around modernization and social progressiveness allow Steadman to have an abortion through her own choice.

The pro-choice initiative towards the decision made by Steadman revolves around understanding that the benefits and struggles of keeping or aborting the child will be on Steadman. With her level of education and the given access to information in modern times, she is well aware of the situation she will face when she decides to have an abortion. The moral question lies within the future of Steadman and the child (White, 52-57). Her decision to have an abortion is morally right because the constitution does not pronounce abortion as an illegal activity. Secondly, it is not forced and it comes after making a consideration of the current and future situation. The immoral thing to do would be to please other individuals who are pro-life and yet are unable to provide the necessary motherly care to the child. Considering that Steadman has identified the reasons of wanting to have the abortion, and does not only want to lose the baby, her decisions are morally accepted.

The morally acceptable thing to do is only considered when individuals consider the current state and identify the level of commitment, which is required from them once the situation transforms in the future (White, 52-57). The moral thing to do is to accept that one cannot commit themselves according to the set requirements and responsibilities of the roles in the future. It comes as an acceptance of one’s abilities and disabilities. Steadman knows the career struggles, which lay ahead in terms of the political position and maintaining the partner position within the firm. This means that she has identified her limits and acknowledges that a child would be a burden now. For this reason, she has identified the morally right thing to do is to have an abortion. The abortion is morally justified.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

White, James E. Contemporary moral problems. 3 Ed. St. Paul: West Pub. C, 2000. Print.

Comparing and Contrasting Two Books

May 30, 2014

Introduction

Affordable healthcare act was introduced in the United States of America by the Federal government in order to transform into a better health care services for all citizens of USA. However, a number of scholars have different opinions over this idea. Some of the scholars are in full support of the project while some of them criticize it. This essay compares and contrasts two books on this topic (Affordable Health Care) as written by Mr. Gruber and Mr. Goodman.

Similarities

Both authors are in agreement that the Affordable Health Care Act (ACA) will not improve the health care services to all Americans. Firstly; Mr. Gruber is of the idea that the new health program is a strategy by the government in order to increase revenue through taxation (Gruber, 2011). He says that in contrary to the expectation of the citizens, the new healthcare reform will instead increase the number of citizens who do not have health care insurance. On the same note, Mr. Goodman does not support the new health care reform and terms it as a radical transformation of USA healthcare sector. Secondly, the two authors accept the fact that the ACA will only work if the sick and the healthy population by insurance cover (Goodman, 2005).

Differences

Mr. Gruber supports the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) and says that it will help in reducing the cost of health care as well as ensuring high quality of the services offered; however, Mr. Goodman refers to it as very harmful and incompetent. This is because it will hinder entrepreneurship and innovation in the health sector. Another difference between them is that Goodman wants the government to give equal amount of tax relief to all citizens (Goodman, 2005). This is because he believes that the ACA will have a negative impact on small business owners by increasing their tax. On the other hand, Gruber suggest that the government should give subsidies, but only to those who are qualified. He supports this by saying that it will be beneficial to small business if they qualify for the subsidies offered by the government (Gruber, 2011). Lastly, Goodman proposes for a market whereby insurance Companies are allowed to charge higher and lower premium rates for the sick and the healthy. This is in contrary to Gruber’s idea that the health insurers should charge equal amount of premiums to everyone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Goodman, C., J. (2005). Health Care in a Free Society: Rebutting the Myth of National Health

Insurance. Retrieved 27 April 2014. From, http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/pa532.pdf

Gruber, J. (2011). The Impacts of Affordable Care Act: How Reasonable are the Projections.

            Retrieved 27 April 2014. From, http://economics.mit.edu/files/6829

 

 

 

should historical artifact found by archaeologist be returned to their countries ?

May 29, 2014

Name:

Instructor:

Course:

Date:

Historical Artifact and the Repatriation Debate

Summary

Peru boasts of the Incan empire and the Machu Picchu, its old capital. However, this capital was discovered by Yale and gave it numerous artifacts that were taken from the old Incan empire. The government of Peru has been seeking to have these artifacts repatriated from Yale University. The university has agreed to repatriate some of the artifacts and assist the government of Peru initiate a new museum so as to show the new historical artifacts. This is just one of the numerous cases showing the controversy surrounding the repatriation of cultural artifacts. In this regard, it is important to note that each and every nation sees its cultural artifacts as epitomes of national pride and authority. However, most of these historical artifacts tend to become properties of other nations, mostly via illegal modes. There are factions in regard to this subject. On one hand, are those receiving the artifacts and seek to preserve them in the best way. On the other hand, there are the original nations who maintain that the artifacts rightfully belong to them. This controversial subject has been widespread across the globe and has been evidenced in nations like Britain, Egypt, US, Peru and China among others.

 

 

 

Recent developments about the repatriation of historical artifacts have raised questions of major concern to the archeologists. Ethics and moral judgement regarding archeological artifacts attract passionate views. Most of the bodies are buried out of respect by relatives of the deceased. The difference between respecting the remains of an individual and scientific considerations have triggered the important question on whether it is right to disrespect norms and incorporate human remains in research. However, historical artifact found by archaeologist should not be returned to their countries.

The repatriation of historical artifacts has drawn global attention. For this reason, well crafted policy guidelines are required. There has been an issuance of policies from the community archeologists, local groups and the governments. In the year 1991, different ethical guidelines were outline with an aim of overseeing the study of historical artifacts. According to Powell et al (p.6), these policies include: to acknowledge and appreciate the significance of local cultural heritage with the inclusion of sites, locations, artifacts, to the survival of local cultures; to appreciate the significance of safeguarding local heritage to the welfare of the indigenous people; to appreciate the fact that good connection between the locals and their heritage exist regardless of legal ownership; to appreciate the fact that local cultural heritage properly belongs to the local descendants of that specific heritage; and to seek representation of the local people in organizations that finance or mandating research to be sure that their grievances are considered.

From the surface, it is evident that is tension between scientific concern and the presentation of significant clues regarding the past of humans and the norms and beliefs of the local people. From an extreme perspective, this triggers antipathy between the locals and the scientists even though there could be a level-playing field in the event that the views of both sides are taken into consideration (Murray 217).

In this regard, the views of Mulvaney (p.66) must be considered in maintaining that the locals serve as custodians of the historical artifacts as opposed to commanding total ownership of the materials. This is because it is in tandem with the pillars of traditional culture besides the fact that it portrays the fact that archeology is not a white dominated practice, rather it increasingly incorporates the participation of the locals. In turn, this involvement will work as a method of deepening the indigenous people’s comprehension of their biological origins and the cultural backgrounds. For instance, in South Africa, the principle of custodianship characterizes the proposal to create a museum that is managed by the community. According to Koch & Sillen (p.30), this must be done on the areas of the excavations where the locals could accord the archeologists permission to research skeletal remains. Another example is the case of New Zealand where this kind of leadership portrayed by the Maori has triggered insights and significant feasibilities of a policy like the one defined here. Sovereignty concerns and despondence due to failure to acknowledge and appreciate unique cultural norms underpin most of the claims by the locals calling for the return of historical artifacts.

From the scientific perspective, it is important to note that historical artifacts offer significant information on various subjects that include organization of local societies and the origin of certain ailments. Just like the other organized forms of thinking, science could be perceived as a culture having its ethical systems. According to Goldstein and Kintigh (p.586), even though archeologists are concerned about the life of the people they research, they are also interested in unearthing the truth. From a scientific standpoint, historical artifacts are part and parcel of the global heritage. This is attributed to the fact that the information they generate is relevant to and could be said to belong to all communities of humans. In this regard, historical artifacts are of great significance that they should not be subjected to repatriation.

When analyzed from this perspective, the position of some locals is significantly distinct (Elson 53). This is attributed to the fact that it calls for the respect of historical remains of the ancestors in addition to the religious importance and cultural significance of that respect. In most instances, this element of respect comes with the right to precisely establish the manner in which the artifacts are treated. The emphasis on respect could in itself be closely connected with the wish for restitution amidst previous mistreatment and thus be part of a prevailing fight for right and acknowledgement. At various levels, there is the view that most of the scientific work does not employ the historical artifacts available to the archeologists and when it does, the details retrieved in these researches is not shared with the locals (Elson 53). Based on this, the locals are of the view that they are mere bystanders, the artifacts of their ancestors being employed as a way of colonialism.

As already shown, the positions of archeologists and the locals are not inevitably worlds apart. These positions portray two extreme, which constitute the platform upon which controversies could flourish. Extra complexities are brought in by the extra ordinary nature of every case, government’s unwillingness to promote science when fostering reconciliation with the locals and the escalating pressure to bolster the politics of local’s heritage. According to Pullar (p.19), the main difference between the archeologists and the locals is their significantly different worldviews. In this regard, it is submitted that it is because the locals and the archeologists do not share concepts regarding time, self-identity and even death and are unable to acknowledge the variations or are not able to understand the position of each other that repatriation talks could be charged emotionally. The variations in the element of time show the collision of these worldviews. According to Pullar (p.19), the scientists from the west see time as a trend of events, which comprises generations of individuals. In the west, individuals only focus on a few generations from the previous eras. However, the locals consider time to a circular event. This means that the people who may have died years back are still part and parcel of the present community.

The Maori perception of time varies from the traditional western approach. From the perspective of the west, the past lies behind the person while the future goes beyond him. This is a reverse case when it comes to the Maori culture, the past goes beyond the individual. Based on this perception, the Maori term the past as being interconnected with the current and feel a spiritual connection to their ancestors the limit to which is seriously misconstrued by those in the west. The ancestors are greatly revered than mere portrayal of the past. This means that respect for the norms and values of the indigenous people must include respect for their ancestor’s remains.

The importance of this perception is greatest in the event that it is acknowledged that scientific records are not empirically provided rather made in relation to a certain worldview. In emphasizing the fact that historical artifacts should not repatriated, Bray & Grant (p.157) submit that science must be comprehended and incorporated within a certain socio-economic jurisdiction and linked to a particular worldview. With the increased transparency of the ideological motivations and the political triggers of scientific search and facts, it is easy to see how indigenous evaluation of historical artifacts could be used as alternative means of understanding the past. Based on this, it is quick step of inquiring the form of science from the approach of the archeologists and that of the locals. Though debate is always founded on the fact that the discussion is centered in science against non-science, it could at times incorporate optional perspectives to science.

The need to bar repatriation of historical artifact is also attributed to financial issues. In this regard, it is important to note that museums rely in grants and one of their pillars is the curiosity of the audience for viewing historical artifacts (Celoria 161). There is limited ethical justification in placing the curiosity of the visitors over the desires to have the historical artifacts returned. However, the museums will take this factor into consideration when addressing requests of repatriation. It could a wild an unimaginable expectation that there will not be even one Indian skeleton in North American museum. However, there is pressure to repatriate historical artifacts. In this regard, it is important to note that in the event that all historical artifacts are repatriated, prevailing upon the taxpayers to finance excavation would be an uphill task (Meighan 707). In addition, it has been submitted that donations would be limited in the event they become subject to claims of repatriation. On the other hand, the institutions of learning could find it difficult to operate archeology courses.

There are also political considerations. In this regard, it is important to note the views of the locals holding that their religious, political and socio-economic rights had been taken away. The political platform has been employed with an aim of showing the unfairness of colonialism and one of its portrayals is the call for the repatriation of historical artifacts and laws to bar the same kinds of violations. A cynical perception may see this as retaliation. However, according to Zimmerman (p.211), the bones of humans have become epitomes of authority both from a spiritual angle and a political angled. According to Goldstein & Kintigh (p.586), political frameworks codified in global or international law, address the conflict while repatriation of historical artifacts always demands arbitration that is founded on a legal platform. This attributed to the fact the protagonists are not ready or are not able to compromise. As a matter of fact, the reaction of some locals was based on the fact that this is selfish and financially triggered exploitation of legal platform. With time, the rights of the locals have been drafted in law that has apparently resulted in the traditional rights of the scientists and archeologists facing challenges.

In addition, racism should be acknowledged. An exhumation triggered one of the reburial cases in the US that exposed the partial treatment of historical artifacts in lowa cemetry. There was the relocation of a cemetery and the government archeologists had the European remains buried with immediate effect while dispatching the remains of the Indians for the purposes of research (Zimmerman 212). This was always the normal practice of the archeologists. America, under these circumstances made racist determinations by isolating between Indian and European artifacts (Goldstein & Kintigh 589). The 1996 constitution of South Africa basically safeguards the rights of societies and this incorporated within the nation’s heritage.

The present policy of Egypt is political. A mummy, perhaps Ramesses 1 had been repatriated to this nation and was accorded state honors. There were attempts to justify the renowned repatriation based on the fact that returning the artifacts to their initial locations in Egypt works to restore their spiritual authority and archeological context. In the nation of Israel the historical artifacts are used for territorial roles and nationalistic purposes (Weingrod 10). The Sis Days War triggered the occupation of the West Bank, which in essence is a historical controversial region while retention of the region was justified by the Prime Minister holding the nation of Israel would never surrender from the areas where the bones of its past leaders were buried. On the other hand, Australia has offered pubic apologies regarding its colonial past while Tony Blair in the year 2000 sought to boost the initiatives to repatriate historical artifacts in Australia (Pickering 7). The United States appears to have the most controversial clash between science and repatriation of historical artifacts. This is possibly attributed to the fact that protagonists come from one country. There are different Federal laws while most debatable is the NAGRPA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) (Bruning 505). This law neither bars scientific research nor allows repatriation rather expects integration of opposing interests. In addition, the law seeks to strike a balance between the interests of each and every person but finally fails given the fact that it demands that claimants are considered successful via their cultural link to the historical artifacts (Bruning 508). Unfortunately, the law of the United States has double standards that only tackle the domestic situation. The United States desires that all the casualties from Vietnam are repatriated and buried with the dignity that they deserve. However, the US opposes the repatriation of locals. The struggle to put up with colonization, for the country and the people is sophisticated and predictably some countries have made good progress compared to the rest. Historical artifacts and repatriation are still a major focus and could remain this way in the fight towards fairness and reconciliation.

In conclusion, it is apparent that the ethics of historical artifacts and repatriation will keep triggering disagreement between those who desire to carry our scientific studies. The people that wish to have their ancestors repatriated and those with a financial objective or a financial agenda. It must be submitted that people can disagree regarding this controversial subject. Many years back such suggestions triggered reproach from the scientists and could have comprised civil disobedience. The majority of the debates regarding beliefs trigger some disagreement. This notwithstanding, it must be noted that artifacts have special cultural significance for a certain area. In the event these artifacts are repatriated, they would lose their meaning. However, with time negotiated answers, accepted to most of the people will be established for every geographic region. Global agreement should also be created, particularly through agreement as opposed to rigid legal processes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Bray Tamaral. Repatriation, power relations, and the politics of the past. Antiquity 70:440–44

Bruning Susan. Complex Legal Legacies: The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, Scientific Study, and Kennewick Man. American Antiquity, Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jul., 2006), 501:521

Celoria Francis. Burials and Archaeology: A Survey of Attitudes to Research. Folklore, Vol. 77, No. 3 (Autumn, 1966), 161:183

Elson John. Returning bones of contention: A bitter debate over spiritual values and scholarly needs. Time, September 25th, p.53.

Goldstein Lynne & Kintigh Keith. Ethics and the reburial controversy. American Antiquity 55:585–91.

Koch Eddie & Sillen Andrew. Rights of passage. New Scientist, pp.30–33

Meighan Clement. Some Scholars’ Views on Reburial. American Antiquity, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Oct., 1992), 704:710

Mulveney John. Reflections on the Murray Black collection. Australian Natural History 23:66–73

Murray Tim. Coming to terms with the living: Some aspects of repatriation for the archaeologist. Antiquity 70: 217–220

Pickering Michael. Lost in Translation. Borderlands E-journal 2008, Vol.7, No.2, 1:18

Powell Shirley., Christina Garza & Hendricks Aubrey. Ethics and Ownership of the Past: The Reburial and Repatriation Controversy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press

Pullar Gordon. ‘‘The Qikertarmiut and the scientist: Fifty years of clashing world views,’’ in Reckoning with the dead: The Larsen Bay repatriation and the Smithsonian Institution. Edited by T. L. Bray and T. W. Killion, pp.15–25.

Weingrod Alex. Dry Bones: Nationalism and Symbolism in Contemporary Israel. Anthropology Today, Vol. 11, No. 6 (Dec., 1995), 7:12

Zimmerman Larry. Human bones as symbols of power: aboriginal American beliefs systems turned toward bones and ‘grave-robbing’ archaeologists in Hodder, Ian (ed.) Archaeological Theory Today. Cambridge: Polity Press, 211:216

 

 

PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT

May 29, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT

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Institution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT

The public sector in the United Kingdom has taken a dramatic change and improvement in the last few years. Initally, United Kingdom had an elaborate and an independent labor force guarded by well-elaborated systems. The Industrial revolution brought itself with new ways of management and by extension the styles of management and the organization of the public sector in general. The changes were further fuelled by the advancements in the technological advancements and the general improvements in the way things are conducted. The changes brought itself with the realignments of the public sector. The emergence of European Union as a unifying factor in Europe, which brings all countries in Europe. The unifying body brings on board different rules and regulations relating to the public sector management. As one of the requirements. As one of the requirements to join the union, the countries must align themselves in a way that is compliant to the needs of the Union. Such requirements touch on the Public Sector Management of the countries and the streamlining of the governance of the sectors. Such changes have an effect on the Public Sector in the United Kingdom, which by extension have an effect on the future projections, and the nature in which the sector will be run in the near future (Radnor 2004).

The Public sector in the United Kingdom, as earlier mentioned has undergone a number of changes, which are worth discussing since 1995. Initially, the Public Sector was coupled with a lot of use human capital. Most duties were done by the individual employees who were charged with the responsibilities t conduct such duties. To this end, there was reduced accountability in the sector and the reliability was reduced by the non-automation of duties. The recent development and changes in the sector includes automation in the sector. The automation has increased accountability and hence reduction of wastage in the sector. The automation has cushioned the wastage in the sector increasing the relevance in sector.

The sector has also grown significantly in the recent past in the light of its relevance and operation in the sector. To this end, the sector becomes useful in the integrating and the unification of the country and other growing economies. The sector is more focused in the positioning of the county involved with integration with other growing economies. With the growing of economies and the globalization has increased and empowered the mandates of the sector to include the relationship with other countries and regional integration of the countries. The expansion on the mandates of the public sector to include the economic integration and other globalization of the world.

The role of the public sector has been important in the shaping of the individual objectives of the country. The public sector, specifically, determines the different policies and regulations, which are passed along to the other sector of the economy. A Central Bank for instance determines the rules regulating the banking sector, which is trickled down to all the banks and the financial institutions. The same is reflected in the other areas which are brought on board due reorganization of the role of the public sector. The public sector’s main function is to same facilitated and provides the enabling environment for the development. In the same note, the public sector is charged with a duty to facilitate and ensure an increased participation of other sectors towards the general growth and the maintenance of the economy. The United Kingdom’s public sector is proud of a long time of period of facilitation of the economy and spurring the growth through collaborative efforts and provision of the necessary facilities to facilitate and maintain growth of economy.

The changes in the regional environment and other integration have different impacts on the public sector management. With regional integrations and the joining of European Union among other regional integration, have effects to the relation of the Public Sector. The sector therefore aligns itself with the provisions of the integration (Oswick, 1996). Most of the regional bodies have regulations and requirements, which must be met by the individual countries. The compliance with needs require the realignment of the public sector. Unions such as the European Union, have requirements, which are not limited to efficient public management of public funds and the increase of accountability of the same. Such requirements lead to clean up of the public management system and the nature of interaction with other bodies. Other impacts of changes in external environments include the borrowing of technology and knowhow so that the sector borrows efficient system of managing the system (Davies 2011). The success of the system determines the manner in which then private sector relates with the sector. The relationship between the private sector and private sector determines greatly the success of the economy. The relationship also determines the nature in which business is conducted in the regional platform. Busine

S environment and the conduction of the corporations are fuelled by the government goodwill, which is greatly influenced by the nature and the structure of the public sector.

Evaluation of Public Sector

The public sector is mainly concerned with the provision of the services to the public. The need for services ranges from the need by the citizenry to obtain a number of services from the government. The performance of the Public sector is measured by the efficiency of the services provision and the nature of the services provided. The performance of the public sector is generally measured by the level of precision and the speed with which the services are provided. The automation of government services shows advancement of the sector in the light of the automation. The nature of the investments of the public sector is an indication of the level of performance of the nature of the public sector. The public sector has a duty to provide the services to the people and provide the enabling environment for investments and even the savings. A public sector is judged and evaluated by the methodologies with which it applies so as to sustain or improve on the economic performance of the a country. A public sector should be able to cushion the members of the public and the citizenry from adverse condition of the economy. The public sector organizations are measured by how they are able to provide and fulfill their statutory obligation in relation to the public needs and demands. The government aligns its departments and therefore its organization according to the ideologies propagated by the government and hence the need to train so that the sector is beneficial in the way it approaches issue.

 

 

Assessment Questions:

As a Manager, you need to investigate and analyze key features in local and regional levels change and identified problems related to changes since 1995; evaluate the impact of provision of public sector goods/services; and the impact of the political context and the policy process on public sector organizations

The key features in the local levels changes in the current world economy include the globalization. Most companies have identified the potentiality in other countries hence there is aggressive investments in these countries. Of more concern is the rise of other emerging economies and the growth in the needs of the countries. The labor productivity for instance is experiencing a down turn in most of the developing countries. The presence of other factors of production in some other countries makes the cost of production to vary greatly among the countries. The cost f production influences greatly the nature and the places of investments therefore should be carefully evaluated for the accurate. The leadership of different firms is more focused in the reduction of the cost of production therefore would opt for globalization and the advancement of technology.

The problems associated with such changes in the need to reduce cost of production with the aim of increasing profitability a hence the dividends to the shareholders. However, the establishment of a firm in another country is coupled with the other hidden cost and the regulations of that country. Therefore, the process of diversifying and giving a bit of the company’s share to the public through announcement of the listing of stock is a matter of the individual decisions (Accord 1995).

The political context determines a lot the nature of a business conducted and even the success registered by the particular business. The political good will ensures laws and regulation, which provide enabling to synergize and conduct the interview as well; therefore, the provision of the services at the government offices makes it possible for the mobile operation. The political goodwill is a necessary point to in the need to have economic liberation. Most policies are regulated by bodies that form parents to students who are looking internship positions in the newly established companies with the new research therefore the e need for stability of the economy. The policies made relating to interest rates, savings, fiscal treatments an even the monetary policies which are brought on board to help raise the county government to the levels which were once envisioned (Flynn 1995).

 

 

 

 

As a Manager, you need to evaluate the importance of the accountability process arising from modernization; accountability mechanisms of public sector organizations; the relevance of public sector organizations in the face of competition from other providers; and analyze potential problems as a result of organizations being in the public sector.

Accountability is an important aspect of corporate governance. Accountability and transparency is where the company in charge is able to allocate all the funds and account for them without any issue of fraudulent transactions. The modernization and the automation of the systems have ensured which increase the public confidence and hence the faith in the government activities. The creditors and even the guarantors confidence in the form will increase hence boosting my profile. The public sector remains relevant because it is concerned with long-term determination of working. The stiff competition received by the private sector and other development agents show a god platform where the public sector has slipped. The fiscal policies and the original languages (Macadam, 2002).The presence of public sector put a firm to the statutory provision guarding such firms. This act limits creativity and innovation among the firms

 

As a Manager, you need to examine the difference between private and public sector organizations; critically evaluate the impact of key features relating to privatization and Europeanization on the public sector; and evaluate future strategies, which could help to mitigate the impact of such external pressures.  

 

 

The main difference between the private sector and the public sector is the nature of the products offered. The public sector is mainly a service provider since it gives most of the government services to the public. The privatization of companies is helpful in the decentralization and to allow. The privatization however, can lead to large crisis and high-level monopoly by the members of the company in question (Worrall, 2012). Privatization is desirable but it requires critical exchanges and keen calculation s of the Net work of a firm. Europeanization of the public sector has lead to low self-esteem in others. Many other people think they are left out; hence, there is no sense of belonging. The same also tend to bring young peace for the last quarter of the year. Te Europeanization is the factor behind most people looking East in their demands. The situation make other people think that they are greatly left out in the affairs of the region (Thornthwaite, 2004).

 

As a Manager, you need to evaluate a variety of relevant management theories/techniques; and critically evaluate the performance of a given organization with suitable management theories/techniques. Management is an art which depend on the person involved

 The managers variedly adopt the management theories, which influence decision-making and the corporate governance. One such theory is the dictatorial theory of management, which emphasizes on the exerting pressure on someone with no or little choice to do otherwise. Democratic theory of leadership on the other hand brings the perception and the choice to make good or bad with an aim that one will remained. Management, unlike other practical scientifically processes, is an art, which depends on the person involved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Ackroyd, S. (1995). From public administration to public sector management: Understanding contemporary change in British public services. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 8(2), 19.

Davies, S. (2011). Outsourcing, public sector reform and the changed character of the UK state-voluntary sector relationship. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 24(7), 641-649.

Flynn, N. (1995). The future of public sector management: Are there some lessons from Europe? The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 8(4), 59.

Harris, L., Doughty, D., & Kirk, S. (2002). The devolution of HR responsibilities – perspectives from the UK’s public sector. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(5), 218-229. McAdam, R., Hazlett, S., & Casey, C. (2005). Performance management in the UK public sector: Addressing multiple stakeholder complexity. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, 18(3), 256-273.

McAdam, R., Reid, R., & Saulters, R. (2002). Sustaining quality in the UK public sector: Quality measurement frameworks.The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 19(5), 581.

Oswick, C., & Grant, D. (1996). Personnel management in the public sector power, roles and relationships. Personnel Review, 25(2), 4-18.

Radnor, Z., & McGuire, M. (2004). Performance management in the public sector: Fact or fiction? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 53(3), 245-260.

Thornthwaite, L. (2012). The origins of personnel management: Reasserting the public sector experience. Journal of Management History, 18(3), 312-330.

Worrall, L., Mather, K., & Seifert, R. (2010). Solving the labour problem among professional workers in the UK public sector: Organisation change and performance management. Public Organization Review, 10(2), 117-137.

 

Speaker Evaluation Regarding Leadership

May 29, 2014

 

 

 

Speaker Evaluation Regarding Leadership

Name

Institutional Affiliation:

Tutor:

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Speaker Evaluation Regarding Leadership

Introduction

Guest speakers assume fundamental roles in mentoring the students, workers and the society at large. They influence their crowd with their leadership skills, motivation, outlook and complexion, as well as, language eloquence among others. Speakers employ situational skill and style approach in order to achieve the above named intents to their audience. Situation approach bases on the rationale of leadership aspects. In that, it employs the capacity of the speaker to effect strategies that will influence and capture the attention of the audience and organization. The same, styles approach bases on the issue of the deportment of the leader. For instance, it focuses on the temperament characteristics like complexion. Furthermore, skills approach lays emphasis on performance of the leader’s acts. In that, it enlightens on how the leaders conduct their duties. For instance, the previous speaker was outstanding and more persuasive in his words. Owing to the above elucidation, this paper in writing seeks to discuss and analyze the conduct of the speaker in relation to the issues deliberated by the speaker.

                                                                      Discussion

In the recent past, leadership aspects have proven substantial, thus, a leader is integral to a speaker. A speaker has to be a leader, therefore, have mastery in the leadership aspect, like, for example; authority and ability to influence directive. Leadership focuses on the development of an all-round employee student and the entire organization. A speaker commands his audience, as, for example; students, employees, a nation or the world at large, has respectable leadership knowledge, personal traits, skills and techniques e.t.c. however, for a leader to achieve his intents, it is mandatory for him to comprehend himself fast. There exist a number of scholarly work that endeavor to explain how the speaker rates himself. For instance, the three skill approach tries to give a framework of what a leader or a speaker views himself. It bases its locale on the foundation of technical skills, conceptual skills, and human skills. Together, the above focus on matters affecting technicality of the organization, knowledge of handling organizational matters and the ability to contemplate the aptitude of the leader to understand the needs of the organization. Justifiably, the above focuses towards viewing a speaker or a leader lays prominence on personal traits and performance. Therefore, competent leaders show their capability in matters concerning leadership. Hence, a speaker or a leader perceives himself as motivating, intuitive and credible, since, he shows competence and commands followers who look on to him for leadership concerns (Leatherman et al., 2008). Equally, he views himself as the icon of success in the organization.

On the other hand, a speaker ought to show propensity to handle problems that itch an institution, organization, corporation e.t.c. Hence, a speaker achieves problem solving, by exhibiting attributable traits and competencies. The traits focus on cognitive abilities both general and crystalized, viable personality and motivational skills. Similarly, competencies lay emphasis on concerns like problem solving, intellect and integrity, as well as, social judgment techniques. Therefore, effective application of the above rationales will influence the aptitude of a leader or speaker to understand his followers, thus, prescribe effective decision. Consequently, the above skill model will ensure viable leadership outcome. That is operative problem handling and performance.

           Moreover, leaders are influential and directive. In this regard, working with a leader as his colleague will be an honor. In that, leadership centers on a comprehensive spectrum, and so, it would be a prospect for one to cultivate his leadership skills by emulating and practicing leadership by a leader. It bases on situational and skill approach. Situational approach bases on a leadership style that is flexible, as it depends on the situation that faces the organization. It necessitates a leader to determine viable leadership to be employed. Secondly, it requisites a leader to effect the strategic leadership style. In the process, it foster one’s proficiency regarding leadership, since, it involves training and consulting experienced leaders in the leadership sector. On the contrary, it would be conflicting, since, a leader believes in himself and ideas. Thus, it would be a great ordeal when trying to bring up intellects that are either better than his or contradicting. Consequently, it may result to poor outcome and performance.

In lieu with the above discussion, working under the supervision of a leader would be beneficial to an individual. Since, a good leader exhibits personal traits that are accepted in the institution. Therefore, this traits will help an individual focus on achieving organizational goals, self-actualization and development of an all-round employee. Also, into the bargain, it will be nurturing dreams and aspirations of an employee. Contrary to the above rationale, it would be puzzling as one has to lower his ego and operate as per the instructions of a leader. Moreover, some leaders are manipulative and can misuse a person’s proficiency to their benefit. In the long run, the aforementioned glitch can prove demoralizing, thus, curtail realization of both the organizational and personal objectives in an organization.

            A leader depicts and determines prosperity in an organization. He defines and designs the future of the organization. A competitive and effective leader safeguards the future of the organization, as, he influences the employees positively and vice versa. For a learner or employee, there are countless bonuses that one can attain from a decent leader. For instance, the personal traits and attributes, concepts, techniques and skills in addition to competence build and nurture one’s experience and the knowhow to handle leadership concerns in an organization. Furthermore, one can emulate the performance attributes, as well as, gain immense competence from noble leaders.

Conclusion

            Leadership plays a pivotal role in the organization and the world at large. It enables different clusters of people to work together towards achieving a fundamental goal or objective in the organization or in life. In relation to what the speaker discussed and leadership concepts, leadership entails motivation, personal attributes, intellect and capability. Since, according to the speaker he employed the entire set to achieve his intent. He motivated, identified difficulties and provided a layout on how to handle them. The speaker was literally overwhelming. The finest of the entire day! He far surpassed the expectations of the institution. Subsequently, his message augmented the lives of everybody in attendance. Owing to the above justification, a frontrunner undertakes a significant role. Therefore, I recommend that organizations to put focus on leadership aspects by inviting guest speakers and identifying feasible leaders in order to achieve organizational goals.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Leatherman, D. (2008). Quality leadership skills: Standards of leadership behavior. Amherst, Mass: HRD Pres

 

 

 

 

 

Psychology lab report

May 28, 2014

Psychology lab report

 

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Institution

 

 

Registration number

 

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This is a report for an experiment that was conducted in an attempt to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The topic for the study is gender differences in learning and memory of verbal information. For this reason various cases were selected and subjected to various tests with an aim of proving or disapproving the hypothesis that there occur gender differences that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. This was conducted in order to the effects of aging and Alzheimer disease and other possible disorders may result to poor learning and memory of verbal information. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall.

Introduction

This report is a representation of the results that were found from an experiment. The main purpose of this experiment was to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. . This was aimed at testing the learning ability of all the participants of the experiment and their ability to recall. The population combined both men and women who were subjected to subject to similar treatment. The results of the experiment would enable us determine whether there are any persistent factors in affecting the learning and recall capacity of the different genders. All the same, the test for homogeneity on the learners did not indicate any significant differences between sites on the cognitive measures that were being tested. It is therefore, true that the hypothesis of the experiment is not true. The findings of the experiment disapproved the hypothesis that there are factors in gender that affect the learning ability and memory of verbal information.

There have been controversies over time on whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. This is the reason as to why this study was found to be important in assisting the various interested parties to come up with the real truth regarding this situation. The learning and recall capacity of the different genders had to be subjected to an experiment so as to assist in determining whether there are specific aspects that affect learning and memory of verbal information. In case there are those constant factors that affect the learning capacities of different genders, then it means that the different categories of individuals had to be treated differently when it comes to placement in job positions and allocation of schooling opportunities (Schunk, D. H. 2000 p 43).

The major controversy here is that there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. There have been arguments that there are differences in episodic memory for the different ages and genders. Others argued that there are no major differences in the ability to learn and remember the knowledge acquired that could be based on gender (Irby, B. J. 2013p30). In this subject matter, there have been different studies that have been done in an attempt to explain the relationship between gender, age and the ability of an individual to learn and recall incidences and the learnt knowledge. Verbal learning and memory was also studied among 196 men and women who were all healthy. Their ages were between 40 to 89 years of age. The RALVT containing a list of 15 words was conducted over five trials. These were followed by free recall trials. A recognition trial was administered for fifty words for the same group. A regression to examine the contribution of age, sex and vocabulary on the five trials indicated that age and sex contributes significantly to the portion of variance in each trial. Vocabulary could only account to the proportion of variance only in the fourth and the fifth trials. The recognition trial was, however not affected by age, sex and vocabulary. The overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

Differences related to age memory and verbal learning on the Rey Auditory Verbal learning Task (RAVLT) has been shown in men among populations based in hospitals (Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. 2009 p39). These differences have also been noted among healthy populations living in homes (Spiegel, M. R, & Lindstrom, D. P. 2000 p32). Sex and verbal intelligence were recently reported to have an impact on the performance on the RAVLT. Women were reported to score higher as compared to men (Graham, A. 2003p45). Adult norms differed according to social class. Differences related to social, native and verbal intelligence. According to the findings of an earlier research, the overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. 1996 p24). Various articles have been recorded to discuss this matter. Majority of them indicate that all the tests that have been conducted to study the relationship between sex and the performance of the different genders indicate that there is a significant relationship between sex and performance. Most of them indicate that me are more performing when it comes to learning and recalling of verbal information as compared to women. The elderly people have been recorded to have relative impairment on their supraspan memory tasks (Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. 1999 p94). This is believed to be as a result of decreased speed in processing of material and not as a result of defects in their learning capacity. There has been proper proof that there is a disparity in processing capacity for the elderly as compared to the younger species (Pearson (Ed.) 2014 p 45). The correct diagnosis of the cognitive impairment of the elderly population or for any other group will depend on how appropriate is the diagnostic test that was applied (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A.1996 p78). Intelligence and sex is not mainly considered in describing cognitive changes of aging individuals (Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. 2012 p34). This project aimed at determining whether women also indicate changes in RAVLT performance depending on their age. We also wanted to know whether these changes, if they exist, are similar to those experienced by men.

Methodology

The experiment was carried out by nursing students who wanted to determine the factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall. The learning trials were conducted three times for the different groups and the delayed trials later conducted for the various groups. The learners recorded the observations of the experiment and used them in analysis to come out with the appropriate facts on the particular issue.

In the first trial, the practitioner reads several questions and requests the group under test to listen and try to recall any possible number of words in any order.

The practitioner repeats the same words in the second trial and requests the learners to listen and recall them in the second and third trial. The practitioner will mark the number of words that were recalled by the various learners in the various trials. In trial B, the practitioner reads the same number of words and the participants listens and recalls them. This information is recorded in tables and used in the analysis of the information.

The following table indicates some of the words that were used in the tests.

 

 

 

 

Table 2

 

Learning trials

interface

recall

 

List A

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

List B

B1

A6

A7

List A

Pipe

 

 

 

 

 

Benc

 

 

 

Pipe

Wall

 

 

 

 

 

Doctor

 

 

 

Wall

Alarm

 

 

 

 

 

Cage

 

 

 

Alarm

Sugar

 

 

 

 

 

Sock

 

 

 

Sugar

Student

 

 

 

 

 

Fridge

 

 

 

Student

Mother

 

 

 

 

 

Cliff

 

 

 

Mother

Star

 

 

 

 

 

Bottle

 

 

 

Star

Painting

 

 

 

 

 

Soap

 

 

 

Painting

Bag

 

 

 

 

 

Sky

 

 

 

Bag

Wheat

 

 

 

 

 

Ship

 

 

 

Wheat

Mouth

 

 

 

 

 

Goat

 

 

 

Mouth

Chicken

 

 

 

 

 

Bullet

 

 

 

Chicken

Sound

 

 

 

 

 

Paper

 

 

 

Sound

Door

 

 

 

 

 

Chapel

 

 

 

Door

Stream

 

 

 

 

 

Crab

 

 

 

Stream

#correct

 

 

 

 

 

#correct

 

 

 

#correct

 

According to the various studies that have been carried out and the findings obtained, we realize that there is still need for further research in this field. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living. The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance. An individual from a well up family will not find any need in putting extra effort in improving their ability to learn and retain the verbal information acquired.

There is therefore need that further research is conducted in order to come up with concrete facts on the other factors that may affect the performance of the various individuals. The various stakeholders should take part in ensuring that various means are put in place to enable further research in this field. It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

Results of the independent samples

The results of the ANOVAs indicate that there is a relationship between sex and the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We therefore accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative for this experiment.

There were sex differences demonstrated in all components contained in the RAVLT, where females RAVLT recognition were recorded to be F (1, 165) = 33.82, p < 0.001; F (1, 165) = 37.25, P < 0.001 and F (1,165) = 9.49, P < 0.005, respectively. This particular test indicate that the calculated F value was more than the predetermined value, so we reject the alternative and accept the null hypothesis.

The major summary statements in this experiment are:

  1. There is a relationship between sex and the ability of an individual to learn and recall.
  2. There is a relationship between ethnicity and the learning capacity of an individual.
  3. The learning abilities of an individual are affected by listening and recall capacity of the individual.
  4. The learning and recall capacities of an individual are affected by their age.
  5. The learning and recall capacities of an individual are affected by the immediate environment.

 

 

Discussion

The following tables were obtained from the analysis of the experiment.

 

Table 1

 

Male(n=59)

Female(n=113)

 

 

Mean

Standard deviation

Mean

Standard deviation

Cohen’s d effect size

Age

74.6

8.0

746

7.7

 

Education

16.5

2.8

14.9

3.0

 

MMSE

29.3

2.0

29.4

0.9

 

DRS Total

138.6

4.1

138.9

4.8

 

COWAT Total

38.6

11.7

39.4

12.2

 

Vocabulary

13.6

2.7

13.2

9.3

0.74 medium

RAVLT total

40.7

8.4

47.3

2.8

0.91 large

RAVLT delayed recall

7.5

3.0

10.1

1.8

0.49 medium

RAVLT recognition

12.7

1.9

13.6

6.3

0.27 small

BVMT-R Total

15.3

5.1

16.9

2.7

0.15 small

BVMT-R delayed recall

6.8

2.4

7.2

0.7

0.00 negligible

BVMT-R recognition

5.6

0.6

5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to the information obtained in the experiment it is clear that there is a considerable effect of gender on the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and recall verbal information. We realize that men indicate a higher performance as compared to women on the ability to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We also realize that there are other factors affecting the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and remember verbally acquired information. Factors such as vocabulary and age have also been observed to affect the stated characteristics of an individual (Bush, T. 2003 p56).

It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

There were limitations; however to the research method that was used because the individuals were selected with consideration to their ethnicity and backgrounds. Some ethnic groups were more represented than others. This indicates that the observations made were more likely to represent a certain specific group in comparison to the others. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living (Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. 2009 p8). The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance.

Conclusion

In this experiment, we have assessed the factors that affect the learning and recall abilities of different individuals. This was done through offering tests to a group of individuals. The tests aimed at testing the listening and recall capabilities of the different individuals. According to the information obtained in the experiment it is clear that there is a considerable effect of gender on the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and recall verbal information. We realize that men indicate a higher performance as compared to women on the ability to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We also realize that there are other factors affecting the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and remember verbally acquired information.

 

References

Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. (2012).Statistics for the behavioural sciences (9th ed.) NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Allen, P, & Bennett, K. (2012). SPSS statistics: A practical guide. South Melbourne,Australia: Cengage Learning.

 

Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. (1999). The elements of learning. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Cornish, U., & Ross, F. (2004). Social skills training for adolescents with general moderate learning difficulties. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Graham, A. (2003). Statistics. Blacklick, Ohio: McGraw-Hill.

Spiegel, M. R., & Lindstrom, D. P. (2000). Schaum’s easy outlines statistics based on Schaum’s outline of theory and problems of statistics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Memory. San Diego: Academic Press.

Bush, T. (2003). Theories of educational leadership and management (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. (2009). Educational theories, cultures and learning: a critical perspective. London: Routledge.

Irby, B. J. (2013). The handbook of educational theories. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Pub..

Schunk, D. H. (2000). Learning theories: an educational perspective (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Psychology lab report

May 28, 2014

Psychology lab report

 

Name

 

 

Institution

 

 

Registration number

 

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This is a report for an experiment that was conducted in an attempt to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The topic for the study is gender differences in learning and memory of verbal information. For this reason various cases were selected and subjected to various tests with an aim of proving or disapproving the hypothesis that there occur gender differences that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. This was conducted in order to the effects of aging and Alzheimer disease and other possible disorders may result to poor learning and memory of verbal information. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall.

Introduction

This report is a representation of the results that were found from an experiment. The main purpose of this experiment was to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. . This was aimed at testing the learning ability of all the participants of the experiment and their ability to recall. The population combined both men and women who were subjected to subject to similar treatment. The results of the experiment would enable us determine whether there are any persistent factors in affecting the learning and recall capacity of the different genders. All the same, the test for homogeneity on the learners did not indicate any significant differences between sites on the cognitive measures that were being tested. It is therefore, true that the hypothesis of the experiment is not true. The findings of the experiment disapproved the hypothesis that there are factors in gender that affect the learning ability and memory of verbal information.

There have been controversies over time on whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. This is the reason as to why this study was found to be important in assisting the various interested parties to come up with the real truth regarding this situation. The learning and recall capacity of the different genders had to be subjected to an experiment so as to assist in determining whether there are specific aspects that affect learning and memory of verbal information. In case there are those constant factors that affect the learning capacities of different genders, then it means that the different categories of individuals had to be treated differently when it comes to placement in job positions and allocation of schooling opportunities (Schunk, D. H. 2000 p 43).

The major controversy here is that there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. There have been arguments that there are differences in episodic memory for the different ages and genders. Others argued that there are no major differences in the ability to learn and remember the knowledge acquired that could be based on gender (Irby, B. J. 2013p30). In this subject matter, there have been different studies that have been done in an attempt to explain the relationship between gender, age and the ability of an individual to learn and recall incidences and the learnt knowledge. Verbal learning and memory was also studied among 196 men and women who were all healthy. Their ages were between 40 to 89 years of age. The RALVT containing a list of 15 words was conducted over five trials. These were followed by free recall trials. A recognition trial was administered for fifty words for the same group. A regression to examine the contribution of age, sex and vocabulary on the five trials indicated that age and sex contributes significantly to the portion of variance in each trial. Vocabulary could only account to the proportion of variance only in the fourth and the fifth trials. The recognition trial was, however not affected by age, sex and vocabulary. The overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

Differences related to age memory and verbal learning on the Rey Auditory Verbal learning Task (RAVLT) has been shown in men among populations based in hospitals (Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. 2009 p39). These differences have also been noted among healthy populations living in homes (Spiegel, M. R, & Lindstrom, D. P. 2000 p32). Sex and verbal intelligence were recently reported to have an impact on the performance on the RAVLT. Women were reported to score higher as compared to men (Graham, A. 2003p45). Adult norms differed according to social class. Differences related to social, native and verbal intelligence. According to the findings of an earlier research, the overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. 1996 p24). Various articles have been recorded to discuss this matter. Majority of them indicate that all the tests that have been conducted to study the relationship between sex and the performance of the different genders indicate that there is a significant relationship between sex and performance. Most of them indicate that me are more performing when it comes to learning and recalling of verbal information as compared to women. The elderly people have been recorded to have relative impairment on their supraspan memory tasks (Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. 1999 p94). This is believed to be as a result of decreased speed in processing of material and not as a result of defects in their learning capacity. There has been proper proof that there is a disparity in processing capacity for the elderly as compared to the younger species (Pearson (Ed.) 2014 p 45). The correct diagnosis of the cognitive impairment of the elderly population or for any other group will depend on how appropriate is the diagnostic test that was applied (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A.1996 p78). Intelligence and sex is not mainly considered in describing cognitive changes of aging individuals (Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. 2012 p34). This project aimed at determining whether women also indicate changes in RAVLT performance depending on their age. We also wanted to know whether these changes, if they exist, are similar to those experienced by men.

Methodology

The experiment was carried out by nursing students who wanted to determine the factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall. The learning trials were conducted three times for the different groups and the delayed trials later conducted for the various groups. The learners recorded the observations of the experiment and used them in analysis to come out with the appropriate facts on the particular issue.

In the first trial, the practitioner reads several questions and requests the group under test to listen and try to recall any possible number of words in any order.

The practitioner repeats the same words in the second trial and requests the learners to listen and recall them in the second and third trial. The practitioner will mark the number of words that were recalled by the various learners in the various trials. In trial B, the practitioner reads the same number of words and the participants listens and recalls them. This information is recorded in tables and used in the analysis of the information.

The following table indicates some of the words that were used in the tests.

 

 

 

 

Table 2

 

Learning trials

interface

recall

 

List A

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

List B

B1

A6

A7

List A

Pipe

 

 

 

 

 

Benc

 

 

 

Pipe

Wall

 

 

 

 

 

Doctor

 

 

 

Wall

Alarm

 

 

 

 

 

Cage

 

 

 

Alarm

Sugar

 

 

 

 

 

Sock

 

 

 

Sugar

Student

 

 

 

 

 

Fridge

 

 

 

Student

Mother

 

 

 

 

 

Cliff

 

 

 

Mother

Star

 

 

 

 

 

Bottle

 

 

 

Star

Painting

 

 

 

 

 

Soap

 

 

 

Painting

Bag

 

 

 

 

 

Sky

 

 

 

Bag

Wheat

 

 

 

 

 

Ship

 

 

 

Wheat

Mouth

 

 

 

 

 

Goat

 

 

 

Mouth

Chicken

 

 

 

 

 

Bullet

 

 

 

Chicken

Sound

 

 

 

 

 

Paper

 

 

 

Sound

Door

 

 

 

 

 

Chapel

 

 

 

Door

Stream

 

 

 

 

 

Crab

 

 

 

Stream

#correct

 

 

 

 

 

#correct

 

 

 

#correct

 

According to the various studies that have been carried out and the findings obtained, we realize that there is still need for further research in this field. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living. The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance. An individual from a well up family will not find any need in putting extra effort in improving their ability to learn and retain the verbal information acquired.

There is therefore need that further research is conducted in order to come up with concrete facts on the other factors that may affect the performance of the various individuals. The various stakeholders should take part in ensuring that various means are put in place to enable further research in this field. It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

Results of the independent samples

The results of the ANOVAs indicate that there is a relationship between sex and the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We therefore accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative for this experiment.

There were sex differences demonstrated in all components contained in the RAVLT, where females RAVLT recognition were recorded to be F (1, 165) = 33.82, p < 0.001; F (1, 165) = 37.25, P < 0.001 and F (1,165) = 9.49, P < 0.005, respectively. This particular test indicate that the calculated F value was more than the predetermined value, so we reject the alternative and accept the null hypothesis.

The major summary statements in this experiment are:

  1. There is a relationship between sex and the ability of an individual to learn and recall.
  2. There is a relationship between ethnicity and the learning capacity of an individual.
  3. The learning abilities of an individual are affected by listening and recall capacity of the individual.
  4. The learning and recall capacities of an individual are affected by their age.
  5. The learning and recall capacities of an individual are affected by the immediate environment.

 

 

Discussion

The following tables were obtained from the analysis of the experiment.

 

Table 1

 

Male(n=59)

Female(n=113)

 

 

Mean

Standard deviation

Mean

Standard deviation

Cohen’s d effect size

Age

74.6

8.0

746

7.7

 

Education

16.5

2.8

14.9

3.0

 

MMSE

29.3

2.0

29.4

0.9

 

DRS Total

138.6

4.1

138.9

4.8

 

COWAT Total

38.6

11.7

39.4

12.2

 

Vocabulary

13.6

2.7

13.2

9.3

0.74 medium

RAVLT total

40.7

8.4

47.3

2.8

0.91 large

RAVLT delayed recall

7.5

3.0

10.1

1.8

0.49 medium

RAVLT recognition

12.7

1.9

13.6

6.3

0.27 small

BVMT-R Total

15.3

5.1

16.9

2.7

0.15 small

BVMT-R delayed recall

6.8

2.4

7.2

0.7

0.00 negligible

BVMT-R recognition

5.6

0.6

5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to the information obtained in the experiment it is clear that there is a considerable effect of gender on the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and recall verbal information. We realize that men indicate a higher performance as compared to women on the ability to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We also realize that there are other factors affecting the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and remember verbally acquired information. Factors such as vocabulary and age have also been observed to affect the stated characteristics of an individual (Bush, T. 2003 p56).

It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

There were limitations; however to the research method that was used because the individuals were selected with consideration to their ethnicity and backgrounds. Some ethnic groups were more represented than others. This indicates that the observations made were more likely to represent a certain specific group in comparison to the others. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living (Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. 2009 p8). The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance.

Conclusion

In this experiment, we have assessed the factors that affect the learning and recall abilities of different individuals. This was done through offering tests to a group of individuals. The tests aimed at testing the listening and recall capabilities of the different individuals. According to the information obtained in the experiment it is clear that there is a considerable effect of gender on the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and recall verbal information. We realize that men indicate a higher performance as compared to women on the ability to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We also realize that there are other factors affecting the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and remember verbally acquired information.

 

References

Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. (2012).Statistics for the behavioural sciences (9th ed.) NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Allen, P, & Bennett, K. (2012). SPSS statistics: A practical guide. South Melbourne,Australia: Cengage Learning.

 

Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. (1999). The elements of learning. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Cornish, U., & Ross, F. (2004). Social skills training for adolescents with general moderate learning difficulties. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Graham, A. (2003). Statistics. Blacklick, Ohio: McGraw-Hill.

Spiegel, M. R., & Lindstrom, D. P. (2000). Schaum’s easy outlines statistics based on Schaum’s outline of theory and problems of statistics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Memory. San Diego: Academic Press.

Bush, T. (2003). Theories of educational leadership and management (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. (2009). Educational theories, cultures and learning: a critical perspective. London: Routledge.

Irby, B. J. (2013). The handbook of educational theories. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Pub..

Schunk, D. H. (2000). Learning theories: an educational perspective (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.

Psychology lab report

May 28, 2014

Psychology lab report

 

Name

 

 

Institution

 

 

Registration number

 

 

Date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This is a report for an experiment that was conducted in an attempt to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The topic for the study is gender differences in learning and memory of verbal information. For this reason various cases were selected and subjected to various tests with an aim of proving or disapproving the hypothesis that there occur gender differences that affect learning and memory of verbal information. The experiment was carried out by nursing students who wanted to determine the factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. This was conducted in order to the effects of aging and Alzheimer disease and other possible disorders may result to poor learning and memory of verbal information. Among the individuals who were involved in the experiment, 88% were whites, 5% Hispanic, 6% Native American and 1% Asian. The experiment was designated based on medical, functional and neurologic examination. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall.

Introduction

This report is a representation of the results that were found from an experiment. The main purpose of this experiment was to determine whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. . This was aimed at testing the learning ability of all the participants of the experiment and their ability to recall. The population combined both men and women who were subjected to subject to similar treatment. The results of the experiment would enable us determine whether there are any persistent factors in affecting the learning and recall capacity of the different genders. All the same, the test for homogeneity on the learners did not indicate any significant differences between sites on the cognitive measures that were being tested. It is therefore, true that the hypothesis of the experiment is not true. The findings of the experiment disapproved the hypothesis that there are factors in gender that affect the learning ability and memory of verbal information.

There have been controversies over time on whether there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. This is the reason as to why this study was found to be important in assisting the various interested parties to come up with the real truth regarding this situation. The learning and recall capacity of the different genders had to be subjected to an experiment so as to assist in determining whether there are specific aspects that affect learning and memory of verbal information. In case there are those constant factors that affect the learning capacities of different genders, then it means that the different categories of individuals had to be treated differently when it comes to placement in job positions and allocation of schooling opportunities (Schunk, D. H. 2000 p 43).

The major controversy here is that there are differences in gender that affect learning and memory of verbal information. There have been arguments that there are differences in episodic memory for the different ages and genders. Others argued that there are no major differences in the ability to learn and remember the knowledge acquired that could be based on gender (Irby, B. J. 2013p30). In this subject matter, there have been different studies that have been done in an attempt to explain the relationship between gender, age and the ability of an individual to learn and recall incidences and the learnt knowledge. Verbal learning and memory was also studied among 196 men and women who were all healthy. Their ages were between 40 to 89 years of age. The RALVT containing a list of 15 words was conducted over five trials. These were followed by free recall trials. A recognition trial was administered for fifty words for the same group. A regression to examine the contribution of age, sex and vocabulary on the five trials indicated that age and sex contributes significantly to the portion of variance in each trial. Vocabulary could only account to the proportion of variance only in the fourth and the fifth trials. The recognition trial was, however not affected by age, sex and vocabulary. The overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

Differences related to age memory and verbal learning on the Rey Auditory Verbal learning Task (RAVLT) has been shown in men among populations based in hospitals (Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. 2009 p39). These differences have also been noted among healthy populations living in homes (Spiegel, M. R, & Lindstrom, D. P. 2000 p32). Sex and verbal intelligence were recently reported to have an impact on the performance on the RAVLT. Women were reported to score higher as compared to men (Graham, A. 2003p45). Adult norms differed according to social class. Differences related to social, native and verbal intelligence. According to the findings of an earlier research, the overall score for men was higher as compared to that of women. Age differences also indicated significant effect on the performance of the various individuals who were tested.

The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. 1996 p24). Various articles have been recorded to discuss this matter. Majority of them indicate that all the tests that have been conducted to study the relationship between sex and the performance of the different genders indicate that there is a significant relationship between sex and performance. Most of them indicate that me are more performing when it comes to learning and recalling of verbal information as compared to women. The elderly people have been recorded to have relative impairment on their supraspan memory tasks (Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. 1999 p94). This is believed to be as a result of decreased speed in processing of material and not as a result of defects in their learning capacity. There has been proper proof that there is a disparity in processing capacity for the elderly as compared to the younger species (Pearson (Ed.) 2014 p 45). The correct diagnosis of the cognitive impairment of the elderly population or for any other group will depend on how appropriate is the diagnostic test that was applied (Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A.1996 p78). Intelligence and sex is not mainly considered in describing cognitive changes of aging individuals (Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. 2012 p34). This project aimed at determining whether women also indicate changes in RAVLT performance depending on their age. We also wanted to know whether these changes, if they exist, are similar to those experienced by men.

Methodology

The experiment was carried out by nursing students who wanted to determine the factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. The total number of participants who were involved in this experiment was 172, where 113 were females and 59 were males. This was conducted in order to the effects of aging and Alzheimer disease and other possible disorders may result to poor learning and memory of verbal information. Among the individuals who were involved in the experiment, 88% were whites, 5% Hispanic, 6% Native American and 1% Asian. The experiment was designated based on medical, functional and neurologic examination. The experiment included three learning trials and 25 minutes delayed trial on the ability to recall. The learning trials were conducted three times for the different groups and the delayed trials later conducted for the various groups. The learners recorded the observations of the experiment and used them in analysis to come out with the appropriate facts on the particular issue.

In the first trial, the practitioner reads several questions and requests the group under test to listen and try to recall any possible number of words in any order.

The practitioner repeats the same words in the second trial and requests the learners to listen and recall them in the second and third trial. The practitioner will mark the number of words that were recalled by the various learners in the various trials. In trial B, the practitioner reads the same number of words and the participants listens and recalls them. This information is recorded in tables and used in the analysis of the information.

The following table indicates some of the words that were used in the tests.

 

 

 

 

Table 2

 

Learning trials

interface

recall

 

List A

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

List B

B1

A6

A7

List A

Pipe

 

 

 

 

 

Benc

 

 

 

Pipe

Wall

 

 

 

 

 

Doctor

 

 

 

Wall

Alarm

 

 

 

 

 

Cage

 

 

 

Alarm

Sugar

 

 

 

 

 

Sock

 

 

 

Sugar

Student

 

 

 

 

 

Fridge

 

 

 

Student

Mother

 

 

 

 

 

Cliff

 

 

 

Mother

Star

 

 

 

 

 

Bottle

 

 

 

Star

Painting

 

 

 

 

 

Soap

 

 

 

Painting

Bag

 

 

 

 

 

Sky

 

 

 

Bag

Wheat

 

 

 

 

 

Ship

 

 

 

Wheat

Mouth

 

 

 

 

 

Goat

 

 

 

Mouth

Chicken

 

 

 

 

 

Bullet

 

 

 

Chicken

Sound

 

 

 

 

 

Paper

 

 

 

Sound

Door

 

 

 

 

 

Chapel

 

 

 

Door

Stream

 

 

 

 

 

Crab

 

 

 

Stream

#correct

 

 

 

 

 

#correct

 

 

 

#correct

 

According to the various studies that have been carried out and the findings obtained, we realize that there is still need for further research in this field. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living. The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance. An individual from a well up family will not find any need in putting extra effort in improving their ability to learn and retain the verbal information acquired.

There is therefore need that further research is conducted in order to come up with concrete facts on the other factors that may affect the performance of the various individuals. The various stakeholders should take part in ensuring that various means are put in place to enable further research in this field. It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

Results of the independent samples

The results of the ANOVs indicate that there is a relationship between sex and the ability of an individual to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We therefore accept the nill hypothesis and reject the alternative for this experiment.

There were sex differences demonstrated in all components contained in the RAVLT, where females RAVLT recognition were recorded to be F (1, 165) = 33.82, p < 0.001; F (1, 165) = 37.25, P < 0.001 and F (1,165) = 9.49, P < 0.005, respectively. In the same manner, women got higher scores as compared as compared to the males on the BVMT – R total and BVMT – R delay but not on the BVMT – R recognition trial.

The Univar ate statistics for BVMT – R total, BVMT – R delay and BVMT – R recognition were: F (1,165) = 5.97, P < 0.02, F (1,165) = 4.12, P 0.05, and F (1,165) =9.49, P >).70 respectively.

The following tables were obtained from the analysis of the experiment.

Table 1

 

Male(n=59)

Female(n=113)

 

 

Mean

Standard deviation

Mean

Standard deviation

Cohen’s d effect size

Age

74.6

8.0

746

7.7

 

Education

16.5

2.8

14.9

3.0

 

MMSE

29.3

2.0

29.4

0.9

 

DRS Total

138.6

4.1

138.9

4.8

 

COWAT Total

38.6

11.7

39.4

12.2

 

Vocabulary

13.6

2.7

13.2

9.3

0.74 medium

RAVLT total

40.7

8.4

47.3

2.8

0.91 large

RAVLT delayed recall

7.5

3.0

10.1

1.8

0.49 medium

RAVLT recognition

12.7

1.9

13.6

6.3

0.27 small

BVMT-R Total

15.3

5.1

16.9

2.7

0.15 small

BVMT-R delayed recall

6.8

2.4

7.2

0.7

0.00 negligible

BVMT-R recognition

5.6

0.6

5.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion

According to the information obtained in the experiment it is clear that there is a considerable effect of gender on the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and recall verbal information. We realize that men indicate a higher performance as compared to women on the ability to learn and recall verbally acquired information. We also realize that there are other factors affecting the performance of an individual on the ability to learn and remember verbally acquired information. Factors such as vocabulary and age have also been observed to affect the stated characteristics of an individual (Bush, T. 2003 p56).

It is clear the even some of the facts that have been discovered in this question need deeper research in order to realize their mode of action and the various ways in which they can be handled. Statistical research need to be conducted in an attempt to discover if there are possible ways in which individuals can alter their capabilities in learning and retention of the information acquired. We therefore, recommend that the appropriate measures be put in place so as to determine the factors affecting the earning and remembering capabilities of an individual.

 

There were limitations; however to the research method that was used because the individuals were selected with consideration to their ethnicity and backgrounds. Some ethnic groups were more represented than others. This indicates that the observations made were more likely to represent a certain specific group in comparison to the others. The recent studies have given the relationship between gender, age and vocabulary as the main factors affecting the ability of an individual to learn and retain verbal information. We need to realize that there are other factors that may contribute in these capabilities of an individual. This leaves a gap for us to think about other factors. There are other factors that could affect the performance of the various individuals in learning and memory. Factors such as genetic characteristics of the various individuals may be important components in determining the ability of an individual to learn and remember verbal information. The capability of an individual may be determined by other factors such as the ethnicity of an individual and the environment in which the individual is living (Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. 2009 p8). The family background of an individual may also affect the performance of an individual in such a way that a person who comes from a humble background will put in a lot of effort to improve their performance.

 

 

References

Gravetter, F. J. & Wallneau, L. B. (2012).Statistics for the behavioural sciences (9th ed.) NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Allen, P, & Bennett, K. (2012). SPSS statistics: A practical guide. South Melbourne,Australia: Cengage Learning.

 

Banner, J. M., & Cannon, H. C. (1999). The elements of learning. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Cornish, U., & Ross, F. (2004). Social skills training for adolescents with general moderate learning difficulties. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Graham, A. (2003). Statistics. Blacklick, Ohio: McGraw-Hill.

Spiegel, M. R., & Lindstrom, D. P. (2000). Schaum’s easy outlines statistics based on Schaum’s outline of theory and problems of statistics. New York: McGraw Hill.

Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1996). Memory. San Diego: Academic Press.

Bush, T. (2003). Theories of educational leadership and management (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Daniels, H., Lauder, H., & Porter, J. (2009). Educational theories, cultures and learning: a critical perspective. London: Routledge.

Irby, B. J. (2013). The handbook of educational theories. Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Pub..

Schunk, D. H. (2000). Learning theories: an educational perspective (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.