Archive for June, 2014

Project Introduction Statement.

June 26, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project Introduction Statement.

[Name of Student]

[Name of Affiliate Institution]

 

 

This is a research on the family roots of Shamieka Donigan family. The importance and impetus for undertaking this project in genealogy are that it will help Shamieka discover who he is as a person and create a deeper understanding about his purpose in life. Information on family history is vital as it will help Shamieka validate family stories, historical events and famous people in his lineage thus enable him to preserve his family’s legacy, culture and traditions.

Shamieka envisions creating a family tree for this project which will serve as a reference for other genealogists in his family. The family tree will help Shamieka to combine the personal experiences of his ancestors and allow him to focus on particular life episode of a single ancestor. The scope of Shamieka’s family history project is that he intends to write about everyone included in his family tree. Shamieka intends to begin with his earliest known ancestor for Shamieka’s family surname and follow him/her to Shamieka himself through a single line of descent. Shamieka will include the obstacles and problems faced by each ancestor in his family tree, for example, war or slavery survivor or an immigrant. Shamieka intends to make this project interesting to readers by researching timelines of natural disasters, wars, art, fashion, transport, common foods and epidemics that could have influenced his ancestors’ way of life.

Primary sources for this research will include interviews by relatives, family resources, such as Bibles, diaries or letters, previously researched family projects and trees, and online searches like Ancestry.com, Rootsweb.com and FamilySearch.org. All these are important to Shamieka in discovering his family’s past, building his family trees and sharing his discoveries with other family members’ worldwide. Therefore by compiling his family history, it will be a precious legacy for future generations.

Describe the acquisition of manhood in the Mediterranean cultures.

June 26, 2014

 

ABSTRCACT

A brief discussion of human behavior under different cultures and how different situations are viewed in the societies. The similarities of the cultures are given and a discussion on various emerging issues is put forward as per the question given.

QUESTION 1

Describe the acquisition of manhood in the Mediterranean cultures. (Describe at least three characteristics of Machismo, identify which countries we are talking about, and define what “acquisition manhood” means)

Manhood is a period in the life of a male after he has transitioned from boyhood just after passing puberty and acquired secondary features and shows that the individual is becoming an adult different societies have different ways of acquiring manhood and refer to manhood differently .The Mediterranean countries have their methods of acquiring manhood among these is machismo.

Machismo is a really strong and exaggerated sense of manliness an aspect that portrays courage and strength and uses these to dominate in some cultures they portray masculinity. Machismo is a term that normally is associated with negative characteristics. The characteristics may include sexism, hyper masculinity and chauvinism. The macho men are considered violent, rude and most of the time is prone to be drunks. Some of the countries named to uphold machismo are Spain, Portugal and Italy. The men are domineering through intimidation. They control their women and children through violence.

This is a cultural factor that is associated with crime and violence. The key reason for machismo is a man proving his strength. As strength and fortitude are the key components of machismo, the violence and some aggressive actions are expected in the men and are justifiable as products of being tough. One is regarded more f a man when compared to those who back down on fights. The more violent you are the stronger you are.

The violent behaviors can be as a need to protect his family, relatives or even friends especially those of the opposite gender. But the violent encounters can be as a way of boosting his ego and showing himself off to other men as a way of proving his stronger than them. As a result of this he tend to be superior to his female partner an can lead him to control various aspects of her life. They decide what their wife can and cannot do. Due to this many women become dependent on their husbands both financially and emotionally, this makes the women prone to domestic violence since they depend on their husbands and also since it is just for the men to prove their masculinity.

QUESTION 2

Describe the acquisition of manhood of the Truk (Chuuk) Island people. Compare and contrast with the Mehinaku people. Define pwara and give two examples, discuss the difference between adolescence/adult between the two cultures; give two examples of Mehinaku culture (you could pick similarities or differences)

The Truk of Micronesia has been noted to have a pattern that involves adolescent drinking together with brawling. To them this is seen as a stage that individual men are required to pass through in order to pass into adulthood that is marital and parental life.

Their manhood is normally subdued mainly as a result of their economic activities that include fishing and agriculture and as a result there is an absence of intergroup aggression. The ways that the males gain status varies with the ecological and social conditions that are being faced by the community at that particular time. A good example is when there is war worriers are more likely to be a preference by the women. The men impregnate the women, protect those who depend on them from danger and provide their basic requirements.

Among the Mehinaku people there is a diversity of the gender roles this is what brings to the attention the manhood. The women do work that most of the time involves taking care of the child among this chore are cooking, cleaning and the gathering of food. The main reason for this is to allow the woman to stay close to the children and the home. The men perform work that involves mainly physical strength as they are regarded as being the stronger. This also proves their masculinity. The men are biologically created for the tough work they believe.

QUESTION 3

How is male sexuality defined differently in the Mehinaku and the Masai? (Explain the differences in terms of women’s experiences and men’s behaviors)

Maasai men and women pass through some stages as they age for the women they are two of them. A girl who has reached puberty must be circumcised and prepared for marriage and childbearing. Circumcision is carried out when her breasts begin to develop and after a year they are married off.

Men, pass through three basic life stages. The boys become Moran after the cut, which is circumcision at this time they are like fifteen. A Moran is a warrior. After circumcision, several rituals follow after. One of the rituals involves some comic actions to her mother to show that he can stand up to her. He also gives her meat to show that he is thankful for her and he can provide for her. At this time he can marry the first wife, after which they can marry more wives with regard to their wealth.

In this society women tend to do work that only pertains to what is within the village where it is safe while the men work outside the village where it is more dangerous. In this society only the men have the privilege of owning land women never own anything but they do have control over their husband’s property. Among the Maasai the husband has authority over his wife and sons. Wearers the woman has only authority over the daughters. An authority in this case refers to use of physical punishment. However the man can not physically punish his daughters it is considered a taboo.

The Mehaniku on the other hand has six rituals. Formalism is a quality which involves rooting in people ways to behave in given situations and events. Among the Mehinaku people there is a diversity of the gender roles this is what brings to the attention the manhood. The women do work that most of the time involves taking care of the child among this chore are cooking, cleaning and the gathering of food. The main reason for this is to allow the woman to stay close to the children and the home. The men perform work that involves mainly physical strength as they are regarded as being the stronger. This also proves their masculinity. The men are biologically created for the tough work they believe. These are the essential elements that “make” a man, and therefore can be seen in the tests given during male initiation. First, the Mehinaku of South America exhibits their ability to procreate through their insatiable appetite for sex. Next, they prove their “manliness” through wrestling, signaling that if the occasion were to arise, they could protect themselves and their village. Finally, they display their ability to provide through hunting.

 

 

Question 4

What is the concept of manhood in China and Japan? How is this different from Tahiti? Discuss Confucianism and the soft school vs. the hard school; discuss androgyny

Hofstede in his studies dealt with masculinity as an intellectual dimension. He also described as one that was not quite understood by the people it h a couple of hitches here and there. People normally take it as its literal meaning whereby it is measured by competitiveness, i.e. in the accumulation of wealth and the aspect of building a better life was regarded to be more feminine.

If one looks at cultures that generally have a lower level of masculinity when compared to other cultures that are cultured in the middle east among them being China and Japan they also face a challenged hat involves poor gender balance among themselves there is no clear distinction. The people of Tahiti on the other hand, put a high level of masculinity they display a high importance towards masculinity and it is a major social aspect between them, unlike China and Japan that do not have such a great concern for masculinity.

In China and Japan and china the main priorities are family and meaningful relationships and the achievement of a quality life. Conflicts are not solved through violence, but instead through negotiations. The men and the women have equal status in the society. On the other hand the people of Tahiti hold their priorities at the expansion and gain of wealth. Conflicts are solved through violence these includes aggressive methods and the men and women play different roles each individual gender plays a specific role.

 

QUESTION 5

What does the study of manhood across the world suggest in terms of the origin of human behavior? ( There are many ways to answer this: make sure you discuss acquisition vs. rites of passage and Gilmore’s thesis of how manhood is “made;” also, make sure you include at least three examples—e.g. Behaviors that are shared by two different cultures and other behaviors that are different between cultures)

A rite of passage is a ceremony that marks the movement from a stage in life to another. Especially from puberty to adolescence, they are stages in life that people chose to celebrate. Initiation is one of these rites of passages. Acquiring in the other hand is gaining of information and behaviors that make an individual behave more like a man more like an adult. Gilmore investigates the basic things from men; procreate, protect, and provide. Definitely there are some exceptions, but these are the main requirements. Of each and every man generally. There are exceptions to the rule like anything, but generally these three elements hold cross-culturally. These are the essential elements that “make” a man, and therefore can be seen in the tests given during male initiation. First, the Mehinaku of South America exhibits their ability to procreate through their insatiable appetite for sex. Next, they prove their “manliness” through wrestling, signaling that if the occasion were to arise, they could protect themselves and their village. Finally, they display their ability to provide through hunting.

Most researchers prefer to nurture to nature when it comes to human development as a result the Gilmores approach is viable with the result that the social greatly affects an individual. An individual behaves in accordance to the societies believes and practices. The learning of duties and responsibilities is as a result of exposure to the society that behaves in a given manner.

QUESTION 6

Why is cow worship in India logical? In what ways are female cows treated less kindly than cow love would suggest?( Identify at least three benefits having lots of cows and ox, at least one way culturally that cows are kept around as sacred, and at least one practice that permits cows that have outlived their utility to be disposed of despite religious traditions)

In the modern world the term holy cow is regarded as a folktale or as primitive believers in India. To an average person from the west it is an amusement that the Indians still believe and worship the cow. The backward overpopulated, undereducated and overcrowded country should be able to move on and change their view in life most of the west normally finds a common ground with rationalists and the worship of the cow is regarded just as a theological tale that cannot necessarily be proved. Indeed the worship of God is one thing, but the worship of a cow is a backward nation.

Cows have different values they can be slaughtered to produce meat that can be used to feed the economy. Instead of allowing it to lay valueless as a religious artifact that cannot be used to increase the economy of India. A cow can be more of a value than a god that should be kept. The worship of cows in India is not a logic method of religious practice, it is rather a practice that should be abandoned and left behind during the movement to a more urbanized world.

 

 

QUESTION 7

How does warfare serve an adaptive function in the Maring and the Yanomamo? (Describe the whole cycle of the yams and the sacred rumbling, and then discuss how the Yanomamo are different from the Maring)

The Maring live in the highlands of New Guinea. The Maring people, mainly practiced horticulture through the slash and burn principle after which they would grow yams and other products that they used to feed themselves. The Maring people were greatly involved in a number of tribal clashes in order to obtain more land in which they would use for their agricultural activities. The people would always begin a peaceful period with the otherwise stated as hostile neighbors. The cycle would begin with the planting of a rambling tree. This tree was said to be a sacred tree and as long as the tree would be growing there would be peace among the Maring people and their neighbors. A lot of feasts are thrown to commemorate these friendships among the people. A lot of pigs are slaughtered during this period. As this goes on the warriors are said to be energized by the protein and bring back hostilities. The rambling tree is uprooted and a new cycle of violence takes place. The above is not an example of an ecological adaptation, but it is a self taught routine used to acquire possessions.

The Yanomamo live in a state of war. The question remains to be whether the violence is as a result of the historical situations or it was merely inherent to them. Violence is the leading cause of death among these people. The males of the society get into fights with neighboring societies for resources often these cases the Yanomamai people to relocate from their villages to other villages. The Yanomami people are not only violent to other communities but also to their wives in order to make sure that they are faithful. Sexual jealousy is also a reason for violence. The Yanomamo people are also known for killing children during their raids.

There is a slight difference in the nature of violence of the Maring people and the Yanomamo people. The Maring people are not always into the war, their war does not also extend to their own society. The Yanomamo people on the other hand regard violence as a way of proving masculinity not only to gain resources.

QUESTION 8

Why are males, especially violent in the Yanomamo? What does this say about male violence in our culture? Explain at least three ways that men show their toughness and at least difference in the treatment of male and female babies, does this suggest that violence is learned (yes!) why?

The warfare among the Yanomamo is mainly as a result of the introduction of trade goods made of steel. This means that before the steel weapons were introduced it was a peaceful among the Yanomamo. The Yanomamo mainly fight over access material goods. The Yanomamo were expected to be peace loving people but this was not so they have surprisingly constant conflict. Due to their primitive nature the war was mainly over land, food, oil, water, and wealth.

Though this was the main reason for the fights the Yanomamo people have a strong need and want to pass on their genes to continue their lineage. And most of the competitions are also as a result of reproduction. The women were always the major reason of conflict among the Yanomamo people.

QUESTION 9

What is the connection between the cargo cults and the origins of Judaism and Christianity? (Explain two historical facts about the history of the middle east 2000 years ago and Judaism, two historical facts about religious leader of the cargo cults, and then explain the parallels.)

The cargo cults that were discovered earlier were those New Guinea back in 1871. They were discovered after the missionaries arrived and their efforts to convert the natives were proved useless. But a time came when they began to convert in droves. The natives had discovered that learning the ways of cargo. Though the religion introduced did not make the natives to forget the ways of the cargo. The people after a while mixed their beliefs with those of the missionaries to form a kind of Christianity. It spread to the New Hanover in 1968 where they revolted against their Australian rulers.

Some of the cargo cults exist until today. Every year they dawn on their uniform and hoist their flags. Waiting for their glorious day to arrive

Christianity grew from the first century to a form of religion that exists across the world. The early Christianity is, however divided into two phases the apostolic period when the apostles were alive and were in charge of the church. The second was the post-apostolic period when an Episcopal structure was made.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

Judaism dates back to nearly four thousand years. But it did not emerge till the 1st century. It traces the origin from the time of Abraham. The main movements of Judaism are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionists. The Jews are diverse in their beliefs. Judaism exercises action over belief. They worship in synagogues that replaced the temples that were. Their religious leaders are referred to as rabbis and they preside over all the religious activities. They follow the laws of the Torah, which are the first five books of the bible.

Judaism, Christianity and cargo cults all have an assumed common ground. They have all the aspect of a supreme being and with the cargo cults having borrowed some of their actions from Christianity. Some of their practices are in line with each other and both Christianity and Judaism believe in the bible and the characters of the bible that are stated. The three have common grounds.

QUESTION 10

Discuss the theory that Jesus was a terrorist. (Essentially, the first part of the answer above, but in greater detail: provide examples also from the Bible that support the idea of a militant interpretation of Jesus’ behaviors)

It has been stated in a theory that Jesus a biblical character is a terrorist many of the verses in the Bible have been said to support this theory. During the cleansing of the temple, it is not mentioned that Jesus used any supernatural powers. He is said hat he overturned the tables and released the animals. How was this possible if there were hundreds of people there probably some of them were armed in the temple being an area of meeting for the people there must have been guarded and yet no one harmed him. If he compelled them by the power of God, it could have been understandable, but the bible does not state this. The question remains how he drove them out of the temple in the middle of the most important festival of the year

It is known that Jesus did not work alone, he had followers and had deliberately staged his entrance into the city of Jerusalem and during his arrest in the garden of Gethsemane, he was with his disciple who were armed with this we can explain that Jesus used his followers to cleanse the temple just as it is said a king concurred a country it is not necessarily him but it is these followers. Jesus was not working alone- We know that Jesus was a religious leader, which he came to town with followers. The cleansing of the temple involved a group of Zealots assaulting and taking over the temple by vigor.

With the accusations it is practically not hard to get why Jesus was arrested, he was a terrorist who led a group of armed men who he used to get things done. And after this Jesus practically went to hide. He assaulted the temple, destroyed the temple and had armed men with him to support his to repay the fact he had been scorned by the people. In today’s society, he would be described simply as terrorists.

QUESTION 11

Discuss how the European witch hunts of the 15th to 17th centuries demonstrate the concept of exploitation of power between groups of people. What appears to be the underlying motivation behind the witch trials and what does this indicate about human behavior? (Explain at least three acts that witches were accused of and what some people might actually have done that led to that, explain how the accusation of witchcraft was used and how did this maintain the socio-political order)

The witch hunt is the persecution of a group of people who are accused of having supernatural powers that can harm the society. The witches are normally punished by the members of the society. Witch hunting was normally controlled and taken action upon by the political and religious leaders. A witch hunt is not necessarily prompted by the existence of large ranges of danger, but also the society can aid in prompting the witch hunt.

One of the great witch-hunts in history took place in Europe in the late middle ages. The power of the Catholic Church was contested because of its dogmatisms and tyranny the church was in need of a way to explain the social disaster and to get back their power. So they began with the theory of a secretive circle of witches. Persons were accused and tormented until they accepted being members of the secret circle of witches. Psychological stress that was as a result of the witch hunt, made it hard to maintain the structures that were causing the social crisis. No one dared to protest against the witch hunt or else those themselves would be regarded as witches.

Despite the fact that witch hunting did not solve any of the social crisis, but brought about uncertainty, fear and stress among the people. It created a mentality that the people were not a source of their misfortunes, but there was an external factor that caused the misfortunes that were befalling them. It did not create solutions to the problems, but created instant psychological solutions to the people in the society. Witch hunt here was used to maintain an ideology that already existed.

QUESTION 12

Describe potlatch cultures and the ways in which societal organization and government affect individual identity, shared cultural values, and relate to distribution of resources in other types society. Essentially, discuss in detail the above; consider the nature of “equality” and “individuality” and “leaders” and “status” in hunter-gatherer societies, loose alliances of agrarian tribes, larger agricultural societies including ancient empires, post-industrial societies (capitalism, communism, socialism); consider how warfare and scarcity interact with other forces)

The potlatch was a very important ceremony for coastal nations in the west. It marked important states and had a very crucial role it played in the distribution of wealth. A law was created that burned potlatches it was called the potlatch law, it fell under the Indian act. The missionaries and colonists that were not native saw that wealth and food that was shared during the potlatch was extremely wasteful. They felt it also interrupted the assimilation tactics. The burning of the potlatch activities greatly disrupted the cultural activities. Some of the people resisted these and even held underground potlatches. These people were jailed and to any one who gave up their potlatch objects would have a reduced term.

An implication of these potlatch law was the lose of traditions, history and cultural practices in the society. The laws expanded to the point that even holding a large gathering would result in attaining a jail term. Many of the organizations were disrupted as a result of the laws.

QUESTION 13

What does the study of behavioral differences across cultures suggest in terms of the origins of human behavior? Essentially, you can design your own answer as this is very open-ended; be sure, however, to include at least four specific examples from Harris and/or Gilmore that relate to each other, that support a coherent argument about the role of biology and/or culture in explaining cultural differences—also, when you include the examples, be sure to identify correctly what cultures those examples come from

Apart from the climatic conditions of were tan individual is from their culture affects to a great deal the way that they behave and interact with other people that are around them. These can be easily noted when persons meet for the first time. Though most people blame it on character the place a person grow influences a lot too. With regard to the society an individual is from it will determine the way they will approach you. Their gestures toward you are as a result of these.

Their behavior when it comes to certain aspects such as marriage, their roles as men and their expectations towards others is also a primary result of the culture of the society an individual grew up in. Culture is a great influence on human behavior, culture shapes an individual’s behavior.

Most researchers prefer to nurture to nature when it comes to human development as a result the Gilmores approach is viable with the result that the social greatly affects an individual. An individual behaves in accordance to the societies believes and practices. The learning of duties and responsibilities is as a result of exposure to the society that behaves in a given manner.

 

 

 

 

References

Gruen, E. S. (2011). Cultural identity in the ancient Mediterranean. Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute.

Gilmore, David (1990).Manhood in the making: Cultural concepts of masculinity. New Haven: Yale.University Press.

Harris, Marvin (1974). Cows, pigs, wars, and witches: The riddles of culture. New York: Vintage Books, Random House

 

 

 

 

 

Race and Gender Issues in the US

June 25, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Race and Gender Issues in the US

Shamieka Donigan  

Dowling College

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary of Readings

            The first reading entitled, “Race, class and gender in the United States: an integrated study”, (2007, pp. 1-774) is by Omi and Winant about racial formations (pp. 13-22). The reading discusses more on Phipps case labeling race as a post-enlightenment convenience wherein some global regions are enslaved on while the others are being free of it. It also explains that race is not a scientific determination and should not be justified as being biological. However, these views contest the efforts to reinstitute race with natural origins. In explaining racism in American perspective, it explains on the assignment of children from a mixed race to belong to subordinate groups. This is brought upon the mentality that whites are superior while the blacks as inferior. Also, this explains the rationale behind intercultural difference among Latinos who have sub-associations based on analogous characteristics. The book also highlights that blacks refer to non-whites seeking self-identity including the African Americans, Afro-Caribbean and Asians. Further, it explains that racial formation is the determination of importance and content of racial categories using political, economic and social forces. Additionally, the association of blacks with slavery and whites with Europeanism in mass media affirms of such suppositions further in the reading. The mass media also depicts the blacks as a dependent class on their superior class hence racial divisions become stronger. More, it is not the way to go for America but has become a societal construction in which they unconsciously engage in.

            While, the second reading entitled “The social construction of gender” by Lorber (Rothenberg, 2007, pp. 33 -45) defines gender performance as dictated by the society. The author says that gender is a result of human production. It further explains that gender originates from clothing of children at the early stage of recognition, sex designation and society’s pre-determined gender-normative practices and rituals. As such, gender have no biological origin as Lorber asserts in this texts. Racial formations also have the same standpoint. Although, gender roles have undergone modification toward gender equity, it remains a social institution useful in shaping cultural productions, organizing familial relationships and labor. Rothenberg’s text further argues that gender is a process to segregate an individual depending on the society. These ideas are continuous despite the opposition to normative performances strengthened by gender-suited principles. More, the reading says that gender constructs do not serve to propagate male-female inequity. Lorber also claims that gender emanates from cultural and economic symbols which disagree with the opinions of Freud that says masculinity is a male struggle to overcome inferiority sourced from mothers. Furthermore, the reading also attributes power divisions to gender particularly in economic and home production. This attributes to the concept to form identity and tool to reproduce hierarchies which foster inequities. As such, gender has no relationship with biology but rather it results from the nurturing of social-power relations.

Article to Relate the Readings

            Rothenberg’s (2007) readings on racial formation and gender constructs in contemporary America relate to a study by Collins titled, “It is all in the family: intersections of gender, race and nation” (1998, pp. 62-82). The article explains the mutuality in gender and race not by taking them as separate entities in defining American identities. The article also says that gender and race inequities aim at balancing and protecting the interests of Americans. Such studies then result to the nurturing of societal hierarchies based in racial and gender discrepancies. Americans are in search of a sense of belonging in the form of a territory, space and a place to call home as Collins (1998) asserts. Having said that, they try to relate and identify with those similar of their kind in terms of gender and race which results to the disparities and divisions. In addition, it gives an example of American women from different ethnic originalities and their role in propagating racial formations. It explains how a white woman try to maintain pure blood ties hence have racial divisions with black men. A similar case occurs to black women who prefer black men in such relationships. Accepting membership to a certain race or gender has its rights, rules, obligations, privileges and challenges as Collins (1998) asserts. This rationale differentiates the superiority associated with men over women as well as the superiority affiliated with the whites over the blacks. The article claims that in the US, race, determines one’s responsibilities and rights as evidenced by the poor funding and infrastructure in African-American schools compared to those of natives.

            Personally, I believe that gender and race are integral components of American society. However, their use shapes the ultimate effect they have on society. As an example, if race was used to share identities other than propagate hatred between differing groups then; its effect would be affirmative and positive to society. More so, if gender became a showcase of gender uniqueness and not an avenue to spread male chauvinism while perceiving females as weak and vulnerable, then society would uphold it and its value. The challenge is in shunning the negatives of racial formations and gender while capitalizing on the positive effects to make America more conducive for all race and colors.

 

 

References

Collins, P. (1998). It is all in the family: intersections of gender, race and nation. Border Crossing: Multicultural and Postcolonial Feminist Challenges to Philosophy, 13 (3), 62-82

Lorber, J. (2007). The social construction of gender in: P. Rothenberg. Race, class and gender in the United States. US, New York: Worth Publishers

Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2007). Racial formation in P. Rothenberg. Race, class and gender in the United States. US, New York: Worth Publishers

 

Regretting the Ink: The Process of Tattoo Removal

June 20, 2014

There are many ways on how people express their personalities and interests, and getting tattoos is one of them. However most often than not, when people decide to get a tattoo when they are younger, they seldom think of the consequences associated in getting an unwanted tattoo removed. There are many ways on how tattoos can be removed nowadays such as, dermabrasion, salabrasion, laser, and surgical removal; and more and more people are getting a tattoo nowadays, which suggests that tattoo removal can also get bigger as an industry in time. As a matter of fact, experts note that one in every four people in America has tattoos (Simpson, 2009). However, despite having many options on tattoo removal, the process remains a costly, painful, and time-consuming process, which makes a lot of people remain doubtful about the process despite their need to have the tattoo removed. The following discussions shall provide an overview of the tattoo culture in America as well as the growing industry of tattoo removal. This discussion shall also follow the premise that while tattooed individuals get many options on how to get their tattoos removed today, some still remain doubtful and hesitant as most methods remain costly, painful and branded with a stigma of tattoos being a mistake.

Literature Review

Tattoo and its Stigma in the Current Society

The society has undeniably grown more liberated over the years, accepting some of the prohibitions of the past and being more open about people’s freedom of self-expression. For a time, tattoos were considered taboo. Tatooed individuals were either seen to have violent tendencies or deviant. However, today, more and more people are getting tattoos and the society has apparently grown more accepting of this as a culture. As a matter of fact, approximately 15 to 20% of Americans have tattoos today (Simpson, 2009). The society’s acceptance of this culture has also been apparent in the rise of TV shows like Miami Ink, LA Ink, and Ink – among many others – that apparently makes the tattoo culture more mainstream. Overtime, more and more tattoo shops and parlors open as a clear manifestation of the society’s growing acceptance of body art.

However, despite popular acceptance, there are still environments where tattoos are frowned upon. In traditional suit-and-tie offices today for example, that deviant stigma about tattooed individuals still exists unless a person is a known part of a creative industry like music, arts, or entertainment in general. Aside from conflicts out of misjudgment and stereotyping, this stigma also erodes the confidence of people despite their abilities, as tattoos and piercings tend to trigger negative first impressions. Individuals with tattoos greatly suffer from such stigma as some of them find it hard to get their dream jobs just because they have ink on their skin. Lucky Lauren, a nurse from a tattoo removal clinic has had clients with such problem. These people usually come in the clinic complaining how they have been misjudged in applications because of their tattoos. As a result, despite liking their tattoos so much, these people are forced to have them removed just so they could land the job they want. Lauren notes, “If someone is intelligent, they’re loquacious and are able to conduct themselves in a professional manner within the workplace then I don’t think that tattoos should really be an issue” (Lauren, qtd. in Jinks, 2013).

So where does the stigma of tattoo and body piercings really come from? There are perhaps numerous factors; however, one of the most apparent reason for this impression is the sense of permanence. Having tattoos and piercings means having body modifications that cannot be reversed or taken back. Tattoos for example, are considered to stay in place for the a person’s lifetime. The electrically-powered tattoo machine injects a needle into the skin, penetrating the epidermis – outer skin layer – then depositing ink into the second layer of the skin called, dermis. Due to the permanence of tattoos and body piercings, most of the people who get them are usually misconstrued of having hasty decisions and less regard for their body.

Thinking Twice Before Getting Inked

More people are getting enticed to get a tattoo nowadays; but while getting a tattoo sounds like a good idea for some, it generally requires a great deal of thought beforehand. A tattoo’s permanence is a huge factor that people needs to consider. Getting a tattoo means scarring one’s body of permanent mark and symbol. Hence, getting a tattoo entails a particular level of affiliation or passion over something. People simply cannot irrationally get a tattoo without regretting it afterwards. In Caitlin Jinks’ article, Injecting Ink into the Workplace with Tattoo Discrimination, a nurse from a tattoo removal clinic notes how important it is to think twice before getting a tattoo. She suggests, “If they want a tattoo, they should get a picture of the tattoo and sit it by their bedside for twelve months, have look at it and say ‘I still love it,’ then get a tattoo because it’s something that’s stuck with you” (Lacey, qtd. in Jinks, 2013).

Aside from having a permanent mark on their skin, people need to think through getting a tattoo due to its associated risks. In the article, Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? the Food and Drug Administration cites different risks associated to getting a tattoo:

  • Infection – individuals face the risk of acquiring hepatitis and HIV by getting tattoos from unsanitary tattoo parlors. Dirty needles can pass these infections easily from one client to another
  • Allergies – much like any cosmetic or skin product, the ink pigments that are injected on a person’s skin when getting a tattoo could cause different types of allergic reactions and has been reported to cause more serious problems
  • Scarring – unwanted scarring on the skin may also happen when undergoing a tattoo removal procedure
  • Granulomas – tattoo pigments can be perceived by the body’s immune system as foreign; this may cause small bumps and knots to form around it as a result of an accumulation of antibodies
  • MRI complications – patients may also experience swelling and burning sensation when going through a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), though this has been reported to happen rarely (FDA, 2009)

These risks does not always happen to everyone who decides to get inked; however, the effects of these risks can be very serious to one’s health. FDA notes that while most ink pigments today are safe, some pigments have not yet gone through the tests FDA initiated. With the aid of the Arkansas-based National center for Toxicological Research, FDA is trying to find out a few things about ink pigments that could possibly be harmful to human health, such as the ink’s chemical composition, short-term and long-term safety of pigments, as well as the usual body reaction to when light interacts with ink (FDA, 2009). Linda Katz, Director of FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition further notes, “Our hope is to get a better understanding of the body’s response to tattoos and their impact on human health, and to identify products at greatest risk” (Katz, qtd. in FDA, 2009). Moreover, FDA says they have yet to approve any tattoo pigments for injection into the skin. This applies to all tattoo pigments, including those used for ultraviolet (UV) and glow-in-the-dark tattoos.

What does the Bible Say about Tattoos?

When speaking of taboos and prohibitions, the Bible is often a reference point for many. Hence, in light of this discussion about tattoos and body piercings, is there something mentioned in the Holy Scriptures prohibiting people of being inked? Perhaps the most related passage to tattoos from the Bible is this: “You shall not make any cuts in your body for the dead nor make any tattoo marks on yourselves: I am the Lord” (Leviticus 19:29 – New American Standard). At a glance, this passage can be easily interpreted as a prohibition for having tattoos as creative expression; however, in order to understand the passage’s real intent and purpose, one must first read through the context of the chapter that it is in. In analyzing the context of this verse from its chapter, it actually speaks about cutting or marking the body for dead relatives. This was said to be the practice of people who worshipped pagan gods, therefore veering them away from God’s guidance and protection (Gerwig, 2007). Today, people get a tattoo as means of self-expression; either the symbol has a deeper meaning to the owner, or it represents a particular truth about the wearer. Tattooed Christians do not actually mark themselves to rebel or pay tribute to false idols or anti-Christian gods. A lot of these people even mark themselves permanently with symbols that represent their devotion to Christ; but in reality, tattoos are not for everybody. Many will still question it relevance and meaning, hence Christians – and people from other belief systems with very strict rules about self-expression through the body – who are planning to get inked must think it through deeply and weigh all the pros and repercussions.

Argument

Obsolete Tattoo Removal Procedures: Dermabrasion

Once a person regrets a tattoo, s/he will naturally go for the easiest method there is to remove it. Luckily for these people, there are actually ointments being sold online that are said remove tattoos without the assistance of a professional dermatologist. Unluckily for them though, these products are yet to be approved by the FDA. There are also several other methods of tattoo removal that have been prohibited in the United States due to the risks involved in them. For one, physicians note dermabrasion with metal or diamond-coated fraises or abrasive sakts (salabration). This process uses a diamond fraise wheel or wire brush to destroy the surface of the skin, which had been frozen with a typical cryogen (Bernstein, 2007). In an article entitled, Lasers in Plastic Surgery: Laser Tattoo Removal by Eric Bernstein, the author says that “there is virtually always some scarring [in dermabrasion], loss of normal skin pigment, and residual tattoo when using this method of tattoo removal” (Bernstein, 2007). The author also notes that using salt or other rough surfaces such as sand paper can also remove the surface of the skin in the attempt to remove a tattoo; however, it is the inflammation that actually removes some of the tattoo pigment the reason why this method has already considered obsolete.

Tattoo Removal by Laser

Tattoo removal through laser is perhaps the most trusted method there is. However, despite being a reliable method for tattoo removal, this process remains to be a tedious and very expensive procedure.

Kosoglu explains laser removal being a highly sensitive procedure involving high-intensity laser energy absorption by the skin. The expert notes that what happens is pulses of high-intensity laser energy passes through the epidermis and are selectively absorbed by the tattoo pigment. The laser then breaks the pigment into smaller particles, which then is excreted by the body the way the body gets rid of bacteria (Kosoglu, qtd. in FDA, 2014). Kosoglu also notes that because every color of ink absorbs different wavelengths of light, multi-colored tattoos will require the use of multiple lasers. The expert further notes that, “lighter colors such as green, red, and yellow are the hardest to remove, while blue and black are the easiest to remove” (FDA, 2014). Hence, tattoo laser removal cannot be effective in a single treatment. Depending on the tattoo’s size and colors, it could require multiple visits to the dermatologist’s clinic and a few weeks of healing time between procedures. Moreover, this procedure may also entail some side effects like, pinpoint bleeding, redness, or soreness (FDA, 2014). On the average, tattoo laser removals could take over six to ten treatments, and this procedure is usually spread over six to eight weeks; and a patient would have to wait over a year for the tattoo to be completely removed from the skin. On the average, doctors also charge around fifty dollars per square inch for laser removals – a price that obviously not everybody can afford, considering the extent of tattoo coverage people have nowadays. As a result, the easiest tattoo removal procedure remains a tedious and a very expensive treatment. While it has been available for tattooed people for a long time, many still hesitate availing the service because of its cost and complexity.

Surgical Excision

Tattoos vary in size, shapes and inspiration. In some cultures, the larger the tattoo, the greater the honor and impression are on the person. Generally, tattoos signify strength and confidence to have a lifetime body modification; and apparently, larger tattoos give people greater pride. However, the problem with larger tattoos is, obviously, it will be harder to remove one the wearer regrets it. Fortunately though, there is a surgical procedure recommended for removing larger tattoos. Surgical excision is a series of multiple surgeries performed in a staged manner for removing a tattoo completely. It is recommended for larger tattoos as these marks would often take a very long time to remove by laser or dermabrasion. The problem with surgical excision though is, there is a significant risk of producing scars that can actually be debilitating because of the often varied locations of tattoos (Bernstein, 2007). Bernstein observes, “Tattoos that are placed on acral locations may have insufficient loose skin for easy removal. In addition, tattoos in these locations may result in scars that restrict movement due to contraction” (Bernstein, 2007). This is one factor that makes people hesitant about undergoing the procedure as they are torn between retaining the tattoo and acquiring scars that are most likely to last their lifetimes too. Surgical excision has been mostly recommended for people who are having allergic reactions to their tattoos. Laser removal is generally not allowed on people with allergic reactions to pigments as this may cause more severe reactions. Surgical excision also appear to be as expensive (even more in some cases) as laser removal. Furthermore, patients will be required to spend on post-operative medication and antibiotics, which is another relevant factor on why people are second-guessing undergoing the procedure.

Medical technology is coping up with the growing tattoo industry, which is a good thing. However for some reason, tattoo removal procedures remain risky and costly. Sure getting a tattoo is a big decision that everybody needs to think through very carefully – some people say that having a tattoo removed is more painful than getting a tattoo itself; but considering factors such as allergic reactions and the inevitable workplace discrimination, these people also deserve convenient options on how to remove marks that nonetheless make their lives more difficult.

 

Conclusion

While a significant number of people in America has a tattoo and wants to get one, among this population, a significant number of wearer also regret having one (FDA). Getting a tattoo is part of an individual’s right to self-expression. However, as apparent by the current proliferation of the tattoo removal industry, more people are seeking the chance to get a reverse a bad decision they once made. But while there are several options available to the public today, these procedures remain risky and very expensive. Because of this, a lot of people remain hesitant to undergo such procedure despite the desire to get a mark taken off their skin. It is true; the public deserves convenient and safe options on how to get their tattoos removes. But perhaps the unavailability of these convenient and safe procedure is the society’s way of telling that getting a tattoo is a huge life decision everybody needs to think through carefully. It cannot be denied that there remains a stigma about tattooed people; and while this cannot be eliminated that easily, people who want to get a tattoo needs to consider this too as the emotional effects of negative impressions on tattooed people could hurt more than any removal procedure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Bernstein, Eric. “Laser Tattoo Removal.” Seminars in Plastic Surgery, Thieme Medical Publishers. Aug 2007. 1 Apr 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2884836/&gt;. Web

Food and Drug Administration. “Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?” FDA Consumer Health Information, 21 Mar 2014. 11 Apr 2014. <http://www.fda.gov/downloads/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm143401.pdf >. Web

Gerwig, Chuck. “Tattoo and The Bible | Sacred Ink” Sacred Digital, Brough Communications. 7 Apr 2007. 30 Mar 2014. <http://www.sacredink.net/tattoo_and_the_bible/ >. Web

Jinks, Caitlin. “Injecting Ink into the Workplace with Tattoo Discrimination”. ABC Illawarra NSW. 22 Apr 2013. 30 Mar 2014. <http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2013/04/22/3742014.htm&gt;. Web

Simpson, Summer. “Tattoos in the Workplace [Inquiring Minds]”. The Creative Coast, Savannah Economic Development Authority. 18 May 2009. 30 Mar 2014. <http://www.thecreativecoast.org/tattoos-in-the-workplace-inquiring-minds/#.U3YcGIGSxvk&gt;. Web

Urdang, Michael, Mallek, Jennifer, and Mallon, William. “Tattoos and Piercings: A Review for the Emergency Physician.” National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine. 02 May 2006. 1 Apr 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3236178/&gt;. Web

 

 

Assignment 2: Local Histories in HSIE

June 20, 2014

Assignment 2: Local Histories in HSIE

2.1: Unit of Learning

Objectives are statements that describe the desired endpoints or outcomes of the syllabus, a unit, a lesson plan or learning activity specify and describe the results of the syllabus in more specific terms that goals or objectives do. The objectives are also instructions or guidance on what educators want students to be able to do as a result of instruction. Considered essential for the establishment of goals and syllabus planning,objectives help students, teachers and parents by specifying the address of the syllabus and objectives. Typically written by school districts, schools and individuals, the objectives also help ensure that educational processes are aligned and instructional activities are directed towards defined outcomes or learning. There are several criteria to ensure the appropriateness of the objectives. Goals should be developmentally appropriate and attainable by students within a short period. They must be properly sequenced for prior skills that are performed before those objectives that require more complex skills. The goals must be in harmony with the general objectives of the syllabus and the objectives and philosophy of the institution(Bradley, 2008).

Teachers can use three domains of learning in planning curricula, defining goals and writing goals. Written goals can be classified in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Traditionally, the syllabus has been written to reflect an emphasis on the cognitive domain. These forms of classification help teachers organize learning activities and objects of phenomena in a hierarchical order. Each taxonomic level specifies the skills, competencies and understandings that define the outcome. Benjamin Bloom developed the known cognitive domain taxonomy. Their revised taxonomy is organized into six levels: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create(Allen, 2008). Taxonomy is gradual. Skills and competencies are based on the previous level of skill development. Taxonomies have been developed in affective and physical domains.

Although the objectives may be written in different ways, usually have three distinct and descriptive parts:

  1. Student work
  2. The conditions under which the student is required to perform the task
  3. The standard of performance.

The task is written clearly so the student knows what he or she is required to do. Second, the conditions are specified and may include materials that students will use, the number of minutes allotted to complete the task, or identifying the type of task, such as homework, tests or individual jobs. The performance standard identifies the level of achievement that the student demonstrates a clear understanding of the goal.

When creating goals, you should pay special attention to adaptation, brief, writing and fitness. The objectives must match and relate to the goals and objectives that are derived. Educational objectives must be worthwhile in mind, the needs of student learning and should have value beyond the required task. Educators, supervisors and students should be able to understand the written objectives so that the objective is only open to interpretation. Adequacy refers to the degree of compliance since not all students need to achieve the same learning outcomes(Budge, 2010).

 


 

Stage 1: People of Australia and their History

A syllabus is a series of activities in which students engage with the subject. For all that cannot be studied at a time, these activities must be orchestrated in some way. This arrangement is called the syllabus. Whether the subject is geometry, map skills or visual arts,it is arranged in ways that emphasize some implications and aspects of the subject and neglect others. Thus, syllabus design is one of the most powerful tools that educators can use to influence what students learn.

European settlement in Australia began in 1788 with the establishment of a British Penal Colony. Colonization led to the destruction of the cultures of the indigenous nomadic population so that by 2001 only 2.3 % of the population classified themselves as indigenous Australians. Throughout the 19thcentury until the end of World War II in 1945, most of the growth of the population consisted of immigrants from Great Britain and their descendants. After 1945, there was a sharp increase in immigration, but immigration sources became more diverse, with a wide range of white European immigrants who came to Australia. In early 1970 the White Australia Policy was abandoned due to which the immigration policy had restricted immigration to whites and immigrants mostly from Europe were replaced by a less discriminatory policy. This led to more immigrants from Asia to settle in Australia. By 2001, 28% of all Australians were born overseas(Foskett, 2010).

Stage2: Australian Aboriginal Art

Syllabus design can be seen as an arrangement of the materials prepared in advance and intended for instruction. Alternatively, it can be considered as arising from the interaction between teachers, students and materials. In either case, however, a certain design conscious planning was suggested and brought a predisposition to matters or arrangements of instruction count as educationally significant.

Contemporary Australian Aboriginal art stems from a long tradition of Aboriginal use of nature and culture to produce artistic works. Artists employ Aboriginal rock art, bark painting, leaf painting, sand painting, sand sculpture, wood sculpture, wood carving and decoration of the body to convey their messages and represent their unique culture. Aboriginal Crafts also provide a way to combine creativity with profitability, and artistic skills are used to create unique clothing and items such as Aboriginal boomerangs, guns and tools. Some first Aboriginal artists were successful in producing works of Western art styles used, but in the late 19thcentury, most Aboriginal artists had intended to reflect Aboriginal culture of Australia in its productions. Australian Aboriginal women have added various contributions to the interpretation of contemporary and traditional culture in the 21stcentury art (Foskett, 2010).

Stage 3: Mythical Geography

Indigenous Australians are bound to their land, especially through a deep sense of affection and filial love: the Earth is like a mother, and they are a part of it. Damaging those means making violence which is unacceptable, and this deprives them of their cause that they lose their own identity. As noted by an anthropologist, the territory is like a giant tree as the past and present have been written about it. The term songlines refers to a series of songs about the paths describing the mythical journey of the sacred spirits of the Dreaming throughout continent.In fact, as told before, the ancestors are believed to have awoken the different forms of life and shaped the countryside by distributing plants and animals, by making rivers and streams flow, or by relating one place to another.In doing so, they left their marks as fingerprints or incisions on earth thus giving importance to every natural element; according to Aboriginal animistic view, all that exists (rocks, plants, stars, water, etc.) has its own soul. Mythical trails trace a maze throughout Australia and are said to be still visible as stressed with its unique landscape. Because of them, many places acquire a fundamental spiritual value and become a source of ‘law’; in this sense, Aborigines prefer to call the songlines by the phrase ‘way of the ancestral law.’ These sites are considered to be sacred, and the natives keep them secret. The sites are said to own particular energy that lets people reconnect with the Dreaming dimension. Only a few people are allowed to visit them, and tourists or companies involved in economic businesses that do not respect this moral prohibition outrage the Aboriginal people and offend their sensitivity. Aboriginal origins who identify with an ancestral spirit in particular maintain a special relationship with landscape features that are associated with it: in this sense, it can bereferred to Aboriginal totemic spatially as one. We may consider the concept of songlines principle as the mythical geography, giving the symbolic interpretation to some particular sites that are perceived as background to mythical events. In fact, this complex system of songs gives importance to the geographical features of the landscape and suggests mythical explanations of natural phenomena that can infuse the area with a special value(Higgins, 2009).

Stage 4: Mount Uluru

Mount Uluru (Ayers Rock called by white explorers in the late 19thcentury in honor of Sir Henry Ayers, who was the Prime Minister of South Australia) is a huge rock formation located in the center of Australia, and also one of the most famous Aboriginal sacred sites in mythology. It is considered that many are still inhabited by ancestral spirits. According to Australian anthropologist Cyril Havecker, it is one of the symbols of the Rainbow Serpent that life originated. Aborigines consider it an emblem of fertility.

There are many legends associated with it. One of them says Tatji, red lizard, living in the plains near Uluru and reached the rock where it was launched and lost his curved stick (a kind of boomerang). Trying to find, Tatji began to dig the soil and rock scar causing cracks and holes that are still visible today. Another story says that the Bellbird (typical Australian birds belonging to the family Sparrow) brothers sought an emu, who escaped to the big rock. Two fantastic creatures, bluetongue lizard men, took him and killed him. When the bellbirds arrived, the lizards had eaten the emu, so the birds took their revenge by burning a haven for the lizard men. Lizards tried to escape the flames by climbing the rock, but fell and burned. Gray on the surface of the rock lichens still remind us that the smoke of the fire and two stones are seen as the two men dead lizard. These examples show how Aboriginal culture in mythological tales is useful to explain natural phenomena, such as erosion or the presence of a certain type of flora and fauna(Foskett, 2010).

Stage 5: Contemporary Canberra

Since the late 1980s, when the city headed past the quarter million population mark, it has begun to confront many of the same housing, land use, transport, and environmental management problems faced by the established cities: car dependency and traffic congestion; demands for more multiunit dwellings and urban infill; accommodating and caring for an aging population; redevelopment of brownfields precincts; coping with environmental hazards, including bush fires; climate change; and historic preservation. Strategic planning emphasizes archetypal sustainable city planning objectives such as full employment, a healthy community, compactness, a responsive transport system, and respect for the natural environment. A federally funded study (2004) identified urban design opportunities in the spirit of historic planning proposals, but concerns have been raised by the private sector at prospects for overdevelopment and lack of community consultation by a vigilant and well-informed electorate (Higgins, 2009).

2.2 Justification

The objectives are generally considered the most specific aspect of the syllabus with the philosophy, and goals. The philosophy of education is the mission of the general syllabus or content area, and aims to identify the general direction of the syllabus. Goals are broad statements indicating the long-term outcomes that educators hope to achieve. For example, a school may claim that their long-term goal for children in first grade is to be able to read. A related objective might be that first graders will be able to read a passage of 100 words, developmentally appropriate, with five or fewer errors. So reading instruction could be developed around improving students’ skills like decoding, recognition of the view word and the development of oral fluency. Thus, the results indicate the objectives of the lesson and help communicate the intent of the teacher teaching strategies. The objectives also help educators helping

  • Instructional planning focus
  • Planning appropriate instructional activities
  • Creating or developing valid assessment procedures

The goals also meant what observable changes in behavior or actions that demonstrate teachers expect as a result of student-teacher interaction. The objectives can also provide a justification for the activities of individual learning. The objectives can be specified behavioral outcomes. Behavioral objectives are written in terms of specific and observable behaviors. Proponents of behavioral objectives favor observable behaviors because they are measurable, unambiguous, and useful to guide activities to instruction. Behavioral objectives easily and clearly communicate the desired target behaviors. These types of goals are written using verbs that indicate measurable or observable behaviors such as state, recognize, evaluate, or create. Behavioral objectives guide the design and development of syllabus planning, suggesting a sequence, accurate, and compartmentalized approach to actions and results. Behavioral objectives are written not with words such as know,understand and appreciate. Behavioral objectives do not allow a more open syllabus and integration of matter.

Teachers can use three domains of learning in planning curricula, defining goals and writing goals. Written goals can be classified in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. Traditionally, the syllabus has been written to reflect an emphasis on the cognitive domain. These forms of classification help teachers organize learning activities and objects of phenomena in a hierarchical order. Each taxonomic level specifies the skills, competencies and understandings that define the outcome. Benjamin Bloom developed the known cognitive domain taxonomy. Their revised taxonomy is organized into six levels: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate and create.

When creating goals, you should pay special attention to adaptation, brief, writing and fitness. The objectives must match and relate to the goals and objectives that are derived. Educational objectives must be worthwhile in mind; the needs of student learning must be clear and have value beyond the required task. Educators, supervisors and students should be able to understand the written objectives so that the objective is only open to interpretation. Adequacy refers to the degree of compliance since not all students need to achieve the same learning outcomes. Those opposed to the use of pre-formulated objectives state that behavioral objectives limit the opportunities and learning activities to those users that can be measured and therefore ignore emotional and spiritual dimensions of students. For example, not all educational activities, such as a field trip to swim with the manatees have pre-formulated objectives, yet this does not mean that this experience was not fruitful or educative.

Educators who condemn the relentless force and a single narrow view of what is considered legitimate to suggest that if no one knows the right way to do something, others who have other values ​​or perspectives tend to be left out of the educational process. This review is amplified by the use of criterion-referenced tests that reinforce the emphasis on limited conception of goals.


 

References

Allen, J., Robbins, & S. B., Casillas. (2008) Third-year college retention and transfer: Effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness. Research in Higher Education 49(7), 647–664.

Bradley, D., Noonan, P., Nugent, H. and Scales, B. (2008) Review of Australian Higher Education Final Report. Canberra: Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations.

Budge, K. (2010) The diversification of Australian higher education: Is the academy prepared for the challenge? In M. Devlin, J. Nagy and A. Lichtenberg (Eds.) Research and Development in Higher Education: Reshaping Higher Education, 33 (pp. 157–166).

Foskett, Alan, (2010), The Memories Linger on: more about Canberra’s historic hostel and hotel eras, Alan Foskett, Canberra.

Higgins, Matthew, (2009), Rugged beyond Imagination: stories from an Australian mountain region, National Museum of Australia Press, Canberra.

 

 

 

 

Perfume presentation

June 19, 2014

Strengths

q Diversity in products to target the huge heterogeneous market.

q Large target consumers

q Online retailing

q Premium brands that will compete effectively with rivals

q Strong brand recognition

Weaknesses

q Insufficient promotion campaign

q Weak research and development

q Relatively young in the market (has not entrenched competitive advantages)

q High sales are seasonal

 

Opportunities

q Technology can improve both products and marketing efforts

q Increasing market

q Possibility of expanding overseas

 

Threats

q Rivalry in the market-place

q Aggressive pricing by rivals

q Short product lifecycle.

u The US Fragrance industry in the industry is extremely competitive

u However, no single firm has managed to achieve market dominance

u L’Oreal is the market leader with a 17% market share, Coty is second largest with 13% market share and $740 million worth of sales and Elizabeth Arden is third with 10% sales.

u Estee Lauder and P&G are fourth and fifth in that order although both have a market share of 10%.

u Thus, the firm will face stiff competition in terms of marketing and pricing.

u Positioning and targeting will have to be exquisite to achieve any level of success.

q The firm will ensure optimal delivery in the cities where its product will be launched.

q However, it will not rely on the physical store as its primary point of sale.

q The virtual market is the firms primary marketing thrust

q Services offered by the firm in the virtual space powered by the internet is

u Online cataloging

u Purchase

u Delivery

q The firm will also provide its consumers with a significant range of fragrance products to choose from.

u The firm will target a relatively narrow segment of the population (females aged between 25-55 years)

u It will also launch the product in cities due to their population densities.

u Premium products will always attract premium prices (300 dollars).

u here is a section of the population that will buy the products to achieve uniqueness and class.

u New media channels such as social networking sites will be used to complement the conventional marketing communication channels.

The target group can afford premium prices comfortably. High population densities reduces marketing and distribution costs. New media channels are cheap, interactive and extremely effective in targeting.

u The firm should be wary of the threat posed by low barriers to market entry, ruthless strategies such as cost leadership, and unpredictable economy.

u Fragrance products always have a short lifecycle

u The firm cannot rely on a single product for a long time even if it is doing well at a given moment

u Research and development department need to be well developed to foster creativity and innovativeness.

u The firm has to be structured in a flexible manner such that it will be able to adapt effectively to changes in the eminent macro-environment

 

Remembering Babylon

June 18, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Remembering Babylon

Name

Institution

 

 

Tired after working the whole day at Masons place, Andy arrives to the hill. This is where Ned, Mason and Murkutt met and smoked as they talked about the inferior race -Aborigines. Today, Ned and Andy wanted to have Gemmy punished for his relation with the natives. Gemmy is a white boy just like them but was in the house this time down the hill where they were meeting to plan his execution. The bush surrounding the hill engulfed their talk separating them from the rest of the world was the fence beneath the hill.

“Andy,” called Mason.

“G’day mate.” responded Andy.

“Give me yer lighter, it’s time we agreed on what t’ do with Gemmy.” Shouts Mason as he looks over the fence that separated them from the other side of the hill.

“ Naethin t’ worry about, we will see what t’ do with this contamination.” Ned chipped in.

“I hate that spy boy,” he said nonchalantly, his head facing the sky as he released the cigarette smoke to the sky after a deep puff.

“There is naethin I wouldn’t do to get him out of here,” Ned said categorically as Masson handed the lighter back to Andy.

“Yes, I think we need to teach him a lesson, he needs to know how to live home and stop living here,” Murkutt concurs. He gulped as he stared into a fence that separated two distinct worlds, of the civilised and the savage, as they would call them, of the black and white communities.

After several uninterrupted puffs, Andy’s face lightened up to a new idea. “I think if we are going to teach him a lesson, we will need some back up.”

“Ye should call the ithers and let them know what we will do,” Mason concurs. Over the fence, he sees his friends and waves them over. In sheer show of solidarity, the men agreed to convince others to join them. “I want us to kill him.” Ned said to no one in particular when the other men sat in a circle.

Murkutt quips, “is killing not very wrang?”

“He deserves to die because he is a bad omen,” Masson offers while crashing his cigar. “I think we should not be fooled any more, we are talking of that crook Gemmy, the black white has been given black charms”.

“He thinks him own the world now. And he must die,” said Ned menacingly.

Ned made up all manner of rumours about Gemmy. In that melee, they decided they need to kill him. He told the others that no settler was willing to work with a traitor. To convince the group on killing Gemmy, Ned said there was fear all over about the young boy. His arguments sought to increase this suspicion and create outright hatred and anger towards the boy, whose sole aim in arriving in their town was to seek refuge and a new life with his people.

Listening to all those rumours Murkutt, condemned Ned and those who thought like him and said that it is their superiority complexes that made them shun the boy based on his previous interactions and coexistence with the natives. He suggested they teach him a lesson other than kill. “Let us scare the hell out of im.” Said Murkutt.

At this point Masson, Andy’s boss, thinks of his friendship with Jock his neighbour and Gemmy’s keeper and changes his earlier position. He said that what they need to do is punish him but not kill him. Mason said that all this time he thought Gemmy as a spy but for the sake of his friendship with Jock, he intervened. Andy was disappointed but he could not go against his boss. This would put his job at risk. Ned also noted that his mudslinging strategy had been outshone by Masson’s friendship to Jock.

They all agreed to scare the boy and sent Murkutt to bring a rope that they will use to tie him and drag him in the forest. All this time, Gemmy was down the hill at Jock’s home where nightmares of the wicked men tormenting him were haunting him in his sleep.

 

Reference

Malouf D. (1993). Remembering Babylon. London: Vintage Books.

 

Australian Migration Law

June 18, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Australian Migration Law

 

Name:

Institution:

 

 

 

Australian Migration Law

Task 2

Volonski vs. Migration Agents Registration Authority case of 2010 was one of the cases in Australia that involved complicated issues of migration. In this case the applicant was Mr. Aurthur Volonski and the respondent was Migration Agents Registration Authority. The applicant was not presented by any party while MARA was presented by the solicitor Ms Alice Linacre.

History Outline that Led to the Hearing

            The applicant, Mr. Arthur Volonski had served as a registration agent in the migration from the year 1988. His application expired in various intervals and he applied successfully after each expiry. However, in the 2007 MARA refused the application from the individual since his integrity as an agent was highly questionable. The claims were raised by MARA through the application of section 290, which raised a number of concerns regarding the applicant. One of the concerns was that the applicant had failed to notify the institution that he had been convicted and made false declarations concerning the convictions in question. Mr.Volonski also failed to notify the institution that he had convicted of a criminal offense that was related to an assault in the year 2001. The party also did not act in the legal interests of the clients that he served, hence failing to serve the clients with the competency, dignity, and the diligence that was expected from him. He therefore, contravened the provisions of codes of conduct that regulated the activities of the migration agents in Australia. The provisions also found the applicant to have failed to exercise due regard to the clients conditions based on his experience and knowledge (Administrative Appeals Tribunal, 2010).

Mr. Volonski also acted contrary to the provisions of the Migration Act by encouraging his clients to execute applications that were not valid since the applications were not conducted according to the required procedures under the act. For instance, he did not give proper advice to the client on how to write and obtain the required acknowledgement from him as the agent in charge of migration.

How the Applicant Contravened the Law and Breached the Code of Conduct

            Notwithstanding the fact that the applicant had pleaded guilty for common assault, the applicant confessed to the institution that he was not aware that he had committed a crime that amounted to assault in 2001. The applicant was not ready to embrace the fact that he had appeared before a court of law for the crime and pleaded guilty. In the very matter, the applicant had embraced the fact that lack of a legal counselor to represent him in the case was the main reason why he had pleaded guilty. In the case, the party disclosed why he had to pursue the act. He acknowledged pushing a motorbike rider for the sake of his pregnant wife.

The statements given by the applicant on the issues of the cases were clear indications that he had contravened Section 312 of the Migration Act. He was therefore liable for making false statements and failing to inform MARA about the case. Despite his knowledge of the provisions, the party went ahead and applied for registration and subsequent re-registrations between the years 2002 to 2006.

            The applicant also contravened Section 312 of the act when he failed to notify MARA that he had been convicted for drinking. His arguments on this case were that the issues of the matter were not related to the institution or the conduct of a registration agent. He based his defense on matters that MARA would not consider for a crime of such nature. Mr. Volonski entirely relied on the manual of the organization to determine his innocence. For instance, he highlighted that the institution did not consider convictions that were spent in a cell or prison as crime. Despite the fact that convictions of such type did not interfere with his integrity as a migration agent, the bottom line of the situation is that the party did not notify MARA of any criminal convictions as required by Section 312 of the Migration Act in Australia (Administrative Appeals Tribunal, 2010).

            In addition to the above cases, the applicant had failed to act in the interest of the clients who he was suppose to serve. The activity contravened Claus 2.1 of the act that, which provides that a registration agent must conduct his activities within the ambits of the law. The agent should exercise fairness and diligence when attending to the clients. When the issues of the case were raised in court, the applicant accepted the guilt by informing the court his secretary had made a mistake and therefore, it was not his intention to commit the crime.

Task 3

Differences Between S. 499 Direction and a DIBP Policy Document

            Section 499 directions are a policy that allows certain category of inhabitants In Australia to move freely within designated regions while performing their activities. The individual therefore, acts act as a legal non-citizen of Australia under the section. The section 13 Clause 2 of the Migration Acts does not require these categories of citizens to have a visa while performing their activities. The section also provides the provisions, which should be considered a minister in charge of migration when making or denying the declarations for migration. A good example the provisions of Section 499 is expressed on the migrations of immigrants who occupy the protected regions in Australia. For instance, the migration of the individuals occupies Papua New Guinea or the Torres Island is regulated by the provisions of the directions in Section 499. The section, further clarifies the migration rights of individuals who live in such areas. The section outlines the exercise and the removal of such rights as provided by the Migration Act.

Under the directions of Section 499, the immigrant may be denied their status of being legal non-citizens if they fail to act according to the expected standards, which govern their behavior as the citizens of Australia. The behaviors should be in tandem with requirements of the local community. The non-legal citizens are also expected to refrain from any criminal activity and promote respect of the culture of the people.

            DIBP policy document is a paper given by the ministry of immigration, which outlines how various individuals in the country can apply for their visas. The document outlines refugees and other asylum seekers in the country can process their registration. The document also highlights the legal issues that are related to the matters of refugees and humanitarian assistance. As a document used in the immigration department, DIBP mainly focuses on the issues affecting refugees and how they can handle their problems. It provides refugee migration statistics and problems, which may call for ministerial interventions on the issues that affect refuges in Australia. The DIBP provides the guidelines, which are used the immigration department on how to handle the issues facing refuges. Factors as such as assimilation are clearly outlined among the problems that affect immigrants in the country.

While policy directions under Section 499 give the immigrants in sections the privilege to be recognized as citizens of Australia, The DIBP mainly deals with issues of refugees. The document also provides clear guidelines, which should be followed by the department of immigration when issuing visas to visitors in Australia.

 

 

 

The Doctrine of Precedent

            The doctrine of precedent as applied in the legal context refers to a set of laws that are used or adopted by the legal system and provide guideline when making decisions on similar or related cases. A precedent may be a custom, which has been held by the judicial system as a common reference to other cases. Customs mainly originate from the traditions of a country. Precedents may also be binding especially where it is mandatory to be applied as in a given context. Moreover, precedents may also be persuasive especially in circumstances where is it is not mandatory. Persuasive precedents are the most common types of precedents that are applied in law. In their applications, the parties concerned must follow past rulings that were made by courts of bodies of judiciary found in the higher echelon. The law of precedents can be applied in migration legislations and cases laws where the court finds difficulties in making particular rulings on the matters of the case at hand. In such a situation, the court may be compelled to refer to the facts of the previous cases and compare the facts of the case at hand and previous one. The court then evaluates the facts of the cases and applies them according to the rulings made(Sinclair, 2007).

            The same case will be applied in migration legislations where the parties concerned should act be guided by the previous cases on migration issues. For instance, if a migration officer has been charged for assault and the facts of the case are difficult to determine, the court may refer to a previous case with similar facts and make appropriate rulings. Hard copies and online reports of migration cases can be located in the websites of the Ministry of Migration. The copies can be extracted from law society website. Government gazettes on such laws can also provide hard copies of the reports.

 

 

References

Administrative Appeals Tribunal. (2010). Decision and Reasons for Decision [2010] AATA 765.          Compatility Paper No 765

Sinclair, M. (2007). Precedent, super-precedent. George Mason Law Review, 14(1), 362-363.

sociology of work

June 18, 2014

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A

Introduction

Inequality at workplace is a form of discrimination that is promoted and established at work place. Most employees are discriminated on the basis of gender, ethnic, and race. Racial, gender, and ethnic inequality do not only affect the hiring process but it also affects promotion at the workplace. Some people fail to move to positions of power because of their race or gender. Inequality therefore, limits the employees’ access to superior positions and career advancement. Today, inequality is not always obvious because some policies appear to be fair and neutral but impact negatively on the minorities at the workplace.

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality has been shaped by society for many generations. Women are discriminated on the basis of income and promotions in a workplace. In the past, women main responsibilities were to take care of children and perform house chores. Women were expected to conform and fit in a society where men were viewed as superior to women. Women were discriminated against and they could not get well-paying jobs and top managerial positions in a company. In America, Women Movement fought hard and for long for gender equality. Women fought for education rights, voting rights, and equity at the workplace. This led to the establishment of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act which dictates that all individuals had equal rights at the workplace. The goal of this act was to eliminate all form of discrimination at the work place.

Unfortunately, women continue to be discriminated against in the workplace. Research shows that women receive low incomes than men. Women attain low paying jobs such as secretaries and men will mostly attain top managerial jobs which are well paid. The gender income gap was a problem in the past that continues to affect women even today. In the past, full time woman earned less than men by about 38%. The gap has narrowed down over the years, and research shows that for every $ 10000 earned by a man a woman earns $8000.

Even when women and men are in the same jobs women still earn a lesser income. Men are also likely to hold leadership position in any occupation compared to women. Women who have equal qualifications with men work twice as hard as the men to hold positions of power. Men have greater chances to acquire a top and well-paying job compared to women.

Cases of sexual harassment at the workplace mostly affect women. Although men are sexually harassed, women are main targets of sexual harassments. Most cases, men in a high position use their influence to intimidate women. This affects the individual’s job performance and creates a hostile environment at the workplace.

Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Individuals have been discriminated against on the basis of race and ethnicity. There is a big difference between the blacks and whites unemployment rate. Today, the black unemployment rate is approximately twice the rate among the white people. Racial and ethnicity inequality has been reduced and discourage but it is still a common practice.

Whites have greater chances of attaining a top managerial position compared to the blacks. Some employers discriminate against the blacks in the hiring process and will only employ white people. In addition, white people have many substantial advantages at the workplace as opposed to the blacks, Hispanics and Asians. Positions that earn a large amount of income and have most power are mostly attached to the white. Education differences have contributed to the persistence of racial discrimination in the workplace. It has also been caused by group favoritism where white people occupy top positions, and these positions are awarded to other people.

The problem of racial and ethnicity inequality becomes a triple burden among the women. Black and Latina women earn less than the white women. Women are discriminated against on the basis of gender, as well as, race.

Conclusion and Position

In the next twenty five years inequality at the work place is likely to improve and it will not be common. Women have become more educated today and ready to take top positions in a company. The educational difference between men and women has narrowed down over the years. Moreover, women in leadership positions have proven to be efficient and effective employees.

Gender inequality has considerably reduced. The Wal-Mart and Kodak cases have served as a good example to companies that promote gender inequality. Companies establish fair promotion and income policies to avoid legal suits which tarnish the image of a company, as well as, increasing cost. Therefore, in the next twenty five years women will take top managerial positions and get well-paying jobs.

The racial and ethnic ethnicity inequality will also reduce in the next twenty five years. The media and various lobbying groups continue to address the issue of racial and ethnic inequality. Some acts such as the Equal Employment and Opportunity Act have prevented employees against discrimination. Discrimination has gone down a whole lot in the last twenty years and it continues to decrease. Firms that are involved in racial discrimination have compensated victims setting a good example to other firms. Therefore, in the next twenty five years all forms of discrimination will reduce.

B

Globalization has affected employment opportunities in both developed and developing countries. When rich countries trade with third world countries the low skilled workers in rich countries wages are reduced while low skilled incomes in poor countries increases. The low skilled labor is replaced by machines in wealthier nations resulting to a reduction in incomes. Conversely, poor countries take time to adapt new technologies due to inadequate capital and have policies promoting workers rather than machines hence low skilled labor income will increase.

According to Firebaugh, increase in production of income in non-industrial nations will generate a more equal income distribution of global income. An increase in income in non-industrial nations will lead to an increase in overall demand. As a result, trade between rich countries and poor countries will increase. This in turn will increase low skilled workers income in the non-industrial states and at the same time reduce income in rich nations. In the long run there will be equal distribution of global income. The non-industrial nations will be alleviated from poverty increasing the standards of living of the people.

Increase in income in non-industrial nations puts pressure on the limited government resources. Most of the non-industries countries are faced with a high wage bill which limits the capacity of the government to develop other areas such as infrastructure, and health sectors. Moreover, it increases prices causing inflation causing further economic implications. The income disparities will be equally distributed between the rich and poor nations but poor nations will suffer from an increase in income due to a persistent rise in prices, and a high wage bill.

C

Alienation is the separation of things that naturally belong together or putting antagonism between things that are properly in harmony. Workers become alienated when they are deprived the right to direct their actions. Alienation can take four different forms. First, when workers are alienated from product of their input. Second, is when a worker is alienated from working. This occurs when a worker performs repetitive task that do not increase intrinsic satisfaction. Third, alienation of the worker from a human nature where the worker s not a given a chance to develop. Finally, worker is alienated from other workers where social element of work is not recognized but rather it seen as an economical practice.

Emotional alienation is present in service works. Most companies are outsourcing important services to reduce the cost of production. Employees of a company often find themselves redundant and sometimes forced to resign because the company no longer requires their services. Outsourcing is a major cause of alienation in the service works. When a company outsources various services it downsizes to reduce its costs. The employees are forced to find another employer and it has become increasingly difficult to get a job. However, most service work emphasize on the social aspect of work. Employees often deal with clients directly or indirectly hence encourages to develop good interpersonal skills. The employees are able to interact with others improving the social aspect of work. Moreover, creativity is encouraged in service works. Employees are therefore able to develop new skills and learn new concepts through creativity. Teamwork is encouraged in service works enabling employees to interact.

Alienation is rampant in marginal and low skilled works. Low skilled labors perform repetitive task. As a result, they are demotivated and do not develop various skills. Low skilled workers are alienated from the final product. They perform most of the tasks and activities in the development of a product but they are not recognized in the end. The low skilled workers work for many hours and receive small pay compared to the amount of effort used. The workers have minimal time to interact and socialize. The nature of duties they perform leaves them with little or no time to socialize. Moreover, low skilled workers are alienated from the company’s decision. In most cases, they do not feel as a part of an organization. Their wages are considerably low and they are not involved in decision making process. In addition, low skilled are supervised and creativity is not encouraged. Therefore, alienation in the marginal and low skilled works is present in all aspects. Workers are alienated from the product, other workers, and their human nature. Low skilled workers do not develop since creativity is not encouraged and perform repetitive task. They do not develop various skills which they can use to improve their lives and likely to remain in the same position for a long time. Firms should recognize the effort of the low skilled laborers in the development of a product. They should also reshuffle low skilled workers after a specific duration to enable them perform different skills and develop many skills.

Emotional alienation is present at professional and managerial works but at different level compared to the service and low killed works. At managerial and professional works emotional alienation has been managed to prevent problems associated with it. Most of the workers are alienated on the basis of gender and race. Women are discriminated against on their gender basis and receive lower wages compared to men. Further, women are less likely to hold top managerial positions. This form of discrimination affects job performance of women and reduces overall productivity of employees. On the other hand, employees are discriminated against on the basis of race. The African American, Hispanics, and Asians are less likely to hold top positions in company compared to the whites. However, these two types of discrimination have been addressed though establishment of laws and fair company policies. Management plays a central role in the performance of the business. A lot of importance is attached to managerial and professional aspect of a company. Companies promote team work and enhance creativity to increase motivation of their employees. Employees at these levels are able to interact and develop themselves. Moreover, employees are well paid enabling them to improve well being and welfare as well.

Alienation is present in service works, managerial and professional works, and marginal and low skilled works. However, it is caused by different reasons in managerial, service and marginal works. The low skilled and marginal works has not managed emotional alienation hence it is widespread. The low skilled employees are alienated from final product, lowly paid, and have little time to socialize. On the other hand, at the managerial works employees are alienated on the basis of gender and race. In the service and managerial works alienation has been managed to prevent problem associated with it. Employees are allowed to develop by enhancing teamwork, and creativity at the workplace.

 

D

Today, white collar jobs have become color blind. Most company hires employees on the basis of qualifications and job experiences. African Americans are not discriminated against on the basis of their race and hold top managerial positions. In the past, blacks could only attain low paying jobs but today the situation is different and they compete for well-paying jobs in the labor market. Most African Americans are educated enabling them to attain well-paying jobs.

The race specific programs policies such as the Equal Opportunity Act have played a major role in reducing racial inequality in the workplace. These programs have forced companies to come up with policies that enhance equity in the workplace. Moreover, the programs have enabled employees to sue companies that promote racial inequality reducing racial discrimination in most companies’ .Therefore, the race specific programs should be enhanced to reduce all forms of discrimination in the workplace.

Today some companies in America are headed by African Americans. Some of these companies include: JMA Solutions, Tag Holdings, LLC, Oprah Winfrey Network, Mc Donalds and Bridgemen Food Inc. The companies perform well and support the fact that African Americans can hold positions which are majorly dominated by the Whites. Moreover, most companies have embraced diversity, and top management is composed of people from various races. Though most top managers are still white with time statics will change and blacks and whites will hold equal positions at the top levels.

In conclusion, the white collar jobs have become color blind and more African Americans can attain well-paying jobs. However, there is a need to enhance the race specific programs to ensure that all forms of inequality are abolished.

Work Cited

Elliott, James R. “Race, Gender, and Workplace Power.” American Sociliology (2004): 1-22.

Kilhefne, Johnny. Facts About Racial Inequality in the Workplace. 2014. 7 May 2014 <http://woman.thenest.com/racial-inequality-workplace-20004.html&gt;.

Rhode, Deborah. “Diversity nad Gender Equity.” Journal of Stanford Law (2007): 1-37.

Squire, Lyn and Natalia E. Dinello. Globalization and Equity: Perspective from the Developing World. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.

Heinz, Walter R. and R. Felix Geyer. Alienation, Society, and the Individual: Continuity and Change in Theory and Research. Mineapolis: Transaction Publishers, 2000.

Hodson, Randy. The Social Organization of Work. London: Cengage Learning, 2011.

Biles, Alex. The Top 20 African-American CEOs in Business Today. 13 March 2013. 7 May 2014 <http://www.benzinga.com/general/entrepreneurship/13/03/3413569/the-top-20-african-american-ceos-in-business-today&gt;.

 

Discrimination of Women at the Workplace

June 18, 2014

 

 

 

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City and State

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Discrimination of Women at the Workplace

Introduction

The twenty-first century has seen a great transformation in traditional family values, which has led to the abolishment of some of the conventional gender-roles. As a result, women today are more economically empowered and socially autonomous than they were in the past centuries. However, despite this progress, women still lag behind their male counterparts in the workplace. This inequality has been perpetrated chiefly by gender discrimination, which persists unabated despite the existing legal framework to fight it. Cases of women being discriminated in the workplace are commonplace both in local and international media. One form of discrimination that has been well documented and rampant in the media is maternity discrimination.

Main Issue: Pregnancy Discrimination

In a news article published by the BBC on 7 August 2013, Katherine Sellgren reports the story of Rebecca Raven, who was fired after reporting that she was pregnant. Alluding to a report published by Slater and Gordon in 2013, Sellgren argues that the case of Raven is only a tip of the iceberg with regard to the magnitude of the problem of gender discrimination (Sellgren, 2013). According to Slater & Gordon (2013), one in every four mothers believes they have been discriminated either prior or after giving birth. The researchers unearthed that 51 percent of women employees consider that the perceptions of their colleagues and employers towards them change after they become pregnant (Slater & Gordon 2013). One common complaint among women workers is that they are overlooked in the promotion and that their junior colleagues progress faster than they do. About half of working mothers feel that having children stops their career progression, while a third of them describe climbing the career ladder as a mother as being impossible (Slater & Gordon 2013).

Women who return to work after giving birth do not receive the support of their bosses. Negative perceptions of women who have children still persist in the workplaces. One common problem that women experience is being put on a ‘mummy track’ after they return from maternity leave (Slater & Gordon 2013). More than 20 percent of mums felt that they are obliged to prove themselves to their employers that they still can perform their duties effectively after returning from maternity leave. Therefore, 25 percent of the women also feel pressured to return to work earlier than they are expected to (Slater & Gordon 2013). Furthermore, women experience feelings of being less valued after giving birth. Another 30 percent of women feel that their employers regard being a mum as inconvenient, a factor that contributes towards them not being promoted. Younger employees who have no children are prioritized in the workplaces at the expense of more experienced mums (Slater & Gordon 2013).

A major challenge that hinders progress towards attaining gender equality in the workplace is failure to report on any forms of discrimination. Many organizations choose to remain silent and assume that one day the condition will improve. However, a major initiative, the Think-Act-Report plan was launched in 2011, which requires companies to take stock of any actions of gender discrimination that may be occurring in their workplaces, take action towards eliminating them, and report on any progress (Government Equalities Office 2013). This is a voluntary plan that mainly targets the middle and large firms in the private sector. Since its launch, more than 140 companies have signed up to the initiative, an equivalent to two million workers (Government Equalities Office 2013).

Theoretical Approaches on Pregnancy Discrimination

Gender discrimination in places of work is manifested in direct and indirect forms. Regardless of whatever form the discrimination takes, it can be explained through various theoretical approaches. One such approach is negative stereotyping theory. This approach argues that women’s progress into a senior position is hindered or constrained by the discrepancies between women traits and those characteristics conventionally linked with managerial success (Terborg & Ilgen 1975). Women are generally regarded as empathetic, intuitive, and lacking aggression and entrepreneurial spirit (Macarie & Modlovan 2012). This theory explains why Rebecca Raven was fired after reporting that she was pregnant. Her employer started to view Rebecca as being less capable of performing her duties effectively due to her condition. Although pregnancy comes with increased responsibilities and caution, it is definitely no excuse for discrimination.

Even though expectant employees like Rebecca continue to dispense their duties as usual, the male-dominated workplace does not recognize such efforts because it is blinded by negative stereotypes that view women as inferior. They are perceived as less capable of discharging their duties effectively if appointed to senior positions, a misconception that explains why many boardrooms are dominated by men (Macarie & Modlovan 2012). Another theory that addresses gender inequality in places of work is the attribution theory. This approach argues that the workplace success or failure is caused by stable, objective factors such as intelligence or skills, or variable factors such as chance or luck (Macarie & Modlovan 2012).

Generally, when the performance of an employee meets the employer’s expectations, it is linked with stable factors, but it if does not, it is related with unstable factors. This approach is used to discriminate against women because when they perform well, instead of employers attributing the success to their skills, it is linked to external factors (Macarie & Modlovan 2012). Therefore, when Rebecca got pregnant and informed her boss, the employer believed that her pregnancy would affect her capacity to discharge her roles effectively. Such subjective judgment is erroneous and a grave vice that should not be condoned in today’s workplaces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Government Equalities Office, 2013, Think-Act-Report: Two years on, viewed 3 April 2014, <https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/262867/ThinkActReport2013.pdf&gt;

Macarie, F & Modlovan, O 2012, ‘Gender discrimination in the workplaces: Theoretical and empirical perspectives’, Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, vol. 35, pp. 153-172.

Sellgren, K 2013, Many mothers ‘feel discriminated against at work,’ viewed 3 April 2014, <http://www.bbc.com/news/education-23600465&gt;

Slater & Gordon 2013, Mums facing discrimination in the workplace, viewed 3 April 2014, <http://www.slatergordon.co.uk/media-centre/press-releases/2013/08/mums-facing-discrimination-in-the-workplace/&gt;.

Terborg, JR & Ilgen, DR 1975, ‘A theoretical approach to sex discrimination in traditionally masculine occupations’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 352-376.