Archive for October, 2014

research ethics

October 30, 2014

Research Ethics
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While the concept of research ethics may appear like a recent issue, it has a long history that stretches back to the 1940s. Precisely, the very first attempt to come up with related regulations started during the Doctors Trial of 1946 to 1947, at a time when 23 German Nazi physicians faced accusations of having conducted ‘experiments’ that were termed as torturous and abhorrent on concentration camp inmates. In some of these experiments, the physicians exposed the inmates to extreme altitudes and temperatures. In response, the Nuremberg Code, which contained a list of ethical guidelines on how research should be conducted, was developed. Since then, several other codes of conduct in research have been developed (University of Minnesota, 2003). This is mainly by professional associations, higher education institutions, and government agencies that in addition to the codes of conduct, they have also put in place policies and rules relating to research ethics. In the US for instance, government agencies among them the National Institute of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have formulated ethical rules that guide funded researchers (Resnik, 2011). In the contemporary world of research, it is extremely important for any person who wishes to conduct research or make use of results from research findings to understand what constitutes ethical research.
Notably, research constitutes a public trust that has to be conducted ethically, be socially responsible, and trustworthy for its results to be considered valuable. In this respect, all components of a research project right from the design to the results submission for purposes of peer review should be outstanding for them to be regarded as ethical (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006). In a case where even one component of a research project is conducted unethically or raises questions, the integrity of the whole project becomes questionable. Here it is important to look at the general ethical issues that come up in the course of research. These issues are in fact, the ones that describe the ethical protection system that contemporary research establishments have developed mainly to assure protection of research participants (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006).
Voluntary participation is a principle that requires those conducting research not to coerce people into taking part in it. This is primarily relevant in cases where researchers had on an earlier instance relied upon ‘captive audiences’ as their research subjects in places like universities, prisons and others. Closely related to this is the principle of informed consent. Basically, this implies that prospective participants of a research have to be comprehensively informed on the risks and procedures involved in the research upon which they must give consent for their participation (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006). Another ethical standard dictates that researchers should not put participants in a situation that exposes them to a risk of harm owing to their participation. Such harm can be either psychological or physical. The privacy of participants is also critical to an ethical research. Here, two standards apply and these are confidentiality and anonymity. On confidentiality, an ethical research guarantees the participants that their identity information will not be disclosed to any person not directly involved in the research. A much stricter standard is that of anonymity. This basically implies that research participants should remain anonymous throughout the research and this includes to the researchers themselves. Though this serves as a stronger assurance of privacy, it often proves hard to achieve more so in research situations that require that participants be measured at multiple points of time for instance, in a pre-post study (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006). Lastly, it has also become increasingly common for researchers to have to handle the issue of an individual’s right to service. The use of a no-treatment control group is usually considered to constitute a good research practice. However, those individuals who participate in a research, but do not get the treatment which may be having beneficial effects sometimes complain that their rights to equal access to services have been curtailed (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006).
It is also important to note that even in the existence of clear ethical principles and standards, there are cases in which the need to achieve accuracy in research overlaps the rights of prospective participants. In fact, there is currently no set of standards that has the capacity to cover every ethical circumstance that may arise. Moreover, it is important to have a procedure that will guarantee that researchers will take into account all relevant ethical issues as they formulate their research plants (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006). It is for these purposes that most organizations and institutions have created an Institutional Review Board (IRB); a board made up of a panel of individuals who review grant proposals in relation to ethical implications and determine whether there is a need to take additional actions to guarantee the rights and safety of participants. IRBs also assist in protecting both the researcher and the organization against any potential legal implications that may arise from failure to address critical ethical issues of research participants (Web Centre for Social Research Methods, 2006).
Researchers also have a role in ensuring they understand how to assess interpret, and apply the different research rules. They also have to possess skills that enable them to make decisions and act in the numerous situations that may arise. Fortunately, most of such decisions only involve the direct application of the existing rules.

References
Resnik, D.B. (2011).What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? Retrieved on 22/10/2014 from: http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/
University of Minnesota. (2003). A Guide to Research Ethics. Retrieved on 22/10/2014 from: http://www.ahc.umn.edu/img/assets/26104/Research_Ethics.pdf
Web Centre for Social Research Methods. (2006). Ethics in Research. Retrieved on 22/10/2014 from: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/ethics.php

1984: Allusion to Stalin and Hitler

October 30, 2014

1984: Allusion to Stalin and Hitler
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Nineteen Eighty-Four is a dystopian novel written by English author, George Orwell. This is a novel telling about life story of Winston Smith – his struggles, difficulties, decisions and life lead. Nineteen Eighty-Four is a story about seeking for freedom, a quest for liberty against the totalitarian authority that ravaged the whole state which the characters live in. George Orwell’s novel was considered as one of the most famous dystopian fiction in the field of literature. Privacy and security state issues were tackled as the author used allusions to demonstrate the reality he was experiencing to the lives of his very own characters. George Orwell had made sure that he would be able to use his novel in reaching out to the other nations regarding the dangers that communism has. Hence, he was successful. George Orwell was able to describe the experience of the whole nation as it was influenced by actions and decisions by the ruling powers during the earliest era of 1900. George Orwell used his novel in reminiscent of the totalitarian society that had brought a lot of suffering and affliction which was vividly depicted in his novel. Thus, the novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, can be concluded to portray Stalin and Hitler: their purpose with their own totalitarian government; their greed for power; their belief of purging the world of sins and desecration; and their sustenance for authority and total control. Nineteen Eighty-Four is not just an ordinary fictional novel that tells about war and struggle to survive. Rather, it is a warning to the world of the dangers of communism and totalitarian government which both Hitler and Stalin wanted to be realized.
George firsthand experienced the horror and terror of the lengthy totalitarian government in Spain and Russia. This authority was implemented extensively for the leaders to maintain their supremacy and power. People were afflicted with misgivings, sufferings, and agony. Though the world had subtly accepted the diplomacy of communism, still, there were many people who yearn for democracy and total liberation. America often presents the Soviet Union as state of moral experiment wherein people are highly ambiguous. By the time that George Orwell got fed up with the widespread oppression and cruelties, he longed to tell the people of its story and reality. George was keen in demonstrating the ruling powers led by Stalin and Hitler as communist nations which use modern technology in oppressing people and society, closely monitoring and controlling them. Thus, Nineteen Eighty-Four is the perfect totalitarian government that George Orwell used in alluding to both Stalin and Hitler in their quest for absolute power. George Orwell hoped that his book will serve its purpose of preventing the dangers and total destruction of totalitarian government if it would continue up to the near future (Dwan, 2010, p. 381).
The Big Brother presented in the novel was the same kind of potentate leaders such as Stalin and Hitler. However, it seemed that George Orwell had his eye more focused on Stalin rather than Adolf Hitler. Even in the portrayal of the character Big Brother even looks more like Stalin. Furthermore, considering the demographics and descriptions that were used in the novel, most totalitarian states are rather looking all similar. In the novel, Big Brother has focused hatred on his archenemy which was Goldstein which was Trotsky or the Jewish people. Big brother was the head of The Party which then is the most powerful system of censorship, torture, propagandas and suffering. The novel clearly depicts the need of the society and every individual to conform to the principles and notions of The Party which was common for all communist country. In the book, Big Brother even ordered for history to be rewritten in order to suit the ideas of The Party (Carpentier, 2014, p. 179).
In a letter that George Orwell sent to Noel Willmett of the Daily Beast, Orwell mentioned, “I must say I believe, or fear, that taking the world as a whole these things are on the increase” (Marshall, 2014). In Orwell’s viewpoint, if one would consider Hitler out of the game or probably will disappear, it will only add to the expense of strengthening and enforcing people like Stalin or the Anglo-American millionaires, as well as the subtypes of de Gaulle. Continuing further, Orwell stated, “All the national movements everywhere, even those that originate in resistance to German domination, seem to take non-democratic forms” (Marshall, 2014). These people group themselves round in order to attain some superhuman system and order and adopt the theory wherein the end will always justifies the means. George Orwell strongly believes that everywhere in the world, it seems that almost all people moved on one centralized point. He emphasized his point by stating, “Everywhere the world movement seems to be in the direction of centralized economies which can be made to ‘work’ in an economic sense” (Marshall, 2014). These powerful nations and states are but which not democratically organized institutions and might lead to establishment of caste system. Orwell was afraid that if the Soviet Union would continue to increase its quest for power and authority, the world would crumble and be destroyed. He mentioned, “With this go the horrors of emotional nationalism and a tendency to disbelieve in the existence of objective truth” (Marshall, 2014). What will be expected is that all the facts will have to fit in concerning words and prophecies particularly those that are infallible and horrifying. George Orwell knew too well that the world is already at chaos. He further emphasized his point with his following statement quote “There is no such thing as a history of our own times which could be universally accepted, and the exact sciences are endangered as soon as military necessity ceases to keep people up to the mark” (Marshall, 2014). Right at the moment, in a sense history of the world had already ceased to exist.
Orwell was superb in depicting and portraying a state in which the government controls and monitors every facets and aspects of human life. It was extreme to the point that even having wrong notions, ideals, disloyal thought is crime against the law. As the novel continued to progress, little by little, Winston Smith felt the need to challenge the limits and abuse of the Party’s power. However, he feared what he had discovered. He did not expect the Party’s ability to enslave and totally control its subjects. Thus, leads to dwarfing Winston’s paranoid conceptions and understanding of its reach. Little by little too, the readers will come to understand through Winston’s eyes of what was the reality fast happening – what The Party uses as methodologies and number of techniques to control its citizens in tyranny and subjective obedience, each of which is important aspect and theme to the novel itself.
After the course of the war during the years of 1936 and thereafter, the world yearned for a better cause. Apparently, people should continue on making the future better, by which involving constant criticism in order to attain changes. George knew that if everything will stay as it is, the fearsome world of totalitarian government will come to devour us whole. “The rocket bombs which fell daily on London were probably fired by the government of Oceania itself, just to keep the people frightened” (Orwell, 2004, p. 108) – these lines in the novel would actually come true given that circumstances will not change. The reality was that it had really happened.
In the novel, the truth was already taken out from the picture and lies were compounded to become the reality people lived with (Orwell, 2004, p. 45). This is very much same with the principles that both Stalin and Hitler believes in: If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. It would be best to consider the following lines in fully understanding how Stalin and Hitler were directly connected to the novel itself. “The ideal set up by the Party was something huge, terrible and glittering” (Orwell, 2004, p. 74). It was worlds were iron and concrete monstrous machineries and weapons are the ruling hand for authority. It was a nation full of fanatics and warriors all marching forward with cadence and unity. People who are thinking the same things; shouting slogans and motives. It was a world wherein all works, fights, persecutes, and survive. It was “Three hundred million people all with the same face” (Orwell, 2004, p. 74). It was true that reality was rotten and people cannot do something about it. Terror filled the air and so chaos and discord.
References
Carpentier, M. C. (2014). The “dark power of destiny” in george orwell’s nineteen eighty
four. Mosaic : A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 47 (1), 179-194.
Dwan, D. (2010). TRUTH AND FREEDOM IN ORWELL’S NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR.
Philosophy and Literature, 34 (2), 381-393.
Marshall, C. (2014). George Orwell Explains in a Revealing 1944 Letter Why He’d Write
1984. Open Culture. Retrieved July 7, 2014, from
http://www.openculture.com/2014/01/george-orwell-explains-in-a-revealing-1944-letter-why-hed-write-1984.html
Howe, I. (1983). 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism In Our Century. New York: Harper Row.
Orwell, G. (2004). 1984. Iowa: 1st World Publishing.

Evolution of Public Administration

October 30, 2014

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Evolution of Public Administration

Public administration as a term encompasses a compounded group of interrelated concept, a factor that makes a simple definition to be difficult. In general, public administration deals with the ways and manner in which the government policies are implemented as well as how the civil servants should deliver services to the community. Public administration as an academic discipline is only about a hundred years old which make it not so old. During this time period, the discipline has undergone several developmental phases which can be traced back from its historical trend. These developments change with the changes in the interrelated disciplines in social-economic-political spheres amongst other fields. Some scholars have demonstrated how the developmental theories have helped define the major innovation periods in Public administration. As a discipline, public administration was born in America in 1887. From there, five different evolution stages can be clearly marked. The first stage dates from 1987 to 1926 which is marked as politics administration dichotomy. Woodrow Wilson is credited for introducing public relations as a discipline whereby he laid down the basics which were focused on separating politics from administration. Wilson emphasized that administration lies outside the political sphere and that administrative questions are separate from political questions. This view was embraced since the people were disappointed with the way the government was handling various policy matters where corruption was rampant. L.D. White further heightened the significance of this view through his book that was published in 1926 namely “Introduction to the Study of Public Administration”. The second phase, 1927 to 1937, is known as Principles of Administration. This phase was shaped by a central belief that that there existed certain administration principles that the scholars had a task of discovering in order to boost the economy and improve efficiency of public administration. This made many scholars in business and administrative practices to join hands in order to examine the functionality of management. The move was especially heightened by the great depression in America, a period that defines the golden years of public administration principles. In other words, this period signifies a time when public administration experienced its height and respectability because the ideas were in great demand for both business and governmental activities. The third period is dates from 1938 to 1937 and is known as the Era of Challenge. The core theory in this phase was the human relationship and behavioral approach in public administration discipline. This theory was mainly supported by Herbert Simon and other scholars in the development of behavioral science. Former idea of administrative dichotomy was challenged. Simon maintained that administration is inseparable from politics due to its role and nature for the fact that administration not only deals with policy formulations but also with policy decisions and their implementation. In the similar manner, the principal of administration was also challenged and was viewed as a proverb. It was mainly criticized due to its dependence on formal organizational structure. The human relations theory emphasized on administrations human aspects which originated from the experiments carried out in Harvard Business School by Elton Mayo and colleagues. This was in the late 1820s and 1830s. The study mainly focused on social and psychological problems experienced by the industrial workers. It is in these phase that the scholars distinguished variables like leadership, informal organization, motivation and morale for maximum employment of human resources in organizations and industries. The fourth phase is the Crisis of Identity stage which ranged from 1948 to 1970. This erupted as a result of looking for alternative management options by some public administrators. A considerable number of scholars considered the management option which is at times referred to as generic management or administrative science as a viable alternative. This period marks time where many states in the world were immerging from wars and colonization a scenario which called for reconsideration of public administration values in a cross national and cross cultural perspective. The US was also not spared by the crisis around this period especially in 1960`s , of which the traditional public administration could not offer solutions to most of these problems. This is the reason as to why the need to reinvent public administration developed because it was ceasing to be relevant under the state and principles it was in. This phase of management covers several fields like, decision making, organization theory and behavior and planning. It also incorporates certain techniques of management science which include human resource management, motivation, communication, budgeting, productivity, communication, management information systems and marketing. This demonstrates that scientific management and the underlying principles paved way for the administrative management science. The prominent scholars of this theory are Catheryne Seckler-Hudson who published her work in 1955, “basic concepts in the study of public management. She emphasized on the political implications and policies that are evident in the operation of public administration. However, she gives more consideration to the question of public administration`s problems. Works of other scholars like March`s “Handbook of Organizations”, 1965 and that of James Thompson`s “Organizations in Action”, 1967, provide a clear insight of theoretical reasons in support of management with focus on organization theory as a model for public administration. The fifth period starts from 1971 to the present and this is referred to as Public Policy Theory. In this face public policy plays a significant role and it simply refers to the attempt of the government to undertake public issues through employment of laws, decisions, actions or regulations related to the present problem. This brought about the client orientation, democratic humanism as well as scientific perspective in the New Public Administration. This phase demonstrates a policy which is developed for the interests of the people and which caters for their development. In other words, public policy perspective focuses on government policies towards the development of its citizens. This concept demonstrates a closer move to political science whereby many management principles are embraced in order to help public administration keep up with its conduct. Some developments have taken place in this phase and this has led to further evolution of the fifth phase. For instance in 1970, the National Association of Schools and Public affairs and Administration (NASPAA), was formed. This organization made progress in the fields of information science and organization theory. This is a development form the New Public Administration that marks a very important development which is credited to Dwight Waldo. This scholar focused on moral tone in public administration thus; calling for a shift from both management and political science and instead focus on ethics and values. In this case, the questions of individual development, client bureaucracy relationship as well as technology, urbanism and violence are looked into. In addition to this development, the early 1990s brought forth a new managerial approach namely, the New Public Management (NPM). It based its principles on the traditional managerial approach and focuses on reforms that seek focus on improving the performance of public sector. It emphasizes on matters like putting customers first, empowering employees for better results, solving problems through market mechanisms and decentralizing personnel policies amongst others. In the recent times, the New Public Management has become the dominant managerial approach. For instance the key concepts that were more evolutionally ten years ago, are now dominating the public administration. This is demonstrated by key terms like, customer focused, results oriented, outsourcing, employee empowerment amongst others. In conclusion, Public administration has developed a significant evolution despite being not a very old academic discipline. Most importantly, the culture of this discipline demonstrates changes in a more innovative and flexible entrepreneurial, innovative and problem solving as opposed to process oriented and rule bound exercises.

Battle Royal

October 27, 2014

Battle Royal

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Battle Royal is a short story by Ralph Ellison in his book the Invisible Man. The short story was written in 1952 and it is about a young black man who has graduated and is invited to give a speech to white citizens. In his narration he remembers the words of a grandfather to his son and narrates of the cruel betrayal. The short story has several symbols that enhance all the themes. The battle royal story itself is a symbol of political and social aspects which is portrayed in the novel (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

The story is a symbol of the African American struggle for equality. The narrator undergoes various hardships so as to deliver his speech. This was a symbol of the many hardships that a black man went through as they fought for equality. The boy expects to give his speech in a positive surrounding and what he goes through is beyond belief. The boys are supposed to compete in the battle royal and they savagely beat one another. The fight is symbolic of the African American for equality, it shows the struggle the blacks endured to be accepted as equal in the white society after the abolition of slavery (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

The electrified rug is another important symbol in the story. The boys are given a chance to take coins and bills from a rug after the battle royal. When they are grabbing the money they receive shock from the electricity because the coins are electrified and it proves difficult for them to reach the money. This activity also symbolizes the difficulties the blacks went through in the struggle for equality. They had to suffer and endure physical pain as the whites got amused by such activities. The blacks were not given things freely, but there was a price attached and this is seen in the case of boys (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

In the short story Ralph explains that before the battle, there was a naked blonde woman who danced before the white and black boys in the room. The woman symbolizes the other side of women who were the minority during this period. The whites were in control and used women as things for entertainment they are not treated as people, but as animals in a ring who are meant to fight and bleed (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010). The naked white woman has an American flag painted on her belly and this symbolizes that she is not a woman who is of great social status and should not be respected. She is viewed as a symbol of sexism in America society during that time. Additionally, the American flag tattooed on the woman’s body can symbolize the attraction of America and even if they are displayed before the blacks, they are off limits, but are unreservedly accessible to the whites (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

The blind folds were placed on the blacks as they went to the battle and their use in the story symbolizes the narrator as being blinded by the white. The blacks were not able to control their emotions or even find a way because they have blinders that have been placed in their lives. The narrator has concerns on the inferiority of the blacks and internalizes them without seeing the truth (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010). When the boy is done with his speech the superintendent came and he is given a calfskin brief case. The calfskin briefcase is an emphasis on the skin and shows the relationship of the calf and the narrator’s life which is being sacrificed on racism altar. It is a symbol of psychological and emotional baggage that the narrator goes through in battling with racism and trying to rise socially. However, receiving the calfskin briefcase also symbolizes that individual battles can be won with honor. The narrator learns that he has the chance to improve his life and he has done what it takes to achieve the best (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

The dream of the narrator at the end of the story is essential. He described his grandfather telling him to open a number of envelopes and he reached one that had a document written “to whom it may concern, keep this nigger boy running.” This was a symbol of the many difficulties that the African American had faced over the years. The dream, symbolizes the myth in the American dream, which has the view that black Americans can achieve their dreams if there is the will to work hard (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

Ralph Ellison story the Battle Royal is significant as it is a representative of the hardships that African American went through. In the story Ralph uses a number of symbols and they relate to many themes of the story. To the main character who is the narrator the meaning of the symbols is very important because they symbolize the lack of equality. The narrator wants equality, but the white man stops him from his story, Ellison is not happy with the society because of the treatment of the blacks. Ellison makes use of symbolism in the short story because they played an important role in making the narrator feel pain and the injustice in the society (Abcarian and Marvin, 2010).

Works Cited:

Abcarian, Richard and Marvin Klotz. Literature: The Human Experience. 10th Ed. Boston, MA: St. Martin’s Press, 2010. Print.

Deep water Horizon disaster

October 25, 2014

Inquisitive letter

Audience Name

Audience Department

Street Address

City, State Zip code

Dear Audience Name:

Subject: Solutions to Problems that Led to the Deepwater Horizon Disaster.

I have prepared this preliminary report on the problems that caused the Deepwater horizon disaster. In the report, I have summarized the pre-blowout and post-blowout challenges, which led to the massive losses incurred by BP and other companies. In their report, the managerial structure and the ineffective communication mechanism in the organization have been identified and elaborated. Finally, this report has proposed and justified three solutions to the problems.

Thank you for employing me to take a closer look at this challenge in the communication structure of the organization. This study has allowed me to analyze the communication challenges, as well as broadened my knowledge after the research. As a result, I have combined the information available, and the communication methods learned, in order to offer solutions to the identified problems.

Sincerely,

Name

Student

Executive Summary

This report communicates the problem faced at the Deepwater horizon, in April, 2010. It is based on analysis of the available information on the pre and post-blowout activities at the Macondo oilrig. Analysis conducted on the available reports on the Deepwater Horizon disaster, shows that it could have been prevented. The analysis shows that the immediate causes of the Macondo well blowout can be attributed to a series of mistakes made by the companies at the site. The companies included the BP, Halliburton and the Transocean. These companies employed a profit-based operation, at the expense of risk assessment and management. In addition, BP has a neglectful culture, which is indicated by the recurring mistakes in technical and managerial operations.

This report deduces that offshore drilling in deep and ultra deep waters harbors various risks. They include the economic, social and environmental. The aftermath of the disaster shows that despite the awareness, the involved personnel were not prepared. Therefore it is fundamental to develop a method of ensuring safety standards are upheld at all times. In addition, it is inevitable to conduct further research and initiate future generation exploration measures, with the aim of detecting and mitigating the disasters. In this report, it is also proposed that there should be an international categorization of the disasters and strategic safety measures set up for each category. This would ensure that in the case of such a disaster, there are adequate mechanisms to curb the resultant loss.

Introduction

Drilling in deep and ultra deep water was proven economically viable in the mid-19th century. Its approval came after the increased demand for oil and natural gas. In addition, the improved drilling technology offered solutions, which enabled major oil companies to venture into the offshore deposit of crude oil. Having invested in offshore drilling in Alaska and other onshore wells in the US, BP ventured into the offshore drilling, especially in the Gulf of Mexico (Redmond, 2012). The step was taken at a period, when the world was in search for profitable source of oil, which could offer remarkable output of crude oil and natural gas. Offshore wells that had been exploited were largely in shallow waters. However, their daily output was little. For instance, wells in the shallow coast of America produced about 1000 barrels of oil a day. On the other hand, the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico promised more than 10,000 barrels per day. Therefore, it was enticing for BP to venture in deep water drilling in this area. Consequently, they invested about $560 million in the acquisition of the Macondo well in October 2009 (De Soysa, 2012).

After examining 3-D seismic data and geological data about the Gulf of Mexico, the engineers were convinced that the drilling of the Macondo well was a promising venture. As a result, the company set off the drilling plans, which aimed at using the entire Macondo well. The Transocean’s Marianas drillers were used. They drilled the first 9,090 ft. of the well. However, the Hurricane, Ida forced the Marianas to abandon the operations. The result was a three months delay, after which the Deepwater Horizon took over and resumed the drilling operations in February of 2010 (McNutt, 2012).

The costs of operation included a daily payment of $533,495, with the exception of one day every month. This time was allocated and accounted for maintenance. Additionally, BP was paying operational costs, which included the expendables, fuel and the services. The total daily cost of operation was estimated to be about $1 million. In addition, the staff who operated the Deepwater horizon were funded by their employers. At the event of a disaster, there were a 126 people working in the station. However, only seven people were BP employees. This means that the total daily expenditure of the Deepwater horizon was more than $1 million (Skogdalen, 2012).

On Tuesday, April 2010, disaster stroke the Deepwater horizon. The oilrig experienced technical faults, which resulted to blowout. Consequently, the plant caught fire and exploded, burning it down. Among the 126 people onboard, 17 were injured, 11 killed and the rest survived with minor injuries. The disaster led to burning of about 700,000 gallons of oil, which led to release of dark carbon to the atmosphere, where the smoke was about 30 miles long, thus affected navigation in the air. After burning for more than one day, the Deepwater Horizon sank. This event took place on April 22. In this report, the researcher seeks to communicate the problems that led to the disaster. The researcher will then propose solutions as well as a justification to the proposed solutions.

Causes of the disaster.

To date, the Deepwater horizon disaster remained the largest oil spill in history. By the time it was contained, in July 2010, about five million barrels of oil had spilled. The amount was later analyzed by federal science and engineering experts, who concluded that the total spillage was about 53,000-62000 barrels per day. The technical analysis shows that the underlying technical problems included human errors, engineering misjudgments, missed opportunities as well as outright mistakes.

Technical causes of the disaster

Technical causes include the precise flow path of the hydrocarbons during the blowout. The team explained that the hydrocarbons entered the production casing due to a failure of the shoe track cement. However, there was a possibility that they entered the production casing, which took place from the annulus, then passed through the breach, in the production casing at the bottom of the casing. This explanation implies that the seals of the casing failed during the blowout, due to extreme pressure of the hydrocarbons (Camilli, 2012). The high pressures resulted from an obstruction, which was caused by debris. In addition, the high pressure may have occurred after the lifting of the casing hanger, thus dislodging after the seal was set. The high temperature of the hydrocarbons also caused the casing to expand and lengthen. As a result, the fluid managed to dislodge the seals. Thus, the fuels and gases escaped from the unstable foamed cement.

The second aspect is the errors in the initial design. The team of designers used long string production casing, which it increased the difficulty of achieving zonal isolation during cementing. Although this action does not directly lead to a blow out, it increased the risk of the cementing failure. Another error was the inclusion of rupture discs, instead of protective casing. The result was complicated post-blowout containment efforts, which led to huge losses, as well as death of the crew onboard (Drescher, 2014).

Failures in the final cementing job have also been identified as the cause of the blowout. The cement failed to isolate hydrocarbons. Although the risk factors that contributed to cement failure have not been identified, the responsible team did not conduct a pre-construction tests, which would enable them identify the possible failure in their design. Further analysis of pre-blowout and post-blowout tests of the foamed cement slurry design offers additional evidence of design errors. It was identified that the foamed cement at the well were unstable, which could majorly contribute to the failure of the cement.

The support team employed particular abandonment procedure (Smith, 2013). These procedures reduced the number of barriers, which otherwise would be present, in the case of under balance of the well. The result was an increase in the risk of blowouts. In addition, the maintenance team carried various test, such as the negative pressure test, which was conducted on April 20. The tests indicate that the cement could not isolate the hydrocarbons. Despite these findings, the BP and Transocean personnel not only failed to interpret the tests accordingly, but also opted for a consensus that the tests showed proper operations (McNutt, 2012).

The maintenance team also failed to check for warnings on time. On April 20, the Transocean and Sperry-Sun mud loggers did not detect the signs of a kick, which happened even with signs, which were recorded as early as 9.01 pm. This anomaly was not recognized as a kick until hydrocarbons entered the rise. Therefore, if they were keen to recognize the signs, they would have prevented the blowout.

Another expertise mistake was the handling of the post-blow out occurrence. In this case, the crew onboard decided to divert the flow to a mud gas separator, yet its capacity could not handle the high volume and pressure of the hydrocarbons. Instead, they would have diverted the hydrocarbons overboard, which would have mitigated the size and impact of explosions and fires.

Analysis of the blowout preventer (BOP) shows negligence in the maintenance. The team neglected it, and at the time of blowout, it could not contain the high pressure and temperature of the hydrocarbons. If it were properly maintained, it would have prevented excessive flow of the hydrocarbons, to a level that could not lead to a blowout.

The management structure of the companies involved in the process of Deepwater horizon was also to be blamed for the disaster. It is so because the disaster would have been prevented if the existing progressive guidelines and practices were followed. The management of BP did have a workable framework that would ensure that available safest technology was employed. In fact, the history of BP shows that the management had a ‘save time-make money’ culture. The culture compromised the safety measures, in attempts to reduce the operational costs (Aeppli et al., 2013). The risks taken by the management, with the aim of maximizing profits in the future, were economically valid. However, their short-term threats were not considered. The result was a breach of safety standards, which also compromised the safety of the workers. In addition, the management failures were realized when the containing, controlling, mitigating, planning and cleaning up of post-blowout disaster was analyzed (De Soysa, 2012). It is so because the company failed to utilize the multiple opportunities that were present at the time of disaster. In relation to the previous disasters in the US, the companies were supposed to have developed a workable risk assessment and management strategy. It would help them to realize the fallibilities of the Deepwater horizon. Therefore, they had multiple opportunities to take the right action, accordingly and in the right way (Camilli, 2012). The researcher deduces that the management failure in the organization and operation of the Deepwater horizon was to be blamed for the disaster.

In conclusion, the Macondo well blew out because the cement that Halliburton and BP pumped down to the production casing on 19th April failed to seal off. Consequently, it failed to isolate the hydrocarbons in the formation. At the same time, the rig personnel were involved in a replacement exercise. It entailed the drilling mud in the well and riser was replaced with sea water. The result was a remarkable reduction in the fluid pressure. Thus, the well became underbalanced (Drescher, 2014). Under-balance led to flow of hydrocarbons into the annular space around the production casing. Consequently, the hydrocarbons rose into the other parts at high pressures, which further built up resulting to the blow out. Since the maintenance crew never recognized the rise, the hot hydrocarbons and the gas mixed and ignited within 10 minutes of response (Camilli, 2012). This triggered the first explosion. Therefore, it can be deduced that if BP had developed a proper management and communication strategy, the disaster would have been avoided. The researcher proposes a workable communication strategy, which BP should implement. The aim of the implementation is to avoid similar cases to the Deepwater horizon disaster.

Proposed solutions to the problem

Introduction

The Deepwater horizon disaster portrays the weaknesses in the current drilling technology, management and design procedures. The outcome of the disaster shows high level of unawareness and unpreparedness, in the drilling companies. In this section, the report proposes various steps, which shall not only prepare the team, but also offer a guideline towards the response, in the case a similar disaster in the future. The proposed solutions include high-tech exploration, categorization of the disasters and the restructuring of management hierarchy in the companies.

  1. Conduct high-tech hazard exploration

The oil and gas industry should embark on an important next generation series of high tech-hazard exploration systems. It should be done in a deep and ultra-deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The researchers and engineers at onboard relied on the information collected from small-scale operations, which were mainly conducted in the shallow waters. As a result, they had little information, and they underestimated the magnitude of the disaster. This step is essential because it would have saved the Deepwater horizon. The assessment should not only be done by BP, but also be a regulation to all drilling companies, in order to prevent similar disasters in the future.

  1. Categorize the disasters into variable magnitudes

The failures identified after the disaster showed that the consequences of the major offshore oil and gas system failures can be categorized into various orders (Aeppli et al., 2013). The deep water horizon case had the greatest magnitude, which could not be predicted using the facts taken from previous disasters. Therefore, it would be prudent to categorize these disasters, where the lowest magnitude would be termed as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The largest possible magnitude would be greater than the Deepwater horizon (Skogdalen, 2012). In this case, the experts should formulate measures of response. The response would be different for each category. As a result, the proposed solution would go a long way in eradicating cases of unawareness and uncoordinated response, in the case of a similar disaster.

  1. The restructuring of the management structure at the oilrigs

The response to the disaster by the team onboard shows that they were uncoordinated, where some failed in their job (Camilli, 2012). They include the maintenance, communication and management personnel. Restructuring the management team would facilitate proper communication in the organization. For instance, there were supposed to be a managerial staff, who were responsible for regular maintenance tests and evaluation of the oilrig. Therefore, the structure of management needs to be changed, and individuals responsible for each area be given the mandate to conduct the regular maintenance.

Justification

The researcher analyzed the reports on the Deepwater horizon disaster and came up with three solutions. They include the incorporation of high-tech hazard exploration in all offshore wells, especially in the ultra-deep waters. The research shall enable the oil companies such as BP and Transocean, to instill preventive measures. The measures shall entail creation of awareness and the post-blowout response mechanism. Therefore, this proposal is valid and justified.

The second solution suggested is the categorization of offshore well disasters. The range of the expected loss and the magnitude of the disaster should be analyzed and documented. In this case, they should range from the least to the most hazardous occurrence. The categorized information would be shared amongst the drillers, where the safety measures proposed for each category have to be implemented before and during the operation of the oilrigs. This would enhance the technical and managerial personnel in the companies, on the operational and safety standards, which would ensure that similar disasters will never recur.

Finally, restructuring of the management in BP and other oil rigs is proposed. The reason is to ensure that the technical and other staff onboard carryout their roles in time. For instance, the maintenance team was supposed to check and detect a kick, before the rising of hydrocarbons. If this were done, the disaster would have been prevented. Therefore, they should increase the number of staff and allocate specific tasks to each staff member. In addition, there should an oversight team, to whom the staff should report to regularly. By this, the companies would have prevented the disaster.

Implementation

The suggested solutions include the incorporation of future technology in the exploration and prediction of disasters. In order to implement this suggestion, BP shall buy new equipment, which support satellite connectivity. They shall also buy modern vibration analysis gadgets. The gadget shall be used by the technical team, to investigate the possibility of a kick. It shall regularly be done, so that the cases of a blowout are established early. In addition, they need to employ a team of scientists. Every oilrig shall have specialized personnel to predict the possible blowouts.

The second method shall be the categorizing of the disasters. In this case, BP needs to liaise with the environmental and research bodies, who shall conduct an analysis of the present situation at the Macondo well. The information gathered shall be used to create a three-category data sheet. From the category, the team of specialists shall analyze the conditions at the oilrigs and predict the magnitude of a possible disaster. This step shall help BP management to equip the personnel with the required machinery, as well as redesign the high-risk oilrigs.

Finally, the researcher proposes the restructuring of the management system of the wells. In this case, the executive shall have to appoint a three specialists, who shall be given the roles at the site. They include the safety and human resource manager, the technical team manager and the chief technologist. These people shall have to develop a report schedule, where everyone shall have to give a report at regular intervals. The result shall be a well-coordinated company where cases of incompetency shall be minimized. Therefore, the repeat of the Deepwater Horizon disaster shall be prevented from two perspectives. They include economic and technical study and improvement.

Conclusion

The Deepwater horizon disaster due to mistakes from various parties. They include the managerial, technical and other experts. Poor maintenance of the oilrig led to errors in pressure balance, which escalated and finally led to a blowout. Even after the blowout, the technical team was not prepared to curb the impending disaster. Therefore, the researcher proposes three solutions to such a problem. They include the incorporation of high-tech hazard exploration in all offshore wells. The second solution is the categorizing of the disasters, from which the maintenance team may select the most appropriate maintenance strategies. Finally, the organization of the company and the personnel onboard an oilrig should be restructured. As a result, everyone will be accountable for a given task. The staff is supposed to give a comprehensive report after a particular period.

Recommendations.

In this report, the researcher recommends that the management of BP and other companies involved at the time of the Deepwater horizon disaster, be restructured. It shall involve creation of new dockets in the management, which shall solely deal with safety and risk assessment. The researcher also recommends further research in the high-tech GIS, automation and instrumentation, in order to invent smart oilrigs, which will detect the errors and alert the relevant authorities. Finally, the researcher recommends further research on the design, in order to predict and curb similar disasters.

References

Aeppli, C., Reddy, C. M. Nelson, R. K., Kellermann, M. Y., & Valentine, D. L. (2013). Recurrent oil            sheen at the Deepwater Horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids. Environmental science and technology47(15), 8211-8219.

Camilli, R., Di Iorio, D. Bowen, A, Reddy, C. M. Techet, A. H, Yoerger, D. R., & Fenwick, J. (2012).                      Acoustic measurements of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate. Proceedings of the       National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20235-20239.

Drescher, C. F. Schulenberg, S. E, & Smith, C. V. (2014). The Deepwater Horizon disaster and the           Mississippi Gulf Coast: Mental health in the context of a technological disaster. American Journal             of Orthopsychiatry84(2), 142.

de Soysa, T. Y, Ulrich, A.Friedrich, T., Pite, D., Compton, S. L., Ok, D., & Barresi, M. J. (2012).   Macondo crude oil from Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental        processes during the zebra fish embryogenesis.BMC biology10(1), 40.

McNutt, M. K., Camilli, R, Crone, T. J, Guthrie, G. D., Hsieh, P. A. Ryerson, T. B., & Shaffer, F.(2012).      Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences109(50), 20260-20267.

Redmond, M. C., & Valentine, D. L. (2012). Natural gas & temperature structured a microbial        community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proceedings of the National Academy of        the Sciences109(50), 20292-20297.

Skogdalen, J. E., & Vinnem, J. E. (2012). Quantitative risk analysis of oil & gas drilling, using      Deepwater Horizon as the case study. Reliability Engineering & System Safety100, 58-66.

Smith, K. (2013). Environmental hazards: assessing risk and reducing disaster. Routledge.

Camilli, R., Di Iorio, D., Bowen, A., Reddy, C. M., Techet, A. H., Yoerger, D. R., & Fenwick, J. (2012).                  Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate. Proceedings of the         National Academy of Sciences,109(50), 20235-20239.

Sandra and SSB

October 23, 2014

Data Encryption

Student’s Name:

Institution:

Instructor’s Name:

Introduction

As the technology evolves, communication is very essential among people (Zaidan, Zaidan, and Majeed, 2010). This being the case, there is need for a secure system that keeps unwanted intrusion to the data that is being transmitted. For security reasons, the information that is sent ought to be in a format that is unrecognizable to make it secure and get to the intended destiny. There are many encryption algorithms that have been developed to ensure that the data being sent is secure from external intrusion.

Encryption

A good encryption system should be able to determine whether the data source and receiver of a given piece of information is authentic. For a communication system to be secure, it needs to have various facilities that will fully eliminate the threats to security (Kamakoti, Ananth and Karthikeyan, 2005). One of the facilities the system should have is data privacy. This is to ensure that the system is able to protect all data being sent by ensuring that the originally sent data is not manipulated by unauthorized persons.

Another feature is to ensure confidentiality of the information being transmitted. This feature ensures that information is not disclosed to persons who are not authorized. This is so because information should only be known to the sender and the receiver. Authentication is another core value of the system that allows the receiver to ascertain the right sender of a given block of information, and therefore any intruder who tries to masquerade as the sender should be blocked by all means. Nonrepudiation is the ability of the system to prove that the message that was sent really belongs to a given sender, and therefore, the sender cannot be able to deny sending a given message at a later time. Thus the system implementing the security of the system should be able to determine the right sender of a given information. The system should also have the ability to secure a communication session from any external intrusion as well as attacks that cause denial of service attacks.

As Stinson (2002) points out, in order to ensure that the data being transmitted is secure, there is need to transform it into a form that cannot be read by an intruder using cryptography. Cryptography can be described as the science and art of protecting any information that is being transmitted from the sender to the receiver. Encryption refers to the process of converting the plain readable data into a form that cannot be easily read by any intruder. Decryption is the process of changing the encrypted data into the original format that can be read by humans. There exist many encryption systems. One of such encryption systems is the Triple Data Encryption System. This system works by extending the size of the DES keys and applying the DES encryption system three times in succession but with three different keys, making it more secure against the brute force techniques that are used.

In the case of Alice and the manager, there is need to determine whether Alice really intended to give the bank manager a gift. Firstly, there is no evidence to show whether Alice had earlier communicated with the manager to give a basis as to whether Alice requested the manager to debit her account. Secondly, there is a concern as to why Alice never transferred the money herself to the manager’s account. Thirdly, investigation into the confidentiality of the Personal Identification Number and password is to be questioned. And if she shared it with the manager, then an explanation should be given on the same. Unless investigated, the case under study has two answers. There may be a collaboration between the manager and the customer or worse still the manager could have manipulated the message to support his act. The system should also be checked for nonrepudiation in order to ascertain that Alice was the one who sent the message only to deny it later.

If the Super Secure Bank decides to have the 3 DES system after such an attack has happened, the first thing that the bank will do together with Alice is enter an agreement to seal the loop hole and calm controversy. This can be done through refunding the money to Alice. At first, the bank will be liable for failing to ensure that the funds that are saved in bank account held in their bank are secure. This is to ensure that the other customers of the bank do not get into such trap. On the other hand, such information when put in public domain will add up to a bigger problem that will prove difficult to manage and can lead to the loss of customers as well as putting off the potential customers. Another core issue that can arise will include lack of trust from the customers as they will be very cautious especially when they are banking with the institution.

The Triple Data Encryption Service (3DES), is a cryptographic system that uses the cipher algorithm on a data block three times, whereas the Advanced Encryption Standard system of encoding deals with the use of substitution and permutation network to encrypt data. 3DES is a technology that relies on the earlier technology and does have a weakness. This weakness is the susceptibility of the system to plain text attacks that can easily beat the security of the 3DES system. The AES on the other side uses various encryption key lengths, which include 128, 192 and 256 bits respectively. Whereas the 3DES system just relies on the 56 bits that are well defined by the DES standard.

The 3DES system uses a block length of 64 bits whereas the AES system relies on 128 bits (Schaffer, Glaser andFranzon, 2004). The use of the 3DES technology has a weakness in that it requires that the keys be changed after every 32GB of data being transferred in order to minimize any possibility of a leakage occurring. The AES system has an extra security feature that allows it to even sniff the data that leaks while it is being transmitted from the sender to the receiver especially with the identical blocks. From the explanation above, the AES system is far much better to provide information security as compared to the 3DES system.

Conclusion

The AES system is better when it comes to securing data that is being transferred from one host to another as it has a capability of even detecting the leaked data (Nath, Ghosh, and Mallik, 2010). According to the case of Alice, such a system could have been used to know whether Alice or Bob the manager was the source of the information that led to the transfer of $1,000,000.

By knowing the real source of the text, it will be easy to detect any unusual behavior in the communication systems. The encryption system that is in place currently is not a good one as it was not able to detect the malpractice. Making it vulnerable to any attacks directed to the online transaction of the bank. A good system should have been able to have some way of reporting any right or wrong-doing with regard to the money that was transferred from the client’s account by a senior employee.

The senior board of directors will therefore improve on the policies on security of all the data and information about the clients in the bank in order to avoid scenarios which can be costly to the bank. They should also provide training to their employees on professional ethical values. The customers should be advised to keep their bank details confidential in order to avoid any unwanted access to their accounts. A good security system will ensure that any unwanted intrusion is kept away from the information and data.

References

A.A.Zaidan, B.B.Zaidan, Anas Majeed, (2010). “High Securing Cover-File of Hidden Data

Using Statistical Technique and AES Encryption Algorithm”, World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology (WASET), Vol.54.

A.Nath, S.Ghosh, M.A.Mallik, (2010). “Symmetric key cryptography using random key

generator” Proceedings of International conference on SAM-2010 held at Las Vegas(USA) 12-15 July, , Vol-2,P-239-244.

Dr. V. Kamakoti, G. Ananth and U.S. Karthikeyan, (2005).”Cryptographic Algorithm Using a

Multi-Board FPGA Architecture”, Nios II Embedded Processor Design Contest—Outstanding Designs

Dr. S. Muhammad Siddique and Muhammad Amir “GSM Security Issues and Challenges”

Proceedings of the Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering,

  1. Stinson. (2002). “Cryptography: Theory and Practice”, Chapman and Hall: CRC,
  2. Schaffer, A. Glaser, & P. D. Franzon, (2004).”Chip-Package Co-Implementation of a Triple

DES Processor”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 27,(1).

  1. Hoornaert, J. Goubert, and Y. Desmedt, “Efficient hardware implementation of the DES,” in

Proc. Adv. Cryptol. (CRYPTO’84), 1984, pp. 147–1

Sandra and SSB

October 23, 2014

Data Encryption

Student’s Name:

Institution:

Instructor’s Name:

Introduction

As the technology evolves, communication is very essential among people. This being the case, there is need for a secure system that keeps unwanted intrusion to the data that is being transmitted. For security reasons, the information that is sent ought to be in a format that is unrecognizable to make it secure and get to the intended destiny. There are many encryption algorithms that have been developed to ensure that the data being sent is secure from external intrusion.

Encryption

A good encryption system should be able to determine whether the data source and receiver of a given piece of information is authentic. For a communication system to be secure, it needs to have various facilities that will fully eliminate the threats to security. One of the facilities that the system should have include integrity of data. This is to ensure that the system is able to protect all data being sent by ensuring that the originally sent data is not manipulated by unauthorized persons.

Another feature is to ensure confidentiality of the information being transmitted. This feature ensures that information is not disclosed to persons who are not authorized. This is so because information should only be known to the sender and the receiver. Authentication is another core value of the system that allows the receiver to ascertain the right sender of a given block of information, and therefore any intruder who tries to masquerade as the sender should be blocked by all means. Nonrepudiation is the ability of the system to prove that the message that was sent really belongs to a given sender, and therefore, the sender cannot be able to deny sending a given message at a later time. Thus the system implementing the security of the system should be able to determine the right sender of a given information. The system should also have the ability to secure a communication session from any external intrusion as well as attacks that cause denial of service attacks.

In order to ensure that the data being transmitted is secure, there is need to transform it into a format that cannot be readable to an intruder by use of cryptography. Cryptography can be described as the science and art of protecting any information that is being sent from the sender to the receiver from the individuals that are not desirable into a format that is unrecognizable to the attackers as it is being transmitted or stored. Encryption refers to the process of converting the plain readable data into a format that cannot be easily read by any intruder. Decryption is the process of changing the encrypted data into the original format that can be read by humans. There exists many encryption systems that are used today to secure the data being transmitted. One of such encryption systems is the Triple Data Encryption System. This system works by extending the size of the DES keys and applying the DES encryption system three times in succession but with three different keys, making it more secure against the brute force techniques that are used.

In the case of Alice and the manager, there is need to determine whether Alice really intended to give the bank manager a gift. Firstly, there is no evidence to show whether Alice had earlier communicated with the manager to give a basis as to whether Alice requested the manager to debit her account. Secondly, there is a concern as to why Alice never transferred the money herself to the manager’s account. Thirdly, investigation into the confidentiality of the Personal Identification Number and password is to be questioned. And if she shared it with the manager, then an explanation should be given on the same. Unless investigated, the case under study has two answers. There may be a collaboration between the manager and the customer or worse still the manager could have manipulated the message to support his act. The system should also be checked for nonrepudiation in order to ascertain that Alice was the one who sent the message only to deny it later.

If the Super Secure Bank decides to have the 3 DES system after such an attack has happened, the first thing that the bank will do together with Alice is enter an agreement to seal the loop hole and calm controversy. This can be done through refunding the money to Alice. At first, the bank will be liable for failing to ensure that the funds that are saved in bank account held in their bank are secure. This is to ensure that the other customers of the bank do not get into such trap. On the other hand, such information when put in public domain will add up to a bigger problem that will prove difficult to manage and can lead to the loss of customers as well as putting off the potential customers. Another core issue that can arise will include lack of trust from the customers as they will be very cautious especially when they are banking with the institution.

The Triple Data Encryption Service (3DES), is a cryptographic system that uses the cipher algorithm on a data block three times, whereas the Advanced Encryption Standard system of encoding deals with the use of substitution and permutation network to encrypt data. 3DES is a technology that relies on the earlier technology and does have a weakness. This weakness is the susceptibility of the system to plain text attacks that can easily beat the security of the 3DES system. The AES on the other side uses various encryption key lengths, which include 128, 192 and 256 bits respectively. Whereas the 3DES system just relies on the 56 bits that are well defined by the DES standard.

The 3DES system uses a block length of 64 bits whereas the AES system relies on 128 bits. The use of the 3DES technology has a weakness in that it requires that the keys be changed after every 32GB of data being transferred in order to minimize any possibility of a leakage occurring. The AES system has an extra security feature that allows it to even sniff the data that leaks while it is being transmitted from the sender to the receiver especially with the identical blocks. From the explanation above, the AES system is far much better to provide information security as compared to the 3DES system.

Conclusion

The AES system is better when it comes to securing data that is being transferred from one host to another as it has a capability of even sniffing the leaked data. According to the case of Alice, such a system could have been used to know whether Alice or Bob the manager was the source of the information that led to the transfer of $1,000,000.

By knowing the real owner of the text, it will be easy to detect any unusual behavior in the communication systems. The encryption system that is in place currently is not a good one as it was not able to detect the malpractice. Making it vulnerable to any attacks directed to the online transaction of the bank. A good system should have been able to have some way of reporting any right or wrong doing with regards to the money that was transferred from the client’s account by a senior employee.

The senior board of directors will therefore be serious on the policies on security of all the data and information about the clients in the bank in order to avoid scenarios which can be costly to the bank. They should also provide training to their employees on professional ethical values. The customers should be advised to keep their bank details confidential in order to avoid any unwanted access to their accounts. A good security system will ensure that any unwanted intrusion is kept away from the information and data.

References

A.A.Zaidan, B.B.Zaidan, Anas Majeed, (2010). “High Securing Cover-File of Hidden Data

Using Statistical Technique and AES Encryption Algorithm”, World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology (WASET), Vol.54.

A.Nath, S.Ghosh, M.A.Mallik, (2010). “Symmetric key cryptography using random key

generator” Proceedings of International conference on SAM-2010 held at Las Vegas(USA) 12-15 July, , Vol-2,P-239-244.

Dr. V. Kamakoti, G. Ananth and U.S. Karthikeyan, (2005).”Cryptographic Algorithm Using a

Multi-Board FPGA Architecture”, Nios II Embedded Processor Design Contest—Outstanding Designs

Dr. S. Muhammad Siddique and Muhammad Amir “GSM Security Issues and Challenges”

Proceedings of the Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering,

  1. Stinson. (2002). “Cryptography: Theory and Practice”, Chapman and Hall: CRC,
  2. Schaffer, A. Glaser, & P. D. Franzon, (2004).”Chip-Package Co-Implementation of a Triple

DES Processor”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 27,(1).

  1. Hoornaert, J. Goubert, and Y. Desmedt, “Efficient hardware implementation of the DES,” in

Proc. Adv. Cryptol. (CRYPTO’84), 1984, pp. 147–173.

Sandra and SSB

October 23, 2014

Data Encryption

Student’s Name:

Institution:

Instructor’s Name:

Introduction

The ever evolving technology that allows for the ease of data transfer in various communication systems that support a large amount of people. This being the case, all information that is sent ought to be in a format that is unrecognizable to make it secure and get to the intended destiny. As is the case, there are many encryption algorithms that have been developed to ensure that the data being sent is secure from external intrusion.

Equally, the encryption system should be able to ensure that the source of a given information is authenticated. For a communication system to be secure, it needs to have quite a number of measures that are necessary to fully eliminate the threats to security. One of the facilities that the system should have include integrity. This is to ensure that the system is able to protect all the data that is sent through it by ensuring that the originally sent data is not manipulated in any way other than the original format.

Another key feature is that the system should be confidential. This is a feature that exudes itself by ensuring that the information is not disclosed to persons who are not authorized and thus the information should only be known to the sender and the receiver. Authentication is another core value of the system that allows the receiver to ascertain the right sender of a given block of information, and therefore any intruder who tries to masquerade as the sender should be blocked by all means. Nonrepudiation is the ability of the system to prove that the message that was sent really belongs to a given sender, and therefore, the sender cannot be able to deny sending a given message at a later time. The system should also have the ability to secure a communication session from any external intrusion as well as attacks that cause denial of service attacks.

Cryptography can be described as the science and art of protecting any information that is being sent from the sender to the receiver from the individuals that are not desirable into a format that is unrecognizable to the attackers as it is being transmitted or stored. Encryption refers to the process of converting the plain readable data into a format that cannot be easily read by any intruder. Decryption is the process of changing the encrypted data into the original format that can be read by humans. There exists many encryption systems that are used today to secure the data that is being transmitted. One of such encryption systems is the Triple Data Encryption System. This system works by extending the size of the DES keys and applying the DES encryption system three times in succession but with three different keys, making it more secure against the brute force techniques that are used.

The security system that was used in the case of Alice, the scenario here first is from the authenticity of the message that the manager had produced claiming that it was sent by the customer. There is need therefore to determine whether or not the message originated from the sender who in this case is Alice. The encryption and decryption system that was used was also to be under scrutiny to verify that all the keys that were used. The system should also be checked for nonrepudiation in order to ascertain that Alice was the one who sent the message only to deny it later. Once the correct source of the message is determined, it will be easier for the court to better determine the person who will be guilty.

If the Super Secure Bank decides to have the 3 DES system after such an attack has happened, the first thing that the bank will do together with Alice is enter an agreement to seal the loop hole and calm controversy. At first, the bank will be liable for failing to ensure that the funds that are saved in bank account held in their bank are secure.

This is to ensure that the other customers of the bank do not get into such trap. On the other hand, such information when put in public domain will add up to a bigger issue that will prove difficult to manage and can lead to the loss of customers as well as putting off the potential customers. Another core issue that can arise from the controversy arising will include lack of trust from the customers as they will be very cautious especially when they are banking with the institution.

The Triple Data Encryption Service (3DES), is a cryptographic system that uses the cipher algorithm on a data block three times, whereas the Advanced Encryption Standard system of encoding deals with the use of substitution and permutation network to encrypt data. 3DES is a technology that relies on the earlier technology and does have a weakness.

This weakness is the susceptibility of the system to a certain type of text that is plain as well as the known plain text attacks that can easily beat the security of the 3DES system. The AES on the other side uses various encryption key lengths, which include 128, 192 and 256 bits respectively. Whereas the 3DES system just relies on the 56 bits that are well defined by the DES standard.

The 3DES system uses a block length of 64 bits whereas the AES system relies on 128 bits. The use of the 3DES technology has a weakness in that it requires that the keys be changed after every 32GB of data being transferred in order to minimize any possibility of a leakage occurring. The AES system has an extra security feature that allows it to even sniff the data that leaks while it is being transmitted from the sender to the receiver especially with the identical blocks.

Conclusion

The AES system is better when it comes to securing data that is being transferred from one host to another as it has a capability of even sniffing the leaked data. According to the case of Alice, such a system could have been used to know whether Alice or Bob the manager was the source of the information that led to the transfer of $1,000,000.

By knowing the real owner of the text, it will be easy to detect any unusual behavior in the communication systems. The encryption system that is in place currently is not a good one as it was not able to detect the malpractice. Making it vulnerable to any attacks that can be directed to the online transaction of the bank. A good system should have been able to have some way of reporting any right or wrong doing with regards to the money that was transferred from the client’s account by a senior employee.

The senior board of directors will therefore be serious on the policies on security of all the data and information about the clients in the bank in order to avoid a scenario which can be costly to the bank. They should also provide training to their employees on the ethical values of professionalism. The customers will also be advised to keep their bank details confidential in order to avoid any unwanted access to one’s account. A good security system will ensure that any unwanted intrusion is kept away from the information and data.

References

A.A.Zaidan, B.B.Zaidan, Anas Majeed, (2010). “High Securing Cover-File of Hidden Data

Using Statistical Technique and AES Encryption Algorithm”, World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology (WASET), Vol.54.

A.Nath, S.Ghosh, M.A.Mallik, (2010). “Symmetric key cryptography using random key

generator” Proceedings of International conference on SAM-2010 held at Las Vegas(USA) 12-15 July, , Vol-2,P-239-244.

Dr. V. Kamakoti, G. Ananth and U.S. Karthikeyan, (2005).”Cryptographic Algorithm Using a

Multi-Board FPGA Architecture”, Nios II Embedded Processor Design Contest—Outstanding Designs

Dr. S. Muhammad Siddique and Muhammad Amir “GSM Security Issues and Challenges”

Proceedings of the Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering,

  1. Stinson. (2012). “Cryptography: Theory and Practice”, Chapman and Hall: CRC,
  2. Schaffer, A. Glaser, & P. D. Franzon, (2014).”Chip-Package Co-Implementation of a Triple

DES Processor”, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 27,(1).

  1. Hoornaert, J. Goubert, and Y. Desmedt, “Efficient hardware implementation of the DES,” in

Proc. Adv. Cryptol. (CRYPTO’84), 2011 pp. 147–173.

Compare the definition of family and the family relationships in United States with that of India

October 22, 2014

Comparison of Families in the U.S and in India

Name

Institution

In the U.S, family is defined as a group of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together (Strong & Cohen, 2013). Most of U.S families are traditional nuclear families. On the other hand, family is viewed as a unique feature of the land in India. Here family is defined as involving the concept of consaquinity and adoption (Mahanta, 2008). In India, maternal relatives are considered as part of the family. Therefore family is a lot bigger than American families.

Since families are united mainly by spiritual, religious and psychological bonds, parent-child relationships tend to be very strong in India. Children and their parents interact more with a lot of contact between them. However, in the U.S things are different. There is minimal contact between the children and their parents. This makes it hard for a child to interact with their parent and vice versa (Noronha, 2010).

In the U.S we find that husband-wife relationships are based on equality. Nowadays both the husband and the wife go to work and later on share house chores and take care of the children together. The husband has no qualms about changing the baby’s napkin and the wife knows how to change the bulb. However, in India, things are way different. The relationship between the husband and the wife is not equal. The husband is considered to be superior over the wife. The wife is also expected to stay at home and take care of the children. Women do not drive for this is a job considered to be for men. The relationship is also not based on friendship and equal partnership. So house chores are not equally shared (VED, 2004).

There are several challenges that face both societies in their different organizations. For instance, the dissociation between children and parents in the U.S has led to increase in the number of children joining juvenile jails. This has created a social problem with increase in theft, and children gangs that terrorize people.

In India, there has been lack of empowerment of women. This activity has been politicized as eroding the culture of the Hindus since their culture dictates that the woman shall always subordinate the man. However, this trend is being eroded by modern world where a woman is encouraged to pursue her dream and career.

The definition of family in India means accommodation of many people in one house. This has not only increased carbon footprint but also become problematic especially due to the impact of climate change. It has become increasingly difficult to feed large families especially in an environment where there are few working people and many dependants. There is therefore need to reduce the large families.

In the U.S people have become self-centered and only think of their nuclear families. This is because family definition only captures a small number of people. In case of disasters, people are not able to bounce back to their initial economic and social positions because there is a disrupted social fabric where everyone cares for themselves and their small families.

The role of the family in India is to hold its members together in union with their religion and culture. In India, taking care of family is an end itself. However, in the U.S, family affection is valued insofar as there is increase and maintenance of material possessions. Therefore, the role of the family is to enhance property creation (Marrow, 2008).

References

Mahanta, K. (2008). North-East India: The Horizon Of Anthropology. India. Gyan Publishing

House.

Marrow, J. (2008). Psychiatry, Modernity and Family Values: Clenched Teeth Illness in North

India. India. ProQuest.

Noronha, F. (2010). Private international law in India: adequacy of principles in comparison

with common law and civil law systems. India. Universal Law Publishing.

Strong, B & Cohen, T. (2013). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationships in

a Changing Society. U.S.A. Cengage Learning.

VED (2004). MARCH of the EVIL EMPIRES: ENGLISH versus the FEUDAL LANGUAGES.

U.S.A. Victoria Institutions.

Changes in Bird species migratory patterns.

October 21, 2014

CHANGES IN SPECIES MIGRATORY PATTERNS

Name

Course

Date

The witnessed climatic change largely affects living organisms. Evidently, for survival, organism adapt to distorted seasonal events. Species migrates towards different poles depending on availability of food and rest place for reproduction purposes. This move has lead to phenotypic plasticity, which is defined as the ability of species to adjust behavior and morphology in reaction to environmental changes[1]. For instance, in Arctic, climate is projected to undergo a tremendous and comparative change. Such climatic changes have a huge impact on birds species resulting to different migration patterns.

Majestic bird takes a long walk to Sahara desert in search of a place to rest before resuming to their reproduction grounds. However, rather than finding water and wet ground, sand and dust are conspicuously visible. This forces them to look for survival mechanisms. Just like majestic bird, rise in temperature, alteration in vegetation, and severe weather conditions are major driving force towards change in habitats for birds. This largely contributes to the decline in birds population and changes in migration patterns. Migratory pattern differs across species in line with environmental changes. Mostly, birds that migrate in short and middle, easily adapt to climate change. Essentially, climate change has a huge impact on migratory in several ways. This include high levels of storm rate, low water table, prolonged drought occurrence, high sea level and shift in habitat arising from human activities as well as natural catastrophe[2].

Climatic change has a huge impact on the migration pattern. In Arctic, during the summer, high temperatures results to melting of snow. Later, autumn frost takes place. With this kind of weather pattern, scientists’ noted that several birds species lay their eggs earlier than usual. For species enjoying southern climate, high temperatures are beneficial for nesting. Further, high temperature affords a longer rearing period for north species. In most cases, access to food and nesting determines the migration patterns. For instance, wetland provides ample nesting and feeding place for ducks and geese. In the permafrost melts season, huge wetlands become available resulting to northward migration. Further, a warmer winter climate prolongs migration length. As such, species that nest in places such as Arctic have to search for food and habitat. In Arctic, the number of birds nesting in the region is on the rise. However, scientist argues that this trend is very risky because approximately 39% to 57% of tundra habitats will disappear towards the end of this century affected by change in vegetation[3].

The above-mentioned trend is evidenced globally. In Canada, during spring, red squirrels reproduce earlier. During this period, they benefit largely from cone production. In central Europe, Blackcaps migrate towards Britain instead of Iberia. Normally, blackcaps based in Britain arrive in advance for nesting and mating. Ideally, great tits birds feed their young ones on caterpillars. However, early spring season favors caterpillar at the expense of great tits. This occurs due to early maturity rate of caterpillar, which is slightly before tit hatch resulting to a reduced reproduction success of great tits. Genetically, great tits are unable to vary their lying eggs timing, which results to a reduction or fixed in the great tit population.

In conclusion, climate change largely affects bird’s species. Arising from natural catastrophe and human activities, climate change is rapidly evidenced globally. This results to bird migratory patterns in search of food and nesting place.

Bibliography

Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change, Science, (312) (9) (2006), 1477-1478 .

Cox, George W. 2010. Bird migration and global change. (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2010)

Newton, Ian, and Brockie, K. The migration ecology of birds. (Amsterdam: Elsevier-Academic Press, 2008)

[1] Bradshaw, W. E. and Holzapfel, C. M. Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change, Science, (312) (9) (2006), 1478

[2] Newton, Ian, and Brockie, K. The migration ecology of birds. (Amsterdam: Elsevier-Academic Press, 2008), 28

[3] Cox, George W. 2010. Bird migration and global change. (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2010), 23