Changes in Bird species migratory patterns

Changes in species migratory patterns

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The witnessed climatic change largely affects living organisms. Evidently, for survival, organism adapt to distorted seasonal events. Species migrates towards different poles depending on availability of food and rest place for reproduction purposes. This move has lead to phenotypic plasticity, which is defined as the ability of species to adjust behavior and morphology in reaction to environmental changes (Bradshaw and Christina, 1477). For instance, in Arctic, climate is projected to undergo a tremendous and comparative change. Such climatic changes have a huge impact on birds species resulting to different migration patterns.

Majestic bird takes a long walk to Sahara desert in search of a place to rest before resuming to their reproduction grounds. However, rather than finding water and wet ground, sand and dust are conspicuously visible. This forces them to look for survival mechanisms. Just like majestic bird, rise in temperature, alteration in vegetation, and severe weather conditions are major driving force towards change in habitats for birds. This largely contributes to the decline in birds population and changes in migration patterns. Migratory pattern differs across species in line with environmental changes. Mostly, birds that migrate in short and middle, easily adapt to climate change. Essentially, climate change has a huge impact on migratory in several ways. This include high levels of storm rate, low water table, prolonged drought occurrence, high sea level and shift in habitat arising from human activities as well as natural catastrophe (Newton, Ian, and Keith 28).

Climatic change has a huge impact on the migration pattern. In Arctic, during the summer, high temperatures results to melting of snow. Later, autumn frost takes place. With this kind of weather pattern, scientists’ noted that several birds species lay their eggs earlier than usual. For species enjoying southern climate, high temperatures are beneficial for nesting. Further, high temperature affords a longer rearing period for north species. In most cases, access to food and nesting determines the migration patterns. For instance, wetland provides ample nesting and feeding place for ducks and geese. In the permafrost melts season, huge wetlands become available resulting to northward migration. Further, a warmer winter climate prolongs migration length. As such, species that nest in places such as Arctic have to search for food and habitat. In Arctic, the number of birds nesting in the region is on the rise. However, scientist argues that this trend is very risky because approximately 39% to 57% of tundra habitats will disappear towards the end of this centaury affected by change in vegetation (Cox 23).

The above-mentioned trend is evidenced globally. In Canada, during spring, red squirrels reproduce earlier. During this period, they benefit largely from cone production. In central Europe, Blackcaps migrate towards Britain instead of Iberia. Normally, blackcaps based in Britain arrive in advance for nesting and mating. Ideally, great tits birds feed their young ones on caterpillars. However, early spring season favors caterpillar at the expense of great tits. This occurs due to early maturity rate of caterpillar, which is slightly before tit hatch resulting to a reduced reproduction success of great tits. Genetically, great tits are unable to vary their lying eggs timing, which results to a reduction or fixed in the great tit population.

In conclusion, climate change largely affects birds species. Arising from natural catastrophe and human activities, climate change is rapidly evidenced globally. This results to bird migratory patterns in search of food and nesting place.

References

Cox, George W. 2010. Bird migration and global change. Washington, DC: Island Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10437877.

Newton, Ian, and Keith Brockie. 2008. The migration ecology of birds. Amsterdam: Elsevier-Academic Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10200995

William E. Bradshaw and Christina M. 2006. Holzapfel, Evolutionary Response to Rapid Climate Change, Science, (312) 9. Retrieved from <http://pages.uoregon.edu/mosquito/articles/B&H06sci.pdf&gt;

Hedging Strategies and Accounting

Hedging Strategies and Accounting

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Introduction
Over the last a hundred years, hedging has gained increased dominance in the world of finance and accounting. This is because it allows businesses to reduce the risks that arise from uncertainties in the market. Though introduced to protect farmers against the risk that their produce might go bad or sell at unfavourable prices, hedging is currently used in all sectors from mining to financial services. However, accounting for hedges is fraught with complex regulations that make reporting inherently difficult. Bearing these facts, this paper intends to discuss the various hedging practices that can be used by a business dealing in agricultural products. Additionally, suggestions are made on how accounting for operating income should be done according to the accounting standards used globally.
Hedging strategies
Hedging is the practice of investing in an asset so as to offset the risk that arises from adverse price movements in the open market. Hedging involves one party making the offer to buy a commodity at a particular date, at a particular price. In a hedging contract, there are two positions that are taken by each party. The seller often assumes the short position as he is the one offering to deliver the commodity while the buyer takes the long position as he undertakes to receive the commodity. This creates a contract that is known as a future contract. Because it is based on another asset, a future contract is classified as a derivative and it can be sold by either party in the futures market. The value of the future contract is based on daily movements in the cash market.
Thomson Foods has several hedging strategies at its disposal. One of them is going long in the futures market. This position means that Thomson Foods undertakes to buy a commodity at a future date as stated in the contract. Most future exchange boards would require that Thomson Foods deposits a certain sum of money in its account with the board. This is the initial margin and it is calculated as a percentage of the contract’s value. The amount is refunded to the company once the contract matures, plus any profit or losses that have been made. For example, if the contract is worth ten thousand dollars, the margin is calculated as five hundred dollars if the margin is stated as five per cent. This is the investment the company makes in the futures market.
Once the company obtains the contract, it can sell it in the market depending on the advantages it affords. For instance, the contract’s value can appreciate to twelve thousand dollars. From an investment of five hundred dollars, Thomson Foods would have made a net profit of one thousand, five hundred dollars. The amount that would be given to the company would be two thousand, five hundred dollars which include the margin deposited earlier. However, the company will still need to buy farm produce from farmers. This occurs in the cash market where both the company and the farmer meet. Should the price of produce be higher than expected, Thomson Foods will have covered this loss by the gains made in the futures market, thus completing the circle.
An alternative strategy would be to go short in the futures market. In the scenario described above, Thomson Foods has the option of selling the contract to another party in the market. From this position, Thomson Foods is going short. This strategy is suitable if the company expects that there will be a decline in the price of the commodity in question. For example, the company could anticipate that the in the next two months the price of wheat will drop from ten dollars per unit to eight dollars. Therefore, it sells its contract at ten dollars per unit. When the price drops to eight dollars, Thomson Foods repurchases the contract, thus making a profit of two dollars per unit. The accounting treatment of the loss would be the same as described earlier.
The situations described above qualify to be classified as naked futures contracts. However, Thomson Foods have a third alternative which is using spreads to further reduce its risk position. This strategy has two alternatives, which are the calendar spread and inter-market spread. Calendar spread refers to a strategy whereby Thomson Foods buys two contracts where one obliges it to buy a commodity, while the other one obliges it to sell a commodity. Both contracts must be at the same price, but the trick is to have the liquidation date set on different dates thus its name.
A spread in different commodities is referred to as an inter-market spread. For Thomson Foods, this could be through buying a long contract in wheat and at the same time buying a long contract in beef products. The contracts mature at the same time and this allows the company to cover the loss made in one contract with the gains made in the alternative contract. The final strategy is whereby Thomson Foods buys futures contract in different futures exchange markets. This is referred to as an inter-exchange spread. For example, the company could buy contracts in the exchange in Japan and another one in the United States.
Apart from using the futures market, Thomson Foods can use the options market to protect its interests. An option is a contract that gives one party the right, but not the obligation to either buy or sell a commodity while obligating the other party to sell or buy the commodity. There are two types of options and these are the put option and the call option. Put options give the holder the right to sell an asset at a specific date at the strike price. On the other hand, a call option gives the holder the right to buy an asset. Buyers of either a put or call option are not obligated to exercise their rights. However, sellers of either option are obligated to honor the contract should the buyer exercise his right.
When Thomson Foods buys a call option for the supply of beef, it hopes that the price of beef will increase before the contract expires. This is because the company will exercise its right to buy beef as stated in the contract and thus save money. When it buys a put option, Thomson Foods hopes that the price of beef will drop significantly. When this happens, the company will sell beef at a higher price as stated in the option contract. That way, the company, is covered from drastic changes in the market price of beef.
From the situations described above, Thomson Foods’ hedge in the futures and options market is regarded as cash flow hedges. This is because the main goal is to protect the company from fluctuations in market prices that would have a negative effect on its cash flows. According to accounting standards, the gains made from a cash flow hedge are categorized under other comprehensive income until the transaction occurs (Bloom & Cenker, 2008). When the contract matures, Thomson Foods will transfer the gains made to the income statement. The accounting practices for hedges are controlled by IAS 39 (Financial Instruments) which is being replaced by IFRS 9 (Financial Instruments). In the US, the practice is guided by Statement No. 133 (Accounting for Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities).
Conclusion
The current financial and business world is one ridden by risks. Therefore, it is imperative that companies learn how to reduce their risks through engaging in hedging practices. As discussed above, one of the ways of doing this is through participating in the futures market. The investor can take a long position where he undertakes to buy a commodity at a specific price in the future. On the other hand, a short position in the market enables the company to sell a commodity at a specified price in the future. Another market available to the company is the options market. In this market, the company undertakes the right to buy or sell its commodities at a specified price in the future. To account for these hedging practices, the derivative asset is recognized at cost while the gains and losses are recognized under other comprehensive incomes in the income statement.

References
Bloom, R., & Cenker, W. J. (2008, October 1). Derivatives and Hedging: Accounting vs. Taxation. Retrieved May 24, 2014, from American Institute of Cetrified Public Accountants: http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2008/Oct/Derivatives_and_Hedging_Accounting_vs_Taxation.htm

EUROPE ENERGY STRATEGY FOCUS

EUROPE ENERGY STRATEGY FOCUS

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Introduction
During the European Summit that was held between 20th and 21st March 2014, the frontrunners in government aimed to set targets for energy and climate that would be attained by the year 2030. However, the major topic of discussion that they emphasized on targeted Russia, Ukraine and Crimea. Though they took the appropriate move in terms of postposing discussions pertaining to the set targets, they failed when they deferred negotiations that would help bring down the dependence that Europe has on gas from Russia (Carvalho 2012).
In the European Union, Russia is known to supply approximately one-third of the gas that is used in the region. This means that the region is heavily dependent on Russian gas, as it became evident when the gas flow through Ukraine to the Union got turned off in 2009. The Kremlin, for instance, is heavily dependent on the coal, gas, and oil exports, especially to the European Union (Carvalho 2012). Research reveals that more than half of the revenue that the Russian government generates comes from the fossil fuels that it exports. Oil and gas yield 19 percent each, while coal generates 14 percent of the overall government revenue. During the European Union Summit, inferences were made to look for additional gas sources (Connolly et al. 2014).
Though the European Commission was endowed with the role of preparing a report that could offer solutions to this case, the demands that are posed by the Ukrainian situation lack urgency. If the frontrunners in the European Union want to enforce endorsements, which would influence Russia’s behavior, it is appropriate for them to minimize the amount of energy that they purchase from the country rapidly, and as distant as possible (Connolly et al. 2014). To realize this initiative, they should adopt mechanisms that can help them develop other sources of energy. Though this process would be associated with significant costs, it would help offer energy security, which would later impact positively to the climate and foreign policy (Bilgin 2011).
Discussion
Europe Energy Strategic Focus
After the EU emerged from the adverse effects that resulted from the recent recession, significant support has been accorded to Europe’s reindustrialization. Many European parliament members have remained unbending towards formulating a common industrial strategy that will help the region attain the objectives that it has set for 2020 (Twidell and Brice 2013). There are various reforms that industry leaders in Europe are participating in to help them make relevant decisions with respect to advancing the region (Malone 2014). The solutions that are being explored are targeted to be comprehensive and long-term in responding to the systematic issues being witnessed in the region. For this reason, significant efforts are being employed to cope with the energy issue that is influencing the industrial practices in the region (Twidell and Brice 2013).
European institutions have been called to make significant investments in research and development. Innovation is a vital tool that helps in formulating policies that can help the region to attain its energy objectives. For instance, the legal frameworks that are set in the area of Information and Communications Technologies are outmoded and constrictive (Malone 2014). In this case, it is crucial to facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to help develop enterprises that are efficient in harnessing data so as to allow the energy sector boon in the future (Malone 2014).
A large number of industries in Europe are technology intensive, especially the ever advancing aeronautics segment. This has created a need for transnational cooperation in modernism. These enterprises are making it their priority to support the sectors that are highly skilled by doubling their energy budget. Also, various sensible solutions pertaining to the exceedingly competitive automobile sector offer support to energy efficient and environmentally friendly initiatives to help guard the automakers in Europe from the threats being posed by the international market (Sedlar et al. 2011).
Concomitantly, Europe is aiming to adopt independent measures to help it secure its energy resources. The European Commission stipulates that a complete internal energy marketplace is crucial with respect to allowing the region implement infrastructure that is energy efficient, especially in the case of SMEs to help them cope with the industrial revitalization. This is the case because alterations in energy policies are anticipated to eliminate the burden on entrepreneurs and consumers (Sedlar et al. 2011).
These initiatives rhyme with the demand for “Industrial Pact,” which will supplement the European Fiscal Pact that is regarded as infamous in the region. This pact targets improving reach to the market and freeing the market. For instance, the European Investment Bank is on the forefront in encouraging private ventures through growth initiatives to serve as one of the vitals ways of boosting capital availability (Pasimeni et al. 2014). Growth missions are the leading illustrations that can help European institutions, particularly SMEs, to attain access the advancing third-world nations. These illustrate the solid actions that need to be taken to help spread European values that can improve interactions and communication with the emerging economies (Kats 2010). By adopting energy efficient strategies and renewable energy, the European Union will manage to support the growth of SMEs in the region, which will allow the industrial segment to attain a significant share of the market (Bilgin 2011).
Other initiatives comprise of extensive reconstruction of state funding. These guidelines will create room for reformation of those industries that are energy intensive. The new focus that has been directed towards resource efficient and low carbon demands in the EU will lead to increased investment in modernization. This practice will help to create new markets with the adoption of this reviewed framework for state aid (Tindale 2014).
Influence of Russian Gas Dependence in Europe
According to a statement by two foreign ministers from Sweden and Denmark, it is crucial to evaluate the role that energy plays while reacting to the incursion of Crimea by Russia. The EU should advance its proficiency on energy, develop infrastructure that can help it purchase fossil fuels from other nations other than Russia, as well as increase the number of other sources of energy, especially renewable (Gaigalis et al. 2014). The two foreign ministers are in an appropriate position to contribute to these issues since Sweden is the number one country in terms of generating most of its energy from renewable while Denmark anticipates being 100 percent dependent on renewable sources of energy by 2050. Poland imports approximately 90 percent of gas from Russia. In this case, the foreign minister from Poland has adopted efforts aimed minimizing energy reliance on Moscow (Climate Action Network Europe 2014).
To address its energy needs effectively, the major areas that Europe should target include: energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, renewable energy, coal and carbon storage, and nuclear power.
Energy Efficiency
Attaining energy efficiency is one of the goals that would be easy for Europe to attain at a rapid pace. A swift as well as determined program that can help to install double varnishing and insulation of the current infrastructure all over Europe can facilitate in bringing down the energy that is required for heating. Moreover, additional jobs would be created while undertaking this initiative. Improving and intensifying district heating, which are networks that carry heat from combustion plants and power stations to commercial establishments and homes, would be an effective process though less rapid (Climate Action Network Europe 2014). In the case of both Eastern and Central Europe, district heating is extensive. However, most of its infrastructure is inefficient due to its old age, thereby losing approximately half of the heat during carriage. Conversely, district heating systems in Scandinavia do not lose more than 10 percent of their heat (Gaigalis et al. 2014).
Questions have been raised as to the role that coal can play in the event of future policies on energy. In this case, the issue of energy protection enters into conflict with the need to safeguard the environment. The EU imports approximately a quarter of the coal it uses from Russia. However, it is possible for the region to survive without the need for Russian coal. It can mine more coal within its borders or look for other countries where it can import from (Boie et al., 2014). Coal is one of the major pollutants, especially since it releases toxic substances to the air, which damage the health of humans and harm the environment. Generating coal also leads to the release of huge amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This amount is about twice the pollution that gas or electricity generates (Corsatea 2014). However, technology has been developed, which is capable of eliminating greenhouse gases when coal is burning. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been established on a small scale, which makes EU to lag behind Canada, Australia, USA, and China in an attempt to implement the practice (Boie et al. 2014).
CCS is not a common practice in Germany, though is it more popular while compared to nuclear power. After the Fukushima accident that was witnessed in 2011, the need for carbon bridge innovations was regarded as a necessity to help in safeguarding the environment while the planet shifts from using fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy (Chestney 2013). Transiting to renewable sources of energy is estimated to take more than half a century. Though gas does not contribute to significant impacts on the environment, coal does. The carbon amounts that gas produces are not low enough to prevent changes to climate unless it is linked with CCS. Though total dependence renewables has received widespread support, no significant attention has been paid to the transition period (Dilaver et al. 2014). According to German statistics, this period will result to a widespread emission of greenhouse gases (Carvalho 2012).
Though Germany portrays great desire to energy security and less dependence on gas from Russia, most Germans seem unlikely to reexamine nuclear power. Chances are that they will reevaluate CCS. However, it is anticipated that Germany will be more willing to combust coal without enforcing CCS, which is a move that will comprise the climate action that EU is embarking on. To avoid this turn of events, the institutions in EU need to set emission standards to police the amount of greenhouse gases that are discharged for every unit of electricity produced (Dilaver et al. 2014). This move will put an end to coal combustion without CCS. However, subsidy will be appropriate in the event of facilitating for demonstration, as well as distribution of CCS (Goldthau and Boersma 2014). Also, nuclear power and renewables will demand financial incentives in order for these technologies to contribute towards climate protection (Nagy and Körmendi 2012).
Alternative Gas Sources
With respect to alternate gas sources, the fastest method would be to increase the capacity of the European Union in terms of importing liquefied natural gas (LNG). In this case, it is the role of the Commission to emphasize on the role that the US government plays in facilitating for the exportation of LNG based on the strategic advantages that it possesses (Nagy and Körmendi 2012). However, the rise of LNG imports does not only depend on the trade negotiations that the EU has established with the US since other countries such as Qatar also possess such gas. In order to create room for additional LNG usage, it is crucial to implement new infrastructure, and states that realize cost drawbacks should implement LNG facilities (Ocelík and Osička 2014). In this case, the Commission should prioritize on poorer member-states, which heavily depend on Russian gas, such as Poland, Bulgaria, and Baltic States. This initiative would help to boost the security of the energy sector in Europe. The other countries that would benefit from this initiative include Hungary, Finland, Czech Republic and Slovakia (Laurijssen et al. 2012).
Energy security plays a vital role in helping the region to safeguard itself from uncertainties that prevail in the market, as in the case of Russia when it turned gas flow to Europe in 2009. Therefore, to boost the overall security of energy in the European Union, the institutions in this region should implement measures to ensure that new pipelines are specifically designed to carry non-Russian gas (Laurijssen, et al., 2012). The pipelines should originate from Caspian Sea and directed towards Europe. Various agreements have been signed to facilitate in this initiative. The first one targets the Trans-Anatolian pipeline, which originates from Azerbaijan to Turkey’s Mediterranean coast. The second is the Trans-Adriatic, which progresses from Turkey’s Mediterranean coast to Italy (Ocelík and Osička 2014). Though the construction process is yet to be started, the two pipelines are anticipated to significantly bring down the dependence that EU has on Moscow.
Renewable Energy Sources
Shale gas is an indigenous source of energy that is classified as non-Russian. Different governments in Europe such as France, Bulgaria, and Germany have barred fracking either formally or informally, but they should reverse this position to help Europe reduce the dependency that it has towards Russian gas. Considering the prevailing state of affairs, any form of renewable gas that can be generated from manure, farm waste, food or sewage should be expanded significantly, and at a rapid pace (Kitzing et al. 2012). This practice is common in countries such as Austria and Germany. By adopting these wastes to help give out renewable energy, the quality of water would improve, since the deposit can be used in farms as fertilizer as opposed to discharging them to rivers or seas. Increased adoption of renewable energy would help to realize energy security, as well as objectives pertaining to climate policy (Kitzing, et al. 2012).
Expanding renewable electricity is also a viable option towards realizing security in the energy sector. This will minimize the need for using gas while producing electricity or in the case of heating. This is because it would be easier and economical to heat commercial buildings and homes while using electricity as opposed to gas. In this case, it is the duty of the commission to coordinate renewable subsidy systems in the region closely so as to bring down both capital and administration costs. Moreover, all institutions in Europe should work together to help them develop and improve the electricity grid, especially around Pyrenees, Baltic, North and Mediterranean Seas, thus increasing its energy sources (Boie et al. 2014).
Conclusion
One of the major re-orientation strategies that the EU energy policy should embark on is to reduce the reliance it has directed towards the sources of energy in Russia. These should be regarded as the central elements that can help in boosting resilience when energy sources have been cut off. EU member states and institutions are, therefore, supposed to devise mechanisms that can allow them use energy that is available to them in an efficient manner to help create room for sustainability and durability. Moreover, to secure energy sources, they need to develop alternative sources of energy to help them continue their operations even when supply has been cut off. Additionally, they can maximize on renewable sources of energy, adopt CCS, as well as establish innovative nuclear power stations. This initiative will not be a simple exercise, especially because of the hefty funds that will be involved. However, after these programs are set up, the security of energy, economic and climate change will be worth the cost, and hence help to build a better tomorrow, which will be energy efficient and more productive.

Reference List
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Boie, I, Fernandes, C, Frías, P & Klobasa, M 2014, ‘Efficient strategies for the integration of renewable energy into future energy infrastructures in Europe – An analysis based on transnational modeling and case studies of nine European regions,’ Energy Policy, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 170-185.
Carvalho, M 2012, EU energy and climate change strategy,’ Energy, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 19-22.
Chestney, N 2013, EBRD energy strategy to focus on efficiency, less coal. Viewed 23 July 2014, .
Climate Action Network Europe 2014, Energy Efficiency and renewables, fundamental pillars of Europe’s strategy on energy and industrial competitiveness, viewed 23 July 2014, .
Connolly, D, Mathiesen, BV, Boermans, T & Nielsen, S 2014, ‘Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system,’ Energy Policy, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 475-489.
Corsatea, T 2014, ‘Technological capabilities for innovation activities across Europe: Evidence from wind, solar and bioenergy technologies,’ Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 469-479.
Dilaver, Ö, Dilaver, Z & Hunt, LC 2014, ‘What drives natural gas consumption in Europe? Analysis and projections,’ Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 125-136.
Gaigalis, V, Markevicius, A, Katinas, V & Skema, R 2014, Analysis of the renewable energy promotion in Lithuania in compliance with the European Union strategy and policy’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 422-435.
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WHO AM I?

WHO AM I?
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WHO AM I?
As a person who has been luck to enjoy diverse educational experience, I have strong impulse to scrutinize education process in different circumstances. I have spent time schooling in both my home country as well as in America and I believe this experience has provided me with a good opportunity to consider how this experiences could hinder or enhance my attitudes toward achieving my personal aspirations. Currently, I am 21 years old and my home country is Saudi Arabia though I am now studying in America. I have the passion for medicine and I want to pursue dental surgery. This paper therefore seeks to describe who I am and what I want to achieve in future.
Personally, I am actively involved in sports and other extra curriculum activities. I enjoy playing basket ball and long tennis. I also spent my free time watching various television programs as well as reading novels and newspapers. In addition, I normally enjoy interacting with people of diverse cultural backgrounds and this shows that I embrace multiculturalism. I also like to work together with others as a team in order to come up with sound and workable decisions. I personally feel that I have good interpersonal, leadership and time-management skills.
From my family backgrounds, I have three brothers and four sisters. I can say that I normally feel fortunate to have been from such a large family where every member of the family treats the other with a lot of respect and dignity. In our family, we normally encourage one another to pursue things that will enable all of us prosper in our lives. Being the oldest child in our family, I normally advice and encourage my little brothers and sisters to put more efforts in their studies. I normally guide them by leading them by example and encouraging them to avoid involving themselves in activities that can ruin their lives. I hence can state that I am both mentor and role model to my brothers and sisters as well as to my cousins.
In addition, I always like to look nice and that is why I usually dress like a gentleman. I love fashions and I enjoy purchasing the latest designs of clothes. I have different types of fashion and I normally wear clothes depending on the time of the week as well as where I am going. For example, if I am going for a formal meeting, I normally wear suits in order to appear presentable. I also wear jeans and T-shirts over the weekends and when I am attending parties or going out with my friends. I also like to be always clean and that I why I normally wash my clothes on regular basis. I therefore can say that I love to look nice and to be clean.
It is worth stating that I have travelled to many places and I have met with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. Some of the places that I have visited include Saudi Arabia, London, Paris, America and Dubai. These travelling experiences have offered me a chance to meet and interact with many people of different nationalities as well as religious backgrounds. In addition, these travelling experiences have also changed my perception towards how I perceive the world. It has broadened my thinking and enabled me realize that the world is changing and we are currently living in a global village. Therefore, I personally think that I am an individual who is exposed to the world affairs.
I have lived in both United States and Saudi Arabia. This implies that I have experienced both the American and Saudi Arabia culture. When I came in America, I experienced communication difficulties because I never knew English. This forced me to learn English in order to be able to effectively communicate and interact with other people having in mind that America encompasses people of diverse cultural backgrounds. I therefore joined English classes to learn English as my second language. Initially, I found it hard to learn English but with time, I was able to learn and emerge victorious. I can now read, write and communicate in English effectively and also speak fluently. This experience thus shows that I am self confident and committed to achieve what I want in my life. It also shows that I am a strong person and I know what I should follow in order to accomplish my personal aspirations.
In addition, I love interacting with new people and making new friendships. I am also royal and kind to my friends and I always value maintaining friendship. I have friends in both America and Saudi Arabia as well as in other places across the globe especially in places where I have visited. In every new place I visit, I normally ensure that I have created a new friendship because I like interacting with new people in order to learn more about their culture. I also like sharing my experiences with my friends and new people as well as listening to their experience. I can hence say that I am assertive listener and I embrace multiculturalism.
I have passion for learning English language and this has led me to various extra-curricular activities. Over the past two years, I have personally attended at various youth theatres to watch dramas and live performances. I also enjoy going out with my friends to watch live performances. By watching at various live performances, this helps me to learn and experience cultures of other people. In addition, by being with friends in such events, this helps me to learn from them how they perceive different cultures. It as well helps me to improve my communication skills as I have always not been afraid of speaking in English even during the time when I had not mastered the language properly. This hence shows that I have confidence in myself and I like expressing my views to others.
Furthermore, I enjoy playing long tennis and basket ball with my friends. I also enjoy going to watch football matches with my friends during weekends. These extra-curricular activities normally help me to spend my free time wisely and to avoid engaging myself in destructive activities such as drug abuse. I am also normally selective in choosing my friends because I do not like the company of bad people. I also encourage children to live positive lives because I am also involved in a drug abuse campaign where we educate the youths about the negative impacts of substance abuse. In this respect, I can say that I am a caring person and I am always committed towards improving the welfare of the society.
Since now I have mastered English language, I am interested in pursuing medicine in dental surgery because I want to become a dentist in future. I am interested in dentistry because I have always wanted to engage in field where I will be able to help other people. In addition, I am interested in studying dentistry because rather than doctor who often pass patients through chain of other medical practitioners, a dentist is able to a client immediately after diagnosing the problem. In addition, I enjoy the idea that I will be able to take some time with my patients and hence I will be able to build good relationship with my patients.
In addition, I am involved in various volunteer activities and these experiences have made me to develop interest in dentistry. In those activities, I have been able to learn how to effectively connect with individuals from diverse social backgrounds and ages. Volunteering in the local community project that involved interacting with children, I have learned how I can use simple vocabulary and soothing tone in order to ensure that the children are comfortable. I have also worked at a center for the disabled adults and this experience helped to learn how I can gauge emotional status of all individuals in order to tailor the content and style of communication appropriately. I therefore feel that I have a passion for dentistry and I will be able to prosper in this field.
Apart from having the passion for helping other people by reducing their suffering, I also want to become a dentist because I want to improve the wellbeing of other people in both my community as well as in the entire society. I am confident that dentistry is the field that will enable me to combine my leadership aptitude with my urge for interpersonal interaction. I want to be working together as a team with my fellow dentist in order to exhibit and exercise strong communication and leadership skills. I personally embrace the great opportunity of putting my academic and communication skills to effective use as I work towards maintaining the health of many people. I hence feel that I have passion for dentistry and I am confident that I will be able to bring more positive impact in the entire dental field in future.
In conclusion, I am person who is well behaved and who is always committed to achieve his personal aspirations. I normally embrace multiculturalism and I enjoy meeting new people and interacting with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. Personally, I have been in numerous places across the globe including Dubai, London, Paris, Saudi Arabia and United States. I have lived in both Saudi Arabia and America and I hence feel that I have been able to experience different cultures and to interact with people of different religious and cultural backgrounds. In America, I have been able to enroll in English classes and studied English as my second language. I have mastered the language and I can now read, write and speak fluently in English. Currently, I am looking forward towards pursuing dentistry because I want to become a dentist in future. Since I am always committed and determined to accomplish my personal aspirations, I am confident that I will be able to achieve what I want in my life. I also feel that life experiences have shaped me to be who I am.

Narrative Report & segmentation on an Alfred Hitchcock film

Narrative Report and Segmentation of Hitchcock Film Psycho

Name

Date

Story and Plot

A narrative is considered as being the sequence of events occurring in space and time in a cause-effect relationship. To analyze a film’s narrative, one needs to first differentiate between the story of the film and the plot of the film. The word “plot” refer to all the aspects of a film that are audibly and visibly presented to the viewer. The plot’s description includes the events of the story and both non-diegetic and diegetic elements of a film. The plot can also be termed as the activities which take place to achieve some sort of artistic or emotional goal relating to what the story is centered on such as the conflicts or characters that occur in the story. Some stories use a plot device which is something that has only a single purpose of advancing the plot.

The story of Psycho film originates from a partnership of both the information which is directly presented to the viewer by way of what is heard or seen in the film and the suggestions made by the audience after they have viewed of listened to the information that has been given (Hitchcock, 1960). Even though not all parts of the story are inferred. One can use story interchangeably with narrative however the main dissimilarity is that story is the structure of events that are used to describe the narrative. An attempt to keep the plot and the story exclusive makes the distinction between them to be quite confusing since they overlap in one sense but are different in others.

The overlap is as a result of the plot encompassing the events of the story. The plot of a film is different from the story of a film in that the non-diegetic traits of the film have an influence on the plot. The elements of the story of a film narrative includes the inferences made by the viewer though not directly viewed in the film. Therefore, the plot of something is the manner in which and through what the events of a narrative are being told and the story is the central base or theme of what the film is communicating

 

Depth and Range of Information

In this film Psycho, Hitchcock lets the audience to turn into a subjective character within the plot so as to enhance the film’s psychological effects for an audience that is compelled to identify its own psychological inadequacies and neurosis as it is forced to identify, for varying duration of time, with the main character’s personalities that is contrasting. Hitchcock delivers an intensifying theme in Psycho, which bases itself on the unending subconscious fight between good and evil that is present in everyone through the subjective participation of the audience. Psycho starts with a view of a certain city that is arbitrarily identified along with an exact time and date. The camera, apparently at random, chooses one of the many buildings and then proceeds to one of the many windows so as to explore before the audience is introduced to Sam and Marion.

Hitchcock random selection use creates a sense of normalcy to the audience. The mere fact that the city and the room are arbitrarily recognized gives an impression to the audiences that their own lives could be applied to the events that are to follow. In the opening series of Psycho, Hitchcock prospers in catching the audience’s initial senses of suspicion and awareness while allowing it to identify with the helpless situation of Marion. The sympathy of the audience towards Marion is amplified with the introduction of Cassidy whose boasting encourages the audience to dislike his character. Cassidy’s transparent statement that all sadness can be bought by money, incites the audience to justify Marion’s theft of his forty thousand dollars.

We get the first glimpse of the main character who is Marion Crane. Who is a bond wearing a white bra and cuddles with her lover Sam. Hitchcock decided to use the white bra at the beginning as it signifies Marion’s innocence. Later on, after Marion steals the money, we see her in a black bra which signifies her darker side. At some point Marion’s boyfriend Sam releases the arms so passionately that were passionately holding to the love of his life. Then there is an exchange of words that follows. From this dialogue, we realize that they cannot be married due to financial reasons, but in real sense Hitchcock is somehow justifying the future things that Marion is to do.

Relationship between Story and Plot         

AS Marion’s starts her journey, the audience are further drawn back into the depth of what is abnormal behavior though they are forced to identify and sympathize with Marion’s actions. It is with the character of Marion that Hitchcock first introduces the concept of a split personality to the audience. All through the first part of the film, the reflections of Marion are frequently noted in a number of mirrors and windows. Hitchcock is thus able to create a voyeuristic sensation within the audience as it can bring to vision the effects of any situation through Marion’s conscious mind. In the car dealership for instance, Marion enters the secluded bathroom so as to have privacy when counting her money. Hitchcock on the other hand with upper camera angles and appropriate placement of mirror is in a position to bring forth the sense of a conscious mind that makes privacy not possible.

Hitchcock lets audiences into the bathroom with Marion and allows them to struggle with their own beliefs and values while Marion makes her personal decisions and continues with her journey. The split personality theme reaches the height of its power of foreshadowing as Marion fights both sides of her conscience while driving on a likely endless road towards Bates Motel. Marion battles with the voices of the people who her crime and disappearance has affected while the audience on the other hand is compelled to recognize the reason why they can easily identify with Marion despite the wrongful actions she has done.

As the journey of Marion comes to an end at Bates Motel, Hitchcock has succeeded in making the audience be direct participants within the plot. The animosity and suspicion felt by Marion while she is at the Motel is equally felt by the audience. As Marion shakes while hearing Norma yell at Norman, the suspicions of the audience are heightened since Hitchcock at this point made Marion to be the key link between the plot and the audience. The first confrontation between Norman Bates and Marion is used by Hitchcock to slowly sway the sympathy of the audience for Norman and Marion. Hitchcock forces the audience to identify with the shy and quite character whose commitment to his invalid mother has cost him his identity.

After Norman and Marion finish dining, Hitchcock has safeguarded the empathy of the audience for Norman and the audience is now made to question the relationship they had with Marion whose criminal behavior cannot be compared to Norman’s respectable and honest lifestyle. The audience is however reassured when Marion upon returning to her room, comes to a decision to return the money and face the consequences of her actions. She calculates the amount of money she will have to return from her pocket as $700, after she tears the note into pieces, she looks around and cannot find a bin and she decides to flush it in the toilet.

This is the first time that flushing of a toilette is seen on screen. The audience are shocked by the sight of a flushing toilet that they are not used to see in films. Hitchcock has the view that the shot in the toilet is a key component to the plot of the film. The toilet shot actually foreshadows the shower scene. Upon Norman’s introduction, Hitchcock introduces the 1st of many characters parallel with Psycho. The clash between Norman and Marion, although is not seeming to the audience until the end of the film, is one of psychosis versus neurosis. The obsessive and compulsive actions that led Marion to steal the money is recognizable, even though the unusual behavior, embraced by the audience as their sympathy is primarily directed to her character.

The shower scene is a well edited scene, here, Hitchcock makes use of sound and editing as cinematic manipulations to bring a carefully thought out terrible murder scene. The result of this is perfection. In not more than one minute, we experience a combination of 78shots, in connection to the sound of a knife slashing against the skin. The knife is however not seen entering Marion’s flesh, though we are convinced we see through the sight of stabbing, the musical score, sound effect and the carefully done editing. The exposing the audience to about 45seconds of continuous violence without in the real sense showing any violence, Hitchcock leaves it up to the audience’s imagination.

Imagination usually has no limits and that’s the reason why the scene is timeless and shocking years later. The shock is not just as a result of bombardment of cuts on Marion body but because Hitchcock killed off the leading lady in the film. We listened to Marion’s thoughts, looked through her eyes and witnessed her actions only to later see her naked body slashed to a brutal death. With over an hour to go, anything is possible in the film, the audience wait for Hitchcock’s next note on the piano. Norman dashes in so as to clean his mother’s mess. Therefore, we do not only witness the death of the leading character, Marion but we see Norman watching the blood off the wall, the bathtub, the floor and the sink after he washes his bloody hands. After this, Norman wraps Marion’s body in the curtain. This brings the scene of Marion wrapping the newspaper around the $39,000. Norman then gathers Marion’s stuffs and puts them in her car, along with the wrapped MacGuffin and the wrapped body (Ebert, 1998).

Marion’s car slowly sinks into the dark swamp. For a moment, the car stops sinking. Hitchcock is playing with the audience at this moment, because even though we just witnessed our hero brutally murdered, we just want the car to fully sink, it does finally sink and fades to black. Into the inside of Sam’s hardware store, we see one of the customers studying a can of poison. Then enters Lila who is Marion’s sister, she is worried and wants to find out the whereabouts of her sister Marion. Sam does not have a clue where her sister is, he then tells his co-worker to go and have his lunch. The co-worker leaves. Though the scene remain to be a three shot with the entry of Arbogast who is a private investigator. All the three ask some questions and eventually they are all updated.

They realize that they are all in search of the same person who happens to be Marion. Lila wants to find her sister, Arbogast wants to find the money and Sam wants to find her girlfriend back. A new story then unfolds. As the story now takes a new dimension, so does the editing. The first part of the picture is edited to look like the events of the story took place within just two days. The pace is also speeded up after the first part has ended. In the following scene, Arbogast begins to check different hotels for information on a missing Marion. The scene is a sequence of shots showing Arbogast in various hotels, which clearly suggest the passage of time. Eventually, Arbogast manages to reach the Bates hotel.

Arbogast begins his investigation right away. He clearly states the purpose of his visit and shows Norman Marion’s picture. Norman is scared and tries to end the conversation as soon as possible. “Well, no one has stopped here for a couple of weeks.” Arbogast insist that Norman should take a look at the picture before he decides to commit himself. This shows perfect acting. Initially, Norman is relaxed to offer his candy. But with time as pressure builds up, the performance of Perkins intensifies. Arbogast realizes a lie when Norman claims that a couple of people visited last week and seeks to take a look at the Motel’s register. Norman decides to look at the picture again and claims that she was here but could not recognize her at first sight because her hair was all wet.

The terror being conveyed by Hitchcock to the audience shows itself once the audience realize that they showed empathy to a psychotic person to a greater level than they did to a rational person when their sympathy is shifted to Norman. The shift from the normal to the abnormal is not clear to the audience in the parlor scene but the audience is later compelled to reexamine their own character and conscience judgment abilities so as to discover why Norman’s difficulty appeared more worthy of their sympathy than Marion’s situation. At the time of the infamous shower case, Hitchcock expresses a sense of cleansing to the audience. Hitchcock reassures the audience that Marion is still credible and introduces Norman as a wholesome character.

The new security discovered by the audience is destroyed when Marion is murdered. More disturbing to the audience is the fact that the scene is shot not through Marion’s eyes but through the eyes of the killer. The audience being in a vulnerable state now, looks to Norman to replace Marion as the main focus in it’s subjective role. After the murder of Marion, the role of the audience in the film takes a different approach. Hitchcock provokes the audience to make use of the film’s other characters so as to solve the mystery of Marion’s death at the same time he still successfully maintains the sympathetic bond that was between Norman and the audience.

Closing Scene

Interestingly, Hitchcock manages to play on the obsession of the audience with the stolen money since the audience clearly knows that it had been sunk yet they cling to the fact that Marion’s death may have been as a result of her crime with the introduction of Lila, Sam and Arbogast. Hitchcock makes use of Arbogast’s character to arouse suspicion in the audience. Arbogast’s murder is not intense as the murder of Marion since the audience had not developed any kind of subjective bond with him. Arbogast primary motivation, nonetheless, was to recover the money that had been stolen which makes the audience to be interested in his quest. In spite of the fact that Arbogast interrupts Norman’s innocent existence the audience do not perceive him as an annoyance as they had viewed the interrogative policemen who had slowed down Marion’s journey (Ebert, 1998).

At the time when Lila and Sam risk to go to the Bates Motel to find about the disappearances of both Marion and Arbogast, Hitchcock continues to present the audience with even more character parallels. As Lila begins to search Norman’s home, Hitchcock suitably places Norman and Sam in the parlor where Marion had dinner with Norman before she had been brutally murdered. As these men face each other, the audience is in a position of seeing their contrasting personalities in relation to Marion. Sam who had won Marion’s trust is respectable and poised when compared to Norman, whose sexual repression and timid nature is reflected in the scenes whereby Lila is exploring his bedroom. The conflict that comes up between Norman and Sam brings out the fact that Sam had what Norman wanted but was not able to attain it as a result of his psychotic nature.

Psycho concludes by bringing up a blatant explanation for the psychotic nature of Norman. The audience, even though they had received a genuine explanations for Norman’s actions, is left confused and terrified by the last scene of Norman and the expression of his split personality. Faced with this issue, Hitchcock compels the audience to examine their conscious self in in association to the events which they had subjectively played a role in. The fear which Psycho creates for the audience does not come up from the brutality of the murders but it comes from the subconscious identification with the characters of the film, all of whom in a way reflect one side of a collective character.

Hitchcock enforces the notion that all the basic sentiments and emotions that are derived from the film can be felt by any person as the unending battle between evil and good is present in all life’s aspects. The effective use of character parallels and the conception of the audience subjective roles in the plot enables Hitchcock to attract terror and convey a sense of anxiety within the audience through a more and more intensifying theme. The brilliance of Hitchcock as a director has cemented Psycho’s place among the most profound and reputable horror films ever created.

Reference List

Hitchcock, A. (1960) Psycho Film.

Ebert, R. (1998). Review of Psycho (1998 film). Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 10/10/2014

Narrative Report & segmentation on an Alfred Hitchcock film

Narrative Report and Segmentation of Hitchcock Film Psycho

Name

Date

Story and Plot

A narrative is a sequence of events occurring in space and time in a cause-effect relationship. To analyze a film’s narrative, one needs to first differentiate between the story of the film and the plot of the film. The word “plot” refers to all the aspects of a film that are audibly and visibly presented to the viewer. The plot’s description includes the events of the story and both non-diegetic and diegetic elements of a film. The plot can also be termed as the activities which take place to achieve some sort of artistic or emotional goal relating to what the story is centered on such as the conflicts or characters that occur in the story. Some stories use a plot device which is something that has only a single purpose of advancing the plot.

The story of a film Psycho originates from a partnership of both the information which is directly presented to the viewer by way of what is heard or seen in the film and the suggestions made by the audience after they have viewed of listened to the information that has been given. Even though not all parts of the story are inferred. One can use story interchangeably with narrative however the main dissimilarity is that story is the structure of events that are used to describe the narrative. An attempt to keep the plot and the story exclusive makes the distinction between them to be quite confusing since they overlap in one sense but are different in others.

The overlap is as a result of the plot encompassing the events of the story. The plot of a film is different from the story of a film in that the non-diegetic traits of the film have an influence on the plot. The elements of the story of a film narrative includes the inferences made by the viewer though not directly viewed in the film. Therefore, the plot of something is the manner in which and through what the events of a narrative are being told and the story is the central base or theme of what the film is communicating

In the film Psycho, Hitchcock lets the audience to turn into a subjective character within the plot so as to enhance the film’s psychological effects for an audience that is compelled to identify its own psychological inadequacies and neurosis as it is forced to identify, for varying duration of time, with the main character’s personalities that is contrasting. Hitchcock delivers an intensifying theme in Psycho, which bases itself on the unending subconscious fight between good and evil that is present in everyone through the subjective participation of the audience. Psycho starts with a view of a certain city that is arbitrarily identified along with an exact time and date. The camera, apparently at random, chooses one of the many buildings and then proceeds to one of the many windows so as to explore before the audience is introduced to Sam and Marion.

Hitchcock random selection use creates a sense of normalcy to the audience. The mere fact that the city and the room are arbitrarily recognized gives an impression to the audiences that their own lives could be applied to the events that are to follow. In the opening series of Psycho, Hitchcock prospers in catching the audience’s initial senses of suspicion and awareness while allowing it to identify with the helpless situation of Marion. The sympathy of the audience towards Marion is amplified with the introduction of Cassidy whose boasting encourages the audience to dislike his character. Cassidy’s transparent statement that all sadness can be bought by money, incites the audience to justify Marion’s theft of his forty thousand dollars.

AS Marion’s starts her journey, the audience are further drawn back into the depth of what is abnormal behavior though they are forced to identify and sympathize with Marion’s actions. It is with the character of Marion that Hitchcock first introduces the concept of a split personality to the audience. All through the first part of the film, the reflections of Marion are frequently noted in a number of mirrors and windows. Hitchcock is thus able to create a voyeuristic sensation within the audience as it can bring to vision the effects of any situation through Marion’s conscious mind. In the car dealership for instance, Marion enters the secluded bathroom so as to have privacy when counting her money. Hitchcock on the other hand with upper camera angles and appropriate placement of mirror is in a position to bring forth the sense of a conscious mind that makes privacy not possible.

Hitchcock lets audiences into the bathroom with Marion and allows them to struggle with their own beliefs and values while Marion makes her personal decisions and continues with her journey. The split personality theme reaches the height of its power of foreshadowing as Marion fights both sides of her conscience while driving on a likely endless road towards Bates Motel. Marion battles with the voices of the people who her crime and disappearance has affected while the audience on the other hand is compelled to recognize the reason why they can easily identify with Marion despite the wrongful actions she has done.

As the journey of Marion comes to an end at Bates Motel, Hitchcock has succeeded in making the audience be direct participants within the plot. The animosity and suspicion felt by Marion while she is at the Motel is equally felt by the audience. As Marion shakes while hearing Norma yell at Norman, the suspicions of the audience are heightened since Hitchcock at this point made Marion to be the key link between the plot and the audience. The first confrontation between Norman Bates and Marion is used by Hitchcock to slowly sway the sympathy of the audience for Norman and Marion. Hitchcock forces the audience to identify with the shy and quite character whose commitment to his invalid mother has cost him his identity.                                     After Norman and Marion finish dining, Hitchcock has safeguarded the empathy of the audience for Norman and the audience is now made to question the relationship they had with Marion whose criminal behavior cannot be compared to Norman’s respectable and honest lifestyle. The audience is however reassured when Marion upon returning to her room, comes to a decision to return the money and face the consequences of her actions. Upon Norman’s introduction, Hitchcock introduces the 1st of many characters parallel with Psycho. The clash between Norman and Marion, although is not seeming to the audience until the end of the film, is one of psychosis versus neurosis. The obsessive and compulsive actions that led Marion to steal the money is recognizable, even though the unusual behavior, embraced by the audience as their sympathy is primarily directed to her character.

The terror being conveyed by Hitchcock to the audience shows itself once the audience realize that they showed empathy to a psychotic person to a greater level than they did to a rational person when their sympathy is shifted to Norman. The shift from the normal to the abnormal is not clear to the audience in the parlor scene but the audience is later compelled to reexamine their own character and conscience judgment abilities so as to discover why Norman’s difficulty appeared more worthy of their sympathy than Marion’s situation. At the time of the infamous shower case, Hitchcock expresses a sense of cleansing to the audience. Hitchcock reassures the audience that Marion is still credible and introduces Norman as a wholesome character.                                                                                                                                        The new security discovered by the audience is destroyed when Marion is murdered. More disturbing to the audience is the fact that the scene is shot not through Marion’s eyes but through the eyes of the killer. The audience being in a vulnerable state now, looks to Norman to replace Marion as the main focus in it’s subjective role. After the murder of Marion, the role of the audience in the film takes a different approach. Hitchcock provokes the audience to make use of the film’s other characters so as to solve the mystery of Marion’s death at the same time he still successfully maintains the sympathetic bond that was between Norman and the audience.   Interestingly, Hitchcock manages to play on the obsession of the audience with the stolen money since the audience clearly knows that it had been sunk yet they cling to the fact that Marion’s death may have been as a result of her crime with the introduction of Lila, Sam and Arbogast. Hitchcock makes use of Arbogast’s character to arouse suspicion in the audience. Arbogast’s murder is not so intense as the murder of Marion since the audience had not developed any kind of subjective bond with him. Arbogast primary motivation, nonetheless, was to recover the money that had been stolen which makes the audience to be interested in his quest. In spite of the fact that Arbogast interrupts Norman’s innocent existence the audience do not perceive him as an annoyance as they had viewed them interrogative policemen who had slowed down Marion’s journey.

At the time when Lila and Sam risk to go to the Bates Motel to find about the disappearances of both Marion and Arbogast, Hitchcock continues to present the audience with even more character parallels. As Lila begins to search Norman’s home, Hitchcock conveniently

Narrative Report & segmentation on an Alfred Hitchcock film

Narrative Report and Segmentation of Hitchcock Film Psycho

Name

Date

Story and Plot

A narrative is a sequence of events occurring in space and time in a cause-effect relationship. To analyze a film’s narrative, one needs to first differentiate between the story of the film and the plot of the film. The word “plot” refers to all the aspects of a film that are audibly and visibly presented to the viewer. The plot’s description includes the events of the story and both non-diegetic and diegetic elements of a film. The plot can also be termed as the activities which take place to achieve some sort of artistic or emotional goal relating to what the story is centered on such as the conflicts or characters that occur in the story. Some stories use a plot device which is something that has only a single purpose of advancing the plot.

The story of a film Psycho originates from a partnership of both the information which is directly presented to the viewer by way of what is heard or seen in the film and the suggestions made by the audience after they have viewed of listened to the information that has been given. Even though not all parts of the story are inferred. One can use story interchangeably with narrative however the main dissimilarity is that story is the structure of events that are used to describe the narrative. An attempt to keep the plot and the story exclusive makes the distinction between them to be quite confusing since they overlap in one sense but are different in others.

The overlap is as a result of the plot encompassing the events of the story. The plot of a film is different from the story of a film in that the non-diegetic traits of the film have an influence on the plot. The elements of the story of a film narrative includes the inferences made by the viewer though not directly viewed in the film. Therefore, the plot of something is the manner in which and through what the events of a narrative are being told and the story is the central base or theme of what the film is communicating

In the film Psycho, Hitchcock lets the audience to turn into a subjective character within the plot so as to enhance the film’s psychological effects for an audience that is compelled to identify its own psychological inadequacies and neurosis as it is forced to identify, for varying duration of time, with the main character’s personalities that is contrasting. Hitchcock delivers an intensifying theme in Psycho, which bases itself on the unending subconscious fight between good and evil that is present in everyone through the subjective participation of the audience. Psycho starts with a view of a certain city that is arbitrarily identified along with an exact time and date. The camera, apparently at random, chooses one of the many buildings and then proceeds to one of the many windows so as to explore before the audience is introduced to Sam and Marion.

Hitchcock random selection use creates a sense of normalcy to the audience. The mere fact that the city and the room are arbitrarily recognized gives an impression to the audiences that their own lives could be applied to the events that are to follow. In the opening series of Psycho, Hitchcock prospers in catching the audience’s initial senses of suspicion and awareness while allowing it to identify with the helpless situation of Marion. The sympathy of the audience towards Marion is amplified with the introduction of Cassidy whose boasting encourages the audience to dislike his character. Cassidy’s transparent statement that all sadness can be bought by money, incites the audience to justify Marion’s theft of his forty thousand dollars.

AS Marion’s starts her journey, the audience are further drawn back into the depth of what is abnormal behavior though they are forced to identify and sympathize with Marion’s actions. It is with the character of Marion that Hitchcock first introduces the concept of a split personality to the audience. All through the first part of the film, the reflections of Marion are frequently noted in a number of mirrors and windows. Hitchcock is thus able to create a voyeuristic sensation within the audience as it can bring to vision the effects of any situation through Marion’s conscious mind. In the car dealership for instance, Marion enters the secluded bathroom so as to have privacy when counting her money. Hitchcock on the other hand with upper camera angles and appropriate placement of mirror is in a position to bring forth the sense of a conscious mind that makes privacy not possible.

Hitchcock lets audiences into the bathroom with Marion and allows them to struggle with their own beliefs and values while Marion makes her personal decisions and continues with her journey. The split personality theme reaches the height of its power of foreshadowing as Marion fights both sides of her conscience while driving on a likely endless road towards Bates Motel. Marion battles with the voices of the people who her crime and disappearance has affected while the audience on the other hand is compelled to recognize the reason why they can easily identify with Marion despite the wrongful actions she has done.

As the journey of Marion comes to an end at Bates Motel, Hitchcock has succeeded in making the audience be direct participants within the plot. The animosity and suspicion felt by Marion while she is at the Motel is equally felt by the audience. As Marion shakes while hearing Norma yell at Norman, the suspicions of the audience are heightened since Hitchcock at this point made Marion to be the key link between the plot and the audience. The first confrontation between Norman Bates and Marion is used by Hitchcock to slowly sway the sympathy of the audience for Norman and Marion. Hitchcock forces the audience to identify with the shy and quite character whose commitment to his invalid mother has cost him his identity.                                     After Norman and Marion finish dining, Hitchcock has safeguarded the empathy of the audience for Norman and the audience is now made to question the relationship they had with Marion whose criminal behavior cannot be compared to Norman’s respectable and honest lifestyle. The audience is however reassured when Marion upon returning to her room, comes to a decision to return the money and face the consequences of her actions. Upon Norman’s introduction, Hitchcock introduces the 1st of many characters parallel with Psycho. The clash between Norman and Marion, although is not seeming to the audience until the end of the film, is one of psychosis versus neurosis. The obsessive and compulsive actions that led Marion to steal the money is recognizable, even though the unusual behavior, embraced by the audience as their sympathy is primarily directed to her character.

The terror being conveyed by Hitchcock to the audience shows itself once the audience realize that they showed empathy to a psychotic person to a greater level than they did to a rational person when their sympathy is shifted to Norman. The shift from the normal to the abnormal is not clear to the audience in the parlor scene but the audience is later compelled to reexamine their own character and conscience judgment abilities so as to discover why Norman’s difficulty appeared more worthy of their sympathy than Marion’s situation. At the time of the infamous shower case, Hitchcock expresses a sense of cleansing to the audience. Hitchcock reassures the audience that Marion is still credible and introduces Norman as a wholesome character.                                                                                                                                        The new security discovered by the audience is destroyed when Marion is murdered. More disturbing to the audience is the fact that the scene is shot not through Marion’s eyes but through the eyes of the killer. The audience being in a vulnerable state now, looks to Norman to replace Marion as the main focus in it’s subjective role. After the murder of Marion, the role of the audience in the film takes a different approach. Hitchcock provokes the audience to make use of the film’s other characters so as to solve the mystery of Marion’s death at the same time he still successfully maintains the sympathetic bond that was between Norman and the audience.   Interestingly, Hitchcock manages to play on the obsession of the audience with the stolen money since the audience clearly knows that it had been sunk yet they cling to the fact that Marion’s death may have been as a result of her crime with the introduction of Lila, Sam and Arbogast. Hitchcock makes use of Arbogast’s character to arouse suspicion in the audience. Arbogast’s murder is not so intense as the murder of Marion since the audience had not developed any kind of subjective bond with him. Arbogast primary motivation, nonetheless, was to recover the money that had been stolen which makes the audience to be interested in his quest. In spite of the fact that Arbogast interrupts Norman’s innocent existence the audience do not perceive him as an annoyance as they had viewed them interrogative policemen who had slowed down Marion’s journey.

At the time when Lila and Sam risk to go to the Bates Motel to find about the disappearances of both Marion and Arbogast, Hitchcock continues to present the audience with even more character parallels. As Lila begins to search Norman’s home, Hitchcock conveniently

Caring For Liver Transplant Patients

Introduction

The liver is the second largest body organ coming only after the skin. The liver is approximately three pounds in weight, making it the second heaviest organ of the body. It performs very crucial functions in the body. These include; it is responsible for the storage of nutrients such as vitamins in the body, it is involved in the process of digestion, it detoxifies foreign substances, and it provides immunity to the body among other functions. Sometimes people suffer from acute liver which is caused by some conditions (Nursing Centre, 2014). The causes of liver failure include liver cancer, too much use of some chemicals such as felbamate and acetaminophen, inborn errors e.g. Wilson’s disease and hepaticellular diseases.

A liver transplant is the only way to treat liver failure. Simply defined, a liver transplant is a surgery that involves removing all or part of a patient’s liver and replacing it with a healthy liver from a donor. If the liver is totally damaged, the patient has to be fitted with a liver from a donor. In cases where only part of the liver is damaged, a patient can receive a portion of a healthy liver from a living donor who is mostly a close relative because of compatibility. Liver transplants are the second most common transplants coming only after kidney transplants. However, the liver transplant remains one of the most complex surgical procedures. It calls for special equipment and experience. This being the case, liver transplants take place only in a few hospitals that are fully equipped with the special medical equipment needed and also have the medical personnel to carry out the procedure. The length of the surgery varies from four to eighteen hours depending on the outcome. The surgery normally requires three surgeons, two anesthesiologists and about four supporting nurses.

The surgical procedure demands efficient team work by all the parties involved. Nurses are actively involved in the surgical procedure of a liver transplant before, during and after the surgery. Before the surgery, nurses are trusted with role of preparing the patient both psychologically and physiologically (Dal et al, 2009). Every patient reacts differently to the news that they need a liver transplant. Some patients wait for long periods before a compatible liver is available. This period varies with some patients waiting for as long as three years. It is the nurse’s role to assure and encourage the patient during the waiting period. The nurse also helps the patients avoid practices that could make liver worse, such as intake of alcohol. The patient is also advised to avoid sodium (Benner et al, 2009). The nurse also prepares the patients psychologically when a liver is finally available for transplant. The nurses are also responsible to prepare the patient physiologically e.g by conducting urinary tests and carrying out the required blood tests.

The evidence based problem identified during the research is the use of nurses as secondary member of the multidisciplinary team. This problem is even worse if the nurse is has no specialized training in the care of a liver transplant patient. According to Grogan (2011), a nurses role in both the preoperative and postoperative care of a liver transplant patient is crucial and should be treated with the seriousness deserves. The solution developed to this problem in this paper is the use of nurses as primary members of the multidisciplinary team. In addition to this, these nurses should also be specially trained to handle and efficiently care for liver transplant patients during both the preoperative and postoperative periods.

Change Plan Overview

According to Rosswum & Larrabee (2009), the change plan overview will involve a six step plan. In the first step a focus group will be conducted in order to help identify the best model for the solution. This will involve the teams presenting their preferred model and its pros and cons. The second step will involve selecting the best model among all the presented models. The selected model is the one which is most effective and has the most benefits. The third step will involve communicating to the other members of staff concerning the impending change. The fourth step will be educating the concerned staff on the new model. The fifth step is implementing the model or putting it to use. The last step of this model is evaluating the solution to determine whether it is working or not.

Implementation of the Solution

Implementation of the solution will require a lot of commitment from both the nurses and also health care facilities. To start with, nurses should be encouraged to take part in specialized training. The benefits of the training should be clearly spelt out and analyzed to the nurses. Health care facilities should enhance these trainings by providing the required support to the nurses. Such support include making the nurses’ shifts shorter so they can have time to attend the training. Also, the health care facilities should give incentives to the nurses who are willing to undergo the special training. This tactic will encourage their counterparts to join them in the training. Salary raises should also be awarded to the nurses who undergo the special training.

Needless to say, this process will not be easy for any of parties involved. Nurses for example will have less free time to themselves while the hospital might suffer from shortages. The best plan to implement the situation so as to many the work easier for all parties involved will require health facilities to coordinate with special trainers who will train the nurses within the hospital premises. This will make it easier for nurses to attend the training after their work shifts.

The training will be thorough and all nurses will require to take tests to confirm their newly acquired skills and expertise. Moreover, carrying out the training in the hospital; facility will give the nurses a unique opportunity to practice what they have learnt. The time frame of the training should take about four weeks to ensure that nurses get all the training they require in order to improve their skills as far as preoperative and postoperative caring for liver transplant patients is concerned.

Having carried out the first part of the solution, the second part will be quite simple. Involving a primary nurse in the multidisciplinary team will be easy with many specialized nurses to choose from. Primary nurses perform unique roles during the care of a liver transplant such as making decisions for individual patients depending on the nurse-patient relationship fostered during the period that the patient was under the nurse’s care, they carry out patient-based care also, they communicate directly with the patient and then relay the information to the team members and other colleagues (Liu &Niemann, 2011). Primary nurses have a unique relationship with patients as they remain the patient’s assigned nurse during the entire period.

Contribution to the Future of Health care

Carrying out specialized care for nurses will have enormous contributions to the future of healthcare. For one, it will improve the efficiency of the provision of health care services to liver transplant patients. Nurses with special training will now be in a position to even provide some medical care in case the doctor is absent. Also the training will equip nurses on the appropriate ways to handle liver transplant patients during both the preoperative and postoperative period. Some patients become depressed while some may even lose hope, especially if they have to wait for a long period before a compatible liver is available. The training will equip nurses with the skills to deal with such patients.

Healing after a liver transplant takes approximately two to three months, depending on the patient and also the expected outcome (DOI). During this period, having a nurse specially trained to care for liver transplant patients will be very advantageous. For one, a specially trained nurse will be more likely to notice odd or negative changes in a patient as compared to one who is not specially trained.

In addition to this, specially trained nurses will make work easier for the other parties, such physicians, involved. A nurse with special training will be extra resourceful to the team as compared to a nurse without special training. In addition to this, it will make the physician’s work easier as he can confidently rely on the nurse’s observations. This will provide the physician with more time to allocate to other liver transplant patient.

Lastly, having a primary nurse who is also a member of the multidisciplinary team builds a strong nurse-patient relationship. Due to the time spent with the patient before, during and after the surgery, the patient is most likely to become close to the nurse and even trust him/her. This makes it easier for the patient to easily communicate any problem to the nurse. Subsequently, the nurse is able to share this information with the team involved and other colleagues. This enhances communication and a solution to the problem is developed as soon as possible. This could save a lot of patients’ lives. The opposite is the result when the patient is used to seeing new faces of secondary nurses daily.

Assessment of the Need for Change

An assessment was carried out to evaluate whether the change is really necessary. It was found out that many liver transplant patients die after surgery due to poor postoperative care. This results from entrusting nurses without specialized training to care for the patients. Some of the causes can be avoided as some of them are as simple as malnutrition. Therefore, there is need to change the preoperative and postoperative care approach for liver transplant patients. Approximately three out a hundred liver transplants die after the surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need for change to in order to save more lives.

Expected Outcomes

The first expected outcome of this solution is less deaths from liver transplants. This will result due to the specialized care provided by the nurses after undergoing special training to equip them with the necessary skills. The efficiency of the provision of health care will also improve considerably. This is because nurses will now have more skills in dealing with emerging problems.

Reduced cases of death of liver transplant patients will encourage more patients suffering from acute liver failure to undergo liver transplant. This will lead to an even more decreased rate of liver transplants death.

The last outcome will be more surgical procedures for liver transplants. Having especially primary nurses who are members of the multidisciplinary team will increase the time liver specialists and surgeons have to see more patients. Consequently, more liver transplants will be carried out which will further reduce the number of deaths due to acute liver failure.

Literature Review

The sources used for this research mostly included scholarly sources. The reason these scholarly sources were chosen is because they present information on a firsthand basis. The information found in them was from nurses and other medical staff who have had firsthand experience with liver transplant cases.

Books were also used for the research as they provided important facts on the challenges faced during liver transplants and what can be done to save the lives of patients.

Evaluation of the Solution

Evaluation is important for various reasons. For once, it gives insights on whether the solution provided is working or not. It also makes it possible for the team involved with the implementation to identify with areas that require improvement.

Evaluation can be done qualitatively or quantatively. The first step in selecting an evaluation method is finding out the purpose or the solution and then finding out whether the solution is serving the purpose.

For the evaluation I would use a qualitative method. His would involve collecting statistics of deaths after liver transplants. A reduced number of deaths will be an indication that the solution is working. This would be carried out over a period of time, preferably monthly.

Integrate And Maintain Change

To maintain the plan, support and cooperation from the concerned parties would be required. Maintaining the plan will require constant and frequent special training of the nurses.

Next Steps to Maintain the Change

Maintaining the change will require emphasizing the importance of the change. New nurses joining the health facility will also undergo the training.

References

Care Management of the Liver Transplant Recipient (2014)–Retrieved from

http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/static?pageid=853193#sthash.iMJBpUOe.dpuf

Dal Sass-Mendes, K., Silviers, R., Curve, P., & Galva, C. (2009). Patient education in liver

transplantation: evidence for nursing care. Transplant Nurses’ Journal, 18(3), 26-29

Grogan, T. (2011). Liver transplantation: issues and nursing care requirements. Critical Care

            Nursing Clinics Of North America, 23(3), 443-456. doi:1

Liu, L., & Niemann, C. (2011). Intraoperative management of liver transplant patients.

Transplantation Reviews (Orlando, Fla.), 25(3), 124-129. doi:10.1016/j.trre.2010.10.006

Role of the Nurse in the Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Care of Liver Transplant Patients

Retrieved from DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0025-6196(12)65349-X

Rosswurm, M. A., & Larrabee, J. H. (1999). A model for change to evidence-based practice.

Image, 31, 317–322

Benner, Patricia E., Christine A. Tanner, and Catherine A. Chesla. Expertise in nursing practice:

            Caring, clinical judgment, and ethics. Springer Publishing Company, 2009.

Emergency Preparedness and Response

Emergency preparedness refers to the practice of organizing and coordinating machinery, drugs, programs, and trained personnel in order to respond effectively to the cases of emergency that involve public health. Emergency response involves the act of reacting to the urgent unmet needs of the population experiencing challenges. It requires the health organizations and other stakeholders to prepare the appropriate resources, both human and logistical in order to respond faster to the emergency cases. The legal and regulatory system perform an important role in responding to various emergencies of public health, including accidents, occurrence of infectious diseases, and the disasters that occur from harsh weather events. For instance, The United States has such laws that provide an infrastructure for preparing and responding to the public health emergency. The laws authorize the government to declare an emergency, grant the responders with the authority to act appropriately in responding to the emergencies. Emergency preparedness and response is important for everyone, which makes it important for people, organization, entity, and the authority to prepare and respond fully to the emergencies and disasters. It is important to obtain adequate information about a population in order to protect and secure its health. Emergency response and preparedness interventions should incorporate demographic information in order to respond appropriately to the disasters. Communication, training, and adequate resources are necessary for achieving appropriate preparedness and response to the emergency cases. Therefore, it is important to include the healthcare professionals, organization, community, and authority in the planning process for emergency preparedness and response.

Literature Review

Emergencies may refer to large catastrophes, crises, or disasters, which get out of control and hinder the health care organizations from performing their normal operations (Goldberg and Skidmore 2). Multiple emergencies can affect the safety of the patients and the ability of the organization to respond to the disaster and provide treatment, care, and routine services. Emergency preparedness in the hospitals requires sufficient staffing capabilities. The organizations should identify important personnel during the emergency, including nurses, ancillary staff, physicians, and the management. The staff should be able to respond to the emergencies, which may require them to have family and personal preparedness plan in order to arrange for alternative needs during the disaster (Goldberg and Skidmore 2). Nursing shortages and a lack of surge capacity usually affect the ability of the health care organizations to respond to various disasters. The hospitals should take care of the staff during the disaster by providing shelter, food, and assistance, with medical, behavioral, and social health issues (Goldberg and Skidmore 2). It is also important to train the staff in preparedness on different topics, including their roles during the disasters, and the need to assume the duties outside their normal roles.

The public health mainly utilizes the measures based on population, including disease surveillance in order to protect the public broadly (Heather and Rebecca 530). Public health emergencies may occur due to state instability, war, and the varying dynamics of a population. There is insufficient information in the public health emergency preparedness literature concerning the use of demographic methods or data. Studies show that emergency preparedness levels usually correlates with the demographic features, such as the size of a particular community, migration flows and age (Heather and Rebecca 531). Effective emergency preparedness plans should therefore understand the characteristics of the population, and demographic methods. For instance, effective preparedness to a disease requires the planners to estimate the number of individuals that require inoculation. The pandemics usually affect a particular age group more than others, and various types of public health emergencies can affect various populations and different segments within the populations differently (Heather and Rebecca 533). Therefore, it is important for healthcare organizations to understand the demographic characteristics in order to prepare and respond to various disasters within a population.

In the United States, the government employs various measures that address the emergencies and disasters in public health. For instance, twenty-four states in America usually allow the government to declare emergency on certain issues affecting the public health (Moore 104). Declaration of state of emergency helps to address the disasters by mobilizing the appropriate health-related resources, such as manpower and government organs. In the process of declaring a state of emergency, the government provides information concerning the nature of the disaster, the geographical region of the state that experience the disaster, the declaration duration, and the intervention resources and powers employed (Paul 1314). The provision of information and different types of support can enhance the preparedness and response to the health emergencies and disasters. The declaration of state of emergency can therefore help to respond to the disasters because it provides the quarantine and isolation measures, which contribute in addressing the disasters.

A public health emergency plan can help to address the health related disasters depending on how the organization develops them. In the United States, the health department usually develops the emergency plan (Gibson, Theodore and Sterling 45). The majority of the states usually review their emergency plans every year in order to enhance their effectiveness. The plan includes various issues such as communication with the public concerning the public health disaster, and coordination of responses among the local agencies and states. Communication with the public is important because it creates awareness among people concerning the emergencies, which will enable them to take appropriate measures. The increased communication between the workers and the managers is also necessary to respond to the emergencies and disasters (Sherry, Kathleen and Sally 304).

The health emergency plan should also include the distribution of drugs and other medical supplies, evacuation of people, guidelines for treatment and vaccination, continuity of the legal system, and consideration of the cultural norms (Paul 1324). The government should provide the responders with the authority to access health resources during a disaster in order to respond to them effectively. The emergency preparedness and response programs should give the responders free medical services and resources in order to prevent the spread of the disasters. In America, the states have developed legislation to join the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) in order to address the healthcare issues. This contributes significantly in responding to the emergencies because it provides liability protection for the health professionals and state agents who provide support to the victims. The ability and willingness of the workers to respond to a disaster is necessary for responding to the situation effectively. The willingness to respond relates with the organizational commitment to use safety, including safeguarding the employees by using various policies and procedures of respiratory protection and vaccination (Sherry, Kathleen and Sally 303).

Discussion and Implications

Adequate nursing staff is one of the key factors necessary in responding to the health emergencies and disasters (Goldberg and Skidmore 2). The inadequate number of health professionals usually makes it difficult for the healthcare organizations to prepare and respond to the health emergencies. Therefore, it is necessary for the organizations to employ adequate number of health professionals in order to address the health challenges. The high number of staff will help reduce the workload, thus ensuring that they respond to the challenges in good time. In addition to adequate number of staff, the healthcare organizations should provide various types of support to them in order to enhance their efficiency. It is necessary to provide training programs for them in order to enhance their knowledge and skills, necessary in addressing the emergencies and disasters. It is important to train them in various areas, including knowledge about the health of the clients, their duties and roles on when and how to respond to the victims (Sherry, Kathleen and Sally 304). It implies that the emergency preparedness and response measures should emphasize on the issues concerning the workers, including adequate staffing and training programs to enhance their knowledge and skills.

Emergency preparedness and response interventions mainly focus on addressing the challenges that a population experiences. Heather and Rebecca (531) explain that studies conducted in this field show a close link between emergency preparedness and response with the demographic features, such as the population size and age. It implies that healthcare organization should include the demographic information when planning for the emergency preparedness and response interventions. This will enable them to understand the population and the appropriate measures for addressing their problems. For instance, the outbreak of influenza will require the organizations to understand the size of the population that requires immunization in order to plan appropriately for the necessary resources, such as drugs. It is also important to understand the cultural beliefs, values, and norms of the population in order to use the measures that conform to them in order to realize effective results (Paul 1324).

An emergency plan for responding to the health disasters is necessary in the healthcare organizations. The plan should provide the interventions, which are appropriate to address the health emergencies. For instance, it should outlines and recognizes the importance of communication during the disasters in order to enhance the flow of information. The workers should communicate effectively with the managers in order to understand the situations and obtain the appropriate measures to address them (Sherry, Kathleen and Sally 304). The government or other stakeholders should also inform the public about the emergencies, such as outbreak of an infectious disease in order for them to take the appropriate measures. Communication during the disaster is also necessary because it helps to coordinate resources and support necessary to address the challenges. Therefore, it is important for the healthcare organizations to develop intervention programs that uphold effective communication during the disaster in order to realize effective results. The board of the organizations should also ensure that appropriate resources are available to achieve the objectives (Anthony and James 301).

The legal and regulation systems of a nation contribute significantly in achieving effective emergency preparedness and response. The systems provide the government with the authority to declare a state of emergency on the issues that affect the public health, and to provide relevant support to address the problems (Moore 104). For instance, the government can declare a state of emergency concerning an outbreak of a communicable disease and this could help mobilize the logistical and manpower support necessary to respond to the disaster. The government will provide important information concerning the disaster, including its nature and the geographical area affected. The legislation also enables the government to enforce legislation and isolation measures that could help address the emergencies. Therefore, it is important for a state to develop effective laws that authorize the government to declare a state of emergency during the disasters in order to enhance the health of the population. The legislations should also provide liability protection for the state agents and healthcare professionals who respond to the disasters in order to enhance their ability and willingness to respond to the situations (Sherry, Kathleen and Sally 303). In some states, the absence of some laws that relate to willingness of the healthcare workforce makes it difficult for them to respond to the health emergencies (Cosmas and Knickman 102).

Conclusion

Emergency preparedness refers to the ability of the public health and healthcare organizations, individuals, and the communities to protect against, prevent, and respond quickly to the health emergencies, especially the ones whose unpredictability disrupt the routine capabilities. This shows that emergency preparedness and response requires the effort and support of different parties. The state should develop effective laws that mandate the government to pursue certain decisions and measures that will help address the health emergencies and disasters effectively. For instance, the government can provide isolation and quarantine measures that will prevent further spread of infectious diseases. The laws should also emphasize on providing good environments that enhance safety of the workers and the agents who provide support to the victims in order to motivate them. The community and the individuals should also posses the ability and willingness to respond to emergencies and disasters in order to have a collective support, necessary to address the challenges. The intervention plans should also include the demographic information in order to determine the appropriate resources and support that can address the emergencies effectively. Therefore, it is evident from the discussion that emergency preparedness and response interventions should include healthcare professionals, organization, community, and authority in order to realize effective results.

Works Cited

Anthony, R. Kovner and Knickman James, Jonas and Kovner’s Health Care Delivery in the United States. 10th Edition. Newyork: Springer Publishing Company, 2011.

Cosmas and James Knickman. Healthcare Delivery in the United States. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2008.

Gibson, Joseph, M. Theodore and James Sterling. The Common Ground Preparedness Framework:. London: Oxford, 2012.

Goldberg, Debora Goetz, and Skidmore, Sue. Emergency Preparedness at Mclean Memorial Hospital. Miami: Florida International University, Department of Management and International Business, 2013.

Heather, Allen and Katz Rebecca. “Demography and Public Health Emergency Preparedness: Making the Connection.” Population Research and Policy Review 29.4 (2010): 527–539.

Moore, Wendy. “The Global Dimensions of Public Health vigilance and Implications for US.” American Journal of Public Health (2012): 102-106.

Paul, Rebecca M. “Setting Policy Priorities to address Public Health Emergencies and the US.” BMC Public Health 14.1 (2014): 1310-1328.

Sherry, Baron, et al. “Protecting Home Health Care Workers: A Challenge to Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Planning.” American Journal of Public Health 99.2 (2009): 301-307.

Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice

INTRODUCTION

The United States has made remarkable process towards ensuring fairness and equal treatment of her people under the citizen’s law (Iguchi et al., 2005). But one critical area that has fundamentally lagged behind is its criminal justice system that has glaring racial disparities. Cole (2000) added that racial disparity exists when the proportion of a racial group within the control system exceeds the proportion of such groups in the general population. The criminal laws look neutral, but are massively biased (Iguchi et al., 2005). The prevalence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system is troubling criminal justice issues. Ethnic and racial disparities exist in virtually all jurisdictions ranging from arrests to parole (Britt, 2000). Amid remarkable social progress in most areas of American life, the disparities have persisted for years with the pattern exacerbating in recent years.

Mustard (2001) argues that racial inequality is on the rise when it should be taking a downward projection. Academic and public attention has focused on the causes and consequences of the disparities (McCord et al., 2011). According to research and analysis, criminal justice processing, broader social policy, influences of crime rates, legislative policies, law enforcement emphasis of particular communities and different levels of criminal activity are contributing factors (Iguchi et al., 2005). The major gains in prosperity are not equitably shared across the society. Due to this, many segments of the American population are severely marginalized. Racial disparity fosters public mistrust in the criminal justice system that impedes the ability of the justice system to promote public safety. The dissimilar treatment of people based on race results to illegitimate racial disparity in the criminal justice system (Iguchi et al., 2005 & Cole, 2000).

Some instances involve racial bias, while others may reflect factors that are associated with race. Disparity results from unguided institution-level decisions that are based on race. Structural racism can cause or worsen racial disparity since it is highly correlated with race (Mustard, 2001). Racial disparity defies the fundamental principles upon which the criminal justice rests. It is an embodiment of total rejection of the principles of equal justice. A commitment to fairness, public safety and justice compels various professionals to address unjust treatment and where it exists (Walker et al., 2011). It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to review the causes, impacts and ways that can help reduce disparities in the criminal justice and sanitize the justice structure.

LITERATURE REVIEW

A report on racial disparity by The Sentencing Project (TSP, 2008) identifies several aspects that are crucial in addressing racial disparities that exist within the criminal justice systems. Cumulative nature of racial disparities is one aspect in which racial disparity builds at each stage in the justice continuum, ranging from arrest through parole rather than the results of actions at any single stage. TSP report (2008) further states that effective communication across players involved in various decision stages in the system should be encouraged in order to combat unwarranted disparities. The other aspect is for the stakeholders of the justice system to know what works at every point and what cannot work in others (Walker et al., 2011). It believes that each point requires a unique strategy that depends on the degree of the disparity and how the actions of each component affect specific populations. Without informed leaders of criminal justice, the change of system is not possible (Hartney et al., 2009), since the leaders must be willing to commit both agency and personal resources to measuring and addressing racial disparity in each stage of the justice system. Minority populations are the most affected by racial disparity in the justice system. They have continued to face unrelenting prejudice in regards to the general treatment, incarceration and access to social amenities.

Racial Disparities in the Criminal Justice System: The Impacts

Both statistics at the national level and community level indicate a cumulative impact of racial disparity through each stage of decision in the justice system (Hartney et al., 2009). A decision made at one point results in increasing disparities at the stages that follow. For example, minorities are detained before trial as a result of bail practices compared to whites. They are also disadvantaged during trial and the subsequent sentencing due to reduced access to defense counsel, treatment options and community resources (TSP, 2009). A recent study of 13, 566 traffic stops initiated by officers in the Mid-Western city revealed that minority drivers were being stopped at higher rates than whites (Walker et al., 2011). The rate at which they were searched for contraband was higher than their white counterparts, despite the likelihood of finding contraband on white motorists than black motorists.

A New York study revealed that the possibility of detaining minorities charged with felonies was higher than that of detaining whites with the same offense. The research concluded that 10% of minorities that were detained in New York City. Another 33% detained elsewhere would have been released ahead of arraignment if minorities were detained at the rate of comparably situated whites (McCord et al., 2011). Of the total number of jail inmates, thirty-eight percent were African American compared to thirteen percent share of the overall population. Studies revealed that the population of Latinos was 19% of the prison and jail population, compared to fifteen percent share of the overall population (Hartney et al., 2009). The chances that a black man born in 2001 would spend time in prison at some stage in his life stood at thirty-two percent. A Hispanic male and white male had 17% and 16% chances respectively (Hartney et al., 2009). The impact of racial disparity was evident based on research. The juveniles were not spared racial injustice. For example, 17% of the general population were African American youth. Forty-six percent of the population consisted of juvenile arrests while another 31% were referrals to the juvenile court (Hartney et al., 2009).

Causes of Racial Disparity in The Criminal System

Possible causes of racial disparity are manifold. They include inequitable access to resources, higher crime rates, legislative decisions and overt racial bias. The first three causes are analyzed to provide further insights on why and how the justice systems discriminates a disadvantaged section of the society.

High Crime Rates

Studies reveal that most crimes are not reported to the police. The drawing of conclusions regarding the offenders was not an easy task. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Report provided reliable data only to the extent of the arrests (Britt, 2000). But the figures were of those who committed offenses, but were not arrested. Reports indicate that African Americans were disproportionately involved in crimes (Iguchi et al., 2005) and the percentage of arrests for violent crime and property crime stood at 39% and 31% respectively in African Americans (Cole, 2000). Another source was found in victimization surveys in which victims identified perpetrators of crime (TSP, 2009). Race findings from the surveys were fairly consistent with arrest data for many offenses. The contexts of the arrests vary from police activity in cleared crimes reported and crimes that police observe themselves (Hartney et al., 2009). The figures indicating arrests represent the frequency in which crimes are reported, decisions by the police regarding those offences and vulnerability of certain crimes to arrest. Race and class have great impact on the likelihood of involvement with criminal justice. Reports indicate that individuals of low income are over-represented at every point of the criminal justice system. People of color are widely acknowledged to have low income disproportionately. Mauer et al. (2007) assert that the representation of minority in the justice system is a result of involvement of people of color in more crime. But empirical studies reject the claim. Mustard (2001) conducted a study that reviewed thirty-two state-level studies of the decision to jail and the length of sentence imposed. He concluded that African Americans and Latinos have a greater likelihood of facing jail than whites and in some cases receive longer sentences.

Cole (2000) furthers the belief that the dynamics are true in respect of drug offenses in which African Americans are overly represented in offenses relating to drugs. A review of the rate of reported drug use among African Americans reveals racial disparity in the treatment among drug arrestees. A report by the US department of Health and Human Services revealed that 14% of drug users were African Americans in 2006, a figure that was slightly higher than the percentage of the general population (Hartney et al., 2009). This figure did not tally with the percentage of African Americans arrested in the same year for drug offenses. 35% of African Americans were arrested for drug offenses while 53% of drug convictions and 45% of drug offenders have been in prison since 2004.

Crime history is another factor that continues to worsen the disparity rate of incarceration among minority groups. The likelihood of receiving a longer prison term for new offenses is contingent upon the seriousness of a prior criminal record. Cole (2000) posits that arrests are partly functions of a location. Areas that have high cases of reported crimes are more likely to have a high police presence and consequently high arrests of offenders. These areas are predominantly in the strongholds of the minority. Mauer et al. (2007) found out that despite adjusting criminal history, the level of seriousness of the offense among the youth in the minority areas was more than that of the white youth. The minorities were detained, subjected to formal charges, transferred to criminal courts and jailed (Britt, 2000). An increase in the likelihood of repeating an offense and facing subsequent harsher punishments increased if a criminal record was established at an early age. Britt (2000) documented a complex interaction among factors such as race, age, employment, ethnicity and sex on the possibility of incarceration among offenders in three different cities. Significant race effects were found among adults in two of the three cities.

Inequitable Access to Resources

According to Cole (2000), access to resources follows the considerations of class and race. The background of the people partly determines the amount of resources they receive. Studies by (Iguchi et al., 2005) revealed a significant variation in the quality and quantity of resources that are distributed to minority groups. The social responses accorded to minority communities are minimal. Mustard (2001) posits that racial disparities are partly related to the volume of crimes that minorities commit and forms a background upon which resources are allocated. Analysis of trajectories suggests that even though delinquency cuts across race and class lines, the influence of society significantly influences the course of a potential criminal career (Mauer et al., 2007). Social services, community interventions and law enforcement are critical in the determination of outcomes (Walker et al., 2011). Broad policy decisions which regard economic investments in certain communities, prospects of employment opportunities and provision of adequate educational opportunities depend on the decisions regarding the most effective balance.

Inequality in resource distribution resulted in different outcomes between middle-class and the lower-class individuals despite sharing common behavioral problems (Iguchi et al., 2005). Individual and communities that have adequate access to resources usually employ a different approach to behavioral problems outside the criminal justice systems. A middle-class parent whose child displays behaviors that are antisocial usually precipitate delinquency (Hartney et al., 2009). Such traits include poor grades or cooperation with negative peers. Such a parent can explore different strategies, including discussing psychological problems, learning disabilities and substance abuse with a health care professional before the child becomes a delinquent (Britt, 2000).

The availability of resources enables them to seek tutorial, therapeutic and counseling services. Hartney et al. (2009) argues that in case of unexpected arrests, such parents can explore alternative interventions that can replace detention for wrongdoing thus raising the chances that middle-class youth will be diverted from the system. Minority groups have to depend on the criminal justice system as a basic response to the problems that bedevil the society (McCord et al., 2011). It is a verdict that constrains the daily practice of the criminal justice practitioners (Mauer et al., 2007), and the reason police make frequent arrests in low-income areas (Britt, 2000). The people living there are not equipped with available alternatives that can deal with drug problems. Misallocation of resources within the justice system can complicate the disparate experiences of defendants of minorities as they move through the system. TSP report (2008) points out examples under which misallocated resources can affect minorities. Pretrial release, bail instruments and release policies may prejudice the less fortunate, especially if the release systems use electronic monitoring that would require telephone in homes (Mustard, 2001). In case of juvenile criminal justice system, the screening instruments require that a youth be released to a legal guardian. The resources necessary to treat addiction and pay consultation fees may be unavailable through public funding. TSP report (2008) states that public defenders with large caseloads may not develop alternative programs to assist minorities.

Legislative Decisions

Legislatures at the federal and local governments create the criminal justice system through enactment of laws that define a behavior that is prohibited (Mustard, 2001). They also prescribe penalties for violation of those laws and the processes by which the cases should be determined and disposed. Walker et al. (2011) posits that some of the laws have a disproportionate impact on the minority communities. For example, drug policies are discriminatory. Cole (2000) argues the policies have a deep effect on the number and composition of people who are incarcerated as a result of drug offenses. The rate of incarceration of people on the basis of color far exceeds their proportion of the drug-using population (Walker et al., 2011 & Iguchi et al., 2005). This is partly due to law enforcement practices and also related to sentencing policies enacted in 1980s at the federal and state level. States passed laws that assigned compulsory sentences of life without parole for offenders that committed felony for three times.

Unlike most policies of criminal justice that quickly gain support of the public, the motive behind the three-strike legislation was prompted by a highly specialized event. Such legislation encourages overly punitive policy responses. The result of the three-strike laws seen excessive imprisonment of most offenders, especially the minorities (Mauer et al., 2007). The draconian legislation appeared to have to effect in lowering crime. Most of the legislation passed over depended on incarceration. Legislatures increasingly passed punitive laws that only saw rapid growth of jail populations. Britt (2000) and Mustard (2001) posit that the increase in the use of jails did not lower the rate of crime. There was no persuasive evidence that incarceration strategies were the only effective way of controlling crime. TSP report (2008) supported the observation by stating that very little in regards to training and rehabilitation or education occurred in prisons. Released inmates faced myriad obstacles when they attempted to reenter the society. Mustard (2001) argued that unless the legislation take regard to the plight of minorities, disparities in criminal justice systems will continue to permeate a wider spectrum of the society for which the founding documents declared to accord fairness.

Overt Racial Bias

TSP report (2009) states that as long as racism exists in the wider society, it will always be found in the criminal justice system. McCord et al. (2011) compounds this belief by adding that racism fuels bias that show in the attitudes, conduct, strategies, language and policies of criminal justice system. Overt bias generates instances that can lead to improper use of discretion by actors within the criminal justice system (TSP, 2009). In the recent past, overt racist attitudes were common in many parts of the system and were considered out of bounds for people of color (Britt, 2000). In spite of the safeguards that were put in place to mitigate overt racism, it still manages to flourish secretly and in ways that are more subtle. Walker et al. (2011) posited that such bias can manifest in many forms. For example, it manifests in poor interactions during policing within the community and denotes lack of respect. Minority defendants and attorneys are addressed in tones that suggest that they are second-class citizens during court sessions (Mauer et al., 2007). Officials who have negative interactions with the family members of inmates increase their level of belligerence towards the inmates. Criminal justice practitioners have a tendency to identify with those that look like them (Mustard, 2001). Such bias poses serious threat to lasting fairness that the criminal justice system should provide and for which it has fundamentally failed to enhance.

METHODOLOGY

This study adopted a qualitative research paradigm in which several academic documents were reviewed. Books, papers, journals and other published sources provided useful literature in understanding the scope of racial disparity in the criminal justice system. Comparisons and contrasts of thought and analyses from different scholars were outlined in order to broaden the perspectives of readers. The researcher identified areas of convergence and made useful recommendations that would help in conducting future evaluation of their applicability.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Disparities in the criminal justice system can be addressed in a number of ways. Professionals can seek to influence the process by working together and advocating for rapid changes in the systems (TSP, 2009). They can exercise discretion as decision makers to offset the impact that racial disparity presents, whether it results from a larger political or social context or from the previous decisions made within the system. It is incumbent upon professionals to find awareness of the wider social context useful in developing and formulating strategies to ensure that decisions made within the system help in the reduction of disparity. Since disparities result from various stages in the criminal justice system (Mustard, 2001), the decision-making points can provide an opportunity for professionals to ensure that people get fair treatment.

Proper strategies are needed in order to tackle the problem at every stage in the criminal justice system in a manner that is organized and coordinated. Law enforcement resources should be focused on poor neighborhoods. The public safety strategy should not only consist of arrest and subsequent prosecution. There is need for sufficient economic, social and educational resources to cater for the racially discriminated part of the population. Legislation should not bias on minorities. Laws that were enacted in earlier should be reviewed to ensure that they are in harmony with the existing bill of rights and fundamental freedoms. The law should spell out sentences that punish offenders on an equal basis, regardless of the color of their skin, unlike before when whites had sense of protection against the force of the law.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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