Archive for November, 2014

Peter Singer argues that most of us have very extensive obligations to the world�s poor. Carefully explain and then critically evaluate his argument.

November 29, 2014

Peter Singer

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Peter Singer

Peter Singer argues that it is the duty of individuals living comfortably to help the poor. Additionally, Singer articulates that helping the poor and those dying of preventable diseases is not charity, but a moral obligation. It is thus the responsibility of individuals in rich countries to make considerable sacrifices to help those suffering from poverty related causes. Failure to do this would result in such people being ethically indefensible. As an example, Singer offers a significant sum of his pay as donations and reiterates he needs to give more. Singer argues that it is the duty of the well off to prevent something awful from taking place. Suffering and death can be prevented through contributing to famine relief. Singer considers the cost of giving to the poor morally insignificant as a reduction in the standard of living of the rich. Peter Singer is considered one of the most controversial ethicist with a significant percentage criticizing his stand. The essay expounds on Peter Singer’s argument on the obligations of helping the poor.

Peter Singer’s argument convincingly shows that we have strong duties to aid the poor. Singer articulates that people could reduce unnecessary suffering and death by donating to the poor and disadvantaged (BBC, 2014, para. 1). The obligation of giving applies during emergency famine relief and aid in long-term development. For decades upper-income individuals have failed to give away much of their income as they can. The poor are also reported to be more generous making the rich undistinguished as givers. Singer demonstrates a world where millions of individuals live in abject poverty. Such people live on less than one dollar a day, lack safe drinking water, are undernourished, and cannot send their children to school. The life expectancy of the poor and disadvantaged is low considering that healthcare is beyond their means. Contrastingly, Singer articulates that the average person in developed countries enjoys lavishness formerly unknown to royalty.

Singer draws his argument from two hypothetical situations based on a Brazilian film Central Station and Peter Unger’s book, Living High and Letting Die. Dora, a schoolteacher in the Central Station makes some quick money after persuading a homeless child to agree to adoption by foreigners (Schaefer, 2011, para. 3). However, she discovers the boy is too old for adoption and will therefore be killed. Dora decides to take back the homeless child. The second hypothetical example is about Bob, who refuses to save a child’s life to spare his uninsured Bugatti. In these examples, Singer concludes that Dora’s conduct is morally right, whereas that of Bob is gravely wrong. According to Singer, children die daily in poor nations as individuals in rich nations fail to take action to prevent such occurrences. Suffering because of acute poverty is wrong and if people can prevent such suffering, then they morally ought to do so. Singer also expresses that failing to help the poorest individuals in the world is a letdown to meeting the minimum standards of moral decency.

Technological advancement and abundance of resources in wealthy countries should be used to reduce or eliminate acute poverty in poor nations. Lower income Americans have been reported to give more to charity compared to high-income citizens. Singer presents examples of how children in poor countries die of preventable diseases like malaria (UNICEF, 2014, para.1). Infectious diseases also claim a significant number of individuals in poor nations. Healthcare is a major problem in poor nations with most individuals being unable to afford even the basics. As such, Singer is convincing in articulating that the rich have strong duties to help the poor. In recent decades, the number of continually hungry people has increased by considerable percentages. A significant percentage of the world population cannot afford the most fundamental food needs. Millions die annually because of hunger and malnutrition. Economic and social development is also considerably obstructed because of hunger and poor health. Individuals affected by food emergencies globally only represent a minute fraction of those who cannot access enough food. Armed conflict and climate change have worsened the food adequacy problem with organizations providing emergency relief to millions of people in poor countries. Food aid extended to poor countries as either cash to purchase food or as food items, can play a major role in reducing hunger. As Singer affirms, such problems can be reduced or prevented if the rich could donate to the poor. Providing emergency food aid can help save the lives of millions who cannot afford a decent living.

Non-emergency food aid is critical so that people do not have to wait for the poor to die to intervene. Consistent food aid can play a significant role in improving well-being and encouraging children to go to school. Education and good health have proven necessary to the development of a country in the long term (Balogun, 2013, p. 34). Peter Singer’s challenge to the rich to give the poor can be backed with numerous examples. The worldwide food aid system is crippled with lots of problems. For example, the rich countries often fail to pledge sufficient food aid or deliver help when it is already too late.

Food aid programs have also been accused of undermining agricultural production in poor countries, hence, threatening food security in the end (Wahlberg, 2008, para 24). Some donor countries have also designed programs that promote their on domestic interest instead of helping the hungry. Most rich countries would help eliminate the problem of food insecurity if they prioritized the needs of the hungry and poor. This would be much more important than letting commercial interests and national strategic dictate where and how to provide food aid. Singer has used several examples to make his argument asserting that whatever money is spent on luxuries should be given away to the poor. Additionally, Singer expresses that it is morally wrong to live comfortably while others are dying of hunger. As such, it is the duty of the rich to reduce preventable death and poverty because they can (Huseby, 2008, p. 2). Lack of enough food for aid is a manifest that the rich are not donating to the poor. Most emergencies are forgotten, whereas others experience acute shortfalls. This force food aid programs to cut food rations or give to a minute population leaving others to suffer. Donors are also accused of short term funding, which result in diminishing funds for hunger problems.

Long-term crises are neglected by both media and donors. Food aid shipments take an average of five months to get to their destination. Late donation of aid is attributed to slow pledge and delivery. Consequently, a significant number of hunger crises could be avoided with fast response from donor countries. Hunger crises caused by drought and other climate changes are preventable. Peter Singer offers various examples of individuals living lavish lives instead of donating to the poor. Preventable diseases, infant mortality, and maternal deaths continue t plague poor countries. Much of this is preventable through use of existing treatments and appropriate research. The World Health Organization articulates that the death toll of malaria in Africa is still outrageously high with thousands of children dying daily (WHO, 2014, para. 3). Novel anti-malarial drugs are hardly available to a significant number of individuals in need. Only a minute percentage of children at risk of malaria receive preventive care. A huge percentage of malaria deaths occur in Africa and the south of the Sahara to children below the age of five (Gething, et al., 2014, p. 39). Malaria is also a threat to pregnant women and infants. Much support and donation is required to achieve the set objectives of reducing preventable deaths in poor nations.

Peter Singer analyses several instances given by various philosophers. Imaginary examples are presented by the philosophers to probe intuition on various moral issues. Some of the examples test whether it is unethical to live comfortably without donating significant amounts to help the poor. Singer reiterates that people have opportunities to save the lives of the poor, but they instead choose to live luxurious lives. Only a small amount of donation is required to save a child’s life in poor nations. If the rich can embrace the duty of giving to the poor as Singer asserts, millions of lives would be saved in poor countries (Posner & Weisbach, 2010, p. 174).

In the recent past, Ebola, a deadly virus spread fiercely in West Africa claiming a significant number of lives. Ebola is highly contagious and spreads through contact with bodily fluids. Containment of Ebola is easy through standard infection control methods, which are effortless to execute in developed countries. Such measures are almost impossible in the West African countries plagued by Ebola. Modern public health systems and sufficient state institutions help developed countries handle such incidents effectively and with minimum fatalities. Giving to the poor nations can play a significant role in reducing the deaths caused by such diseases.

Research and public awareness campaigns can prevent such diseases like Ebola from spreading (Campbell & Steketee, 2011, p. 584). However, such programs can only be funded by the rich as Singer articulates in his quest. For example in such areas affected by Ebola in West Africa, there lacks running water and electricity is supplied occasionally by a generator. Hospitals lack medicine and the beds are extremely few resulting in more than two patients sharing one bed. Lack of rubber gloves was highlighted as one of the major contributors to the spread of the disease. Several doctors contracted the disease and spread it to other patients. Hospitals lack medicines and the doctors are often unpaid. Such health problems are worsened by poverty. As Singer reiterates, living comfortably when the poor are dying from preventable causes is morally wrong (Anonymous, 2009, p. 218). Poverty, underdevelopment, and absence of government institutions have contributed considerably to the spread of Ebola.

Even after years of development aid, little has changed in poor countries (Department for International Development, 2014, para. 2). The spread of Ebola in West Africa has been recorded as the deadliest and the longest lasting outbreak in history. Before the Ebola outbreak, such individuals were still vulnerable to other conditions like malaria, sleeping sickness, Lassa fever and many others. The poor medical facilities in Africa are too weak to handle diseases and outbreaks. Donating to the poor can strengthen healthcare infrastructure in poor countries, hence, creating a long-term solution to health care. Developed countries have demonstrated that improving health care in the 21st Century is achievable and affordable. As such, just as the rich can access health care, it would be morally upright to help the poor access the most basic care.

In his expedition to campaign for the poor, Singer has encountered significant criticism. Singer articulates that only a minute amount is required to save a person’s life in poor nations. However, he contradicts himself by claiming that it is a moral duty to donate everything that is not used on necessities. Singer also fails to explain why individuals should donate all their surplus money, but simply states that they should. People find it difficult and unconvincing to send anything extra of their hard-earned money to poor nations (Ranganathan, 2012, p. 653). Singer as well fails to address a situation where nobody has extra wealth to give away. Critics articulate that giving off anything not used for necessities would result to massive financial instability. Singer has also been criticized for including his demands in his argument for helping the poor. After offering a strong argument and presenting two decent hypothetical examples, Singer demands and condemns individuals who lead luxurious lives instead of giving to the poor. The mention of the insignificant amount required to save an individual’s life in poor nation has also been overturned to any extra wealth. Singer has made extraordinary requests to rich people without offering any explanation.

Critics agree that donation can go a long way in saving poor lives. Preventable diseases and hunger related deaths can be eliminated and prevented in poor countries. However, giving away any extra wealth would not be the best way of approaching the issue. Aid programs in poor countries have been accused of mismanagement. Such programs have also been criticized for commencing business to benefit them instead of helping the poor. As such, giving away extra wealth may result to more mismanagement and financial instability to the donors. Proper management of funds and delivering non-emergency aid can be effective strategies of eradicating hunger and preventable diseases (Kuper & Singer, 2002, p. 107). Long-term projects can also be established in poor countries using the available donation like building hospitals and schools. Additionally, donation programs can invest in agriculture in poor countries because training residents on farming can create long-term solutions to hunger. Singer might have been more convincing to critics if he had emphasized that every individual should donate something to help poor countries.

Conclusion

Singer’s argument that the rich have extensive obligation to help the poor is convincing. Individuals in poor nations die every day of hunger and preventable diseases. Only an insignificant amount of money is required to save a child’s life in poverty-stricken countries. High infant mortality rates, maternal deaths, malaria, hunger, and other preventable causes continue to claim the lives of poor individuals. For example, Ebola has claimed lives in West Africa with the massive spread being facilitated by poverty. Medical facilities lack basic equipment like rubber gloves, which developed countries can easily make available through donation. Therefore, the rich have a moral duty to help the poor as asserted by Singer.

List of References

Anonymous. (2009). The life you can save: acting now to end world poverty. Ethics & International Affairs, 23 (2), 218.

Balogun, G. D. (2013). Remember the poor & needy among us. New York: Grace Religious Books Publishing & Distributors.

BBC. (2014). Peter Singer: It’s our duty to give. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/charity/duty_1.shtml

Campbell, C. C., & Steketee, R. (2011). Malaria in Africa can be eliminated. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85 (4), 584-585.

Department for International Development. (2014). Improving the health of poor people in developing countries. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/improving-the-health-of-poor-people-in-developing-countries

Gething, P. W., Battle, K. E., Bhatt, S., Smith, D. L., Eisele, T. P., Cibulskis, R. E., et al. (2014). Declining malaria in Africa: improving the measurement of progress. Malaria Journal, 13 (1), 39.

Huseby, R. (2008). Duties and responsibilities towards the poor. Res Publica, 14, 1-14.

Kuper, A., & Singer, P. (2002). More than charity: Cosmopolitan alternatives to the “Singer solution” / Poverty, facts, and political philosophies: Response to “More than charity” / Facts, theories, and hard choices: Reply to Peter Singer / achieving the best outcome: Final rejoinder. Ethics & International Affairs, 16 (1), 107.

Posner, E. A., & Weisbach, D. (2010). Climate change justice. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ranganathan, B. (2012). ON helping one’s neighbor. Journal of Religious Ethics, 40 (4), 653-677.

Schaefer, G. (2011). Singer’s not-so persuasive solution to world poverty. Retrieved from: https://www2.bc.edu/~mathiepa/classmag/schaefer.htm

Unicef. (2014). Despite progress, 1,500 African children die daily from Malaria. Retrieved from: http://www.unicefusa.org/press/releases/despite-progress-1500-african-children-die-daily-malaria/8240

Wahlberg, K. (2008). Food Aid for the hungry? Retrieved from: https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/217-hunger/46251-food-aid-for-the-hungry.html

WHO. (2014). Malaria is alive and well and killing more than 3000 African children every day. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2003/pr33/en/

Determinants of Dividends Policy

November 27, 2014

Determinants of Dividends Policy

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Theories of Dividend Policy

Several theories have been used to explain dividends policy and how dividends are paid. According to the life-cycle theory, dividends are paid by mature firms because they have more profits and fewer attractive investment opportunities. Mature firms have high retained earnings as a proportion of total equity and total assets (Grullon, Michaely & Swaminathan, 2002, p.387). Firms with low retained earnings as a proportion of total equity (RE/TE) tend to be in a capital mix stage, but those firms with high retained earnings as a proportion of total equity (RE/TE) tend to be more mature with more profitability growth. The life-cycle theory provides an explanation for the massive payout of firm dividends in that large firms pay dividends when the cost of retaining free cash flow is more than the flotation cost and profit retention (Denis & Osobov, 2008, p.62).

The tax preference theory suggests that dividends are subject to a higher tax cut other than capital gains (Haesner & Schanz, 2013, p.527). Investors prefer to retain profits in a firm other than the distribution of cash dividends. For tax related reasons investors favour low dividend payout other than the high dividend payout because of the advantage of capital gain from retained profits. This implies that tax is a core determinant of the dividends policy in those large firms with more capital gain than small firms because dividends are subject to higher tax (Frankfurter & Wood Jr, 2002, p.112).

The signalling theory is another dividend policy theory. The theory asserts that information asymmetry between outside shareholders and inside managers allows the firm managers to use dividends to signal information on the firm’s performance to outside shareholders. This implies that inside managers in a company can signal private information on the performance of a firm to outside shareholders hence affecting the dividends policy (Frankfurter & Wood Jr, 2002, p.117). Information asymmetry between inside traders and outsiders are the foundation of the agency costs hence the need to pay dividends in order to reduce the agency costs. Again, dividend payment signal to shareholders that they are not being exploited hence narrow the information asymmetry (Frankfurter & Wood Jr, 2002, p.117).

The other theory is the agency-cost theory. This theory explains that managers in a company are monitored by shareholders in order to prevent them from exploiting the shareholders investments. The monitoring expense is incurred by the shareholder as an agency cost. The shareholder monitors the managers in order to close the information asymmetry gap (Easterbrook, 1984, p.650). The shareholders, therefore, make a decision to pay high dividends in order to turn to external financing to fund new projects. This is important to firms because they maximize the shareholders wealth in order to remain competitive in the market. An alternative to this is share repurchasing whereby shareholders decide to repurchase shares in order to reduce free cash flow. When firms buy back shares, the dividends payout ratio also decreases. So firms pay dividends in order to reduce their agency costs (DeAngeloa, DeAngeloa & Stulzb, 2006, p.227).

Determinants influencing Dividends Policies

Free cash flow influences the dividends policy. Free cash flow is the cash flow in excess of funds or finances required to finance all company projects. According to the agency-cost theory, when free cash flow increases, the agency conflict between managers and outside shareholders increases, and this might decrease the performance of the firm. The agency problem occurs when managers fail to maximize the value of shareholders shares, but rather derive benefits for themselves from the shares (Al-Kuwari, 2009, p.38). Free cash flow influences the dividends payout ratio in that the more the free cash flow, the more the dividend payout to shareholders in order to reduce the possibility of the funds being wasted by the managers on non-profitable projects. This gives the hypothesis that the dividend payout is positively associated with the free cash flow (Kania & Cacon, 2005, p.109).

The size of a firm influences the dividend payout ratio according to the life-cycle theory. Firms with high retained earnings as a proportion of total equity tend to be more mature with more profitability growth. According to Kania and Bacon the firm size correlates with the dividend payout ratio. Fama and French concurs that dividend payers are larger than non-payers. Dividend payers have more assets. The dividend payers are also more profitable than non-payers and much of their market value is derived from their expected growth in the future. They have more aggregate earnings hence pay more dividends. Firms that have never paid dividends are smaller and are less profitable although they have more investment opportunities. The argument here is that large firms have more profits hence more likely to increase their dividend payout. An increase in dividend payout also reduces the agency costs hence increasing the performance of the company. Most of the agency costs tend to be associated with the firms size in that, large firms have higher agency costs than small firms hence the need to pay more dividends in order to reduce the agency costs (Baker, Veit & Powell, 2001, p.19). According to the agency theory, firms pay more dividends in order to indirectly monitor the performance of the company managers. This implies that in large companies, information asymmetry increases, and this tends to decrease the shareholders ability to monitor the management of the company. (Baker, Shantanu & Samir, 2008, p.171).

The growth opportunities of a firm influence the dividend policy ratio. The argument is that large firms use internal funding sources in order to finance investment projects because of their current growth opportunities in the future. The firm, therefore, cut dividend payment so as to reduce its dependence on external financing (Kania & Cacon, 2005, p.111). Fama and French argue that firms that have never paid dividends have best growth opportunities in the future. They have more asset growth rates than firms that pay dividends. You also find that R&D in firms that do not pay dividends is high hence increasing the competitiveness of these firms. They have better growth opportunities in the future while payers of dividends have low profitability and poor investment opportunities.

Another hypothesis is that the dividend payout is negatively associated with business risk. Business risk influences dividends payout ratio in that firms with high levels of business risk have lower dividend payout, while firms with low levels of business risks have higher dividends payout. The argument here is that high risk companies have higher external financing and low dividend payout so as to reduce the costly financing. The firms with greater systemic risks have uncertain future profits, and this tend to reduce their dividend payout because the future profitability of the company is unknown (Muhammad, 2012, p.28). So, as the uncertainty of the company profit increases, the dividends payout declines. This implies that the companies with unstable earnings have low dividend payout and this is important for the company because it reduces external financing which is always costly for most of the companies (David & Igor, 2008, p.62).

The profitability of a firm influences the dividends payout ratio according to the life-cycle theory. Kania and Bacon, 2005, p.111, argues that profitability and return on equity of a firm correlate with the dividend payout ratio. Fama and French concur that dividend payers have higher measured profitability than firms that do not pay dividends. Large firms have higher dividends payments based on the profitability of the firm. The argument here is that any variability in the company earnings has an impact on the dividend payment ratio. So, the dividend payout ratio of a company is the percentage of profits given to the shareholders (Henk Von & Megginson, 2008, p.347).

Tax is another factor that determines the dividend policy. According to the tax preference theory dividends are subject to a higher tax cut. Dividends are taxed directly and most of the investors tend to prefer to retain profits in a firm other than the distribution of cash dividends so that they can reduce the cost of the tax (Allen, Bernardo & Welch, 2000, p.2499). Tax, therefore, influences the dividends policy in that investors pursue dividend payout policies in order to minimize tax obligations. The argument here is that firms prefer retained earnings than paying dividends because dividends are taxed directly but retained earnings are only taxed after the company has been sold (Eugene & Kenneth, 2000, p.43).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Al-Kuwari, D, 2009, Determinants of the Dividend Policy in Emerging Stock Exchanges: The Case of GCC Countries, Global Economy & Finance Journal Vol. 2 No. 2, pp. 38-63.

Allen, F., Bernardo, A. & Welch, I., 2000, A Theory of Dividends Based on Tax Clienteles”, Journal of Finance, Vol. 55, pp. 2499-2536.

Baker, H, Shantanu, D, & Samir, S, 2008, Impact of financial and multinational operations on manager perceptions of dividends, Global Finance Journal 19,171–186.

Baker, H, Veit, E, & Powell, G, 2001, Factors Influencing Dividend Policy Decisions of NASDAQ Firms, The Financial Review 38, 19-38.

David, D, & Igor, O, 2008, Why do firms pay dividends? International evidence on the determinants of dividend policy, Journal of Financial Economics 89, 62– 82.

DeAngeloa, H, DeAngeloa, L, & Stulzb, R, 2006, Dividend policy and the earned/contributed capital mix: a test of the life-cycle theory, Journal of Financial Economics 81, 227–254.

Denis, D, & Osobov, I, 2008, Why do firms pay dividends? International evidence on the determinants of dividend policy, Journal of Financial Economics, Vol 89(1), pp.62 – 82.

Easterbrook, H, 1984, Two agency-cost explanations of dividends, The American Economic Review, 650-659.

Eugene, F, & Kenneth, F, 2000, Disappearing dividends: changing firm characteristics or lower propensity to pay? Journal of Financial Economics 60 (2001) 3}43.

Frankfurter, M, & Wood Jr, G, 2002, Dividend policy theories and their empirical tests, International Review of Financial Analysis, 11(2), 111-138.

Grullon, G, Michaely, R, & Swaminathan, B, 2002, Are Dividend Changes a Sign of Firm Maturity? The Journal of Business, 75(3), 387-424.

Haesner, C, & Schanz, D, 2013, Payout Policy Tax Clienteles, Ex-dividend Day Stock Prices and Trading Behaviour in Germany: The Case of the 2001 Tax Reform, Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 40(3) & (4), 527–563.

Henk Von, E, & Megginson, W, 2008, Dividends and share repurchases in the European Union, Journal of Financial Economics 89, 347–374.

Kania, L, & Cacon, W, 2005, What Factors Motivate the Corporate Dividend Decision? ASBBS E-Journal, Volume 1, No. 1.

Muhammad, J, 2012, Impact of Financial Leverage on Dividend Policy: Case of Karachi Stock exchange 30 Index, Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, 28-32.

Assignment Brief Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care

November 27, 2014

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Managing Financial Resources in Health and Social Care for Care Tech Holdings Plc.
Background Information
The objective of Care Tech PLC homes is to provide quality social care services. Our programs through the available services offer support to both adults and children. Some of the services provision of the Care Tech PLC includes,
Health visitors, midwives, and district nurses
Personal assistants or another support staff for handling daily tasks
Doctors surgeries such as dental surgery
Schools and mobile clinics
Ambulances
Nursing and residential care homes
Daycare centers
The interest of care tech PLC is to increase the quality of their social care services and expansion in the market share holding. The achievement of its objective is through the social care expertise, nationwide locations, ongoing growth, increased shareholder value, and having an excellent shareholder value. The growth of Care Tech PLC home has been a success through different criteria expeditions in its financial management. The Care Tech PLC has continued to experience growth over the years. The board is confident that through the new opportunities that are now present in the social care environment as an organization has the expertise to tap in on those opportunities.

Task One
The comprehension of this task involves knowing business control and costing procedures. It includes income, costs, expenditure, cost benefit analysis, cost control, budget, capital, cost control, forecasting, profit making, breakeven, and basic software for the examination of financial data within the organization.
1.1 Explaining the principles of costing and business control systems
Principles of Costing
Cost is always related to its cause
It is evident that the relationship of cost is directly proportional to its cause. The collection and analysis of figures of cost are usually in accordance to the nature of the allocation and based on the cause relationships.
Abnormal cost is charged in costing
The incurring cost that caters for the loss by either fire or riot or theft is termed as an abnormal cost. This cost cannot reflect on the production cost as the damage has nothing to do with production activities. It will only lead to discrepancies in cost figures thus misleading the management team on the objective of cost control. The normal cost that relates to either production or service rendered is charged at the cost centers and not to the abnormal cost charges.
Cost is charged after it is incurred
The consideration of an incurred cost is that there is no cost hence charges cannot be catered for at the cost center. For example, an occurrence is when the normal loss is borne through that unit where the loss has been incurred. The imposition of such a loss cannot be on the units that are yet to pass through production.
Past costs are not taken into contemplation to future costs
The recommended financial procedure is that the cost incurred during a particular period is tackled in that particular same period. If the cost reflects past periods then the postponement to the future then that is financially wrong. If past costs have future consideration, then meeting that future cost will be problematic, as the burden of the past costs will weigh greatly on the management. The only exception to this principle is advertising, which most organizations will treat as deferred revenue expense thus paying off the incurring charges is in the benefits period.
The double entry principle stores the cost ledgers and any other cost control accounts. The adaptation of this concept is also in financial accounting. Costing does require the utilization of cost statements and cost sheets to meet the objective of cost control, cost ascertainment, and a guideline for the financial management.
Business Control Systems
These are systems through which businesses or organizations maintain an environment that is corruption free and discourages embezzlement activities by both the management and staff. The components of internal control that an organization undergoes through the evaluation process during the planning phase include an independent financial statement audit. The findings that culminate from the evaluation process measures the auditor’s level of detailed testing. It is the entitlement of the organization to ensure that they do not incur unnecessary fee during auditing. This is achievable through the implementation of well-organized internal control systems within the organization.
The integrity of managers determines the overall tone for the organization. The conveying of message integrity messages to staff through the employee company handbooks and manuals. An organization also utilizes policy manuals to provide training to employees on the importance adhering to management integrity. Nevertheless, policy enforcement procedures by the management are a key performance indicator in their commitment in being successful through the organization control systems.
Another key business control system has recruitment procedures that allow only the employment of competent staff. In addition, a business or an organization should have systems in place that allow the organization to retain their services for a long duration. This shows their intention to have diligently maintained accounting records. Retaining of employees enables yearly comparison of financial records. This organizational phase instills confidence in auditors as he or she can clearly observe the reliability of staff in the organization while going through accounting records. Consequently, it reduces risks for the organization during an auditor’s examination of material misstatement in the financial records.
The proper maintenance of records facilitates the existence of accurate documentation while conducting business transactions. Management of records includes document storage, safeguarding electronic records and back-up record procedures. This guarantees that there is no intrusion with transaction information in the underlying accounting records. An effective business control system seclusions the authoritative, custodial, and accounting functions. The environmental protection agency pinpoints that quality management of records reduces the overall operational costs. Additionally, it leads to improvement in efficiency thus minimizing litigation proceeds.
Safeguards within an organization prevent the entry of intruders thus their acquisition of company assets. There are tangible and intangible Safeguards. Tangible safeguards include locks on doors, while intangible safeguards include either computer or programs password. Safeguards are relevant and necessary in the organizational feature of business control systems. Majority of business owners will take measures to protect their inventories, cash, supplies, and all the information related to their business. However, most organizations normally overlook the protection of their blank checks, signature stamps, and the company letterheads though they require safeguarding. All company related information should be secured and only left for access by authorized personnel.
1.2 Identifying the information required to manage financial resources
The information required in the management of financial resources culminates from the organization meeting its requirements. Organizational requirements vary from operational activities, labor requirements, managerial activities and financial activities (auditing). These organizational activities determine the allocation of financial resources for their accomplishment. This kind of data will be acquired through resultant figures from the inventories maintained by an organization for instance budget, financial statements, operational activities, income statements, cash books and other cost activities within the organization. Organizations get their information maintains information such as human capital, working capital, and debts.

1.3 Explaining the regulatory necessities for managing financial resources
Any kind of business must apply the basic regulatory requirements to guarantee the success of that organization. These requirements facilitate the organization in function within the standards of the statutory provisions of that particular country. A good example is in the United States; where is the ‘Health and Social act 2012’, which regulates all the financial transaction of health organizations. It lays down the formulation principles that govern information relating to enforceability and formation of contracts. Additionally, there are the regulation standards of all the binding agreements that are made in a health organization. Some of the contracts include indemnity letters, bailment, pledges, and agency. It also gives the provisions of a breach of contract. The other vital regulation pertains to the issue of quality management. Federal bureau is the government body charged with the responsibility of enforcing quality standards within the organization that provides services to the general population.
The Care Tech PLC home uses the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles as a regulatory requirement for managing financial resources. These are the guidelines and practices that are accepted in the field of accounting internationally in standardizing financial documents such as balance sheets, cash flow statements and income statements. The organization follows these principles in reporting its financial information. The absence of these standards would give the organization staff the privileges in divulging financial information at their individual expense and not at the company’s thus affecting its overall credibility to investors and stakeholders.
The General Accepted Accounting Principles affects the following activities,
Measuring economic activity
Preparing and summarizing economic information
Disclosing information about an activity
Recording measurements at regular intervals
Regulation of the General Accepted Accounting Principles
The utilization of this principle is not a requirement by law but the body on Securities and Exchange Commission requires that all the public trading companies to adhere to these standards thus facilitating financial reporting. Care Tech PLC homes are a big corporation whose financial implications are similar to those of big companies hence the utilization of the accounting conception.
Evaluate systems for managing the financial resources in health or care organization
The evaluation of systems managing financial resources in health or care organization is by assessing whether they meet the expectations of their clientele and those of the organization itself. Care Tech PLC through its organization management policies and systems has handled all the potential risks for its health centers in terms of the resource allocation procedures where all the needs of the interested parties are met. The interested parties are patients and staff of Care Tech PLC. Through cost reduction methods and financial expediency, the organization has effectively adhered to the management guidelines thus achieving its goal of providing social care to a larger section of the population.
Task Two
2.1 What are the different sources of income available to Care Tech PLC in the financial year 2013?
Dividends- the organization has always been keen in raising the total dividend per year in line with the movements’ objective of increasing the underlying earnings per share. In the year 2013, there was a development of 3.5% thus the board’s proposal of the final dividend of 4.68% per share from the 4.29 per share of the year 2012. This will bring the dividend total to 7.00 per share (2012:4.29 per share). The final payable dividends for the year 2014 that are subject to the shareholder approval will be 6.5 per share.
Other sources include secured bank loans and profit shares in the previous years
2.2 Analyze the factors that may influence the availability of financial resources in Care Tech PLC
Mergers and acquisitions
In the year 2013, the organization was able to acquire business combinations made that involve twenty-eight properties through the Quercus Healthcare fund and the acquisition via the Roborough properties. These asset acquisitions were previously under a lease by the group. This factor limits the organization financial resources as they used many funds in the acquisition processes.
Financial instruments
Credit risk of the company jeopardizes the cash equivalents of the company making it impossible for an organization to source funds from financial institutions. The credit policy of the management and monitoring of the credit risk sometimes if unmonitored would reduce the chances of a prospective customer from getting credit. There are varying levels that are set on credit limit, which will depend on the value of the sale. Credit risk will impose sanctions on investors and financiers due to fear of unclear recovery procedures to recover their capital back.
2.3 Reviewing diverse types of budget expenditure in Care Tech PLC
Comprehensive budgeting
This kind of budgeting is also the referral master budgeting. Is detailed, and its utilization is when there is a limitation on spending. Due to the acquisition by the Care Tech PLC, there has been a reduction in their income proceeds thus this form of budgeting to reduce spending on unnecessary expenses. In addition, it helps the organization in having a financial overview of the way the organization spends it capital concerning its projects. This type of budgets will issue comparable spending patterns over the years of the Care Tech PLC organization.
Problem-solving budgeting
The Care Tech PLC being a corporation with whooping revenue of nine billion encounters some difficulties in controlling their capital in some sections of the company thus the utilization of problem-solving budgeting. It is more detailed than comprehensive budgeting, which has a more general perspective.
Planning budgeting
Care Tech PLC through its expansion programs utilizes this kind of budgeting to set aside capital for its shareholding interest in other social care and health or care facilities. This budget works for this purpose as it has a category inclusion that allows the organization to designate capital for a desired goal. Care Tech PLC uses this kind of budgeting in preparing their dividend proceeds to shareholders.
2.4 Evaluating how decisions regarding expenditure could be made in Care Tech PLC
This would involve the use of cost-benefit analysis in making its expenditure decisions. This will give the organization the necessary armory in making decisions that allow efficient and equitable allocation of resources within the organization. The cost-benefit analysis gives them an advantage in absenteeism of perfectly operating competitive markets and predisposition to a market where wealth and income distribution is not acceptable.
Task Three
3.1 Explaining how financial deficits can be managed
This is achievable through better management of the cash flow of the organization and development of effective budgetary systems. Through management integrity, the company can monitor the spending patterns of the various departments of the organizations and impede serious actions against reckless spending by the staff of the organization. For Care Tech PLC, its acquisition policy would address this issue as the cash flow would be reduced. Optimization of the cash flow management would aid the organization in achieving financial health.
3.2 Explaining the activities to be taken in the event of suspected fraud
In health or care organizations there is the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act that deals with fraudulent cases. Fraud is a federal crime, and this legislation penalizes fraudulent individuals through a criminal charge penal code that issues a federal prison term of up to ten years. In the occasion that there is the notion of fraud, what should follow is reporting the perpetrators to the relevant government institutions that deal with crime and arraigned in court to answer for fraud charges. Health care fraud is a severe criminal offense that affects not only the concerned individual but also the government thus, their scrapping out as it surpasses the objective of health care services, which is to maintain a healthy population.
3.3 Evaluating budget-monitoring arrangements in health or social care organization
Budget monitoring of addresses the need for effective planning and strategy imposition thus catering for the expectations of the organization. Budget monitoring arrangements include cash flow forecasting. The key processes of assessment procedures include
Ensuring targets are being met through the monitoring systems of the internal budgets on a regular basis
Revising of the internal budget through a well-coordinated process
Provisioning forecast information to enable the organization to manage gaps within budget estimates.
Reviewing and improving the internal budget provisions through accurate monitoring of the budget processes in a timely fashion, while identifying areas of improvement.
Note: budget monitoring tracks the performance of the organization in various areas through the capital expenditure and the ongoing development projects. This will indicate any variations in the organizations projects such as overruns thus allowing corrective action by the management in addressing the matter. Routine reporting within an organization provides the necessary information on the present and future impacts that result from project activities.

Task Four
4.1 Identifying the information required to make financial verdicts relating to health and social care service
At Care Tech PLC, financial controllers use financial statements, income statements, cashbooks, inventories maintained in financial departments in the organization. Financial controllers require sound understanding before making any decisions to avoid making losses and to avoid overstating statements and inventories as they may give the wrong information, which may in turn affect the entire organization. Despite financial department maintaining financial records, other departments like human resources department maintain information relating to employees, for instance, the number of employees, their addresses, and their respective departments. In addition, at Care Tech PLC, the management should maintain information that regards patients, for instance, the type of infection, method of diagnosis administered, date and other relevant information. This type of information helps in decision-making and highlights the reoccurrence of certain infections, diagnosis, and patients.
4.2 Analyzing the relationship between health and a social care service delivered, costs, and expenditure
There is an association between health care and social care services delivered in terms of costs, and expenditure. The following information analyzes information on health care services provided by the employees and their related costs and expenditures.
The number of employees correlates with the services offered by the organization with each year showing a considerable increase by the number of employees and patients’ turnout. This however increases the cost and expenditure at the organization to counter the excess number of patients and services they require. Over time, the organization in relation to its financial statements and other supporting documents shows a significant growth in terms of expansion in various departments, mergers and acquisitions, high number of patients, and high revenues generated.

4.3 Evaluating how financial considerations influence an individual through the health and social care service
Financial considerations that may influence an individual using Care Tech PLC health and social care services include affordability, individual’s income, the level of seriousness and type of the disease, living standards and the associated costs of service delivery at the hospitals. Other factors may include the availability of appropriate equipment of conduction various diagnostic procedures to patients with various disease. Expensive service delivery may block individuals who cannot afford the services offered by the organizations. Therefore, both organizational and individual financial considerations play a significant role of maintaining proper and affordable services to patients.
4.4 Suggesting ways to improve the health and social care service through variations of financial systems and processes
There are various ways of improving health care and social care services at Care Tech PLC in relation to financial systems and processes. The first requirement should ensure that, the organization maintains the general accounting principles and the required legislation to handle its financial systems and process. The systems and procedures should be accurate and effective to avoid cases of misrepresentation of data and information with the organization. In addition, the organization should employ effective and efficient control systems. However, the changes employed by the organization should cater for the patient’s needs without difficulties to serve more patients with minimal time and accuracy. Finally, the organization should improve on their modes of data collection and storage. The organization can improve this by employing software that helps pediatrics collects relevant data and storage. This is important especially in cases of reoccurrence of a disease or treatment in addition to ease of retrieving vital information regarding a particular patient or any other need that requires investigations. With the advanced technology, many organizations are now using advanced ways of collecting and storing data and other control systems that help the organization to run more effectively and efficiently.

References
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Aveyard & Helen, 2010. Doing A Literature Review In Health And Social Care: A Practical Guide. London : McGraw-Hill International.
Bella, L. L., 2010. World Financial Meltdown. New Jersey: The Rosen Publishing Group.
Berkman, B. & Harootyan, L., 2013. Social Work and Health Care in an Aging Society. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Blakesley, D. & Hoogeveen, J., 2011. Writing: A Manual for the Digital Age, Brief. New York: Cengage Learning.
Boehler, D. & Randall, M., 2013. Diversity training and social work An insight into theory, methodology and practice. ERIS web journal, pp. 15-25.
Center, C. R., 1987. Consumer Confidence Survey. New York: the Conference Board.
Cottrell, R. & McKenzie, J. F., 2010. Health Promotion & Education Research Methods: Using the Five Chapter Thesis/ Dissertation Model. London: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
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Daft, R., 2012. The Leadership Experience. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.
Hatry & P., H., 2006. Performance Measurement: Getting Results. Washington, DC: The Urban Insitute.
Health, D. o., 2012. Caring for our future. London: The Stationery Office.
Hogg, M. A. & Tindale, S., 2008. Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Johnson, V. B., 2006. LAXTON’S BUILDING PRICE, Book 2007. 1st edition ed. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Katharine Briar-Lawson, J. L. Z., 2003. Charting the Impacts of University. New York: Haworth Social Work Practice Press.
Kelly, K., 2009. Early Civilizations. New York: Infobase Publishing .
Kolb, R., 2010. Lessons from the Financial Crisis. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Marlow, C., 2010. Research Methods for Generalist Social Work. New York: Cengage Learning.
Rubin, A. & Babbie, E., 2010. Research Methods for Social Work. London: Cengage Learning.
Tilak, J. B. G., 2003. Education, Society, and Development. Boston : APH Publishing .
West, R. & Turner, L., 2010 . Understanding Interpersonal Communication: Making Choices in Changing Times, Enhanced Edition. London: Cengage Learning.

Lifespan developmental psychology

November 27, 2014

Course Outline

  • Abstract
  • Objectives of the Research
  • Methodologies
  • Literature Review
  • Results
  • Conclusion/ Recommendations
  • References

 

Development through Lifespan

Human life developed through different stages. The stages could be split into three. There was the childhood stage, the adolescence stage and adulthood. Each stage had its psychological perspectives in relation to cognitive ability and development, physical development and peer pressure/ external influences and group dynamics (Berk, 2014)

Adolescence Stage

The adolescence stage is a complicated stage in human lifespan. It is a transition period that exists between childhood and adulthood. (Adolescent Nutrition, n.d)) The young child becomes aware of himself and his environment and the different changes taking place physically in the child`s body. The child is faced with the different expectations and responsibilities as expected from him by the society in respect to gender. The revelation can be disturbing and the child needs to be guided into understanding and accommodating the translation. (Selikow, 2009) Peer pressure and group dynamics sets in and can impact behavioral changes that the teenager can carry into his adulthood. The behavioral and the cognitive theorem in the adolescence stage will be dealt with in this paper. (McLeod, 2009)The aspects of the theorem will be in respect to cultural, environment, work and social aspects (Heckhausen , 2010)

Abstract

I desire to present a psychology paper on life stages. The paper will specifically focus on the major life threats and problems that the individuals at the stage faces. There are three life stages; childhood, adolescence and finally adulthood. The paper will focus on the three stages of human life. In addition, this paper will intensely focus on the adolescence stage. This stage has the individuals trying to shed out childhood and get into the next life of adulthood. Therefore, this is an imperative stage in the growth of a person as it forms the behaviors of the individual. The cognitive and behavioral theorem will be focused on in relation to social, cultural, environmental and work ethics.

Objectives of the Research

The research was dedicated to finding the recent theoretical perspectives on human development contained within the class textbook, noting the contributions of the chosen theorist. Students were to identify the perspective of the contemporary theory and describe current research and application to the field of lifespan development (Mini policy analysis, n.d.)

Methodologies

The research aimed at studying the contributions of Le Berk, 2014 in his book “Development through Lifespan” and identifying the perspective of the contemporary theory in the current research and application in this field. Different sources were to be used through Google search. Scholarly articles, journals, reviews and books touching on the issues were searched and their information integrated and presented in a comprehensible manner. The sources were not to have been published more than seven years from the date of this experiment. The data and information thus gathered was used to further the understanding of the contemporary theory of development through lifespan. Recommendations and conclusions were made on the basis of the findings of the research.

Literature Review

Development Through Lifespan

Human life developed through different stages. The stages could be split into three. There was the childhood stage, the adolescence stage and adulthood. Each stage had its psychological perspectives in relation to cognitive ability and development, physical development and peer pressure/ external influences and group dynamics (Berk, 2014)

Childhood Stage

Life development starts from the child life stage. Child development is a fundamental and critical stage of human development. This stage dictates how human life will be for the rest of his existence. A child is often born when they are ignorant and oblivious of the happenings in their environment. Like wine they gradually mature with age, begins to adventure and learn more about their environment. The development process can be best described as reliant on reward-punishment principle. In this scenario, when a child does something, and he is punished by the parent he gets to know and acknowledge that his actions were uncalled for, and therefore the child seizes to perform that act again. On the other side if a child constantly performs a given act which goes unpunished, or when he is not stopped, the child continues to repeat that act as long he is not prevented. People’s characters and dispositions are always a reflection of their childhood encounters. Individuals tend to remember and put to practice what they learned in early stages of their life than what they learn in adulthood. It is clearly difficult to find a human being changing their childhood behavior in adulthood (Nauert, 2010)

Factors Affecting Childhood Life

It is wise to note that children are more vulnerable to noise pollution because their ear canals are always more narrow as compared to those of adults. This always increases the pressure of sound that penetrates in the children’s ears. The high pressure can have adverse effects to the children’s ears. For instance, the high pressure can cause bursting of the ear drum. Children are also fond of playing with toys close to their ears. This also will increase the intensity of the noise pollution caused to their ears.

It has also been found that the loud sounds can cause more harm to the children apart from harming their ears. It has been proved that the great noise pollution caused to children ears can have a great impact on the impairing children language and speech development. It is, therefore, true to note that the damage caused to the children’s ears can retard speech development of children at their earlier stages of development. In this case, the children are not able to interpret and comprehend what their colleagues are saying. This adversely affects their development and learning since speech is always seen as one of the most important aspects of child development.

Therefore, it is wise always to protect the children from the effects of noise pollution caused by their toys. Parents should be in the front line in the fight against noise pollution caused by toys. This is because they are always responsible for the purchase of the toys as gifts to their children. It is wise that the parents should always take the initiative of testing the toys before purchasing them from the warehouse. If a parent realizes that a toy produces more noise, it is vivid the noise can be more harmful to the children. As noted earlier, the children’s ears always have very narrow canal that increase the pressure of the sound that penetrate in them. This makes the sound to be even louder. The parents should always use sound level meter to test the intensities of the sounds emitted by toys. Testing the toys using their ears can also result into adverse effects to the parents.

There is also need for the parents to limit the duration that the children take with their toys. This is because prolonged exposure of children to the noise caused by toys can have even more effects to the children. Parents should, therefore, reduce the duration of the children’s time play.

Adult Life

In this stage, the person is fully grown and can decide on his own. In this stage, everybody lives their lives according to the laws of the land and follows their conscience. Human social life has always been seen to be very divergent. Different people from different regions and background always tend to live unique lifestyles. It is an important aspect of life that tends to investigate the social life of people in a society. It is coherent to note that social aspect of life is paramount for holistic development of a human being. Critical thinking has always tried to study different aspects of society life like religion, culture, law among others. The social life can be said to be changing faster. For instance, it can be noted that past events like industrial revolution had contributed largely towards changing the social life of people. It is true to note that scientific reasoning of many people has changed drastically due to the introduction of education. The fact that people can now interact easily through different technology like social media is a reason for the change in social life of many people. It is, therefore, significant to highlight that critical thinking was developed to determine the extent to which the society is changing in terms of social life of the people. Critical thinking has been found to have very close links with other fields. For instance, critical thinking has very close ties with philosophy and psychology. This is because some of the aspects of philosophy and psychology can also be found to exist in critical thinking.

Critical thinking has very rich historical advancement. This discipline emerged in 19th century as a ways of addressing increase in the rate of modernity. Philosophers and scholars like Auguste Comte and Max Weber are some of the founders of this discipline. According to Auguste Comte, society developed in three stages. The first stage was the theological stage that involved looking into the society in a religious perspective. In this case, development of religion was seen to play a fundamental role for the development of a society. The second stage according to Comte was the metaphysical stage that enabled people to understand the society as natural. This changed the firmer understanding of society by many people in a supernatural perspective. The third stage was scientific stage that was also known as positivist stage. This stage was seen as the foundation of critical thinking.

Cultural critical thinking is an important field of psychology in the life of an adult. It has been ventured into by many sociologists. In this way, sociologists tend to study different cultures and how such cultures have been affected by aspects of modernity. A good example of cultural critical thinking is the study of Norton Village by Anderson (1990). In his study, Anderson was interested in studying two neighborhoods that were socio-economically different. Anderson was majorly interested in determining how the two neighborhoods interacted in terms of culture and way of life. Interpersonal relationships between the two neighborhoods were also another factor that Anderson looked into very categorically and coherently (Smith, 2008).

Adolescence Stage

From the childhood stage, the next stage is the adolescence stage. The adolescence stage is a complicated stage in human lifespan. It is the transformation from childhood to adulthood. The young child becomes aware of himself and his environment and the different changes taking place physically in the child`s body. The child is faced with the different expectations and responsibilities as expected from him by the society in respect to gender. The revelation can be disturbing and the child needs to be guided into understanding and accommodating the translation. Peer pressure and group dynamics sets in and can impact behavioral changes that the teenager can carry into his adulthood.

Behavioral/ Group Dynamics Theorem in Adolescents

Behavior change is imminent to all individuals and more specifically those who grow together. All the adolescents when faced with these physical changes accompanied by the different roles expected from them by the community; they tend to wish them away. However all cannot be avoided. In this phase of development, it is noted that all the young adults lead a life of defiance rather than that of acceptance. In addition, different individuals do different things to show the behavior changes. This led to the inclusion of the Piaget’s theory in life of formal operations and behaviors, about the changes occurring in life of a human being and this made it the chief organizing framework in the formation of the adolescence researches that were done in the years between 1970s and early 1980s, however, this was later abandoned due to the modernized type of researches that have evolved all through this time. Different studies had been carried out to relate the behavioral changes with the adolescent’s environment, cultural settings, level of education and to some extent with religion. It was found that, the environment within which the adolescents thrived played a crucial role in the behavioral changes. Those adolescents that had been living together as children in estates entered into adulthood together. The different social-economic settings of their neighborhood contributed largely to the behaviors they picked. In the slums and sub-estates where drugs, substance abuse, prostitution and crime were on the rise, the adolescents tended to pick these attributes. It was reported that, the behavior these adolescents took to was wholly contributed by the society (Tiwari, 2012)

The children had their role models and people they admired in the society. It could be the greatest criminal in the neighborhood, a drunkard or a self proclaimed prostitute. Education and religion formed a great pillar into shaping these young adults. Education and religion served to guide the young adults and provided role models in form of teachers and religious administrators. The peer pressure was also directed towards a worthy cause when the adolescents were involved in constructive school and religious activities as a team. The young adults were able to direct their energies into a good cause through the help of the teachers and religious leaders.

Cognitive Theorem in Adolescents

Cognitive ability can be described as the ability of a person to understand and comprehend. The ability varied from person to person depending on the subject matter that was under cognitive test. As the young child entered into adolescent, the child`s cognitive ability was developed largely due to the rapid body and brain growth. For the first time, the young adult was able to see things in a different angle from the one he had been viewing since childhood. The reality that there are some expectations the society has on him/ moral obligations stares him on the face. There were also behavioral standards based on different sexes in many cultures and societies (Mcleod, 2006)

The realization that one was physically a girl, and the dawning onto the expectations that the society expected from a girl child was scaring sometimes. Some adolescents’ cognitive ability developed faster than others. Studies had been conducted to determine the role that education, society, culture and religion played on the adolescents` cognitive ability. Level of education seemed to play a greater role in the development of the adolescents` cognitive ability. Cultural factors and social practices were not significantly involved in this. The aspect of hereditary was seen also to play a part in this. The cognitive ability had been associated with the negative behavior changes in adolescents. The main reason behind this was the adolescents did not have a clear focus of the future or a defined ambition. They only thought for the day which made them prone to many errors and misjudgments. The uniformed actions put them on logger heads with the society as a whole. However, currently, the cognitive approach had been replaced with better imperative research methods like the computational models which encompass a wider scope of aspects of normal lives comparatively and empirically.

Results

The research outcomes revealed that the current perspectives of human development theorem focused more on the aspects of behavioral and cognitive ability in adolescents. The behavioral theorem was seen to encompass a wider and more defined aspect of human life as compared to the emotional and cognitive theorem. The behavioral theorem drew from these two deductively. The cognitive ability played a crucial part in determining ones emotions which exhibited themselves outwards as the observed behavior. Education played a greater role in determining the cognitive and the behavioral changes in adolescents. Cultural aspects, social settings and religion played a greater part in behavioral changes than in cognitive changes in the development of an adolescent. Among the different research models, it was seen that the computational model was the best as compared to a cognitive model in testing the lifespan development perspective theories.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The current models and perspective of human lifespan development theories were studied. Special consideration was given to the adolescent stage. It was seen that the comparative model was the best to test the theories. The research found that the level of education and religion were critical in the behavioral change in adolescents. Cultural aspects, social settings and peer pressure served to aggravate the aspect of behavioral changes.

References

Adolescent Nutrition | Zee News. (n.d.). Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from:http://zeenews.india.com/ayurveda/adolescent-nutrition_105.html

A+ GRADE & CUSTOM ESSAYS- Mini policy analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://get-grade-a.researchpapermasters.com/page/117/

Berk, L( 2013) Development Through the Lifespan, 6/E. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Development-Through-the-Lifespan-6E/9780205957606.page

  1. Heckhausen, (2010) A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Mcleod S (2009) Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory | Simply Psychology. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.simplypsychology.org

Nauert R (2010) Adulthood Behaviour Follows Childhood Personality. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/08/05/adult-behavior-follows-childhood-personality/16447.html

Sage Publications, (2004) Life-Span Developmental Theory: Life-Span Developmental Theory Concerns the Study of Individual Development, or Ontogenes. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.sagepub.co/upm

Selikow TA. (2009) I am not “Umqwayito”: a Qualitative Study of Peer Pressure …Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Smith P (2008) Exploring Reality: Cultural Studies and Critical Thinking …Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: https://www.aacu.org/

Tiwari S (2012) Group Dynamics: Theory and Practice – SlideShare. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.slideshare.net/arisudantiwari/group-dynamics-theory-and-practice

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Legalize Marijuana

November 27, 2014

Introduction

Marijuana or Cannabis sativa is a strong medicinal plant which has been banned in many regions globally because of its psychotropic properties (Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The drug is increasingly abused in the United States of America, where very many people have advocated its legalization due to its benefits. However, it is the same properties, which permit marijuana to be used to treat numerous diseases and for pain relief, leading to some countries to legalize the plant for medicinal uses. It is noted that the ingredients in marijuana have certain medical benefits that can be used to treat and reinstate various health conditions. Moreover, the potential beneficial health effects outweigh the psychotropic properties of cannabis and Hemp oil (THC free) is one of the most nutritionally rich existing oils. Nevertheless, it is factual that the careless use of cannabis is not with no danger, as well as certain undesired impacts can be destructive to health (Caulkins, Angela, Beau and Mark p.10-12).

Cannabis Legalization

Creational Using Vs. Marijuana Using

Studies have divulged that most American residents support the corroboration of Cannabis sativa. However, surveys carried out on bhang have disclosed that even the youth support for the lawful use of the drug. On the other hand, medical researchers have theorized as well as confirmed the health advantages of the drug conditioning that it is curative to a range of health conditions. Alternatively, United States’ Pew Research Centre admitted that about fifty-two percent of Americans back the validation of Cannabis sativa (McGeorge School of Law p. 17).

However, with time, the pharmaceutical world came about with more successful artificial drugs, for instance, aspirin as well as barbiturates. These drugs initiated substituting the herbal medicine usage. People started leaving the usage of medical Cannabis sativa (McGeorge School of Law p. 24).

Meanwhile, smoking of bhang for recreational purposes turn out to be popular practice in the U.S. It is extremely embraced by a number of musicians, for instance jazz musicians as well as other artists who smoked the drug for enjoyment. The enhanced cannabis abuse reports numerous pessimistic consequences. It pilots to raised habit, rampant crime, enhanced mental illnesses and even deaths. Accordingly, the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed by the U.S. Congress that imposed harsh constraints on the drug prescriptions and sales. Nevertheless, this move led to various pharmaceutical companies excluding marijuana-based drugs from their productions. In the year 1942, Marijuana was removed from the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) on the basis that it was an addictive drug that had several harmful effects (McGeorge School of Law p. 80-92).

Comparative Analysis among Marijuana, Alcohol, and Cigarette

Alcohol, tobacco, as well as cannabis, are among the commonly used psychoactive substances developed world. However, there appears not having comparison of the associations of these types of drugs with various mental health problems in the general population (Longhi, Dario, and Laura Porter p.19)

Alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis are associated with psychosis. Marijuana dependence appears to be most strongly associated with psychotic symptoms as compared to alcohol and tobacco. However, cannabis dependency as well as tobacco is correlated with psychosis in which the associated strength of marijuana is same as that of tobacco.   Nevertheless, between cannabis and tobacco use the risk of exacerbation of, or recurrence of mental health problems (Longhi, Dario, and Laura Porter p.28).

Unlike alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use is associated with increase rates of anxiety as well as affective disorders. On the other hand, in contrast to alcohol dependence, marijuana and tobacco use remain markers for the increased likelihood of anxiety effective disorders (Longhi, Dario, and Laura Porter p.45)

Summary

The legalization of marijuana for medical uses depends on whether the medical benefits of the substance outweigh its negative consequences. According to scientific literature, marijuana is said to be an addictive drug and that its usage leads to the impairment of bodily and mental functions. Most researchers associate marijuana with immune system deficiencies, heart diseases, memory loss, cancer, birth defects and among other forms of ill-health. It has also been established that the usage of marijuana leads to increased crime, violence and general social disintegration of the society. It is these negative consequences which frustrate the recognition of the medicinal value of marijuana (McGeorge School of Law p. 31).

Despite the negative consequences of the drug, marijuana can be used for several medical purposes. It is one of the safest substances that are normally recommended by therapists and other medical experts. Research has shown that marijuana is used in the treatment of several clinical applications. These include usage in pain relief, spasticity, nausea, glaucoma, disorders related to movement and in the treatment of malaria, dysentery and other fevers. Medical experts have also found out that marijuana is a powerful appetite stimulant. It can, therefore, be used in stimulating appetite among patients of HIV/AIDS and dementia. Other researchers have found out that marijuana can be used in protecting the body against malignant tumors and that the substance is neuroprotective. From these findings, it is certain that the medical benefits of marijuana outweigh its negative consequences. Therefore, it is important for the medical uses of marijuana to be legalized (McGeorge School of Law p.112-118).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work cited

Caulkins, Jonathan, Angela Hawken, Beau Kilmer, and Mark Kleiman. Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know? 2012. Print.

Longhi, Dario, and Laura Porter. How Do High Risk Counties Protect All Youth? Fact Sheet: Greater Community Capacity Decrease in Rates of Alcohol, Cigarette and Marijuana Use for the Youth Population as a Whole. Olympia, WA: Washington State Family Policy Council, 2010. Internet resource.

McGeorge School of Law. “The Road to Legitimizing Marijuana: What Benefit and What Price? : Symposium.” Mcgeorge Law Review. 43.1 (2012): 1-167. Print.

ABSN Personal Statement

November 26, 2014
  1. In many ways, nursing has been a part of my daily living. Having exposed for almost 15 years in a very warm setting of caring, my petty interest in nursing profession has sparked incredibly. It all started out when I took the responsibility of taking care of my elderly father and mother. I basically do all the nursing for them like assisting them, taking care of them, accompanying them to various physician appointments, monitoring their daily activities, frequently checking the time of medication, giving them their monthly intramuscular B12 shots and assuring their health maintenance. Putting me in the shoes of nurses, it made me witnessed the remarkable impact to one’s life. This first involvement in the nursing world has given me realization that my deep-rooted aspiration is all about taking care of people in all ways that I can. With these thoughts in my mind, I am optimistic that practicing nursing could make real, positive and favorable changes to the lives of every individual.

In the year 1997, certified by American Board of Opticianry, I obtained A. S. in Vision Care Technology and Opticianry together with FL and VA licenses. This degree allows me to have my optical works. However, it only encompasses sales of eye wears. I wanted to be a nurse because my keen interest and real passion is to be an ophthalmic nurse. Having a R. N. degree lets me to deal with the optical works and at the same time provide direct care to people. With your program. Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing, I will be able to reach my future plans in life – to be able to participate in a flying eye hospital organization as a pioneer for global eye health with the aim of achievement of optimal and quality eye health for all.

In 1991, I received my Bachelor of Science in Biology degree from the outstanding school of University of Maryland because of my fascination with Science, most especially the molecular and cellular biology. It greatly cemented my background when it comes to wider and deeper clinical experiences that I know it takes a good spot for the nursing industry.

I am fully aware that Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing is a challenging and demanding career. However, my decision of trailing this profession is well-fortified by my motivation, dedication and confidence. With enthusiasm, academic and professional working experience preparedness, solid background and key proficiencies that I have developed in my other educational attainments, I am more than ready to open numerous opportunities to the both of our excellence.

  1. In my own perspectives, a person who wanted to become a nurse must possess powerful leadership skills. Critical thinking is one of the unique skills of an effective leader. I may not have a direct clinical exposure with the field but one challenge that I have used my critical thinking skill is when I encountered a conflict with my first patient who is my father. The conflict escalated because I used to be strict to his maintenance and I am not permitting him to take anything like cigarettes, fats, alcohols, even if it is a little, which I know will cause a bad effect towards his body. He said that he felt being constrained. What we did to end the conflict is that we acknowledge the feelings of each other and we seek understandings in each need. Then we create a plan and respect each other’s values but we prioritized the goodness of the outcomes. I feel that it was an effective use of critical thinking because we managed to avoid any unexpected results. We protected each other for the risk of unacceptable behavior and conflict has never happened again so far.
    1. Based on my own perspectives, I am aware that nurses should treat every patient with dignity, worth and humanity because it is the easiest way to understand and attend to the patients individual needs, to demonstrate a loving, compassionate and sensitive care and to provide holistic care that will guarantee people equality and fairness. Aside from it is the basic rights of all patients, I also kept in mind that the issue of preserving, supporting and considering the dignity and worth is the most fundamental and most humane aspect of care. The responsibility of the nurses is to protect and promote consideration to the values and needs of all patients in any kind of professional relationships. Yes, I know that dealing with diverseness is one of the key core value of the school program and the chances patients having dissimilar culture, ethnicity and attitudes are quite high. One personal scenario that I have experienced was when I was deployed to be a eye professional after obtaining the A. S. in Vision Care Technology and Opticianry. Being an eyewear specialist, dealing with the people who is interested in optical works everyday is a commonplace. One time, there was a woman who went for a checkup and the result showed that she needed an eye wear to correct her eyes. However, in her family, nobody used pair of glasses and it is not so good for her to wear eye glasses. I knew it was a complicated case and I put in a diverse patients values encounters. What I did was I just respect and acknowledge her culture and values. Diversity is a big challenge and what I really wanted is to provide culturally sensitive car. However, I am not really in the position to do that. ABSN program is a great start for me to practice culturally sensitive ophthalmic nursing care for patients to ensure a compliant and positive outcome.
    2. An admission to your Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing programs is an essential ticket to my future career succession. Allowing me to have my next pace will unfold numerous opportunities and excellence for the both of us. After years of trainings, your program will mold me competently, professionally, morally, confidently and responsibly in facing clinical exposures and field work. I am seeing numerous of contributions that I can bring to the Duke Accelerated Bachelor of Science in nursing program. For the career program, what I can offer is the assurance of collaboration with my new ideas, concepts and research to maintain and, if possible, improve the offered programs goals and processes. Discussion of characteristics that could enhance the programs is, I believe, will be my best contribution. In addition, I will also keep the excellent reputation of the program by certainly reflecting the focus of the program in leadership, evidence-based practice and standardized patients by being a role model for the program. For the Duke School of Nursing, I am promising to complete the course to fulfill their goals of producing graduates that are eligible for registered nurse licensure and creating a top performing nurses that will eventually play continuous, engaging, leading and unique roles in the nursing profession. I will also display constant support towards the school goals by ceaselessly standing as a witness for the productive output of the school. For the nursing profession, aside from the plans I primed for myself – to work as a ophthalmic nurse for global eye health – I will be a professional nurse that will apply critical thinking, expertise in nursing with diverse clinical backgrounds, leadership and competence to the practice with the help of the research utilization, Accelerated Bachelor of Science in nursing program with the combination of Duke School of Nursing support, Duke University Health System and the community.

Analysis of scenarios using the IRAC Method

November 25, 2014

Analysis of scenarios using the IRAC Method

Name of Student
Institutional Affiliation

Analysis of scenarios using the IRAC Method
Case #1
Whether James acted within the scope of his employment after injuring Clamor is a question of whether the contract of his assignment on the USS Los Angeles covered for the damages caused by their employees in the course of their operations, and if they did, then the terms and conditions under which the cover is valid come into play. The US navy has insurance covers for its employees’ safety and third party damages caused by its active employees.
The cover in most cases is limited to the employees and the organization’s property such as vehicles as well as the damages caused to others. In the case of James Karagiorgis, he is a civilian employee of the US Navy and, therefore, the cover binds him in case of any accidents. But in Hawaii, he is on a temporary assignment where there are no government houses and cars so he decides to make some personal arrangements. Suppose the contract covered for all the damage, then they would definitely not be involved with the third party accident because Karagiorgis was not using the agency’s vehicle and he was also living in a private residence so technically, the assignment was not that official. In addition to that, every state has its rules and since they were in Hawaii, where the rule of law is unbiased (Fairman, 1946), the plaintiff was found not the one at fault, then Karagiorgis was definitely the one with the fault due to his negligence.
Therefore, since Karagiorgis was not using the agency’s car and residence during his operations, the agency can incriminate him as being on a personal assignment and not the agency’s and therefore he was not acting within the scope of his employment when he knocked a car on traffic and in the process injuring Clamor, its driver.

Case #2
The question here is whether race was a factor in the Port Authority’s denial of Vernon’s promotion. Job promotion in most cases depends on a person’s ability to produce results or the person’s competence. Vernon is an American citizen with a master’s degree in his profession. It is also said that he has been promoted to higher ranks in the past until the time when Rosenberg was promoted to a senior engineer. The criteria in which employees of The Port Authority are promoted is unknown because the memorandum written by Krishner stipulated that Rosenberg and Vernon were both operating at senior levels in their respective departments. The promotion of Rosenberg might be attributed to the fact that the organization wanted to balance the gender equality in its promotions because Rosenberg was a woman. Otherwise, racial discrimination can be considered as a basis for awarding promotions in this organization (Schwelb, 1996).
Moreover, the second promotion where a temporary employee who has been working for the Authority for only a year is promoted when Vernon, a loyal employee who has dedicated his time to the authority is ignored makes the authority look more inclined to racial discrimination. The two employees promoted instead of Vernon are all white and with the same or little education to Vernon’s which begs the question of which criteria this Authority was using to promote its employees because certainly it’s not based on loyalty, level of education, experience or competence.
Therefore, it is true that The Ports Authority’s denial of Vernon’s promotion is primarily based on racial factors. That because he is black, he is regarded as incapable of holding an important leadership position in the authority even when his skills and competence allows him to (Acker, 2006).

References
Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender & Society, 20(4), 441-464.
Fairman, C. (1946). The Supreme Court on Military Jurisdiction: Martial Rule in Hawaii and the Yamashita Case. Harvard Law Review, 833-882.
Schwelb, E. (1966). The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 15(04), 996-1068.

Personnel Law and Ethics

November 25, 2014

Personnel Law and Ethics
Name:
Professor:
Institution:

Personnel Law and Ethics
The essence of labeling each case scenario will help the reader to comprehend the scenario and the applied rules. IRAC is, therefore, a crucial tool for analysis of the various hypothetical issues.
Case #8
Issue
The hypothetical issue seeks to find out whether hiring an attractive sales manager and firing the ‘unattractive sales lady’ constitute sex discrimination.
Rule
In this case, for sex discrimination to occur the employee must have breached the employment policies. This indirect discrimination whereby an individual is not favored particular because one does not possess certain physical traits. This constitutes indirect harassment. Sex discrimination, therefore points at the sex discrimination in work situation (Martin, 2006). Sex discrimination occurs when an individual is subjected to the unwanted condition for one to secure a job, and the reasons are not justified by law. The aspect of sex discrimination comes out in situations like, hiring, firing, training, pay and other conditions of employment.
Analysis
According to the case, the pressure exerted to Elysa Yanowitz by her superior, Jack Wiswall amounts to sexual discrimination taking note that Elysa is a woman and the reason pointed by her superior are not justified. According to the law, any form of discrimination concerning work and employment is punishable. The criterion in which Jack Wiswall basis are on the looks as he points out that ‘look for someone hot’ this is generally sex discrimination and amounts to sexual harassment. Additionally, the sales associate is said to have a dark skin; Jack wants fair-skinned blondes. This can raise the issue of racism as well. The Equality Act 2010 resonates that it is unlawful for the employer to discriminate based on one’s gender.
Conclusion
In this case, it is apparent that the employer, Jack Wiswall actions constitute sex discrimination since the pressure he exerted to Elysa to fire the sales associate in Macy West store were remarks that indicate harassment and sexual biasness. The employer therefore, is subject to prosecution and should face consequences of breaking the law. The regional sales manager have every right to decline the instruction made by her general manager has his wishes need solid justification.
Case # 9
Issue
The case issue seeks to find out whether a victim of same-sex sexual harassment has a viable claim under Title VII of the Civil rights Act.
Rule
The law applicable to the scenario is the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, which prohibits employment discrimination based on sex, color, religion, and national origin. Additionally, the jurisdictions based on sex discrimination points at sexual harassment that cover same-sex harassment as well. For sexual harassment to occur, one must have been subjected to an uncomfortable situation or sexual remarks sufficient to interfere with the working condition.
Analysis
The facts presented in the case amounts to sexual harassment particularly same-sex sexual harassment. Oncale who works as the crane operator experienced sexual harassment by his fellow crew, particular those having supervisory authority over him. According to the Title VII Act of the Civil Rights Act, it can be noted that Oncale rights to have appropriate working environment were violated. Additionally, he faces same-sex sexual harassment occasioned by two of his supervisors (Lyons and Pippen), and Johnson. Sexual harassment involved physical assault in a sexual manner, and even Lyons threatened him with rape (United States, 2002). It is also an offence to threaten any citizen. The law prohibits any form of sexual harassment and intimidation.
Conclusion
In this case, the employee, Oncale was subjected to illegal same-sex sexual harassment and Brandon Johnson, John Lyons, and Danny Pippen are liable. Oncle is entitled to sue the individuals who harassed him at work guided by the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Therefore, I can conclude that a victim of same-sex sexual harassment has a viable claim under Title VII of the civil Rights Act based on the hypothetical case facts and claims.
Case # 10
Issue
The case seeks to find out if FMLA covers ‘the seeking custody of one’s own children’.
Rule
Family and medical leave Act, FMLA was purposed to create a balance between the demands of the workplace and the needs of families. The act primarily allows eligible employees to take time off from work about 12 work weeks unpaid to attend to serious family issues, for example, heath condition of a family member, or care of a newborn or pregnancy, or for foster care of a child or for adoption (Schwartz & Torkelson, 2001). The specific facts from the case are applicable in FMLA since the clause includes, attending the fostering of a child or adoption which points the issues of Kelly to claim custody of the child, Shaneequa Forbes. Additionally, Kelly believes that he is the girl’s biological father. Brooklyn Bureau of Child Welfare should, therefore, not proceed in taking the custody of the girl.
Conclusion
Crosfield is not justified in terminating the employment of Dwayne Kelly since he had told his supervisor that he was the father girl. Further, considering the terms of his employment, Kelly is still eligible to benefit from the protection by FMLA. Similarly, Kelly had taken a leave as FMLA guides him. Crosfield violated the law by dismissing Kelly. Kelly should take legal action against the Crosfield to be reinstated to his job. Further, it should be noted that the FMLA have extended the definition of a family. The 2008 amendments saw that any employee who assumes the role of caring or parenting receives parental rights regardless of the biological relationship is covered by FMLA.

References
Martin, D. (2006). Discrimination law and employment issues: Avoiding the pitfalls in: age, disability, gender, race, religion, sex and sexual orientation. London: Thorogood.
Schwartz, R. M., & Torkelson, N. (2001). The FMLA handbook: A union guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act. Boston, MA: Work Rights Press.
United States. (2002). Sex discrimination: Employment discrimination prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended, and the Equal Pay Act of 1963. Washington, D.C.?: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Technical Assistance Program.

Applied Algorithms and Structures

November 25, 2014

Applied Algorithms and Structures
Question one
True or false with explanations,

a. The class NP contains some problems that can be solved in polynomial time.
This is true because it has been observed that NP is the class of decision problems with the property that their “yes” instances can be proofed in polynomial time.
b. All of the problems in NP can be solved in worst-case exponential time.
False because it can only solve nearly all but not all of them to solve
c. There are problems that can be reduced to the Hamiltonian circuit problem and for which we have polynomial-time algorithms.
False because there is polynomial-time algorithm has been discovered for an NP-Complete problem.

d. There are problems that the Hamiltonian circuit problem can be reduced to and for which we have polynomial-time algorithms.
True because there are polynomial-time algorithm discovered for an NP-Complete problem

Question two
An asymptotic bound for each of the following (including explanation):
a. T(n) = 3T(n/3) + lg(n)

T (n) = 3T (n/3) + logn.
Let g (n) = T (n)/n.
Then n*g (n) = 3*(n/3)*g (n/3) + logn.
Thus
g (n) = g(n/3) + log n.
This gives g (n) = Sum log n + log n/3 + log n/9 +…
= Θ (Sum 1/logn + 1/ (logn -1) + 1/(log n – 2) + …)
= Θ (Integral 1/x between 1 and logn) = Θ (log log n).
Thus T (n) = n*g (n) = Θ (n*log logn.)

b. T(n) = 3T(n/6) + n
From,
T(n) = n + 3T(6/2)
= n +3(n/6) + 4(n/4) + … + 2i−1) + 2k
[taking i = k & use base case]
= n(1 + k)
= n(1 + log n)

c. T(n) = 9T(n/4) + n
The answer is O(n2) applying case 3 of master theorem.

d. T(n) = 4T(n/2) + n2
We make the use of master theorem algorithms, in the following form; T (n) = aT(n/b) + f(n).
For this assignment, a = 4, b = 2, and f (n) = n2. We make comparison of f (n) with nlogba = nlog24
Thus f (n) = n2 = Θ (n2),
Thus making T (n) = Θ (nlogba log n) = Θ (n2log n).

Question three
a. Writing down a recurrence that counts the number of times the comparison in line 1 is performed on an array of length n.

For single element: T(1) = 1
For N elements: T(N) = 2T(N/2) + N
Two MergeSort calls with N/2 elements, and the Merge takes O(N).

This is a recurrence equation. Solution of this gives T(N) as a function of N, which gives us a big-Oh function.

Consider N=2k.
T(2k) = 2T(2(k-1)) + 2k …. (1)
T(2(k-1)) = 2T(2(k-2)) + 2(k-1) …. (2)
T(2(k-2)) = 2T(2(k-3) ) + 2(k-2) …. (3) ….
T(2) = 2T(20) + 21 …. (k)

b. Writing down the asymptotic version of the running time.
Running time is a function of n
f(n) Î Q(n) such that
2n2 + 3n + 1 = 2n2 + f(n)

Question four
Given the following recurrence relation, where n and k are greater than 0

/0 if n c : =
—————————————
a->b |
|——————————–
< | < | > >
= | =

Question five
A dynamic programming algorithm for solving the Activity Selection problem from chapter 16 fills an n by n table c so that c[1,n] contains the maximal number of schedulable activities. Only the entries for which i <= j are filled. Assuming the table is oriented with row 1 at the top, to compute a value for entry c [i,j], the algorithm must access the i-1 entries to the left of and the j-1 entries below c[i,j].
a. The number of times entry c [i,j] is accessed in terms of i, j, and n.

int i, j, k;

for (i = 0; i < N; ++i)
{
for (j = 0; j < N; ++j)
{
C[i][j] = 0;

for (k = 0; k < N; ++k)
C[i][j] += A[i][k] * B[k][j];}}

b. The Theta-notation for the total number of accesses over all entries

for (ii = 0; ii < N; ii += ib)
{for (kk = 0; kk < N; kk += kb)
for (j=0; j < N; j += 2)
for (i = ii; i < ii + ib; i += 2 )

Film Review

November 24, 2014

Use of Technology and Special Effects in Films – The Case of Lucy

Name

Institution

Use of Technology and Special Effects in Films – The Case of Lucy

Written and directed by Luc Besson, Lucy is a science fiction action film produced by the Europacorp. It was released on July 2014 receiving critical acclaim the world over. It rotates around the life of a character, Lucy, an American 25 year old lady studying in Taiwan who is convinced forcefully to act as a drug mule by her boyfriend who works for Mr. Jang, a Korean drug lord. She delivers a suitcase containing four packets of an extremely prised synthetic drug, CPH4. Upon delivery, she is operated without her knowledge or consent and a packet of the CPH4 put in her abdomen like in other three drug mules, and are all expected to transport to different areas across the world. Lucy is unfortunately kicked at and the packet starts to lick giving her psychokinetic abilities and brain capacity expansion from the normal 10%, gradually to twenty, thirty, and forty, all stages with different explorations of the mind, until she reaches 100 percent of the cerebral capacity and then diminishes into the space time continuum (Besson, 2014).

Special and visual effects involve the creation, alteration, and the enhancement of imagery in the post-production period of a film. This works in connection with special effects that are incorporated within the film in the process of capturing the scene. Through rear and front-screen projection, computer graphic objects, and characters, miniature perspectives, rigs, and matte painting films use different, special and visual effects to improve graphical practicality, and make sure the film is understandable (Zwerman & Okun, 2012). Lucy utilizes different, special and visual effects through an extensive application of technology. Effects like Lucy’s ability to take any form, disintegration and reformation of her body, manipulation of human behaviour through her mind, sprouting of black tendrils that form a super-computer, and others such as matte paintings, visual representation of blood vessels and the processes of transpiration and transportation in plants, and the visual representation of radio waves from cell phones among others, shows the extensive application of special and visual effects in the film (Besson, 2014).

The use of technology and special effects in modern films have enhanced the effectiveness of using films for passing information to the society. I believe the application of these developments makes films more interesting and fun to watch, they enhance practicality of graphics, include emotions, and make it easier to follow the storyline to the end by making films more understandable.

References

Besson, L. (Director). (2014). Lucy [Motion Picture].

Zwerman, S., & Okun, J. A. (2012). Visual Effects Society Handbook: Workflow and Techniques. London: Taylor & Francis.