Lifespan developmental psychology

Course Outline

  • Abstract
  • Objectives of the Research
  • Methodologies
  • Literature Review
  • Results
  • Conclusion/ Recommendations
  • References

 

Development through Lifespan

Human life developed through different stages. The stages could be split into three. There was the childhood stage, the adolescence stage and adulthood. Each stage had its psychological perspectives in relation to cognitive ability and development, physical development and peer pressure/ external influences and group dynamics (Berk, 2014)

Adolescence Stage

The adolescence stage is a complicated stage in human lifespan. It is a transition period that exists between childhood and adulthood. (Adolescent Nutrition, n.d)) The young child becomes aware of himself and his environment and the different changes taking place physically in the child`s body. The child is faced with the different expectations and responsibilities as expected from him by the society in respect to gender. The revelation can be disturbing and the child needs to be guided into understanding and accommodating the translation. (Selikow, 2009) Peer pressure and group dynamics sets in and can impact behavioral changes that the teenager can carry into his adulthood. The behavioral and the cognitive theorem in the adolescence stage will be dealt with in this paper. (McLeod, 2009)The aspects of the theorem will be in respect to cultural, environment, work and social aspects (Heckhausen , 2010)

Abstract

I desire to present a psychology paper on life stages. The paper will specifically focus on the major life threats and problems that the individuals at the stage faces. There are three life stages; childhood, adolescence and finally adulthood. The paper will focus on the three stages of human life. In addition, this paper will intensely focus on the adolescence stage. This stage has the individuals trying to shed out childhood and get into the next life of adulthood. Therefore, this is an imperative stage in the growth of a person as it forms the behaviors of the individual. The cognitive and behavioral theorem will be focused on in relation to social, cultural, environmental and work ethics.

Objectives of the Research

The research was dedicated to finding the recent theoretical perspectives on human development contained within the class textbook, noting the contributions of the chosen theorist. Students were to identify the perspective of the contemporary theory and describe current research and application to the field of lifespan development (Mini policy analysis, n.d.)

Methodologies

The research aimed at studying the contributions of Le Berk, 2014 in his book “Development through Lifespan” and identifying the perspective of the contemporary theory in the current research and application in this field. Different sources were to be used through Google search. Scholarly articles, journals, reviews and books touching on the issues were searched and their information integrated and presented in a comprehensible manner. The sources were not to have been published more than seven years from the date of this experiment. The data and information thus gathered was used to further the understanding of the contemporary theory of development through lifespan. Recommendations and conclusions were made on the basis of the findings of the research.

Literature Review

Development Through Lifespan

Human life developed through different stages. The stages could be split into three. There was the childhood stage, the adolescence stage and adulthood. Each stage had its psychological perspectives in relation to cognitive ability and development, physical development and peer pressure/ external influences and group dynamics (Berk, 2014)

Childhood Stage

Life development starts from the child life stage. Child development is a fundamental and critical stage of human development. This stage dictates how human life will be for the rest of his existence. A child is often born when they are ignorant and oblivious of the happenings in their environment. Like wine they gradually mature with age, begins to adventure and learn more about their environment. The development process can be best described as reliant on reward-punishment principle. In this scenario, when a child does something, and he is punished by the parent he gets to know and acknowledge that his actions were uncalled for, and therefore the child seizes to perform that act again. On the other side if a child constantly performs a given act which goes unpunished, or when he is not stopped, the child continues to repeat that act as long he is not prevented. People’s characters and dispositions are always a reflection of their childhood encounters. Individuals tend to remember and put to practice what they learned in early stages of their life than what they learn in adulthood. It is clearly difficult to find a human being changing their childhood behavior in adulthood (Nauert, 2010)

Factors Affecting Childhood Life

It is wise to note that children are more vulnerable to noise pollution because their ear canals are always more narrow as compared to those of adults. This always increases the pressure of sound that penetrates in the children’s ears. The high pressure can have adverse effects to the children’s ears. For instance, the high pressure can cause bursting of the ear drum. Children are also fond of playing with toys close to their ears. This also will increase the intensity of the noise pollution caused to their ears.

It has also been found that the loud sounds can cause more harm to the children apart from harming their ears. It has been proved that the great noise pollution caused to children ears can have a great impact on the impairing children language and speech development. It is, therefore, true to note that the damage caused to the children’s ears can retard speech development of children at their earlier stages of development. In this case, the children are not able to interpret and comprehend what their colleagues are saying. This adversely affects their development and learning since speech is always seen as one of the most important aspects of child development.

Therefore, it is wise always to protect the children from the effects of noise pollution caused by their toys. Parents should be in the front line in the fight against noise pollution caused by toys. This is because they are always responsible for the purchase of the toys as gifts to their children. It is wise that the parents should always take the initiative of testing the toys before purchasing them from the warehouse. If a parent realizes that a toy produces more noise, it is vivid the noise can be more harmful to the children. As noted earlier, the children’s ears always have very narrow canal that increase the pressure of the sound that penetrate in them. This makes the sound to be even louder. The parents should always use sound level meter to test the intensities of the sounds emitted by toys. Testing the toys using their ears can also result into adverse effects to the parents.

There is also need for the parents to limit the duration that the children take with their toys. This is because prolonged exposure of children to the noise caused by toys can have even more effects to the children. Parents should, therefore, reduce the duration of the children’s time play.

Adult Life

In this stage, the person is fully grown and can decide on his own. In this stage, everybody lives their lives according to the laws of the land and follows their conscience. Human social life has always been seen to be very divergent. Different people from different regions and background always tend to live unique lifestyles. It is an important aspect of life that tends to investigate the social life of people in a society. It is coherent to note that social aspect of life is paramount for holistic development of a human being. Critical thinking has always tried to study different aspects of society life like religion, culture, law among others. The social life can be said to be changing faster. For instance, it can be noted that past events like industrial revolution had contributed largely towards changing the social life of people. It is true to note that scientific reasoning of many people has changed drastically due to the introduction of education. The fact that people can now interact easily through different technology like social media is a reason for the change in social life of many people. It is, therefore, significant to highlight that critical thinking was developed to determine the extent to which the society is changing in terms of social life of the people. Critical thinking has been found to have very close links with other fields. For instance, critical thinking has very close ties with philosophy and psychology. This is because some of the aspects of philosophy and psychology can also be found to exist in critical thinking.

Critical thinking has very rich historical advancement. This discipline emerged in 19th century as a ways of addressing increase in the rate of modernity. Philosophers and scholars like Auguste Comte and Max Weber are some of the founders of this discipline. According to Auguste Comte, society developed in three stages. The first stage was the theological stage that involved looking into the society in a religious perspective. In this case, development of religion was seen to play a fundamental role for the development of a society. The second stage according to Comte was the metaphysical stage that enabled people to understand the society as natural. This changed the firmer understanding of society by many people in a supernatural perspective. The third stage was scientific stage that was also known as positivist stage. This stage was seen as the foundation of critical thinking.

Cultural critical thinking is an important field of psychology in the life of an adult. It has been ventured into by many sociologists. In this way, sociologists tend to study different cultures and how such cultures have been affected by aspects of modernity. A good example of cultural critical thinking is the study of Norton Village by Anderson (1990). In his study, Anderson was interested in studying two neighborhoods that were socio-economically different. Anderson was majorly interested in determining how the two neighborhoods interacted in terms of culture and way of life. Interpersonal relationships between the two neighborhoods were also another factor that Anderson looked into very categorically and coherently (Smith, 2008).

Adolescence Stage

From the childhood stage, the next stage is the adolescence stage. The adolescence stage is a complicated stage in human lifespan. It is the transformation from childhood to adulthood. The young child becomes aware of himself and his environment and the different changes taking place physically in the child`s body. The child is faced with the different expectations and responsibilities as expected from him by the society in respect to gender. The revelation can be disturbing and the child needs to be guided into understanding and accommodating the translation. Peer pressure and group dynamics sets in and can impact behavioral changes that the teenager can carry into his adulthood.

Behavioral/ Group Dynamics Theorem in Adolescents

Behavior change is imminent to all individuals and more specifically those who grow together. All the adolescents when faced with these physical changes accompanied by the different roles expected from them by the community; they tend to wish them away. However all cannot be avoided. In this phase of development, it is noted that all the young adults lead a life of defiance rather than that of acceptance. In addition, different individuals do different things to show the behavior changes. This led to the inclusion of the Piaget’s theory in life of formal operations and behaviors, about the changes occurring in life of a human being and this made it the chief organizing framework in the formation of the adolescence researches that were done in the years between 1970s and early 1980s, however, this was later abandoned due to the modernized type of researches that have evolved all through this time. Different studies had been carried out to relate the behavioral changes with the adolescent’s environment, cultural settings, level of education and to some extent with religion. It was found that, the environment within which the adolescents thrived played a crucial role in the behavioral changes. Those adolescents that had been living together as children in estates entered into adulthood together. The different social-economic settings of their neighborhood contributed largely to the behaviors they picked. In the slums and sub-estates where drugs, substance abuse, prostitution and crime were on the rise, the adolescents tended to pick these attributes. It was reported that, the behavior these adolescents took to was wholly contributed by the society (Tiwari, 2012)

The children had their role models and people they admired in the society. It could be the greatest criminal in the neighborhood, a drunkard or a self proclaimed prostitute. Education and religion formed a great pillar into shaping these young adults. Education and religion served to guide the young adults and provided role models in form of teachers and religious administrators. The peer pressure was also directed towards a worthy cause when the adolescents were involved in constructive school and religious activities as a team. The young adults were able to direct their energies into a good cause through the help of the teachers and religious leaders.

Cognitive Theorem in Adolescents

Cognitive ability can be described as the ability of a person to understand and comprehend. The ability varied from person to person depending on the subject matter that was under cognitive test. As the young child entered into adolescent, the child`s cognitive ability was developed largely due to the rapid body and brain growth. For the first time, the young adult was able to see things in a different angle from the one he had been viewing since childhood. The reality that there are some expectations the society has on him/ moral obligations stares him on the face. There were also behavioral standards based on different sexes in many cultures and societies (Mcleod, 2006)

The realization that one was physically a girl, and the dawning onto the expectations that the society expected from a girl child was scaring sometimes. Some adolescents’ cognitive ability developed faster than others. Studies had been conducted to determine the role that education, society, culture and religion played on the adolescents` cognitive ability. Level of education seemed to play a greater role in the development of the adolescents` cognitive ability. Cultural factors and social practices were not significantly involved in this. The aspect of hereditary was seen also to play a part in this. The cognitive ability had been associated with the negative behavior changes in adolescents. The main reason behind this was the adolescents did not have a clear focus of the future or a defined ambition. They only thought for the day which made them prone to many errors and misjudgments. The uniformed actions put them on logger heads with the society as a whole. However, currently, the cognitive approach had been replaced with better imperative research methods like the computational models which encompass a wider scope of aspects of normal lives comparatively and empirically.

Results

The research outcomes revealed that the current perspectives of human development theorem focused more on the aspects of behavioral and cognitive ability in adolescents. The behavioral theorem was seen to encompass a wider and more defined aspect of human life as compared to the emotional and cognitive theorem. The behavioral theorem drew from these two deductively. The cognitive ability played a crucial part in determining ones emotions which exhibited themselves outwards as the observed behavior. Education played a greater role in determining the cognitive and the behavioral changes in adolescents. Cultural aspects, social settings and religion played a greater part in behavioral changes than in cognitive changes in the development of an adolescent. Among the different research models, it was seen that the computational model was the best as compared to a cognitive model in testing the lifespan development perspective theories.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The current models and perspective of human lifespan development theories were studied. Special consideration was given to the adolescent stage. It was seen that the comparative model was the best to test the theories. The research found that the level of education and religion were critical in the behavioral change in adolescents. Cultural aspects, social settings and peer pressure served to aggravate the aspect of behavioral changes.

References

Adolescent Nutrition | Zee News. (n.d.). Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from:http://zeenews.india.com/ayurveda/adolescent-nutrition_105.html

A+ GRADE & CUSTOM ESSAYS- Mini policy analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://get-grade-a.researchpapermasters.com/page/117/

Berk, L( 2013) Development Through the Lifespan, 6/E. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Development-Through-the-Lifespan-6E/9780205957606.page

  1. Heckhausen, (2010) A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Mcleod S (2009) Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory | Simply Psychology. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.simplypsychology.org

Nauert R (2010) Adulthood Behaviour Follows Childhood Personality. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://psychcentral.com/news/2010/08/05/adult-behavior-follows-childhood-personality/16447.html

Sage Publications, (2004) Life-Span Developmental Theory: Life-Span Developmental Theory Concerns the Study of Individual Development, or Ontogenes. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.sagepub.co/upm

Selikow TA. (2009) I am not “Umqwayito”: a Qualitative Study of Peer Pressure …Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Smith P (2008) Exploring Reality: Cultural Studies and Critical Thinking …Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: https://www.aacu.org/

Tiwari S (2012) Group Dynamics: Theory and Practice – SlideShare. Retrieved on Nov 22, 2014 from: http://www.slideshare.net/arisudantiwari/group-dynamics-theory-and-practice

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