ADD DISSERTATION TITLE, ALL CAPS, CENTERED,
DOUBLE-SPACED; TOP LINE ABOUT 3 INCHES FROM TOP OF PAGE
Add First Name MI. Last Name
ADD MENTOR NAME, ALL CAPS, PhD, Faculty Mentor and Chair
ADD FACULTY NAME, ALL CAPS, PhD, Committee Member
ADD FACULTY NAME, ALL CAPS, PhD, Committee Member
Barbara Butts Williams, PhD, Dean, School of Business and Technology
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Add Month Year (of conference approval)
© Add First and Last Name, Year
(Note: If copyright not desired, delete this page)
The current study was exploratory study which was aimed at finding the rate and causes of the high turnover rate of the repatriated middle level managers. The United States of America has the majority of employees that are under the expatriate scheme. These expatriates are expected to have a positive career development which has been the opposite in reality. This current study tried to explore the causes of the high turnover rate and the experiences of different middle level managers in relation to their repatriation process. American global and multi-national organizations have experienced a very high turnover with managers who are repatriated to the domestic U.S. after an expatriate assignment (Black, 1992). These incidents have been most notably related to repatriates’ inability to rediscover or reintegrate in personal career management and organizational culture and human resources’ inability to provide resources in integration and intervention to assure repatriates’ successful continued tenure with the organization (Baruch & Altman, 2002). The resulting problem is a high turnover rate among middle managers that is specifically related to the repatriation process. Currently there is a dramatic shift of increasing movement of middle level managers in the international boundaries which has made the requirements of repatriated middle level managers of multinational corporations. The current study used a sample size of 20 repatriated middle managers. These managers were subjected to both open ended and closed questionnaires. The study found out t that 15% of the managers returned to their mother company at the same level.10% of the managers returned on their mother companies in different companies. However 75% of the managers moved to other companies other the ones which sent them for the expatriation assignments. . most of the expatriates( 28%) spend more than 2 years for their expatriation assignments and the adjustment time was more than 6 months (27%). it was found out that most of the respondents interviewed were on the view that most of the companies needed the repatriation programmes to reduce the number of middle level managers who resigned. This research thus recommends for repatriation programmes to be promoted in all companies in the United States of America.Consequenly more research needs to be carried out in more than one company to ascertain the complications of the high turn over nationally.
The dedication, if desired, is a numbered page, but “Dedication” does not appear in the Table of Contents. Note that if the Abstract is two pages long, the page number of the Dedication must be changed to IV.
The “Acknowledgments” entry does appear in the Table of Contents.
Table of Contents
List of Tables (if tables used)
List of Figures (if figures used)
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
Introduction to the Problem 1
Background of the Study (Hit Tab to add page numbers) 2
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 15
Research Questions 15
Significance of the Study 16
Definition of Terms 17
Assumptions and Limitations 17
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework) 20
Organization of the Remainder of the Study 23
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 24
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY 43
Research Design 45
Data Collection 55
Data Analysis 61
Validity and Reliability 61
Ethical Considerations 64
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS 68
CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS 101
APPENDIX A: Statement of original work 113
APPENDIX B: Questionnaire 116
List of Figures
Figure 1: Conceptional framework 22
Figure 2: Repatrition 32
Figure 3: Oberg’s phases of adaptation 42
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Introduction to the Problem
Repatriation is the process of returning back home from the expatriate assignment. However as expected the middle level managers needs to return to their previous organizations which sends for the assignment, but most of them have opted to leave their mother companies in contrast to the expectations. This has led to the high turnover of the middle level repatriated managers. The United States of America has the majority of employees who are under the expatriate scheme. These expatriates are expected to have a positive career development which has been the opposite in reality. This current study tried to explore the causes of the high turnover rate and the experiences of different middle level managers in relation to their repatriation process.
Background of the Study
Currently the world has become a global market which is moving to become a global business organization. This means that business is globalizing in nature hence forcing most of the organizations to send their employees to the foreign countries. (Stahl
et al., 2002). These Expatriate duties are aimed promoting the welfare of the multinational companies and at the same promoting the development of the said repatriated managers (Kobrin, 1988; Shay and Baack, 2004; Takeuchi et al., 2005).However most of the recent studies have found out that the repatriation process has been mishandled (Gregersen et al., 1998; Stroh et al., 2005). The acceptability of the given strategy by the repatriated middle level managers usually involves the expectations of the business stakeholders such as the employees, customers and the shareholders. The expectations of the stakeholders can be categorized as return, risk and the stakeholders complain after the outcomes of the business strategy. The returns involve the benefits and profits which are got by the share holders. These returns involves the financial and the non financial benefits, for instance the share holders expects the increase of their profits and the employees expects the increase of their salaries and the customers expects the improvement of the services respectively. The risk of a strategic policy involves the possibility of the failure of the strategy. The consequence of the risk may be the loose of the financial and the non financial resources respectively. The stakeholder reactions involve the tendency of the stake holders to oppose the views of the employees and the customers. Moreover the workers may start to oppose some policies such as the outsourcing policies with the view that it may lead to the loose of their jobs. At the same time the customers may support the merger of the companies and form the joint ventures so as to improve the quality of the goods and services at large.
Bearing to the fact that currently the world is experiencing increased rate expatriate attrition, organizations ranging from local and multinational companies are giving much emphasis on promoting and making the repatriation a successful story. This has been brought in the previous studies which have been documented in most of the Human Resource Management Peer reviewed papers respectively. More over it has to be recognized that repatriation has generally been researched by many researchers but there is no concrete and satisfying solution which has been found to solve this present managerial problem. Thus this study was aimed at finding the reasons for the high turnover of the repatriated middle level manager’s repatriation management.
Statement of the Problem
The focus of this study was repatriation and high turnover of repatriated middle managers in global organizations. American global and multi-national organizations have experienced a very high turnover with managers who are repatriated to the domestic U.S. after an expatriate assignment (Black, 1992). These incidents have been most notably related to repatriates’ inability to rediscover or reintegrate in personal career management and organizational culture and human resources’ inability to provide resources in integration and intervention to assure repatriates’ successful continued tenure with the organization (Baruch & Altman, 2002). The resulting problem is a high turnover rate among middle managers that is specifically related to the repatriation process. Currently there is a dramatic shift of increasing movement of middle level managers in the international boundaries which has made the requirements of repatriated middle level managers of multinational corporations. These international managerial workers have requirements that are often not traced in general. They have been found to be suffering from complications related to the ones experienced by expatriates. Consequently, most of the companies have not succeeded in accommodating these complications in their management policies and strategic management criteria.
The previous Research study by Baruch and Altman, 2002 found out that at least 50% of the repatriated middle level managers quitted the duties as financial services company managers immediately after returning back from their foreign expatriate duties (Baruch & Altman, 2002). Consequently it was noted that about 30% to 40% of repatriates decide to move from their respective organization in a range of 2 years of repatriation assignments compared to non-expatriate middle level managers who account for at least 5-10%. The same study by Baruch and Altman, 2002 concluded that more than 30% of overseas expatriate assignment has been successful leading to high turnover rates of expatriates to their original country.
The High turn -out rates among the repatriated middle level managers have been attributed to the organizations strategic problems due to lack of reposition of the concerned repatriated employees. Most of the times local and multinational Organizations experiences some limitations in getting the best personnel for expatriate positions due to the culture shock that expatriate experience when returning home. Proper preparation for this future shock may prepare expatriates for the transition to domestic work and family settings. Previous studies in 2005 concluded that repatriation adjustment was the strongest predictor of intent to leave the organization (Lee & Liu, 2005).
The Retention of the middle level managers shall be taken as the first priority while planning for the repatriate positions of the returning expatriates .The assignments given to the expatriates needs to be of the Long term career planning which focuses on the foresees in building on previous assignments. Consequently it has been found that the tendency of giving the same unchallenging roles once they return back from the overseas makes many of the returning expatriates to apply for other higher ranking positions. The Performance is the product of ability multiplied by motivation, and ability is the product of aptitude multiplied by training and resources. The performance is an output of the staff which is a basis of achievements of quantified objectives (Chew, 2004 ). It is from the attainment of these objectives in the totality that lead to the achievements of organizational goals. The United States of America organizations are faced with difficulty of irregular performance based financing (PBF) which has affected staff performance
The current trend among the organizations under the business jurisdiction of United States of America is that they do not give much emphasis to the expatriates who are returning back to their home country (Chew, 2004 ).This has been attributed by the failure of the Human Resource wing of not tracking the performance of the repatriate while they in their expatriate duties . An organized arrangements during the period of return from the expatriate assignments can solve the transition problem a. An ongoing lack of attention to repatriation management will likely continue to fuel high turnover rates. (Wayne et al; 1999)
Welchi D.E (2003) stated that “the effective management of individual performance is critical to the execution of strategy and the organization achieving its strategic objectives”. Performance cannot be left in anticipation that it will develop naturally, despite the employee’s natural desire to perform and be rewarded for it. This desire needs to be accommodated, facilitated and cultivated. In return for this performance, organizations extend themselves in various forms of acknowledgement (Foot and Hook, 1999). Individual performance has become a topical issue in today’s business environment, so much so that organizations go to great lengths to appraise and manage it (Armstrong and Baron, 1998).
Whitten and Cameron (1998) stated that individual performance is the product of ability multiplied by motivation. Furthermore, Cummings and Schwab (1973) concur with the belief that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental factors influencing performance primarily through their effect on the individual determinants of performance ability and motivation. Despite the motivation to perform, it is necessary to briefly highlight the barriers that might affect the performance of employees. These barriers may be the result of underdeveloped competencies, inappropriate performance goals, or lack of feedback about performance (Hellriegel, et al., 1999). For organizational purposes, factors affecting overall employee performance may be separated into two groups: internal and external. Internal factors are those factors over which the organization has influence and control, such as job descriptions and employee selection. External factors are those factors over which the organization has little or no control, such as demands for jobs grading systems (Hellriegel, et al., 1999). In order for an organization to perform an individual must set aside his personal goals, at least in part, to strive for the collective goals of the organization (Cummings and Schwab, 1973). In an organizational context, the very nature of performance is defined by the organization itself (Cummings and Schwab, 1973). Employees are of paramount importance to the achievement of any organization. Thus, effective leadership enables greater participation of the entire workforce, and can also influence both individual and organizational performance (Bass, 1997; Mullins, 1999).
The success of an organization is reliant on the leader’s ability to optimize human resources. A good leader understands the importance of employees in achieving the goals of the organization, and that motivating these employees is of paramount importance in achieving these goals. To have an effective organization the people within the organization need to be inspired to invest themselves in the organization’s mission: the employees need to be stimulated so that they can be effective; hence effective organizations require effective leadership (Wall, Solum and Sobol, 1992; Maritz, 1995). To have an effective organization, there must be effective and stimulating relations between the people involved in the organization (Paulus, Seta and Baron, 1996).
It has been widely accepted that effective organizations require effective leadership and that organizational performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of this (Fiedler and House, 1988). Furthermore, it is generally accepted that the effectiveness of any set of people is largely dependent on the quality of its leadership–effective leader behavior facilitates the attainment of the follower’s desires, which then results in effective performance. Preliminary research undertaken by Swanepoel, et al., 2000) in a South African context found that outstanding leaders, in terms of effectiveness, are perceived to show a strong and direct, but democratic and participative leadership style, and are seen as agents of change and visionaries who increase organizational performance.
Botha, (2001) concludes that the need of firms to flourish in the world of escalating competitiveness, of technological advances, of altering government regulations and of changing employee attitudes, requires an advanced level of leadership more than ever before. His views further demonstrate the importance of leadership in the business arena. According to Bass (1997), in the modern business environment much research has proved that leaders make a difference in their subordinates’ performance, and also make a difference as to whether their organizations succeed or fail. Furthermore Kotter (1988) argues for the ever-increasing importance of leadership in organizations, because of significant shifts in the business environments, such as the change in competitive intensity and the need for more participation of the total workforce.
Repatriated middle level Managers within the United States of America has found themselves under increasing pressure. Not only have they had to respond to reforms directed by the government and other non, governmental organizations but they have been pressed both by others within the service and by the public to justify what they do. They are expected to make the service “ever a more efficient, rational and controlled while at the same time caring and people centered.” The rational approach is supported by data being compiled on all aspects of activity. Many argue that if customers have doubts about the service they are receiving, there should be the possibility of comparison based on independent assessment. Hence, as with the country’s organizations such as companies, hospitals and learning institions, there are league tables and other comparisons. There are now as many managers in the National Services who, in turn, are in charge of junior administrators and clerks. Several studies have shown that good management improves services and production hence increasing the profits targeted by the specified organization. There is a strong relationship between good personnel practice and high performance.For any organisation to become successful; the managing process should be systematic in nature. The government of the United States of America and other regulatory agencies has been involved in the monitoring process whereby the obtained goals are analysed and then compared with other successful companies in the world. To implement a certain strategic policy the resources should be used by training some workers on the developmental principles. Many complications have been seen to evolve in the implementation of the strategies by the involved companies. The problems involved include the human relations complication between the managerial personalities and the lower chambered members. And the poor communications between the employees and the employers. These problems have consequently led to the complications in the marketing strategies such the inability to produce the new products which can suit the new market demands. In any organisation which has the successful strategy implementation, it has high level of consistence in the hierarchal levels of management which needs to be implemented by managers.Owolabi, Amusan, Oloke, Olusanya, Tunji, Owolabi, Peter, and Omuh (2014) also discusses the causes of the high turnover of the repatriates in different organizations . They noted that lack of skill development in the over- seas countries form the greatest problem experienced by most of the middle level managers respectively. This repatriate problem implicate negative effects including contract termination, lawsuits between contractors and owners, loss of productivity, and increased production costs. The authors observed that there were several factors that induce delays in construction projects. Some of the identified factors include: variations among project stakeholders, contractor’s insolvency, slow decision making, inadequate information from consultants, ineffective information among stakeholders, changes in drawings, and inadequate funds for the project’s completion. Also, there are discrepancies and mistakes in contract documents, business management issues, and poor organizational structure connected with labor and project.
The previous Studies focusing on repatriation have generally identified some gaps in the processes and the execution criteria employed by most of the organizations in promoting the nature of repatriation exercise. More over the large multinational companies have not been spared .The study by Chew, 2004; Dowling and Schuler, 1990; Tung, 1988 have previously concluded that the considered factor was the financial implication of the repatriated managers and their close relatives. This study agrees with other related studies that concluded that the procedure of repatriation has hindered the performance of the middle level managers. More over most of the business organizations that internationally recognized have generally considered the process of absorbing the returning expatriates without checking the financial and psychological implications which may hinder the performance of the middle level managers.
Many middle level repatriated middle level managers have been found to be lacking Strategy management policies( Welch,D,E,2003 ).Strategic management is a scope of a company over a long period of time, which gives that organization an advantage over the other related companies having the same challenging factors such as environment and market demands. Thus the business strategies are aimed at giving the direction, the market scope, analyzing the resources and making the company perform better .Consequently the strategy is analyzed by tracing it s strength and pin pointing the external and internal factors affecting the performance of each company. David, F (1989) argues that environmental factors determine the direction of the consultation outsourcing companies. This has been attributed by the management organization cultures which promotes the training of their employees .Well business plan is one of the vital factor in the out sourcing industry. The companies should recruit the experienced personnel for the production and marketing .Some financial factors may influence the success of the business companies. The financial factors include the poor cash flow, poor pricing strategies and lack of enough finances. Marketing factors has influenced the success of most of the consultation legal companies. This includes a tendency of responding to the competition from other consultation companies. Human resources factors also influence the growth of the consultation out sourcing companies; this includes proper delegation of the company authority and hiring people with skills and experience. According to Kim, S (2002) Strategic management by the middle level managers is a fundamental factor in consultation companies.
Pressure arises internally too among the repatriated middle level managers. Many staff complains of managers never revealing the story behind changes. One said, “I think people always think there is something going on… some people have this perception of repatriated middle managers up there plotting.” Middle and junior managers, who see themselves as implementers of strategy, feel they lack the information they would like although their staff think that they withhold it (Yan et al,2002 ). They have less autonomy and less involvement in key decision making than their staff assumes and they are subjected to increasing control.
Another difficulty for the repatriated middle level managers is the need to manage professional staff with equal or higher status. The organization is very complex. Managing professional staff who have a high degree of autonomy means that an autocratic style does not work. Yet middle managers find that they act as buffers between the professions and senior managers who look at, “black and white statistical information that is their version of the reality.”( Whitelock, 2002) .Another report by the previous study by Pasa, S. 2000 concluded that “Amidst this constant negativity to repatriated middle level managers it may be easy for managers to lose sights of their role in the wider scheme of bringing more accountability and effectiveness to United States of America organizations.”
Most of the repatriated middle level managers have been found to be under performing because of the varying behaviors which vary from the returning countries respectively. Individual behavior is a term which is used to refer to the pattern of the behaviors in reference to the individual’ s thought and emotions which are so unique to each individual and the way this person will interact with other people will positively or negatively influence the situation. Individual behavior is generally affected by several factors which are referred to as diversity and demographic characteristics. Since organizations are composed of individuals, then this implies that the individual’s behavior will ultimately affect the organizational behaviors. These factors which consequently affect the human behavior of each individual includes the ethnicity ,gender traits, age of the individual, social economic status, affinity, religion, geographic location, personality traits, value and attitude differences. At the same time these factors affect the performance of any group where an individual is involved. The diversity factors make each individual to be recognized as being distinct from other individuals. This paper tries to bring out the effect of the personality traits, ethnicity, geographic differences and age on the individual behaviors. The ethnic groups usually form the racial groups such as the Hispanic-Americans and the African-Americans. It has been found that that ethnicity of each individual will determine the performance of an individual and hence affect the performance of the organization (Pasa, S. 2000).The Africans and Asians have been found to be more torellant compared with their American counterparts. But at the same time the Africans have been found to be more temperament. Thus the ethnicity of the individuals affects the behavior. The ethnicity of an individual will affect the way one is behaving in response to the feeding habits for example many individuals who are Indians do not consume beef which is a taboo according to them. Consequently the dressing codes of the Arab women are affected by the ethnicity. The ethnicity of an individual affects the cultural behaviors of individuals (Penner, L, 1997). Constantly these cultural differences may affect the organizational behavior of any organization. For example some employees tends to be comfortable when they have more power distance from the supervisors such as in the Asian cultures, this may not fit in the western ethnic groups. The personality traits of an individual determine the behavior of an individual. Some of the personality traits include the pessimistism.optimism and courage. These personality differences between the individuals affect their performance in any organization. For example those individuals who are more courageous can be able to interact with the higher authorities of an organization at the same time such individuals are likely to be successful in life since they can venture in different opportunities without any fear. The optimistic individuals can be able to engage in many social activities compared with those who are pessimistic (Torlak, O, 2007). The courageous individuals can influence the organizational behavior by making it to have a positive move. Thus in relation to the above problems which have not been analyzed well to understand properly why there is a high turnover rate among middle managers that is specifically related to the repatriation process thus there was need for further research.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the current study was to find out the causes for the high turnover of the middle level managers. Consequently this study was aimed at finding the experiences of the repatriated middle level managers during and after the expatriation assignments
Much focus is put into the expatriation process to insure success in such an assignment. However, there has been a vacuum in the study of specific reasons for failures in the repatriation process and employees’ inability to reintegrate domestically with the organization (Mary, 2001). Noting such reference literature, there are observable events concerning the repatriation process as it relates specifically to turnover in the organization. However, there is a gap in literature that addresses the variable influence of executive policy and human resources interaction as impacting the adjustment process to insure repatriates’ career goals are realized, preventing repatriation separation from the organization (Littrell, 2002).
- Why is turnover in a global/international organization an employment issue among repatriated employees?
- What is it like to be faced with affiliating and readjusting to domestic work life in the United States?
- What are some specific experiences in the repatriation process that prove challenging with regard to daily experiences?
- How do managers and HR play a role in making the repatriation process successful?
- What are the causes of the high turnover of repatriated middle level managers in organizations?
Significance of the Study
Currently there is a continued advancement of global and multinational business (E. H. A. & UDO, 2011), the expatriate process continues to be a corporate event that exists among organizational management (Whitelock, 2002). By contributing to the line of thinking from prior referenced studies and research, this dissertation will serve to make a contribution to resolving the issue of turnover (or reducing it) among repatriated individuals as defined by the study.
The study will be of benefit to researcher to understand the factors leading to the high turnover of the repatriated middle level managers. Through this research, the business organizations will get information about what should motivate employees in order to work and perform efficiently. It will be also important to the administrations or managers of the organization who will use this information to make policies about personnel administration to meet the challenges of low productivity. This information will be availed to all students who have access to enable them improve their knowledge on motivation and performance. Finally, the research will be important to the government in setting appropriate the business strategies as a basis for Human Resources Resource development.
Definition of Terms
Baruch and Altman (2012) define repatriate as an employee within a global or multi-national organization who is returned from an abroad location to the country of origin or the domestic country of residence (home base). Within the confines of this study, this definition will expand that definition to deal specifically with middle manager expatriates who have returned to their domestic country of residence within the last 18 months.
Crowne (2009) defines repatriate turnover as the act of a repatriate failing to reintegrate with their organization and leaving the company for another opportunity or leaving the company altogether. As stated above, this study will focus exclusively on middle managers repatriated within the last 18 months.
Assumptions and Limitations
This present study used the theory of work adjustment (Black, 1994) which makes a common assumption that work is conceptualized as an interaction between an individual and his/her work environment. Theoretically, this is a common assumption. However, it is also a common topical assumption in business, as stated by Caza (2007), that employees will have specific reactions to different circumstances and stress elements within the work environment. Adding to these assumptions is the philosophical core perception that phenomenology of persons as located in a world of “socially shared concepts whose employment is said to “fore-structure” their understanding, shaping their “projections” or expectation of events (Wilson, 2012).
The previous study by Bock and Sergeant (2002) concluded that a smaller sampling size of 15-20 is appropriate when dealing with a qualitative study and that “the per-respondent costs of qualitative research are sufficiently high than in most situations where ‘quantitative’ results are required is not economically viable to conduct qualitative research with a robust sample size”. This being the case, these findings explains that qualitative research is equally concerned with measurement/evaluation as with understanding, therefore employing such methodological approaches, such as exploratory study, that evaluate questions and interpret situational issues would be suitable for such a sample size.
The strength of the study was that it pertains to a real organizational problem. The study illuminates real possibilities for reducing the occurrence of the problem in the workplace and, therefore, possesses value to organizational procedure and acumen
The study was limited only to repatriation process within the last 18 months, identifying 20 repatriates within the middle management category. This tends to limit the study with respect to the concept of expatriates that are being or have been repatriated possibly being in a different hierarchy of employment other than middle managers. Another limitation was that the employees were from one specific global/multi-national organization. Therefore, though conducting the same study with a different sample, one may not have similar results based on varying the organization or employee demographic.
There was specific rationale in accepting such limitations with regard to sampling among middle managers. Jassawalla and Sashittal (2009) concluded that there was a specific problem in American business that rests in the practice of expatriation and repatriation. They called this phenomenon as “in sourcing”, in which management expertise, oversight, and knowledge are lost through the repatriation process, turnover, and inability to capture and integrate management knowledge from the expatriate experience. Therefore, it remains a plausible that a sample of middle managers was an adequate representation of the phenomenon that was being examined. Limitations in organization and employee demographic were accepted due to qualitative sampling rationale as noted in 7.7. The limitation of organization and employee demographic was accepted under the guise that there was future opportunity for study of the phenomenon under differing and various samples that may reveal additional findings and evaluation of the phenomenon in question.
This present study used the theory of work adjustment (TWA), as noted by Black (1994) to substantiate the research findings. This theory would be considered accurate in the form of a conceptual network in the study as it deals specifically with describing the relationship of the individual to his or her work environment. This, then, would be considered appropriate in examining the event(s) of the repatriation process as it relates to turnover. Within this theoretical approach, work is conceptualized as an interaction between the individual and the work environment. The work environment requires that certain tasks be performed and the individual brings skills to perform the tasks. In exchange, the individual requires compensation for work performance and certain preferred conditions, such as a safe and comfortable place to work. The environment and the individual must continue to meet each other’s requirements for the interaction to be maintained. The degree to which the requirements of both are met may be called correspondence. Work adjustment is the process of achieving and maintaining correspondence. Work adjustment is indicated by the satisfaction of the individual with the work environment, and by the satisfaction of the work environment with the individual—by the individual’s satisfactoriness. Satisfaction and satisfactoriness result in tenure, the principal indicator of work adjustment. Tenure can be predicted from the correspondence of an individual’s work personality with the work environment. Work personalities and work environments can be described in terms of structure and style variables that are measured on the same dimensions.
From the Wayne’s point of view (2006), organizational reward systems includes anything an employee values and desires that an employer is able and willing to offer exchange for employee contribution. More specifically such compensation includes both financial and non financial rewards. Financial include direct payment (example salary) plus indirect payments in form of employees benefits. Non-financial rewards include everything in work environments that enhances workers sense of self respect and esteem by others (example: work environment that are physically, socially and mentally health; opportunities for training and person development; effective supervision; recognition). Rewards bridge the gaps between organizational objectives and individual expectations and aspirations. To be effective, organizational rewards systems should provide four things: Sufficient level of rewards to fulfill basic needs, Equity with the external labor market, Equity within the organization ,Treatment of each member of organization in term of his or her individual needs more broadly pay systems are designed to attract, retain and motivate employees. Similarly, Brandon (1964); clearly stresses that, financial motivation of workers is high priority tasks for managers, since motivation is closely linked to our output productivity, lower costs and higher profits. But whether people in a work group are motivated or not depends largely upon the management they have. That fact unfortunately all too often is obscured. When financial motivation is low, managers have a tendency to blame poor work attitudes among employees, to characterize subordinates as lazy or disloyal. They talk about low morale. Probably morale is low. Employees are not happier about the situation than management is.
A conceptual frame illustrates the relationship between Repatriation and high turnover. It points out the variables and independent variables in the study and demonstrates the relationship between variables and independent variables. The independent variable (repatriation) has been operationalised in three motivational practice (Financial, non financial and institutional practices).The financial motivation has been operationalised into, salary, incentives and bonus. The non financial motivational attributes the hygienic factors (Quality of supervision, quality of interpersonal relations, Working conditions, feelings of job security) and the
motivator factors (Opportunity for advancement, recognition, responsibility, Challenging/Stimulating work, Sense of personal achievement and personal growth in a job) The institutional policies are attached to the independent variables because its nature can lead the high or low performance.
The parts detailed into independent variables have been linked to the components of dependent variables (performance) due to the fact that, they influence them. The dependent variable is operationalised into satisfaction, productivity, performance and rewards.
Figure 1: Conceptional framework
Organization of the Remainder of the Study
The remainder of the study started by carrying out the literature review by using the search engines and terms related to the repatriation of the employees in the United States of America and the entire world in general. The research used the interview method to collect the data. The concerned data was analyzed by using percentage prevalence and presented in tables. This research utilized qualitative methodology that explored the experience components of repatriation, its impact on turnover of middle managers in a global organization, and potential strategies to address the phenomenon.
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter presented the related literature and concepts about repatriate high turnover. The literature review is conceptualized under the objectives of the study and focuses mainly on the repatriates in the United States multinational companies. The literature in this chapter was got from secondary data source.
Repatriation is defined as the process of reentry the individuals’ home country after
Living abroad for a significant period of time (Hurn, 1999). The word “expatriate” originates from the mid eighteenth century from the Latin word expatriāre meaning gone out from one’s country (from ex- ‘out’ + patria ‘native Country.’)(Oxford English Dictionary 2010). The Dictionary of Human Resource Management (2001, p. 120), on the other hand, suggests that expatriation is the process of sending employees abroad on an international assignment.
Repatriation occurs when an expatriate of a multinational corporation returns to the country of his/her origin from an overseas assignment (Hodgetts and Luthans, 1997).The repatriate turn over in the United States of America has been increasing year after year. The previous studies by Black et al., (1992); Allen and Alvarez, (1998) concluded that there was an increased turnover of the repatriated middle level manager. One study concluded that within 2 years of the repatriation process of the middle level managers, about 20–50%of repatriates change from their work stations which had sent them for the expatriate assignments. (Stroh et al., 1998; Bossard and Peterson, 2005).This trend has proved to increase the production cost of the concerned organisations.The organization that are sending this middle level managers to the overseas are consequently loosing the funds which they use to train this employees. The many years spend overseas makes these organization lose resources already invested in huge amount. The companies have been found to be losing the skills and the business experiences and the concurrent business connections that have been gained by the expatriated middle level managers which have been used for the consequent success of business firms (Stroh et al., 2005). For instance, Kostova and Roth (2003) in their study quote that” the networks created by expatriates are an important aspect of the social capital that enables multinationals to more successfully manage interdependence”. This is supported by other previous studies which found out those Chief Executive Officers who had expatriate business experience were the best performers in the management of the global organizations (Daily et al., 2000; Carpenter et al., 2001).They continued to argue that the high repatriate turnover was a biggest business challenge loss faced by the global business companies. Another research study in relation to repatriate turn-over found out that indicates that most of the expatriates who return from the overseas assignments move from their previous companies and organizations as a result of the repatriation mismanagement process .This can be done by mismanaging the returns process and some of them think that they are not appreciated after return (Allen and Alvarez, 1998; Bossard and Peterson, 2005). This findings were in agreement the study findings by Tung (1998) who concluded that most of managers who were given international assignments had a lot of satisfaction in relation to the expatriation process , however they were not satisfied with the repatriation process. This same study argues that ‘inadequate advancement opportunities upon return’ scores in the high turnover league as the fundamental reasons causing the high levels of dissatisfaction in the returning expatriates. The Previous research study by (Johnston et al., 1993). Suggested that returning expatriates who are not promoted and rewarded by being given advancement opportunities usually move from their previous companies.Some leaders are cynical. They believe that the people who work in their organization are merely punching a time clock and care very little for the organization and the work it does. Such an attitude can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A far more accurate and fruitful approach is to assume that people really want to do their jobs well. From this point of view, the leader’s task is to help people find the right positions that make full use of their talents and interests and enables them to keep growing and developing throughout their careers. People want to succeed, and the organization can help them to do so by providing regular feedback on the work they are performing in a way that challenges them to look at things from new points of view and to innovate. Rather than tell a manager that he or she must interpret more studies per hour, a good leader will simply provide more feedback on productivity while simultaneously engaging the staff member in discussions on how the organization can operate more efficiently. A focus on productivity can prove highly counterproductive, however, if it ever leads to a neglect of quality. People may become rapidly disenchanted if they believe that quality is being sacrificed for the sake an enhanced bottom line. An example of a positive achievement might be if an employee completes a task or project before the deadline and receives high reviews on the result, the satisfaction the employee feels would increase. However, if that same individual is unable to finish the project in time, or feels rushed and is unable to do the job well, the satisfaction level may decrease (Ruthankoon, 2003).
Indemnities are various fringe benefits such as transport and housing allowances, sick leaves, health, and credits facilities. Indemnities may also include rewards to hard working people. Everyone in any company has his or her own reasons for working, and pay usually is among the most important. Not surprisingly, though, many workers list other factors that are almost equally strong motivations. These can range from opportunities to grow or learn new skills to a sense of community and purpose to more tangible benefits, such as health insurance, flexible work schedules, and provisions for retirement. Some previous studies have cited lack of motivation to be the main cause for the high turnover of the repatriated middle level managers. The term motivation refers to the psychological forces within a person that determine the direction of the person’s behavior in any organizations person’s level of effort and person’s level of persistence in the face obstacles (Jennifer and Gareth,1985). In reference to Montebello (1994) motivation is Multi-faceted psychological process, which energizes individuals’ behavior towards a desired goal or objectives, that involves physical, psychological, social and cultural needs which operates both individually and interactively to energize human behavior. Dublin, R (1958 :), regarded motivation as the complex of the forces starting and keeping a person in the organization. He added that motivation is something that moves a person to action and continues him in the course of action already initiated.
However, most managers prefer receiving benefits as part of their overall compensation because certain benefits programs offer economic advantages that salary alone cannot. A pension plan, for example, guarantees income after retirement. Various insurance plans provide security for workers and their families in case of disability or death. Programs such as these have the added feature of lower cost; negotiated group rates for insurance, for example, are almost always less expensive than individually purchased premiums. This feature is even more attractive if the employer picks up all or a portion of the premium. Subject to certain limitations, many benefits such as employer paid health insurance, life insurance, and child care do not count as taxable income to the employee(Reuber ,A and Fischer ,E ). Vroom’s is based on the belief that, the employees efforts will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards” (Vroom 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the rewards the more likely the employees will be highly motivated and hence more retention rate. Conversely, the more negative the rewards the less likely the employees will be motivated. Adam’s theory states that the employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employees’ outcomes over inputs is equal to other employees’ outcomes over inputs” (Adam, s 1965). Skinner’s theory simply states those employees behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated that lead to negative will not be repeated. (Skinner, 1953). Top Management should positively reinforce employee’s behaviors that lead to positive outcomes. Top Management should negatively reinforce employee’s behaviors that lead to negative outcomes
Some of the repatriated middle level managers leave their previous companies because of lack of recognition from the higher management authority the most important source of job satisfaction and motivation is internal, yet every person defines and appraises what he or she does in part through how others see it; recognition is an important component in addressing this need. Praise can be worth far more than dollars, particularly when dealing with people who approach their work from the perspective of a professional, such as managers. This is not to say that people will be happy being underpaid as long as you heap praise on them there is no question that compensation is an important component of hygiene that must be attended to in order to avoid dissatisfaction. Yet praise ultimately means more, because it speaks directly to the person as a professional and what their work means to themselves, their colleagues, and the people their organization serves. A good leader looks for opportunities to recognize workers for a job well done. Beware, though, such well-intentioned efforts as employee-of-the-month programs: These programs quickly lose their motivational value as the award is simply passed around the organization month by month. A well-crafted note of praise is worth far more. For many, recognition may come from the respect and trust shown by referring managers who seek out a particular experienced manager for the expertise and the rapport they enjoy with that person. In an academic department, every faculty member should be able to find some niche where he or she is the local expert. Younger managerial members may benefit from advice and encouragement in developing good relationships with other colleagues. When an employee receives the acknowledgement they deserve for a job well done, the satisfaction will increase. If employees work is overlooked or criticized it will have the opposite effect (Harvey, M, G, 1989) .If returning expatriated middle level managers sees that leadership neglects the workplace, their sense of pride in and commitment to their jobs will suffer. Facilities should be designed to be as warm and friendly as possible and should be kept well ordered and clean at all times. Equipment should be as up to date as possible and well maintained. People should have their own personal space, if possible, and they should be allowed to set it up as they see fit. Leaders must sometimes fight to secure the space and facilities their employees deserve. The importance of such a battle should not be underestimated, because people who work in the organization will be living with it for years and perhaps decades to come. The working condition includes the physical surroundings that one works within, such as the facilities or location. Ruthankoon (2003).
Some Previous studies by (McEvoy and Parker, 1995; Black et al., 1999; Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al ., 2005),have found out that most of middle level managers who are in the expatriate overseas business assignments usually find them challenging .Despite of these challenges experienced still some employees have a great desire to be given chance by the concerned companies for the overseas posting due to the fact that they think that this is one of the chance to help them in career development(Mendenhall et al ., 2002). The previous research study by Stahl et al. (2002) concluded that 59% of those who were in the expatriate assignment had a notion that such assignment would have promoted their career advancement in their mother organizations. This perception have been accounted from press adverts, which claim that working as an expatriate will ‘supercharge your career’ (Fisher, 1997), ‘boost your career’ (Fisher, 2005), or be a ‘ticket to the top’ (Lublin, 1996).The previous study findings by Chief Executive magazine and Spencer Stuart (an executive search firm) concluded that”extended overseas work experience is critical for those who want to make it to the very top of an organization” (Martin, 2004).However some study findings have found out that expatriation is not the only way forward for business career advancement. Daily et al. (2000) offered these words of caution: ‘for those who would aspire to the executive suite, such a view toward international assignments may be shortsighted.
Figure 2: repatriation
Mark C Bolino, 2007
From the above diagram it is depicted that intra-organizational career success can be influenced by the organizational and employee outcomes .The expatriate experience is influenced by successful posting, development assignments, significant international experiences and the importance given to the overseas assignments .Moreover the career development practices influence the success of the repatriation process.
Role of Human Resource in Repatriation process
The major role for the success of the repatriation process lies in the hands of the human resource managements of organizations. Previous study by Wayne et al ( 1999) found out that , the development of careers by organizations and other business traditional practices which includes mentoring ,training and staff developments were connected to the career success as . This is in agreement with other studies who have explained that consequently organizational business practices makes the career development of the expatriates who return from the overseas assignments (Feldman and Thomas, 1992; Stroh, 1995; Selmer, 1999). In this studies , Feldman and Thomas (1992) generally concluded that career advancement programs are involved in promoting the success of the repatriate .Moreover other studies have found out that some human resource practices help to promote the career adjustment of repatriates after return. (Bossard and Peterson, 2005).
The extent of employees support by their mother organizations usually determines the direction of their career advancements. Some previous studies have indicated that there is a high chance of any repatriate to quit their organization after mistreatment (Gregersen, 1992; Baughn, 1995; Peltonen, 1997; Bossard and Peterson, 2005).This leads to a high Repatriate turnover in different organizations as they do not meet the expectations of their expatriates after their return to their home country(Strohet al., 2000).This study continues to argue that the high turnover of the repatriates will have a negative effect in the other employees who may wish to go for a expatriate assignments (Stroh, 1995). Managers must be encouraged by their organizations by giving them certain skills and incentives to enable them retain their previous roles. Most of the managers tend to prosper in their careers when they have assistance and it has been found that expatriates who get this support tend to have positive career advancement while working in the same company that recruited these managers for the international assignments (Yan.R.1998)
The previous study by Baruch and Altman(2002) found out that for the expatriation to be successful then there needs to be much emphasis on the candidates selection for the assignment, proper pre-arrival arrangements for the expatriate and his/her close family relatives, the and the consequent repatriation arrangements when the business assignment has been completed..Previous findings by Baruch & Altman (2002 ) concluded that at least 50% of managers personnel quitted their company within a few years after completion of their expatriation assignment. Consequently it was found out that 30% to 40% of expatriates move from the company that recruited them for the expatriate assignment. Previous study by Lee & Liu (2005) concluded that repatriation readjustment was the major indictor of repatriate turn over. Thus the organization should focus on the career development and retention of their workers in the promotion of effective repatriation process. However, supporting repatriates after the completion of the (Black, Gregersen et al. 1992; Lazarova, 2001; Swaak, 1997). Some studies have stressed on the importance of the need of multinational organizations to put more attention in enhancing expatriates’ commitment to the mother company, and consequently developing their commitment to the local work department during the repatriation process (Bonache, 2005; Gregersen and Black, 1996; Hansen, 1997).
Repatriate high turnover retention is one of the major challenges for those working in the international sector. Despite the substantial costs involved in developing the potential of high caliber employees to take and hold expatriate roles, these same people are often dissatisfied on their return to their motherlands (Napier and Peterson, 1991; Suutari and Valimaa, 2002; Tung 1998). Some studies have shown at least t 25 percent of repatriates move from their companies after their return to a “normal post” (Abueva, 2000; Adler, 1991; Black and Gregersen, 1990).Thus compared to their local counterpants this seems to be a high rate (Black, Gregersen et al., 1992; Brewster 1997; Gregersen 1992; Harvey 1989; Kendall 1981; MacDonald and Arthur, 2005; Mendenhall and Oddou, 1991; Oddou, 1991). It represents a significant loss–the cost of losing a single repatriated employee has been estimated to be as high as $1.5 million (Abueva, 2000; Black, 1992; Peck, 1997).
Losses occur after the replacement of the managers who possess valuable international and corporate experience (Carpenter, Sanders and Gregersen, 2000; Harvey, 1989; Latta, 1999). Poor repatriation can also result in a loss of high-potential employees, employee under-utilization, and subsequent employee reluctance to accept overseas positions (Allen and Alvarez, 1998; Suutari and Brewster, 2003). This calls for an urgent interventions in the process of repatriation, and implement effective repatriation programs and practices to successfully retain people with global insight and experience (Adler, 1981; MacDonald and Arthur, 2005; Solomon, 1995; Swank, 1997).The multinational companies sending the expatriates for an overseas assignment needs to highlight on the negative effects of the process and thus the support given by the company on the repatriation needs to be spelt out clearly. Consequently the company needs to outline the value of the expatriates on return to the company and the reinstating process if any. This will give morally to the concerned repatriated middle level managers in question. Moreover the Human resource departments needs to review and state the business and employment rights after the repatriation process. The employers should state the roles played by the parent expatriating company during and after the expatriation process respectively (Harrison,D,A and Schaffer,M,A,2005).
The Multinational company subsidiary units are one of the important which have been found to be promoting the basic towards Strategic management of the mission of the company organization (Nohria and Ghoshal, 1994; Bolino and Feldman, 2000).Hence those expatriates who were initially assigned to the Multinational company units overseas which were related to the jobs they were doing in their home countries tend to be re absorbed when they return back compared to the ones who are assigned in other irrelevant units because the former ones possess the technicalities required to boost the business organizations. Thus when such expatriates return home they tend to be promoted at a higher rate compared to the ones who were assigned to units that have irrelevant management practices to the parent organizational company. According to Gupta and Govindarajan (1991) they concluded that subunits of the multinational companies are the major players of the strategic management. The previous Research study by Baruch and Altman, 2002 found out that at least 50% of the repatriated middle level managers quitted the duties as financial services company managers immediately after returning back from their foreign expatriate duties (Baruch & Altman, 2002). Consequently it was noted that about 30% to 40% of repatriates decide to move from their respective organization in a range of 2 years of repatriation assignments compared to non-expatriate middle level managers who account for at least 5-10%. The same study by Baruch and Altman, 2002 concluded that more than 30% of overseas expatriate assignment has been successful leading to high turnover rates of expatriates to their original country. The High turn -out rates among the repatriated middle level managers have been attributed to the organizations strategic problems due to lack of reposition of the concerned repatriated employees. Most of the times local and multinational Organizations experiences some limitations in getting the best personnel for expatriate positions due to the culture shock that expatriate experience when returning home. Proper preparation for this future shock may prepare expatriates for the transition to domestic work and family settings. Previous studies in 2005 concluded that repatriation adjustment was the strongest predictor of intent to leave the organization (Lee & Liu, 2005).The Retention of the middle level managers shall be taken as the first priority while planning for the repatriate positions of the returning expatriates .The assignments given to the expatriates needs to be of the Long term career planning which focuses on the foresees in building on previous assignments. Consequently it has been found that the tendency of giving the same unchallenging roles once they return back from the overseas makes many of the returning expatriates to apply for other higher ranking positions. The Performance is the product of ability multiplied by motivation, and ability is the product of aptitude multiplied by training and resources. The performance is an output of the staff which is a basis of achievements of quantified objectives (Harris,J,E,1989) . It is from the attainment of these objectives in the totality that lead to the achievements of organizational goals. The United States of America organizations are faced with difficulty of irregular performance based financing (PBF) which has affected staff performance
In the recent past the expatriates who are used send for the overseas assignment have been generally perceived to be involved as the managerial executives on return back home. Consequently they have been involved in controlling the overseas company branches of the mother organizational company which have sent them. However due to the current situation whereby the world has become the global business market the number of the expatriates who are usually send outside to work has increased tremendously. Some specialists have also joined the league of the repatriates such as, information technologists, Engineers (Chew, 2004; Latta, 1999). These has led to major challenges which as a result of the extensive diversity of personnel who are sent for the expatriate assignments. This needs to put policies in place which will smoothen the repatriation process .Moreover the retention rate of the experienced expatriates needs to be increased since this experienced expatriates tend to add more managerial skills to their parent companies respectively. (Birdseye and Hill, 1995; Morley, 2003; Punnett and Rick, 1997). After the expatriates returns home they expect to be given a higher position compared to the previous one but this is not the case. More over the other role which needs to be played by the parent organization is to resettle the entire family and help them to adapt to the new home culture (Chew, 2004; O’Neil and Kramar, 1995). Individual behavior is generally affected by several factors which are referred to as diversity and demographic characteristics. Since organizations are composed of individuals, then this implies that the individual’s behavior will ultimately affect the organizational behaviors. These factors which consequently affect the human behavior of each individual includes the ethnicity ,gender traits, age of the individual, social economic status, affinity, religion, geographic location, personality traits, value and attitude differences. At the same time these factors affect the performance of any group where an individual is involved. The diversity factors make each individual to be recognized as being distinct from other individuals. Constantly these cultural differences may affect the organizational behavior of any organization. For example some employees tends to be comfortable when they have more power distance from the supervisors such as in the Asian cultures, this may not fit in the western ethnic groups. More over among the Indians the interaction between the unmarried women and men is not recommended thus many of them are not courageous to face the social challenges. The personality traits of an individual determine the behavior of an individual. Some of the personality traits include the pessimistism.optimism and courage. These personality differences between the individuals affect their performance in any organization. For example those individuals who are more courageous can be able to interact with the higher authorities of an organization. At the same time such individuals are likely to be successful in life since they can venture in different opportunities without any fear. Business Companies needs to make sure that the expatriate assignment benefits an individual’s business career. Repatriates needs to be assigned challenging assignments that utilize their newly acquired skills, and their international experience should be used to guide expansion of the home country’s operations. (Adler, 1981; Scullion and Brewster, 2001).
The higher management of the repatriating organizations needs to put more considerations in the family situation of the employees since it is a great Factor in their decision to accept or reject the international assignment. This challenge goes together with the one of obtaining residence and working permit in the host country. There is a possibility of the spouse not being able to gain a work visa which Leads to lots of complication in the expatriates’ families. Cultural differences between the host and the domestic country are also a great factor when it comes to selecting the Right employee. Depending on the country and the international assignment there is a Great chance of female employees to be more accepted than males and vice versa. Last
but not least, the employees that are chosen for the assignment have to be willing to spend time in places that are endangering their lives. There are plenty of examples of International workers being kept hostage in Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria and Somalia.
Unfortunately not all of them are able to escape or are released from their kidnappers.
Stages during the repatriate stay in the host country
Figure 3: Oberg’s phases of adaptation (Oberg, 1960)
Causes for repatriation failure and resignation from the employees
The previous studies have indicated that the major causes of the high turnover of the repatriated middle level managers can be grouped as Repatriates’ expectations, Work-related changes and Socio-cultural changes
- Repatriates’ expectations
Most of the employees who are assigned the expatriate assignment have a lot of expectations. Majority of them expect that after return to their parent organization company, they will be promoted to high ranks compared to the previous ones. Most of them tend to believe that they shall be rewarded by salary increments. According to Hurn(1999),Most repatriated middle level managers think that they do not need any professional help since they have been expatriates at one time. Most of them moreover think that their family members will be rewarded with many presents on return which has proved to be the opposite of their expectations. Moreover the same repatriated middle level managers tend to think that everything shall be okay back at home including their financial status. Subsequently most of these repatriating managers think that it shall be an obvious thing of being promoted.
- Work-related changes
Most of the repatriated employees tend to have challenges because of the changes which might have occurred in their parent company. This may occur as a result of managerial changes which arise as a result of the transfer, promotions or the death of the previous managers. Moreover the technological changes which may have occurred in the parent company is a major challenge to the repatriated middle level managers. In his study Alen and Alvarez quotes that “strict time frame” since the position can become “indefinite and lead to the subsequent departure of the employee from the firm”; in order to keep the image of the employee unharmed, the job should “involve a real, substantial value-added contribution to the company that will, in and of itself, offer an opportunity for the employee to maintain visibility and credibility within the organization” (Allen and Alvarez 1998).
- Socio-cultural changes
The social cultural changes of the repatriated middle level managers is one of the factor which has been found to be one of the player in the high turnover .The housing status in the parent companies seems to be different from the ones the expatriates are used in their oversees assignments. Consequently there is change of friends in the home location making individuals top prefer relocating.
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY
The methodology used in this present was concerned at finding out the causes for the high turnover of the middle level managers. Consequently this study was aimed at finding the experiences of the repatriated middle level managers during and after the expatriation assignments. This was attained by answering the following research questions:
- Why is turnover in a global/international organization an employment issue among repatriated employees?
- What is it like to be faced with affiliating and readjusting to domestic work life in the United States?
- What are some specific experiences in the repatriation process that prove challenging with regard to daily experiences?
- How do managers and HR play a role in making the repatriation process successful?
- What are the causes of the high turnover of repatriated middle level managers in organizations?
Grinnell and Williams (1990) view research design as the careful systematic study or investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish some facts or principles. The present study employed an exploratory approach as its research method. Field survey was carried out with twenty (20) repatriated employees within a global/international business organization. Researcher went once to the field for collecting and analyzing questionnaires in aim to determine the relationship between independent variable and dependent variables identified by him in conceptual framework of study. This served as the primary data. The research design itself used semi-structured interviews, with open- ended questions pertaining to the repatriation and turnover process. In addition, analysis of scholarly journals was included to provide historical and current information pertaining to the phenomenon. Secondary data were collected with the aid of Journal articles and past works .Literature search strategies used included the use of library databases, search engines, and key search terms. The literature reviewed included research on: 1) The Causes of the high turnover of the middle level repatriated managers in the American and the multinational organization; 2) causes of inability to provide resources in the integration of the repatriated middle level managers; 3) Ways of intervening for the success of the repatriated middle level.
This study employed an exploratory research method .This was used specifically because it is a desired methodology for studying research problems in which there is limited interaction with study participants, but such participants are knowledgeable of the organizational issue in question (Maxwell and Beattie, 2004). The research utilized a narrative of the interviews based on the experiences of interviewees, citing that the subject matter and the actions and reactions of subjects interviewed are experiential in nature, providing overview and introspection into the subject matter for the purpose of analysis and synthesis. Unlike phenomenology which looks to view the inside of a “life event” as it pertains to the subject by investigating each point of sensory involvement (Galvin, 2011) this study was aimed at formulating a particular problem and clarify concepts through input from knowledgeable individuals rather than develop conclusive evidence, as is the foundational approach of an exploratory study (Etchegaray, 2013).
The Study Population
The present study considered the larger population size to consist of all repatriates, regardless of business type and regardless of time returned to the United States from international business assignments. Baruch and Yaltman (2002) estimate the annual number of U.S. corporate expatriates being repatriated at approximately 100,000.
The Sample Frame
Sample frame for this study consisted of all expatriates that had been repatriated to the United States from international business assignments within the last 18 months of the Sample frame is all expatriates that have been repatriated to the United States from international business assignments within the last 18 months.
The study sample for this study consisted of a group of expatriates from JP Morgan Chase.
Sample group was from global or multi-national organization. It consisted of middle managers who had been repatriated within the last 18 months from various organizational functional areas. It was made up of 10 middle managers who have successfully remained and integrated with their home base within the last 18 months and 10 middle managers who have separated from the company within the last 18 months of repatriation.
- Individuals who had been repatriated outside the 18 month time frame were excluded from the study.
- Individuals who meet the inclusion criteria were not included in this study if they were not willing to follow the study to the end.
This study followed the following sampling procedure respectively;
Recruitment of research participants
The Letter of invitation to participate in study was provided to senior member of human resources who identified potential participants and notified them either by mail for the potential participant who had separated from the company or by email for the participants who were still present with the company. The Invitation letters for distribution consisted of inclusion criteria and questions pertinent to the study so that potential participants can self identify and self-select for inclusion in the study. A blank consent form was provided with the invitation letter for participants to consider in their decision to participate. Senior member of human resources signed a confidentiality agreement. The Potential participants were asked to make contact via email showing interest to participate for those who were still with the company or by mail for those who had separated from the company.
The first step was self identification of the research participants through response to invitation letter. The Participants were required to identify themselves as middle managers and expatriates who had been repatriated within the last 18 months
The present study sampling was substantiated with the previous study by Patrick, Pruchno, Rachel, and Rose (1998) state that giving more specificity to sample choice through specific recruiting versus “snowball” recruiting allows for a greater rate of participants, giving greater diversity and non-probability to sampling methods
The used sample size was twenty (20) repatriated middle managers, ten (10) of which remained with the company and ten (10) of which had been separated from the company. The justification for this sampling was based on the understanding that the sample in qualitative sampling is not a numerical percentage of a population as in quantitative sampling, but the purpose for the sample is was to gain insight into a social, behavioral, or familial process and practice that prevails with a certain area or region (Connolly, 1998). In the instance of this sample, it was a representative of middle management expatriates that have been repatriated within the last 18 months.
Qualitative research stipulates a consistent sample size of 35-40 is significant to be representative of a saturation of the population (Sandelowski, 1995). However, with an exploratory study that employs the interview process and relies upon “lived experience”, a sample size of 15-20 is considered acceptable and hence it was utilized for this present study. To ensure consistency with research, small sample research was consulted as noted by Bock and Sergeant (2002).
The present study utilized qualitative methodology that explored the experience components of repatriation, its impact on turnover of middle managers in a global organization, and potential strategies to address the phenomenon. This was accomplished through face to face, one on one interview of twenty (20) repatriates within JP Morgan Chase, a global/international organization. The designated research method was an interpretive analysis that was descriptive and exploratory in nature. The data gotten from respondents were edited, coded and tabulated before analysis. The techniques of analysis were proportion and percentage or frequency on the different questions. Consequently, the researcher himself was able to make editing, tabulating and coding. This part of the study showed the findings of the study. Different figures and tables were used for better analytical process and interpretations of the results with an understanding path. The researcher used the Microsoft excel for comparative analysis. Quantitative analysis was used to determine percentage, while qualitative analysis was used to draw from the researcher’s own analysis. The primary data were assessed to achieve a comprehensive opinion and leading to appropriate recommendations.
To insure that interview questions are appropriate in nature, they were submitted for a field test to Creative Consulting, Columbus, Oh. This company was tasked with the job of determining appropriateness of participant questions as they pertain to Kvale’s (1996) protocol concerning interview questions with regard to thematizing and designing the questions toward a reflective approach of knowledge sought. During this field test, the researcher (mentee) acted as the interviewer and consultants acted as interviewees. The executive manager was a formal observer during the field test. After all interviews were complete, the consultants (interviewees) were given opportunity to provide formal feedback regarding appropriateness of interview questions.
Informed consent forms were obtained prior to the interview with the participant. This was discussed and signed first before any interview with a participant was conducted. The questionnaires were designed according to the variables under study. The questions on independent variable that was repatriation was conceptualized into financial, non financial motivation and policy, while the questions on dependent variable that was high turn-over was conceptualized into performance indicators such as timeliness indicator, competency indicator, productivity indicator and quality indicator. There were both open ended questions to obtain the in-depth feeling of respondents and close ended questions for self administration.
To ensure that interview questions were appropriate in nature, they were submitted for a field test to Creative Consulting, Columbus. This company was tasked with the job of determining appropriateness of participant questions as they pertain to Kvale’s (1996) protocol concerning interview questions with regard to the mailing and designing the questions toward a reflective approach of knowledge sought. During this field test, the researcher (mentee) acted as the interviewer and consultants acted as interviewees. The executive manager was a formal observer during the field test. After all interviews were complete, the consultants (interviewees) were given opportunity to provide formal feedback regarding appropriateness of interview questions. The field test results and feedback were approved and signed off on by the executive manager for approval to be utilized within the study and are as follows:
Participants in the field study were a group of 10 consultants ranging in various fields of management and human resources management acting as “mock interviewees”. The researcher (mentee) acted as the mock interviewer.
Continuity of questions
The continuity and content of questions appeared to be significant to the design of the study in question in that about two thirds of the questions are general in nature, allowing for specific open dialogue to be established with the participants, while allowing for approximately one third of the questions to include more specificity and probing to gain more detail and assess underlying conditions and develop an in depth narrative of the subject matter. Questions appeared to be appropriately thematic in nature. It is suggested that general questions designed to have participants more freely open up, engage, and establish dialogue be fashioned more in the nature of description (“Please Describe”) versus simply posing an open ended question that is not probing in nature.
Due to the wide range of the study and the analysis of data involved, it was the conclusion of this field study that study be exempted of demographic questions (e.g., age, gender, geographic location) allowing for the study be more precise in nature. However, it was the consensus from the field test that such information may want to be inclusive from the perspective of denoting it for future study to attempt to determine trends with genders, age groups, or geographical regions.
Data Collection Methods and procedures
Types of Data collected
Sound data transformed to verbal data in typed form
- Field Observation Notes
Verbal data in handwritten, informal form
- Post interview summary notes
Verbal data in handwritten or typed form
- Review of audio tapes
Sound data transformed to verbal data in typed, transcript form
- Recruitment via human resources management:
Communication was made and responded to via company email (or mail for those separated) in which participants self identified for selection in research study. Those results and contact information for participants were provided to the researcher by human resources personnel in email format. The Participants were identified and contacted to determine interview time. Potential participation subjects were reviewed and categorized by use of Excel. This software was also used to insure contact information was properly recorded, best time to contact, and agreed upon interview time and interview details.
- Conduct Interview:
Audio tapes were transcribed and prepared by researcher .Raw data from audio tapes were checked line by line with transcription to assure accuracy. The Transcript was multi-copied to 3 copies: 1 copy that is on a flash drive and stored in a lock box; 1 copy in print and electronic copy (this will be the working copy); 1 copy that consists of the transcripts in smaller, working sections. All transcripts were documented on Microsoft Word. Each interview was prepared and executed in the same manner. To protect privacy of the participant, each audio transcript was identified with an alpha/numeric code for reference in the master list for reference in the writing process.
The data collections which were adopted in this present study followed the following three main steps:
- Pre-beginning phase:
This was initialized by setting up a private meeting with the participant(s) in an agreed upon, local hotel conference room. Within the meeting room there was a conference table with two opposing chairs, one for the researcher and one for the participant sitting face to face. The research used two recording devices, discreetly placed on a table behind the participant’s chair in case one of the recording devices was, for some reason, not operational. To insure privacy, the “do not disturb” sign was placed on the door
- Initial Phase:
The Research and the participant meet in the lobby of the hotel at a predetermined time whereby the Researcher guided the participant to the selected conference room. After an initial “ice breaker” conversation to set participant at ease and built a rapport, the researcher reacquainted the participant with the nature of the interview and the purpose for the research. The Researcher also informed the participant at that they could ask any questions for clarification or express any concerns at any time as well as request a break during the interview if necessary. Upon participant’s agreement, the researcher advised the participants to proceed with the interview. The participants were advised that they were speaking to the tape and both participant and researcher introduced themselves for the record. At that time the researcher advised that the interview was to proceed and that the participant was ready and prepared to move forward with the interview.
- Closing Phase:
The Participants were informed that the interview phase had been completed and recording was to stop. At that point the participant were provided with a notice of consent /release advising them that they had given their permission to willingly and voluntarily participate in the study as well as a privacy statement advising that their identity and participation was to be held in confidence.
Credibility and Transferability
Sampling permitted researcher to generalize to the subcultures of middle managers, a phenomenon that is well observed cross-industrially and cross culturally and, therefore, it was widely applicable among those repatriated in global or multinational organizations. Internal validity of the study is increased as a result of the sampling size and strategy. This is accomplished by ensuring that the units of analysis are defined clearly and are well defined internally and are homogenous in nature.
The role of the researcher “as instrument of data collection” is that of direct interaction with the sample for the purpose of interview questions and observation of conversation. This fitted within the framework of the selected approach and model as it required the researcher to listen in a manner to allow him or her to make judgments on non-verbal as well as verbal criteria through the listening process. Because the interview process can be quite sensitive and demanding, the interview questions were direct and concise. For the purpose of making certain all information is captured, the interview process was both audio recorded and non-verbal observations were recorded by hand during the interview process.
The only potential bias that had been identified at that time was the researcher’s human resource expertise. There was the potential for an administrative perspective to be taken in the role of researcher versus and observation of managerial approach and interaction as defined in the problem statement. This was addressed by bracketing and directing interview responses based on research terms and definitions as they had been identified in order to keep the study more driven to the managerial function at hand.
There was no particular conflict of interest in the study as the researcher had no professional or casual relationship with the company or interviewees subject to interview and observation. In addition, findings of research were in no way propelling, direct, or impact the personal, professional, or scholarly path of the researcher.
In this present study, there were no ethical issues identified in the research process, because the interview process for the exploratory study was completely voluntary in which a written consent and disclosure was provided, all members equally shared the benefit of protected privacy. This privacy was additionally protected by insuring that the study insured participant anonymity. Because the researcher had no relationship with the organization of which the sample population was being accessed from, there was no specific or implied influence upon the sample group. Further, as suggested by Wolf (2009) with regard to recruiting for research, the researcher had neither relationship with the organization in which individuals were being recruited, nor a relationship with any of the participants. All participation was done on a completely voluntary basis, in response to a mass communication to all known repatriates in the potential study group by human resources administration as opposed to communication by management, thus eliminating issues of perceived influence or coercion as covered by 45CFR46. The name of the participating organization was withheld for the purpose of privacy. In addition, the names of participants were not used, but coding for each subject who was participating.
Data was stored for 7 years, in consideration of data storage requirements for research under 45CFR46. Three forms of data were utilized and stored: paper copy of all transcriptions of interviews, audio tapes/CDs of interviews, and removable USB drives with research content. These items will be secured within a locking file cabinet for storage during this time frame. The researcher was responsible for all transcription and, therefore, no confidentiality agreement was required.
The SAQs which were edited categorized and entered in computer Ms Excel. A thorough examination of questionnaire responses was done to ensure consistency, accuracy and completeness of the responses. The study also used frequency tables and graphs with the help of percentages to demonstrate or illustrate the findings of the study
Validity and Reliability
This present study, which was exploratory and qualitative in nature, generally concentrated on the collection of data through the process of interviews of a sample group of repatriates. This information was reported in categorical form for the sake of viewing results, based on terms and definitions previously provided. This was done for the purpose of identifying specific trends in leadership, culture, and self managed team interactions as it relates to the phenomena of repatriation and turnover phenomena.
Creswell (2009) delves into the specifics of research design. These specifics deal with and pertain to relationship and appropriate correlation between observational definition, the unit of analysis, and the research question. In this present study, the concentrated effort of data collection and data observation is accomplished through the interview process. This is deemed as an appropriate unit of analysis because the research process is dealing collectively on repatriate experience and turnover, which can only be measured experientially, not quantitatively. Utilizing the proper theoretical approach as it relates to interpretive design and qualitative exploratory research, it is believed that the outcome will be one of being able to adequately analyze and synthesize why the phenomena of high turnover exists among repatriates as noted in the problem statement.
McMellon (2013) explains that an exploratory analysis of a group of individuals (as it is an individual study by nature) reveals insights that provide two very distinct advantages and contributions to the organizational management field: discovering service to the business community and developing ownership of the problem. As a result, it deals with behaviors and experiences that cannot be quantified. Therefore, in dealing with human behavior, it becomes an approach that allows for interpreting behaviors and interactions within the workplace (Oktay, Jacobson, and Fisher (2013). In this particular study, the field of knowledge was expanded by addressing and answering the question concerning high turnover among repatriates.
This study was aimed at providing a contribution to the field of organization and management by identifying problematic issues in the repatriation process as it deals with turnover and longevity with the organization. There is an already existing body of knowledge relating to this topic. One such notable contribution by Russell K. Schutt (“Investigating the Social World,” 5th ed.) denotes that exploratory studies looks to determine how people get along within the setting that is in question. He gives further input regarding the research approach as one that looks to determine what meaning people within the study give to their actions. Shields and Tajalli (2006) add to the body of the research approach the perspective that the ideal accomplishment of an exploratory study is most helpful in gaining insights on the how, when, and why the phenomenon allows for the research to develop a working theory that is relevant to the study and to further investigation.
Pertaining to the research topic itself, Linhares (2008) specifies problematic issues with the repatriation process as it relates to reintegration of the employee into domestic work environments and application of knowledge concepts as obtained through the expatriation process. Baruch and Altman (2002) further explains the line of thought and reasoning, expressing that there are an array of management and HRM organization options that give greater capacity to the successful reintegration of the expatriate. These particular studies go so far as to specifically denote a particular problem that exists with the repatriation process as a whole and its impact on organizations and business management due to turnover issues. Due to newer, developing issues concerning the repatriation and turnover process, there is a gap of literature that requires further investigation and examination, synthesizing these developing issues in order to add to the already existing body of research and knowledge. Utilizing the work adjustment theory that is being applied to this study (which as previously noted, speaks to organizational actions as they deal with satisfaction of the employee) this research will contribute to the field by projecting specific and potential actions that organizations may take toward curing or improving turnover as it relates to the repatriation process. This research tries to accomplish this by suggesting realistic actions of the organization that can be performed. This is done by giving specific attention given to information that is uncovered in the existing body of knowledge and information uncovered and interpreted in the exploratory research.
The following ethical considerations were taken in account while conducting this research.
- Voluntary participation
The decision to participate in this study was voluntary and was not influenced to any person in its decision to respond. Respondents were requested to fully fill the questionnaire.
- Privacy and Confidentiality
The information that was collected from this research was kept confidential and no one else except researcher has access to the individual information.
All participants in this study had the right to remain anonymous by using pseudonyms and such explanations mentioning cognizant of the sensitivity to human dignity were fully given to respondents before completing the questionnaire.
- Informed consent– Resolution:
The process of obtaining informed consent from research participants started well before recruitment and continued long after the research was completed. The consent of the participants was sought before participating in the study. Therefore, each respondent had signed the consent form to confirm his acceptance to participate voluntary after receiving adequate explanations about the study. The participants were provided with an informed consent agreement that was signed and returned back to researcher and a copy was retained by the participating party as well.
The Informed consent was a voluntary acceptance of an autonomous individual to participant in the study after receiving and understanding adequate information about the study. The investigator provided all relevant information about the research prior to during and after the study. Consequently adequate time was provided to reflect on information provided and ask questions. Minimization of coercion and undue influence was taken care and the language used was understandable to participants. It was ensured that participants suffered no penalty for refusal or withdrawal from consent.
Research participants had adequate decision making capacity, were adequately informed of the study including risks and benefits and understood the study carefully. Denoted consent included the following as covered through IRB (Institional Research Board) and was denoted as shown below (Van derVelde, etal;2005)
1) Statement that the study involves research
2) Description of any benefits to subject
3) Description of any reasonably for seeable risks or discomforts to the subject
4) A disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures or course of treatment
5) A statement describing the extent to which confidentiality of records identifying the subject will be maintained
6) Minimal risk explanation
7) Explanation of whom to contact for answer to pertinent questions about the research
8) Statement regarding risks to participant or fetus, if the participant becomes pregnant
9) Circumstances where participant’s participation may be stopped
10) Any additional costs
11) Consequences of participant’s decision to withdraw and procedures for termination of participation
12) Statement regarding new findings
13) Number of participants involved in the study
14) Statement regarding products / interventions after the study
15) Any benefits to the participants
- Documentation of informed consent Resolution:
The gold standard for documentation of the Informed consent was a written and signed informed consent form. The form used for particular participants was commensurate with their language and level of comprehension. Informed consent was documented by the use of a written consent form approved by the IRB and signed by the subject or the subject’s legally authorized representative. A copy was given to the person signing the form.
Written consent document stating the elements of informed consent were orally presented to the subject or subject’s legal authorized representative. The researcher provided adequate opportunity to read the consent prior to it being signed. Per IRB requirements, a witness to the signing of the consent acknowledgement was present and signed the consent and consent summary. Signatures were signed by the subject or subject’s legal representative, the witness, and the researcher. A copy was provided to the researcher and to the subject or subject’s legal representative.
- Organizational Consent Note:
Written consent to conduct study had already been obtained from JP Morgan Chase. However, as a contingent, additional permission had already been granted by Morgan Stanley should cooperation for the study with JP Morgan Chase fall through.
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS
This chapter four contains the presentation of the results of the study. The results have been analyzed and interpreted in a scientific way. The findings of this study are the summary of the information collected from the field and this information has been gathered through the questionnaire and interview. Apart from these research tools, the documentation has been utilized for literature review.
Creative Consulting (Columbus, OH), a human resources and management consulting firm completely independent of the study, was utilized for the purpose of a field test to determine the applicability (and any problematic areas) of interview questions. This firm has two decades of global expatriate and repatriates outsourced management and human resources consulting experience. Feedback regarding interview questions was utilized to revise interview questions and protocols prior to research
The question as to why repatriate turnover in a global international organization is an employment issue among repatriated employees was conceptualized as financial motivation, non financial motivation and motivational policies in different organization in USA.
Table 1: turnover of the repatriated middle level managers
|Returned to their mother company in the same position||3||15|
|Returned to their mother company in the different position||2||10|
|Moved to other company||15||75|
From this table above it shows that the retention rate of the middle level middle level managers after the expatriation assignments was low. It shows that 15% of the managers returned to their mother company at the same level.10% of the managers returned on their mother companies in different companies. However 75% of the managers moved to other companies other the ones which sent them for the expatriation assignments
Table 2: Showing the duration of the expatriation and the time taken by the expatriate to adjust.
Table 3; Shows the presence of the repatriation programmes in relation to the resignation rate
|How do you estimate the resignation rate in connection to the expatriation assignments?||total%|
|Haven’t answered||0-10%||11-20%||21-30%||31-40%||More than 40%|
|Do you think the company needs the
From the above table it was found out that most of the respondents interviewed were on the view that most of the companies needed the repatrition programmes to reduce the number of middle level managers who resign.
4.2. Financial motivation
One of most common type of factor identified in this present study which was influencing the high turnover rate of the repatriated middle level managers was financial motivation. With this type of motivation, individuals gain money timely as they are working. The theory behind this type of motivation is that financial motivation of workers is high priority tasks for managers, since motivation is closely linked to the institutional output productivity. Employees perform their work expecting to be rewarded for the work they had done that was encouraging them to work very well and improving their performance. People or employees are better producing when they were getting monetary means to satisfy their needs. The financial motivation approach is used by many different industries around the world. The examples of financial motivation were salary and performance based financing. In many institutions they were offering financial incentives at a certain period according to the staff productivity. The impact of financial motivation to the performance of workers was that it improved the quality of work and hence high productivity. This item was intended to realize the views of the respondents on which and how the financial motivation is practiced in organizations. The indicators proposed included salary, performance based financing and indemnities. The researcher provided to respondents the ranks following different items adopted to evaluate financial motivation.
The item was intended to collect views of respondents in terms of satisfaction gained from financial motivation practices which was categorized as salaries, indemnities and performance based financing. The views of the respondents were Likert scaled as highly satisfactory (1), satisfactory (2), neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory (3), dissatisfactory (4) highly dissatisfactory (5) represented by numerical figures 1-5 receptively. The views of the respondents obtained are summarized in table below.
Table 4: Shows the appreciation of financial motivation considering the repatriated middle level managers
|Salary||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||6||31.2|
|Neither satisfactory nor Dissatisfactory||8||36|
|Dissatisfactory and Highly dissatisfactory||6||32.8|
|Indemnities||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||1||1.6|
|Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory||5||21.3|
|Dissatisfactory and Highly dissatisfactory||13||73.8|
|Performance Based Financing||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||7||37.7|
|Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory||8
Source: Primary data
From table 4, the findings depict the three indicators. The first indicator was salary, whereby the higher percentage shows neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory with (36%). The dissatisfactory and highly dissatisfactory with (32.8%), followed by satisfactory and highly satisfactory (31.2%) when cumulated. It is from this point of view that, the majority of staff suggested that they are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied meaning the staffs estimate that salary is not good but also not bad. By analyzing the data in table 4.1 the respondents intend to show that staff is not satisfied by the salary because the second position is occupied by dissatisfactory and highly Dissatisfactory with (32.8%) when cumulated. Or when employees see little relationship between performance and rewards, then they set minimum goals in order to retain their jobs but will not see the need to excel in their position. Salary as a basic motivational factor used to the staffs might fair according to the work to accomplish.
The second indicator was indemnities, where the respondents up to (73.8%) showed claim that the indemnities were dissatisfactory and highly dissatisfactory while (21.3%) suggested neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory and satisfaction and highly dissatisfaction. Aside the ranks proposed the 3.3% 0f respondents added another rank claiming that the motivational indemnities were not existing and practiced in organization. From the views above, the middle level managers were dissatisfied with the motivational indemnities practices.
The third indicator is Performance Based Financing (PBF).The figures from the table 4.1 indicate higher rate is attributed to neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory with 42.6%; followed by satisfactory and highly satisfaction with (37.7%) when cumulated and 12(19.7)% for dissatisfactory and highly dissatisfactory. This indicates that the staffs didn’t clarify whether they were happy or not with performance Based Financing. But in understanding their verbal views during answering this question they argued that the Performance Based Financing should be highly satisfactory if it was offered regularly monthly.
The second item was considering the views of respondents on appreciation of frequency and regularity of financial motivation practices. The views were as Regular monthly (1), Regular quarterly (2), Regular yearly (3), Irregular (4), Very irregular (5). The views of the respondents obtained are summarized in table 4.2
Table 5: Shows the appreciation of frequency and regularity of financial
|Performance Based Financing||Regular monthly||2||19.7|
|Very irregular||2||4. 9|
Source: Primary data
Table 5 illustrates the findings for the respective four indicators which were salary, Performance Based Financing and indemnities. For the first indicator the respondents indicated that the salary was regular monthly with (82.5%), followed by irregular (4.9%). However, the ranks of regular quarterly, regular yearly and very irregular have the same frequency equal to (3.3%). These figures implied that the personnel got their salary regularly at the end of each month.
For the second indicator which is performance based financing, the respondents indicated that is irregular at (37.7%) followed by regular quarterly at (39.5%). On the other hand they ranked PBF as regular monthly at 19.7%, regular yearly at 8.1% and very irregular at 4.9%
This indicates that the Performance Based Financing in organization was not paid to the personnel regularly. The specifications from respondents indicated that the funds (bill) are estimated and confirmed quarterly after quantity and quality evaluations but the funds are not immediately transferred .The regular availability of bill and its payment even at late time is the justification of 32.8% stipulating that is regular quarterly. This irregularity of performance based financing leads the staff to the lack of self motivation to their work which causes the poor outcomes.
This item intended to realize the views of the respondents on the most suitable frequency and regularity of financial motivational practices in organization. The used ranks are Regular monthly (1), Regular quarterly (2), Regular yearly (3), Irregular (4), and Very irregular (5). The views of the respondents obtained are summarized in table 4.2
Table 6: Shows the suitable frequency and regularity of financial motivational practices in organization
|Performance Based Financing||Regular monthly||17||93.4|
Source: Primary data
Table 4.3 points up the findings for the respective three indicators. The findings demonstrated that the suitable frequency and regularity of salary is regular monthly scored a percentage of 90.2.This therefore means the staffs of Organization are satisfied by frequency and regularity of their salary as they indicated the way it is offered . The rank of regular quarterly and regular yearly scored 4.9% while irregular and very irregular are with o%. For the performance based financing, the higher rank of regular monthly scored 93.4% followed by regular quarterly with 6.6%; the regular yearly, irregular and very irregular with 0%. These findings are indicating how many the staff of Organization thirsty of availability of performance based financing at the end of each month which is not the way it was done .The survey also indicated that the higher percentage regarding the indemnities has been attributed to the rank of regular monthly with (60.6%); regular quarterly (36.1); regular yearly (3.3%); irregular and very irregular with 0%. The famous figures show that the staffs need the indemnities every month.
Various non financial motivation approaches are also used by different industries around the world to motivate employees. The examples of non financial motivation are recognition, internal promotion, conditions of work, job security, quality of supervision, quality of interpersonal relationship; the non financial motivations have positive effects on performance, morale and attitude at workplace. For better performance of employees, therefore, the non financial motivational practices must be present.
This question was intended to realize the views of the respondents on which and how the non financial motivations are practiced in Organization. The researcher provided to respondents different ranks following the items adopted to evaluate non financial motivation practices in Organization.
This item intended to evaluate the appreciation concerning the non financial motivation practices to motivate staffs in Organization by using different ranks from Highly satisfactory(1),Satisfactory(2),Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory(3); Dissatisfactory(4) and Highly dissatisfactory(5). The views of the respondents acquired are summarized in table stated below.
Table 7: shows the appreciation on the non financial motivational practices of the organizations by the repatriated managers:
|Quality of supervision||13||57.4||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|6||29.5||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|1||13.1||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Quality of interpersonal relations||13||62.3||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|3||18||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|4||19.7||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Working conditions||11||52.6||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|6||26||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|3||21.4||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Feelings of job security||13||62.3||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|3||16.4||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|4||21.3||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Opportunity for advancement||6||26.2||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|12||57.4||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|2||16.4||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Recognition||6||32.8||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|9||45.9||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|5||21.3||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Responsibility||13||69||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|3||13||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|4||18||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Sense of personal achievement||15||77||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|1||3.3||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|4||19.7||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Work itself||16||82||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|1||4.9||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|3||13.1||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
|Personal growth in a job||15||70.5||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory|
|3||21.3||Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory|
|2||8.2||Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory|
Source: Primary data
Table indicates that all indicators of non financial motivation practices in Organization are satisfactory except the opportunity for advancement with the higher score of 57.4% to the dissatisfactory and highly dissatisfactory ranks and recognition with the higher score of 45.9% to the dissatisfactory and highly dissatisfactory ranks .The indicator of work itself scored higher with 82% to the satisfactory and highly satisfactory ranks followed by 77% score on sense of personnel achievement and others showed high satisfactory. The implication for this is that, these scores are the ones that still set the organization operating, as some scores depict least ranks.
22.214.171.124. Motivational policies practiced to motivate repatriated middle level managers in Organization.
This item intended to evaluate the practice of motivational polices to motivate staffs in Organization by using different ranks from1=highly agree, 2= Agree, 3= neither agree nor disagree, 4= Disagree, 5=highly disagree
The views of the respondents acquired are summarized in table.
Table 8 : shows the motivational policies practiced to motivate staff in the multinational Organization
|Transport||6||9.9||Agree and highly agree|
|7||77||Disagree and highly disagree|
|8||13.1||Neither agree nor disagree|
|Accommodation||9||14.8||Agree and highly agree|
|8||62.2||Disagree and highly disagree|
|4||23||Neither agree nor disagree|
|Communication||3||49.2||Agree and highly agree|
|2||32.8||Disagree and highly disagree|
|1||18||Neither agree nor disagree|
|Internal promotion||4||23||Agree and highly agree|
|4||55.7||Disagree and highly disagree|
|3||21.3||Neither agree nor disagree|
|Leaves||7||60.6||Agree and highly agree|
|5||24.6||Disagree and highly disagree|
|9||14.8||Neither agree nor disagree|
|Retreats and get together||2||19.7||Agree and highly agree|
|9||63.9||Disagree and highly disagree|
|11||16.4||Neither agree nor disagree|
Source: Primary data
The table mentioned above exhibits the percentages of responses under motivational practices practiced to motivate staff in Organization. It shows that, (77%) disagreed with transport, (62.2%) disagreed with accommodation, this is followed by (55.7%) of disagrees on internal promotion and retreats and get together with (63.9%).
The communication and leaves counts for (49.2%) and (60.6%) to the agree and highly agree ranks respectively. It is from this point of view that, the staffs are dissatisfied with the practices only few are satisfied. This indicates that the organization is likely to get low output due to the presence of dissatisfaction mentioned above.
This item intended to evaluate the appreciation concerning the motivational practices in general used to motivate personnel in Organization by using different ranks from Highly satisfactory(1),Satisfactory(2), Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory(3); Dissatisfactory(4) and Highly dissatisfactory(5). The views of the respondents acquired are summarized in table 4.10
|Financial motivational practices||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||7||39.3|
|Neither satisfactory nor Dissatisfactory||9||44.3|
|Dissatisfactory and Highly dissatisfactory||4||16.4|
|Non financial motivational practices||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||9||47.5|
|Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory||7||39.3|
|Dissatisfactory and Highly dissatisfactory||4||13.1|
|Motivational policies||Highly satisfactory and Satisfactory||4||23|
|Neither satisfactory nor dissatisfactory||7||34.4|
|Highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory||9||42.6|
Source: Primary data
From table, the majority of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed with the financial motivation practices. This is denoted by 44.3% responses while the highly satisfactory and satisfactory scored 47.5% for non financial motivation practices and highly dissatisfactory and dissatisfactory scored 42.6% for motivational policies.
To assess this, the financial and non financial motivational practices should be more improved in the sense of the institution to ahead of the level of staff satisfaction which results into productivity and quality. Finally the institutional policies disclose dissatisfaction where the organization should take into consideration of the fact that, the absence of these practices could negatively impact the institution as motivational policies should totally be rifted up.
This item intended to evaluate the views of respondents concerning the drawbacks caused by the lack of motivational practices in Organization by using different ranks from1=Highly agree, 2= Agree, 3= Neither agree nor disagree, 4= Disagree, 5=Highly disagree.
The views of the respondents acquired are summarized in table
|Reduction of the quality of service||Highly agree and Agree||7||60.6|
|Neither agree nor Disagree||2||19.7|
|Disagree and Highly disagree||11||19.7|
|Lack of punctuality||Highly agree and Agree||3||49.1|
|Neither agree nor Disagree||7||27.9|
|Disagree and Highly disagree||10||23|
|Employees’ turnover (Staff mobility).||Highly agree and Agree||4||65.5|
|Neither agree nor Disagree||8||19.7|
|Disagree and Highly disagree||8||14.8|
Source: Primary data
The above table depicts the deficiency which may arise due to lack of motivational practices hence set forth, it is from this statement that, the reduction of quality services counts for 37(60.6%) which the respondents agreed with positive side (highly agree and agree).This is followed by lack of punctuality with 30(49.1%) to the agree and disagree, the employers staff turnover counts for 40(65.5%) to the agree and highly agree. To express this analysis, the presence of the mentioned shortcomings in institutions if not curtailed, is likely to cause an institution to head to the closure.
4.3 What is likely to be faced with affiliating and readjust to domestic work life in the United States
From this research the repatriation of high turnover is a dependent variable which varies according to the manner the staff are motivated and committed to fulfill the responsibilities of their daily work. The question is what is likely to be faced with affiliating and readjust to domestic work life in the United States? The performance has been evaluated through different indicators such as timeliness, Staff competency, productivity and quality.
This item on timeliness indicated was intended to realize the punctuality in achieving different activities performed by staff as part of their duties. This item is very critical for staff because the nature of work which is generally to save life of people. The options availed to the respondents were scaled as follows: Very rare, rare, neither nor often, often and very often represented by 1-5 respectively. The indicators used to evaluate the timeliness and responses from the survey are summarized in table
Table 11 . Shows responses on the timeliness
|The punctuality at work of staffs is effective||Often and very often||6||26.2|
|Neither rare nor often||7||44.3|
|Rare and very rare||7||29.5|
|Promptly attending to work place||Often and very often||8||62.3|
|Neither rare nor often||7||16.4|
|Rare and very rare||5||21.3|
|The time spent by middle manager to plan for staff||Often and very often||5||57.4|
|Neither rare nor often||6||26.2|
|Rare and very rare||9||16.4|
|The reports are done and submitted to the central level before 15th of the following month||Often and very often||2||32.8|
|Neither rare nor often||9||31.1|
|Rare and very rare||11||36.1|
Source: Primary data
The table above shows the timeliness indicator, the analysis depicts that, the punctuality at work of middle managers pinpoints neither rare nor often with (44.3%) and this implies that the staff wait for long time to find a care provider which cause the claim of people for lack of service delivery. The promptly attending to staff points often and very often with (62.3%), the time spent by each worker respects the standard norms and policies positioned often and very often with (57.4%), the reports done and submitted to the central level of the following month shows rare and very rare with (36.1%). Based on the analysis, the perfections are needed to cover the remaining gaps especially the ones related to the punctuality at work and reporting.
This item on competency intended to realize if employees demonstrate the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their jobs, how much experience and qualifications an employee displays and how much trainings an employee has toward required goals and duties. Competency indicators help supervisors determine the level of an employee’s integrity and credibility toward their duties. This item is very critical for organization staff because the nature of work which is generally to save life of people. The options availed to the respondents were scaled as follows: Yes, No and Not aware by 1-3 respectively.
The indicators used to evaluate the competency and responses from the survey are summarized in table below.
Table 11. Shows responses on the competency
|The managers and middle managers qualified according their work: A2, A1,A0||Yes||8||62.3|
|The middle managers and managers trained||Yes||5||57.4|
|The on-going trainings middle managers and managers provided||Yes||2||36|
|The middle managers and managers experienced||Yes||7||60.7|
Source: Primary data
The data above under competency shows that, the middle managers and managers are qualified according to their work A2, A1, and A0. Exhibits (62.3%) with answer yes, then the middle managers and managers trained is with(57.4%) with yes, their follows with the ongoing training to middle managers and managers provided is with not aware which is (39.3%),middle managers and managers experienced with yes (60.7%). This figures out that, the indicator of competency exists as the staffs are professionally qualified but the ongoing training are not offered continually which should cause inefficient service because the untrained personnel. Therefore Organization must establish the ongoing trainings plan in order to increase the level of staff performance.
This item of productivity indicator intended to realize how produce employees in Organization according to the nature of their work. The productivity was typically linked back to targeted objectives or mandates, and supervisors use them to perform comparison studies between employees. From this information, supervisors can find out which employees are more productive than others. Ultimately, how the productive of an employee can impact the final outcome of his performance evaluation. Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of production (output) to what is expected to produce (inputs). Through this survey, the options availed to the respondents were scaled as follows: Highly agree, Agree, Neither agree nor disagree, Disagree, Highly disagree by 1-5 respectively.
Table 4. 14 Shows responses on the productivity
|The number of clients reaches the monthly target||Agree and highly agree||12||54|
|Neither agree nor disagree||4||23|
|Disagree and Highly disagree||4||23|
|All out clients coming for consultation access to the service not later than one hour.||Agree and Highly agree||2||18|
|Neither agree nor disagree||8||34.5|
|Disagree and highly disagree||9||47.5|
|All our clients receive customer care not later than one hour.||Agree and highly agree||12||60.6|
|Neither agree nor disagree||2||19.7|
|Disagree and disagree||2||19.7|
|The activities realized documented, filled, recorded and reported.||Agree and highly agree||2||12.7|
|Neither nor agree||8||44.1|
|Disagree and disagree||6||36.1|
Source: Primary data
The table above under productivity demonstrates the indicators which have been scored by respondents. The results point out that, the efficiency exists but perfection is still required especially in an accessibility of services to the out clients and documenting, recording and reporting the activities realized. This has a negative implication (low score) on the quality of service score during performance based financing evaluations.
CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The study had proceeded with 20 Middle level repatriated middle level managers who were interviewed. The study found out t that 15% of the managers returned to their mother company at the same level.10% of the managers returned on their mother companies in different companies. However 75% of the managers moved to other companies other the ones which sent them for the expatriation assignments. most of the expatriate s( 28%) spend more than 2 years for their expatriation assignments and the adjustment time was more than 6 months (27%). it was found out that most of the respondents interviewed were on the view that most of the companies needed the repatriation programmes to reduce the number of middle level managers who resigned.
This shows that there was a high turnover rate of the repatriated middle level managers. This is in agreement to the previous studies by Baruch and Altman, 2002 who found out that at least 50% of the repatriated middle level managers quitted the duties as financial services company managers immediately after returning back from their foreign expatriate duties (Baruch & Altman, 2002). Consequently it was noted that about 30% to 40% of repatriates decide to move from their respective organization in a range of 2 years of repatriation assignments compared to non-expatriate middle level managers who account for at least 5-10%. The same study by Baruch and Altman, 2002 concluded that more than 30% of overseas expatriate assignment has been successful leading to high turnover rates of expatriates to their original country.
One of the major issue which was brought out as the major factor of the high turnover of the repatriated managers was lack of the motivation by the concerned organization after the completion of the repatriation process.This is in agreement with the previos studies by Lee & Liu (2005) who concluded that repatriation readjustment was the major indictor of repatriate turn over. Thus the organization should focus on the career development and retention of their workers in the promotion of effective repatriation process. However, supporting repatriates after the completion of the (Black, Gregersen et al. 1992; Lazarova, 2001; Swaak, 1997). Some studies have stressed on the importance of the need of multinational organizations to put more attention in enhancing expatriates’ commitment to the mother company, and consequently developing their commitment to the local work department during the repatriation process (Bonache, 2005; Gregersen and Black, 1996; Hansen, 1997). On the issue of financial motivation practices in the multinational companies, the responses were concerning the indicators of salary, performance based financing and indemnities. The responses showed that the frequency and regularity of salary was well appreciated by staff as regular monthly but they didn’t elucidate if the salary was satisfactory or not. About the performance based financing the responses indicated that it was irregular but by its existence trends to satisfactory rank. However, the suitable frequency and regularity of salary and performance based financing has been regular monthly. The responses showed that the middle level middle level repatriated managers were not satisfied with the indemnities because they were very irregular and some of them not practiced .About non-financial motivation practices the multinational organizations in the United States of America. The responses showed that staffs were only dissatisfied with some few of indicators like opportunity for advancement with higher score of 57.4% and recognition with 45.9 to the dissatisfactory rank. However, 82% showed that the managers concerned were satisfied with their work itself and 77% were satisfied by the sense of personnel achievement. The satisfaction of the staffs with the majority with the non financial motivational practices explains the productivity and quality attained by the institution. Most of the interviewed personnel expressed concerns on the motivational policies in the multinational companies present in the United States of America. The responses indicated that they are highly dissatisfied by the motivational policies. Two over six of proposed indicators were qualified highly disagree and two of them with disagree rank. Only the leaves and communication have been qualified satisfactory as stipulated in the table 4.9. This designates that the staffs were not satisfied with the motivational policies in place. Performance Regarding the timeliness indicator, the responses illustrated that the staffs were neither rare nor often punctual at work effectively with 44.3% while the reports written and submitted on time with rare and very rare ranks (36.1 %).They showed that the prompt attendance to duties was often done with 62.3% while the time spent by a doctor or nurse to each patient respects the medical standard norms are often done with 57.4%.About the competitiveness indicator, the respondents pointed out that the staffs were qualified with the higher percentages. This means that the staffs are qualified and experienced with their work but they don’t benefit the on-going trainings as well as they are needed because as predicted direct beneficiaries they should be the first to know whether trainings are provided or not. On productivity indicator, the responses showed that they agree with the items characterizing productivity proposed. However most of the recent studies have found out that the repatriation process has been mishandled (Gregersen et al., 1998; Stroh et al., 2005). The acceptability of the given strategy by the repatriated middle level managers usually involves the expectations of the business stakeholders such as the employees, customers and the shareholders. The expectations of the stakeholders can be categorized as return, risk and the stakeholders complain after the outcomes of the business strategy. The returns involve the benefits and profits which are got by the share holders. These returns involves the financial and the non financial benefits, for instance the share holders expects the increase of their profits and the employees expects the increase of their salaries and the customers expects the improvement of the services respectively. The higher percentage of 54% agreed that the number of repatriates reaches the monthly target population. This present study is in agreement with the previous study by (Johnston et al., 1993) who Suggested that returning expatriates who are not promoted and rewarded by being given advancement opportunities usually move from their previous companies.Some leaders are cynical. They believe that the people who work in their organization are merely punching a time clock and care very little for the organization and the work it does. Such an attitude can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A far more accurate and fruitful approach is to assume that people really want to do their jobs well. From this point of view, the leader’s task is to help people find the right positions that make full use of their talents and interests and enables them to keep growing and developing throughout their careers. People want to succeed, and the organization can help them to do so by providing regular feedback on the work they are performing in a way that challenges them to look at things from new points of view and to innovate. Rather than tell a manager that he or she must interpret more studies per hour, a good leader will simply provide more feedback on productivity while simultaneously engaging the staff member in discussions on how the organization can operate more efficiently. A focus on productivity can prove highly counterproductive, however, if it ever leads to a neglect of quality.
This high middle level repatriation turn over in the multinational companies of the united stated is becoming a major problem, in the business growth and economy at large. Most of the sampled middle level managers who had participated in the expatriation process were dissatisfied with the exercise. This trend has proved to increase the production cost of the concerned organisations.The organization that are sending this middle level managers to the overseas are consequently loosing the funds which they use to train this employees. The many years spend overseas makes these organization lose resources already invested in huge amount. The companies have been found to be losing the skills and the business experiences and the concurrent business connections that have been gained by the expatriated middle level managers which have been used for the consequent success of business firms. The networks created by expatriates are an important aspect of the social capital that enables multinationals to more successfully manage interdependence”. Chief Executive Officers who have expatriate business experience are usually the best performers in the management of the global organizations. The high repatriate turnover was a biggest business challenge loss faced by the global business companies. Another research study in relation to repatriate turn-over found out that indicates that most of the expatriates who return from the overseas assignments move from their previous companies and organizations as a result of the repatriation mismanagement process .This can be done by mismanaging the returns process and some of them think that they are not appreciated after return. most of the expatriates( 28%) spend more than 2 years for their expatriation assignments and the adjustment time was more than 6 months (27%). it was found out that most of the respondents interviewed were on the view that most of the companies needed the repatriation programmes to reduce the number of middle level managers who resigned. This research study thus recommends for repatriation programmes to be promoted in all companies in the United States of America.Consequenly more research needs to be carried out in more than one company to ascertain the complications of the high turnover nationally.
Aaron, W. A., & Kevin, D. K. (2005). Repatriation adjustment problems and the successful reintegration of expatriates and their families. Journal of Behavioral and
Adler, N. (1981). Re-entry: Managing cross-cultural transitions. Group and Organizational Studies.
Allen, D. and Alvarez, S.A. (1998) ‘Empowering expatriates and organizations to improve repatriation effectiveness’, Human Resource Planning
Baruch, Y., & Altman, Y. (2002). Expatriation and repatriation in MNCs: A taxonomy. Human Resource Management.
Black, J.S. (1992). Coming Home: The relationship of expatriate expectations with repatriation adjustment and job performance. Human Relations.
Black, J.S. (1994). O Kaerinasai: Factors related to Japanese repatriation adjustment, Human Relations
Birdseye, M.G. and Hill, J.S. 1995. Individual, organizational work and environment influences on expatriate turnover tendencies: An empirical study. Journal of International Business Studies.
Bock, T., & Sergeant, J. (2002). Small sample market research. International Journal Of Market Research
Bolino, M.C. and Feldman, D.C. (2000) ‘The antecedents and consequences of underemployment among expatriates’, Journal of Organizational Behavior.
Bossard, A.B. and Peterson, R.B. (2005) ‘The repatriate experience as seen by American expatriates’, Journal of World Business.
Caza, B.B. (2007). Experiences of adversity at work: Toward and identity-based theory of resilience.
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd Ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage
E, H. A., & Udo, A. S. (2011). Towards a strategic model of global franchise expansion. Journal of Retailing.
Etchegaray, J. M. (2013). Understanding Evidence-Based Research Methods: Confirmatory and Exploratory Analysis. Health Environments Research & Design Journal (HERD).
Carpenter, M.A., Sanders, W.G. and Gregersen, H.B. (2001) ‘Bundling human capital with organizational context: the impact of international assignment experience on multina- tional firm performance and CEO pay’, Academy of Management Journal.
Chew, J. 2004. Managing MNC expatriates through crises: A challenge for International Human Resource Management. Research and Practice in Human Resource Management.
Crowne, K. A. (2009). Enhancing knowledge transfer during and after international assignments. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Daily, C.M., Certo, S.T. and Dalton, D.R. (2000) ‘International experience in the executive suite: the path to prosperity?’ Strategic Management Journal.
Galvin, K. (2011). Phenomenology and human science research today. Indo – Pacific Journal of Phenomenology.
Gregersen, H.B., Morrison, A.J. and Black, J.S. (1998) ‘Developing leaders for the global frontier’, Sloan Management Review.
Gupta, A.K. and Govindarajan, V. (1991) ‘Knowledge flows and the structure of control within multinational corporations’,Academy of Management Review.
Harris, J.E. (1989) ‘Moving managers internationally: the care and feeding of expatriates’, Human Resource Planning
Harrison, D.A. and Shaffer, M.A. (2005) ‘Mapping the criterion space for expatriate success: task- and relationship-based
performance, effort and adaptation’, International Journal of Human Resource Management
Harvey, M.G. (1989) ‘Repatriation of corporate executives: an empirical study’, Journal of International Business Studies
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. London: Sage.
Hurn, J 1999, ‘Repatriation – the toughest assignment of all’, Industrial and Commercial Training.
Jassawalla, A. R., & Sashittal, H. C. (2009). Thinking strategically about integrating repatriated managers in MNCs. Human Resource Management.
Jennifer M.G, & Gareth, R. J. (1999). Understanding and managing organizational
behavior. Texas A&M University.
Johnston, M.W., Griffeth, R.W., Burton, S. and Carson, P.P. (1993) ‘An exploratory investigation into the relationship between promotion and turnover: a quasi-experimental longitudinal study’,Journal of Management.
- S., Jacobson, J. M., & Fisher, E. (2013). Learning Through Experience: The Transition From Doctoral Student to Social Work Educator. Journal of Social Work Education,
Julie, H.P., Pruchno, R. A., & Rose, M.S. (1998). Recruiting research participants: A comparison of the costs and effectiveness of five recruitment strategies. The Gerontologist.
Kobrin, S.J. (1988) ‘Expatriate reduction and strategic control in American multinational corporations’, Human Resource Management.
Kostova, T. and Roth, K. (2003) ‘Social capital in multinational corporations and a micro macro model of its formation’,Academy of Management Review
Kvale, S., (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage Productions, Thousand Oaks, California.
Latta, G. 1999. Expatriate policy and practice: A ten-year comparison of trends. Compensation and Benefits Review.
Linhares, R. D. (2008). The impact of a foreign assignment and subsequent repatriation experiences on eight returned expatriates’ personal and professional lives.
Littrell, R. F. (2002). Desirable leadership behaviours of multi-cultural managers in China. The Journal of Management Development.
O’Neil, G. L. and Kramar, R. 1995. Australian Human Resources Management, Melbourne, Pittman.
Malhotra, N., & Birks, D. (2007). Marketing Research: An applied approach, Pearson Education, Limited.
Mary, B. S. (2001). Global mentoring programs: Business relationships beyond traditional borders. Journal of Workplace Learning
Maxwell, G., & Beattie, R. (2004). The ethics of in-company research: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Ethics.
McMellon, C. (2013). New advantages and insights into the living case teaching method: An exploratory study. Journal Of The Academy Of Business & EconomicsOktay,
Montebello, Anthony, PhD (1994). Work Teams that work: Skills for Managing across the Organization. Minnesota.
Morley, M.J. 2003. The management of expatriates: contemporary developments and future challenges. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
Punnett, B.J. and Ricks, D.A. 1997. International Business, London, Blackwell.
Nohria, N. and Ghoshal, S. (1994) ‘Differentiated fit and shared values: alternatives for managing headquarters– subsidiary relations’,Strategic Management Journal.
Reuber, A. and Fischer, E. (1997) ‘The influence of the management team’s international experience on internationalization behaviors of SMEs’, Journal of International Business Studies.
Sandelowski, M. (1995), Sample size in qualitative research. Res. Nurs. Health
Scullion, H. and Starkey, K. 2000. In search of the changing role of the corporate human resource function in the international firm. International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Shay, J.P. and Baack, S.A. (2004) ‘Expatriate assignment, adjustment and effectiveness: an empirical examination of the big picture’, Journal of International Business Studies
Stahl, G.K., Miller, E.L. and Tung, R.L. (2002) ‘toward the boundary less career: a closer look at the expatriate career concept and the perceived implications of an international assignment’, Journal of World Business
Stebbins, R.A, (2001).., ed. exploratory research in the social sciences. Vol. 48. Sag
Stroh, L.K., Gregersen, H.B. and Black, J.S. (1998) ‘Closing the gap: expectations versus reality among repatriates’, Journal of World Business
Stroh, L.K., Black, J.S., Mendenhall, M.E. and Gregersen, H.B.(2005) International Assignments: An Integration of Strategy, Research, and Practice
Suutari, V. (2003). Global managers: Career orientation, career tracks, life-style implications and career commitment. Journal of Managerial Psychology,
Takeuchi, R., Tesluk, P., Yun, S. and Lepak, D. (2005) ‘An integrative view of international experience’, Academy of Management Journal
Tung, R.L. (1998) ‘American expatriates abroad: from neophytes to cosmopolitans’, Journal of World Business
van der Velde, M.E., Bossink, C.J. and Jansen, P.G. (2005) ‘Gender differences in the determinants of the willingness to
accept an international assignment’, Journal of Vocational Behavior
Vroom, H., &Victor. (1995). Work and Motivation.Jossey Bass Inc.SanFrancisco, California
Wayne, S.J., Liden, R.C., Kraimer, M.L. and Graf, I.K. (1999) ‘The role of human capital, motivation and supervisor sponsorship
in predicting career success’, Journal of Organizational Behavior
Welch, D.E. (2003) ‘Globalization of staff movements: beyond cultural adjustment’, Management International Review
Whitelock, J. (2002). Entry and co-operative strategies in international business expansion. International Marketing Review
Wolf, L. E. (2009). IRB policies regarding finder’s fees and role conflicts in recruiting research participants. IRB
Yan, A., Zhu, G. and Hall, D.T. (2002) ‘International assignments for career building: a model of agency relationships and
Psychological contracts’, Academy of Management Review
Yan, R. (1998) ‘Short-term results: the litmus test for success in China’, Harvard Business Review
APPENDIX A. STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL WORK
Academic Honesty Policy
Capella University’s Academic Honesty Policy (3.01.01) holds learners accountable for the integrity of work they submit, which includes but is not limited to discussion postings, assignments, comprehensive exams, and the dissertation or capstone project.
Established in the Policy are the expectations for original work, rationale for the policy, definition of terms that pertain to academic honesty and original work, and disciplinary consequences of academic dishonesty. Also stated in the Policy is the expectation that learners will follow APA rules for citing another person’s ideas or works.
The following standards for original work and definition of plagiarism are discussed in the Policy:
Learners are expected to be the sole authors of their work and to acknowledge the authorship of others’ work through proper citation and reference. Use of another person’s ideas, including another learner’s, without proper reference or citation constitutes plagiarism and academic dishonesty and is prohibited conduct. (p. 1)
Plagiarism is one example of academic dishonesty. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s ideas or work as your own. Plagiarism also includes copying verbatim or rephrasing ideas without properly acknowledging the source by author, date, and publication medium. (p. 2)
Capella University’s Research Misconduct Policy (3.03.06) holds learners accountable for research integrity. What constitutes research misconduct is discussed in the Policy:
Research misconduct includes but is not limited to falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, misappropriation, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the academic community for proposing, conducting, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. (p. 1)
Learners failing to abide by these policies are subject to consequences, including but not limited to dismissal or revocation of the degree.
Statement of Original Work and Signature
I attest that this dissertation or capstone project is my own work. Where I have used the ideas or words of others, I have paraphrased, summarized, or used direct quotes following the guidelines set forth in the APA Publication Manual.
APPENDIX B. Quistionaire
|Open ended quistionaire|
|Proposed Repatriate Interview Questions:
1) Describe the location of your most recent international assignment. (Dialogue Question)
2) How long were you there? From To
3) What was your position? (Probing Questions related to question 1)
4) Describe the type of role you had within the organization during this assignment. (Dialogue Question)
5) Why did the company select you for the assignment?
6) What was the company’s reason for sending an expatriate to do this job? (Probing Questions related to question 4)
7) Describe the knowledge you gained during your expatriate assignment (business, cultural, practical). (Dialogue Question)
8) How did this knowledge impact your approach to work versus your approach in your domestic role? (Probing question related to question 7)
9) Describe your return back to the United States. (Dialogue question)
10) How long ago did you return? (Probing question related to question 9)
11) Did you return to the same work unit? What was it like?
12) Describe the work assignment you were given once returning back to the United States. (Dialogue Question)
13) Was the assignment you were given upon reentry a natural follow-up in terms of capitalizing on what you experienced and learned in the international assignment? If so, in what way?
(Probing question related to question 12)
14) Can you think of a specific decision or situation in your work unit where you have made an important impact that was primarily a result of a capability/perspective you gained during your international experience? If yes, what happened? (probing question related to question 12)