Annotated Bibliography – A Field of Wheat Ross, Sinclair. A Field of Wheat. Queen’s Quarterly. A Field of Wheat. Winnipeg, 1935.

Name

Course

Instructor

Date

Annotated Bibliography – A Field of Wheat

Ross, Sinclair. A Field of Wheat. Queen’s Quarterly. A Field of Wheat. Winnipeg, 1935.

The article in discussion is a story about the devastating effects of sudden hailstorms that results in destroying a family’s entire crop. The head of household, John, is not comfortable in revealing his emotions to the family and thus retreats to the barn where he cries alone in isolation. The work is another example of farming life in the prairies where the setting is back in the depression regime coupled with the threats that families faced in the wake of destructive power from natural forces. The naturalistic impression is ideal for class study especially when we consider the economic prose and lack of sentimentality in literature. Moreover, the theme of hope is evident in the text as we see the manner in which the protagonists hopes that nature would take pity on his family. Some of the literary tools that make studying the text interesting is the use of imagery. By referring to the depression years, the audience is immediately swamped with images of dry, dusty, and dark lands thereby effectively contributing to the tragic mood. In addition to that, the class read makes the audience succumbs to a sense of foreboding. Closely linked to the relevance of the class discussion is that the audience is made to understand that the prose is another example of how nature connects to human emotions. The author selects specific imagery to advances such idea through the life of the protagonist family that is forced to find ways of making a living despite the harshness of the depression. Another powerful tool used that makes the text worthy for study is symbolism. The author has carefully designed different weather patterns so as he may alter the mood of the audience. In other words, the different weathers in the story all have different meanings. Suffice to say that the Canadian novelist and storywriter know his trade.

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Annotated Bibliography – Death of a Young Son by Drowning Artwood, Margaret. Death of a Young Son by Drowning. 2011. 23 November 2014 .

Name

Course

Instructor

Date

Annotated Bibliography – Death of a Young Son by Drowning

Artwood, Margaret. Death of a Young Son by Drowning. 2011. 23 November 2014 <http://www.poetryinvoice.com/poems/death-young-son-drowning&gt;.

The article under discussion is a poem. The poet describes the circumstances that led to the drowning of the persona’s son. At the beginning we are informed of the prowess that the son possessed whenever he went out into the dangerous river where to him it was all about seeking a sense of adventure and discovery. The persona describes the final fruitless acts of trying to save the drowning son after he slid on the bank and was soon consumed by the waters. It is interesting to point out the criticism that the persona had towards her son; she acknowledges the fact that indeed the area was foreign and that the son was all too reckless in plying his curiosity in such as area. The selected poem is an interesting addition for literature classes for a number of reasons. Throughout the poem, the poet is keen on avoiding the direct reference to any form of emotion towards the audience. Instead, she uses imagery to infuse the emotions into the geography of the place. For example, through the use of geography (imagery), the leaner is in a better position to understand the use of juxtaposition in poems. Case in point is the admission by the persona of her naivety in the waters as compared to the son who had prowess. Moreover, we are exposed to a theme of alienation by the reference of the drowning to a distant region to imply that the person was also in deep thoughts. Suffice to say that the article exudes periods of complete camouflage of emotions hence making it relevant in using the poem in studying the use of imagery in class. Indeed the article holds a high credibility for studies considering the poet, Margret Atwood has written over fifty books touching on children’s literature and poetry.

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INTERNATIONAL MARKETING UNIQLO

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING UNIQLO

Executive Summary

In reacting to the growing globalisation and untapped Brazil Market, Uniqlo would like to export its products and services to Brazil.  This business report will explore the internal and external market analysis of Brazilian market for Uniqlo. It will also analyse the capabilities and weaknesses of Uniqlo in the global market. Brazil is the fifth largest population mainly filled an average of between 29 and 31 year old individuals and this is a perfect target market for Uniqlo. The above internal and external analysis on Brazil requires the work of an expert in international marketing. This field covers the guidelines on possible market entries and the strengths that will attain sustain Uniqlo in the new market. As an international market expert, one is able to provide recommendations and possible strategies for value creation, employees, customers, target audience, marketing and promotion and competitive advantage.

The main problem being tackled is the choice of Brazil as the international market selected by Uniqlo if it is in deed a wise choice for the company and performance growth. Solutions to this problem involved gathering information on taxes, imports, exports, customers, demographics and locations from an extensive secondary research. Brazil is an attractive in South America for Uniqlo products mainly due to the upcoming FIFA World Cup and Summer Olympics. Brazil is also an open economy for globalization despite its language barrier. The main recommendation will be to use a franchise or joint venture as a market entry strategy and invest in corporate social responsibility, Brazilians value a company that plucks back into the society. Despite the above conclusions, it is difficult to compete in the clothing industry with the competitors exploring the quick to respond strategy while Uniqlo is exploring cost leadership strategy. This strategy cannot be sustained in the long run.

INTERNATIONAL MARKETING UNIQLO

Introduction

UNIQLO Co. Ltd became a separate holding from Fast Retailing Co. Ltd in 2005. UNIQLO main vision is to become a global leader by the year 2020 with a target of $50 billion annual revenue. Its main competitors include H&M and Inditex. However, UNIQLO through its energetic CEO argues that Apple is its competitor since they are a technology innovation company and not a fashion industry. UNIQLO’s mission statement states that it aims at consistently providing high quality fashionable casual wear for every individual at any place and at the minimum possible market prices. It is in regards to this goal attainment of $ 50 billion annual revenue that UNIQLO wishes to expand to the untapped Brazilian Market.

Brazil though faced with high corruption, regional inequalities, heavy bureaucracy and heavy barriers to growth; it is the perfect choice for UNIQLO global expansion. This is because of the opportunities that include; FIFA World Cup 2014, open economy and the development of economic reforms. However, its success is highly threatened by highly dependence on Japan, possibility of a global recession effect and possible reforms slowing down economic growth.

Background: The environment

Market choice

Brazil is the fifth largest nation in geographical area and a population of approximately 200 million. It has five regions with Southeast region being highly populated at almost one third of the entire population. Portuguese is its main language and the ethnic groups include 49.7 % White, 6.9 % Black, 42.6 % Brown, 0.3 % Amerindian and 0.5 % Asian. Brazil is always prepared for disasters. For example, Brazil had initially predicted a global crisis before it occurred and when it occurred, it was ready to face it. It lowered its interest rates and regulated the inflation rates.

Brazil is an attractive untapped market due to its increased rate of consumption. Also, it is highly attractive in relation to foreign direct investment. Globally it is ranked at the third most attractive state. In addition, Brazil is creative, flexible and adaptable. Lastly, over the past few years, Brazil has enjoyed positive economic conditions.

Internal analysis

UNIQLO cannot only rely on Japan as its main market due to ageing demographics and the greatest worst recession after the Second World War two. Initially, UNIQLO was focused in expanding to the continent of Asia due to easiness of language and strong presence of UNIQLO products. It then drew a corporate strategy on Europe and America and Brazil is a Latin America nation chosen as the target market. In relation to stores, as the sales increases thus boosting profits, the store space tend to decline. UNIQLO clothes are utilitarian and serve every gender in the market and this leaves a less vulnerable trend for the target masses. This is UNIQLO competitive advantage over the competitors quick to respond strategy.

When it comes to location, Brazil is the largest state in South America and the fifth or sixth largest economy globally. Its large population is at least 190 million will be an open consumer market that will contribute to positive financial results and enhance growth in a few years time. Availability of workforce and customers is also high. Unskilled and semi-skilled labour is highly abundant. Researchers describe Brazilian workforce as willing to learn, relatively mobile and very hard-working. However, skilled labour is in short supply (Apparel Retail 2013).

UNIQLO has a sense of happiness and optimism in Brazil with its motto that in deed it is making clothes that will change the world for everybody. Pop culture filled with spirit and energy captures the Brazilian market.

UNIQLO’s main internal strengths include the following. First, it has a strong workforce of about 30000 staff. Secondly, it has been outsourcing the manufacturing process to China due to availability of cheap labour. Thirdly, its cost leadership strategy allows it to offer discount on its products. Fourthly, it is a leading retail store line in Japan. Finally, UNIQLO has a strong international market presence in Britain and Japan

Despite the above mentioned strengths, it has internal weaknesses. First, customers tend to have a low brand recall of UNIQLO products. Secondly, the low switching costs has affected its brand in that it has affected its value since the bargaining power of purchasers is high.

UNIQLO is highly threatened by intense competition in clothes industry and retail business. Also, UNIQLO uses costs leadership strategy, however, this strategy cannot be sustained in the long run. Finally, the switching cost of brand by the suppliers is high.

However, it has some opportunities that it needs to explore in order to become a global retail leader. First, there is an opportunity to increase the global market presence. Secondly, the brand can promote itself having survived in the market for a long period of time. Thirdly, Brazil will be hosting the FIFA World Cup 2014 and Summer Olympics in 2016. This is great opportunity to maximize on the sporting events and tourism sector. Lastly, UNIQLO is a brand that is able to enhance portfolio.

External analysis

Accordign to Bernes Consulting (2013) the main UNIQLO competitors include Benetto, American Apparel, Gap, Inditex, Giordano in China, Esprit, Zara and Li & Fung in Hong Kong. These competitors provide UNIQLO with the threat of substitution and stiff competition.  Globally, the clothing retail business has already matured since purchasers have a wide range of products and brands to select from. This is a reflection of the market in Brazil where seasons affects the rate of demand. Inditex as the main competitor has a competitive advantage of quick response just like Zarra while UNIQLO’s competitive advantage is cost leadership differentiation strategy.

Politically, President Dilma Rousseff has ensured there is political and price stability in Brazil in addition to fighting inflation and corruption. However, there are some power fights between unions and chambers and this affects the conflict of interest. Similarly, on the economic concept, Brazilian economy is supported by falling interest rates, tax rebates and industry incentives. World Bank classifies Brazil as a middle income nation with 11 % poverty levels and high inequality levels. The extreme poverty level is 2.2 %. The domestic market is strong in Brazil with the majority composed of the middle class and a sustainable rate thus it is a solid credit market (Chu, 2012).

It is necessary to consider the exporting and importing concepts associated with Brazil. According to Seratini et al. (2011), over the last few years, Brazil has continued to receive trade surpluses being a global agricultural exporter.  These trade surpluses have been contributed by political stability, devaluation of local currency, improvement on exports and increase in tax incentives for the exporters. At the moment, Brazil is trying to make its exports and imports less bureaucratic from a foreign exchange point of view. The foreign exchange rules in Brazil, forces the importer to fill excess registration requirements in relation to financing the imported goods and services. The Chamber of Foreign Trade (SECEX) and Ministry of Development, Foreign Trade and Industry control the import and export transactions. However, the restrictions on imports situation is changing due to low trade barriers and enhanced global economy.

The Brazilian economy is well diversified in that it offers several international companies an opportunity to export their services and goods into Brazil. To succeed in Brazilian market requires the maximization of the local environment intimate knowledge for both implicit and explicit costs often referred to as ‘Custo Brasil’ as noted by Export.gov (2014). These costs include tax structure that is complex, employee benefits, distribution, environment laws and government procedures. UNIQLO will be faced with the complex legal system, complex customs systems and tariffs problems. The infrastructures are also a problem given the expanding economy.

People analysis

Different research including the Euromonitor (2014) approximates the Brazilian population by 2030 to be 223 million which is at least 12.1 per cent increase from 2012. The death rate has been on the rise with a decline in the fertility rate and birth rate and this will lead to a decline in population growth between 2014 and 2030. There will also be an increase in urbanisation with rural population declining by 11.1 per cent. The median age in Brazil is 29.6 years thus more potential for a consumer market in taste, education and retail products. This population is also a large tax base. This is the target age group for UNIQLO products mainly in the urban areas.

The highest concentration of retail consumption is between 25 and 44 years age bracket with the medium being 31 years. Out of this, 61 % is male and 39 % is female. 55 % of this target market is single. 71 % of this audience have practised some sort of sport but only 67% of this, contribute to a healthy lifestyle. The customers are mainly urban and in Brazil in the next few years the urban population will be highly populated in consideration to people leaving their rural areas to source for better opportunities.

Marketing approach

In Brazil the past retail consumption market was composed of the following; family management, high informality, high financial earnings, low consumer maturity, fragmented market, low credit volume of sales, low internationalization and high inflation. The present status for retail consumption in Brazil include; stable inflation, credit increase, internationalization increase, professional management, focus on the operation, high consumer maturity, minimum wage, relative prices, informality decrease and market towards concentration (Fast Retailing 2013a). The possible retail consumption in the future by the year 2020 include; a new consumer, a lot of technology advancement, stiff competition increase, more market concentration, total formality, a new consumer, high professional management, multiple channels, new global forces, global retail and collaboration. These retail consumption concepts will be used as a marketing approach concept. For example, the marketing team should concentrate on a particular maker and continue globalizing the company’s products to other nations.

According to Fast Retailing (2013b), the main organisation culture in Brazil is reliant on an effective and strong relationship of individuals. For an international company to succeed, it requires a strong local presence and support, usually developed over time in Brazil. Investors are encouraged to participate in Brazil local trade as an entry strategy, so as to be able to pre-screen the potential retailers and customers. Using a franchise or licensing, international representative, joint ventures and contract manufacturing will be some of the available market entry options. For UNIQLO, franchising or joint venture gives it a local touch to its concept its acceptability will be ease in the foreign market. Brazilians identify more with their own than with foreigners.

Strategic recommendations

Value co—creation

Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2004) define value creation as the process where customers and companies play the distinctive role of consumer and producer respectively. It a process controlled only by the firms as a one way flow from the company to the consumer. It is therefore, the main concept in service marketing. In the case for UNIQLO it has to produce clothes for the Brazilian customers. this value is co-created through a mutual effort between the employees, company, shareholders, customers, government and other stakeholders. Usually, value creation does not occur until the product or service on sale or an item on offer such as clothes sold has been used since perceptions and experience determine value. In Brazil, UNIQLO is creating value by first, creating job opportunities in their retail stores thus reducing poverty and improving the standards of living.

Corporate Social Responsibility

As a global clothing retailer, UNIQLO should create a volunteer and donation program that will distribute clothes to the challenged individuals in Brazil. The program is suggested to last at least 10 weeks. The donated items such as tights, t-shirts should and Ultra Light Down jackets favour men, children and women. This program should organize local volunteers so as to visit the local communities and deliver at least $2.2 million worth of clothes. The volunteers should be both customers and employees. Also, UNIQLO should partner with the Mayor’s office so as to select the location mainly in need of clothes. In addition, UNIQLO should post the invitation of volunteers on its website for every individual willing to participate to get details.

Market outreach

Over the next decade, Ryall (2011) predicts that UNIQLO will be a global clothing retailer to be reckoned. However, it will be faced with different problems such as poor public relations. Based on outsourcing its ideas to manufacturing firms in China, UNIQLO is able to use cheap labour but on high quality productions.

As a global company, Brazil presents the challenge of a language barrier. Portuguese is not yet a mature trading language and English is its second trading language but it has not yet developed to the status of fluency since the surrounding area is mainly Spanish speaking nations. Secondly, poverty is a major issue. Thirdly, crime rate is still high in Brazil.

Brazil is a leading agricultural export nation and importing clothes will add to its untapped market. Also, Brazil is the World’s seventh largest economy in relation to the nominal gross domestic product and by the purchasing power of customers. From 2012, it has been rated among the top largest growing economies globally with a population of approximately 200 million. in addition, tourism is a major growing economy for the nation. For instance the 2014 FIFA World Cup will be a perfect market to explore. However, these strengths are threatened. First, REAL, Brazilian currency is growing stronger and its strength will challenge the export and import driven economy by slowing it down. Secondly, Brazil is mainly an export and not an import nation.

Brand equity and promotional opportunities

Blog users were viewed by UNIQLO as the main brand awareness without a feeling that the users were promoting. The blog features girls wearing UNIQLO’s clothes, 5-second dance and 5-second clock animation. This is a recommended promotional method in Brazil since their internet and Information Technology infrastructures are strong in the urban areas.

In addition to using blogs as a promotional tool, door to door selling will also market UNIQLO clothes. Door to door selling is essential in a new market. This promotion process ensures the sales teams are able to explain the key features of every product to customers within their network as argued by Taiar (2012). The sales tea will be playing the role of the producer and also as customers thus creating value. Secondly, raising literacy is the key in areas with children. Thirdly, production of sweat pants promotes proper sanitation and this is value creation.

Recommendations and conclusions

In conclusion, UNIQLO expanding to Brazil is an excellent idea. UNIGLO should enter the Brazilian market as a joint venture or franchise. UNIGLO should also change its cost leadership strategy into a quick to respond strategy so as to compete with its competitors adequately. This cost leadership and differentiation strategy is not highly sustainable in the long run. The main target market should be the urban middle age customer of between 29 and 3 years, though every customer should e treated equally with respect so as to create value.

Reference

Apparel Retail in Brazil (2013), Apparel Retail in Brazil: MarketLine Indsutry Profile, MarketLine.

Berners Consulting (2013), Market Entry Brazil: Successful planning and implementation, World Trade Centre: Sao Paulo.

Chu, J. (2012), Bridging the gap, Fast Company, 88-95.

Euromonitor (2014), UNIQLO global business.

Export.gov (2014), Entering the Brazil market.

Fast Retailing Co. Ltd. (2013). Company Profile: Fast Retailing Co. Ltd, Datamonitor.

Fast Retailing Co Ltd. (2013), Fast Retailing Co. Ltd: MarketLine Industry Profile, MarketLine.

Prahalad, C. K. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004), Co-creating unique value with customers, Strategy & Leadership, 32(3), 4-9.

Ryall, J. (2011), Uniqlo means business with ambitious global plans, Fast Retailing.

Sanchanta, M. (2010), Corporate News: Uniqlo plans for a global puch: Japan’s Fast Retailing to open clothing chnain stores in India and Brazil, Expand in China, Wall Street Journal, 3.

Serafini, E. et al. (2011), Doing business in Brazil, Ernst & Young Terco.

Taiar, A. (2012), Doing business in Brazil, HSBC: International Banking Centre.

Field Notes at Math Classroom

Field Notes at Math Classroom

Name

Institution

Introduction

In this research paper, I am going to present my views and observations about Gompers Preparatory Academy (GPA) mathematics class. GPA works in partnership with UCSD to offering a rigorous program of instructions to high school college education in order to prepare students for college education. The core foundations upon which this school is founded made me curious and wanted to learn about some few issues. My main concern was a mathematics class, a field in which I had prior issues to deal with and a few questions I wanted answers on.

As noted in the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, mathematical classrooms have been envisioned for reform and this reform movement is underway. Students not only develop competency in computation skills in a mathematical class, but they are also destined to obtaining mathematical reasoning and its application. For students to meet the standards of NCTM mathematical discourse, they not only need to discuss their mathematical reasoning with their teacher on a regular basis but they should also endeavor to back their reasoning with the relevant basis; both in mathematical discourse and in writing. The question that lingers always in my mind is whether teachers believe in reform-based method of teaching or traditional method? At GPA, I go to one class and the teacher there explained to me that she believed the reform-based method is very effective as compared to the traditional method.

Statistics from various available research studiers agree that quality mathematical classes for high school students can only be accomplished by a highly trained teacher.

While in the classroom at GPA, I get an opportunity to observe a mixture of both the teacher’s knowledge of the subject and teaching method. I also notice some examples of reform-based method of teaching, teaching methods of the teacher and student’s engagement and behavior to the subject. While I am still seated, some road blocks seem to be apparent to me. Together with raising these road blocks, I will also raise some of the questions regarding the long-term effects of the teaching methods of this teacher. This research paper focuses several issues that are observed in one class at GPA and I will attempt to give an insight into what defines mathematical lessons in our contemporary high schools.

Research Methods

Research Context

This research paper is a collection of notes taken during my five different visits to GPA mathematical classroom, in a two-week period of time. This research report is based on notes taken during five separate visits to a local high school mathematical classroom, over a two-week time period. During my time here, I observe one teacher known as Ms. Kinney and I should observe either algebra or college geometry class. Because my objective is to observe a more mature class, I decide to observe the college geometry class. I decide not to interact with students and I choose to remain as inconspicuous as much as possible. The class consists of 20 students and takes 45 minutes. I realize that Ms. Kinney teaches the class most of the time, but I also realize that she is also helped by Mr. Jones occasionally. I am interested mostly in quadrilaterals.

Researcher’s Expectations

Before beginning my observation, I have my own expectations about this class and the teacher. I expect a well-behave class, I expect the teacher to at least discipline indiscipline students, I also expect the teacher to challenge students on their knowledge about the subject and finally I expect the class lesson to follow this sequence: collection of homework, taking of class notes by students, and assignment to be given for the next day.

Data Collection and Analysis

I decide to use field observation method. I am right in the class and take a seat to the back much earlier than any student. I record everything about Ms. Kinney’s teaching style and the students’ responses to her teaching style.

Limitations

I think being a college student observing high school students, many of the actions could be done to catch my attention

Another limitation is that I myself have never been a teacher and therefore my conclusions may not be appropriate.

Observations

Teaching reform vs. traditional-based math

As an observer in this classroom, I believe that Ms. Kinney’s goal is to use a reform-based method of teaching. At some point, she tells me” I will do anything to see my students as interacting more possible than seeing them asleep while I am in class”. Occasionally, I observe Ms. Kinney use reform-based method but she almost immediately reverts back to her traditional method.

Student Comprehension

I get a general sense that most of the students in this class are not very conversant with mathematics. I realize that most of the time here students are learning about features of quadrilaterals.

Student Behavior

I observe that each class uses most of its time to calm down students who are making noise. Suddenly the class is very noise and I see Ms. Kinney say this, “all class put your head on the desk”. While at this state, she continues, “I know you are good students and if you listen carefully, you will pass your exams and become prominent people in future. After this period, I will teach you shortly and then give you time to talk”.  After here, all the students are calm but I observe that Ms. Kinney’s method of calming them has taken 15 minutes.

Student Engagement

I also notice that most of the students in this class are not as engaged as they are taught in a mathematical class. Every time Ms. Kinney puts up a warm up practice question, most students just write and wait for the Mr. Kinney to give the answer or perhaps another student to provide an answer.  While waiting for the answers, the students keep on talking to their friends on different issues that are not related to the topic at hand.

Implications

Several questions came up after my observation: would a reform-based method have worked to this particular class? Were these students immature to handle the questions presented to them by Ms. Kinney? Another concern in this Kinney class is about this students who are about to enter college but then cannot be able to fully handle some simple geometry.

FIELD NOTES

Name:

Professor:

Institution:

Date:

FIELD NOTES

The field of my research was as an institution known as Gromper Middle School GPA and I studied the special education class. In this type of class, the instructor’s name is Ms. Bianca. The day I first enter the class I come across many variations from what my expectation are more especially since I had never before attended any special class there before. As the lesson commence here, two assistants are seen. Every student is seen being highly active and noisy.  My physical observation lets me into knowing the kind of characters that these students do possess. One of them comes on to introduce himself to me as Ms. Wang the tutor. The class teacher, Ms.Bianca poses all the directives that clearly stipulate the nature of the assignments that thesespecial needs education students are planning to do during this lesson.Despite the fact that she takes too much effort in explaining the instruction s to the students, only a negligible number of them are ready to take them in. None of the students lays focus on Ms. Bianca. The lesson is part of a course which is geared into aiding these students in finishing their assignments. My physical observation tells me that eight of these students have ADHD. Additionally, one more student has been cross examined to be found that he has a defiant kind of demeanor. This one student can be well described as oppositely defiant. A clear indication that he does the intricate opposite of what he is asked to carry out. The oppositely defiant student has been segregated from the other students and thus he owns his own desk- that is well offset from the rest of the other students. These other students can be seen to be well arranged in seats which are along   three tables located on one of the sides of the room. This class lacks a teacher assistant.

The room is bright due to the fact that one of is walls is composed on purely windows. The other three walls have various assignments and other works aimed at the students posed on them. There are many signs which as per my understanding are meant to make the students recall various rules, the letters of the alphabetical order as well as numerals. These are well located where none of these students can struggle seeing them. On the opposite side of the classroom, two dry erase boards are evident. Furthermore in this room, there can be seen ample space for locations of cubes for every special needed student of this classroom where they can keep their belongings safely.

From what I observed, most of the students remained bored during the entire class. This can be attributed to the fact that each of the students as got his or her own special needs, they are varied, yet they only have one teacher controlling them. This is really hectic for they teacher and the kids themselves are every unlikely to find this kind of class engaging them.

So as to overcome the foresaid kind of problem, it is recommended that the class need to be sub-divide into various groupings. With this kind of approach, the class will turn into an interesting kind of class thus relevant to many individuals. In occasion whereby the tasks need new learning skills, is common that the human brain is eager and thus focused with learning. What follows is practicing and then applies the new skills. Ii this class, each student was observed doing different things in subgroups. This case of different ions is thus sound for the case here. However, the setting necessitating differentiation hereis different form where the students in class are differentiated on the basis of being clever or dumb. At times, the whole group takes responsibility for the completion of the task assigned to them. Contrary, in other groupings, each individual does the work on their own, but cooperation is essential for the completion of the work. In this kind of setup, skills are acquired as well as perseverance gained though in some scenarios, failure is frequent. As a remedy, direct instruction is spearheaded, however,this ought to be done in small bursts on a need to know basis.

In normal learning environments, it is obvious that some application take quite some substantial amount of time as other just take a few minutes for their completion. Typical story problems are absolutely not realistic thus they do not involve deep thinking. Thus, the use of prompts else situation which demand just a few days of thinking and action for their completion is thus a solution. Such kinds of problems usually possessmany corrects solutions, so longs as the approach employed is justifiable. Once the students have set up various equations which they find difficulties in solving, they can go to their tutor for consultations either as a group thus necessitation direct teaching on this sort of technique.Therefore, these are able to keep track of the skills they acquire with a toolbox, perhaps an envelope, full of cards that symbolize the skills they have learnt over time. The content that is learnt inclass is prepared by the types of problems that each of the skills is used for, not the chapter that Pearson has settled on putting it on.

Next I moved into the GPA’s middle school. This was established in 2009 in a partnership with UCSD. The school offers rigoroustype of high school college preparatoryprogram that has been well drafted so as to prepare students for college. The school’s program incorporated honors also advanced placement courses in field’shistory, Mathematics, science, and English. The school’s students are  training ways of thinking  in a critical way and developing analytical skills which ultimately prepares them  for professional relations which they poses with the teacher. The schools teachers are professionally prepared in ways that are geared into meeting the students’ academic needs besides social needs. The staff is employed following a thorough application process which incorporatesthe parents, staff members and the student’s panelist owing to the fact that the school, chartered. The school’s activities, curriculum, extracurricular as well as instruction are carefully set up so as to create great kind of partnership between homes also the school environment. Each of the students’s attending college classes that are focused on REACH values.  This school is committed into preparing high school students into their next stage of life, through their movement from home into the university, community as well as the working world. Plans are there to extend the facility of the school, so that coming the following year, there will be a high school with grade 9 and 10.

The next move involved a survey to Gompers Charter School (GCMS) that was started in 2005 in partnership with USCD together with the community. This is aimed at supporting, challenging besides loving the adolescents in due course the interval as they transition from elementary school to high school. The students are encouraged in the course of their academic development to depict REACH values. Emotional support is provided to the students in the school at all costs besides intellectual challenge. In the school, every spring, eight grade students are involved in adventure of their lifetime: the Historical Students Tours, during which they explore Washington D.C also other sights on the east coast. Middle schools years are full of energy, transition also excitement. GPA is keen on balancing middle school years through a focus on four chief elements that include REACH values, a community of friends, positive teacher relationships also a center of academic excellence.

Challenges of Development

1. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES

1.1

In the 2013 Human development Report, China had an HDI of 0.699. The accelerated progress in human development is medium. The basic dimensions of human development are long and healthy life, access to knowledge and the standards of living. Chinas life expectancy at birth is 73.3 percent, with 11.7 expected years of schooling, 7.5 mean years of schooling and 7, 945 GNI per capita. The HDI trend shows that with a HDI of 0.699 and above the average of medium human development of 0.683, China is progressing to the high human development group. The 0.699 HDI represents a remarkable 72 percent rise in HDI from 0.407 in 1980. China has an average year increase of 1.7 percent (Wollscheid, 2014). The rise is due to china’s investment in agriculture, creation of high quality education, provision of high quality healthcare, enhancing of equity, establishment of special economic zones and promotion of social cohesion. For high human development, China requires more than improving the HDI components but ensuring equality in income, sustainable consumption, reducing military spending and enhancing social cohesion.

1.2

There are four main challenges to china’s development. There is the unbalanced structure of urban and rural populations. There is increasing urban population with approximately 200-250 million people moving into the cities however are still trapped in rural living standards (Morrison, 2013). Secondly china has conflict between low and high- income population. There is a widening gap between the different social classes as well as geographic areas. China also faces serious conflicts between employers and workers. The government tried to solve this conflict through legalizing a labor code that would regulate the registered 40 million entrepreneurs along with other 10 million economic entities. There are similar difficulties between government officials and citizens leading to peoples’ mistrust in governance (Morrison, 2013). Steps have to be taken to overcome problems such as bureaucracies, alienation from people and corruption. To solve the problems, china has deepened its economic structural reform, implemented an innovation-driven development strategy, strategically adjusting its economic structure, integrated urban and rural development as well as promoted improvements to its open economy.

1.3

In recent years, China has increased its economic exchanges with neighboring countries. The state has become more concerned of its relations with main powerhouses such as Singapore and Japan, as well as other neighbors such as Mongolia, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia. Although competing across different industries, China has given more significance to its allies such as Indonesia, Japan, Vietnam, and Singapore. Countries such as Singapore and Indonesia have a leading role in china’s economic development and in other ASEAN countries. They have helped china to gain more regional economic influence. However China faces development challenges from bordering states with territorial disputes. There are territorial disputes with Japan and Vietnam (Morrison, 2013). Land seizures as well as environmental degradation from economic activities causes more disputes with neighboring states and hinder economic development. With India, china has difficulties in border relations but still maintain extensive trade relations, while Vietnam is a main trade partner with China.

2. GENDER

2.1

Gender differences are very influential to education and aspirations as well as a person’s life chances. Gender influences the differences in life chances between boys and girls, which later cause inequalities in socio-economic status. For example, in China, boys have value more than girls and this has affected life chances for girls as they are adversely affected. There are lower expectations of girls than boys and girls who do not have sufficient family support hence cannot reach full potential. Girls also lack social support and are not protected against vulnerabilities such as sexual exploitation. China also has 20 percent lower working age women in urban areas than men. Women get fired disproportionately than men and are also hired at lower rates than men. It shows how gender has affected women’s life chances in global south (PALUDI, 2013).

There is also the concept of “leftover” women that stigmatizes urban, educated women so that they leave their search for higher education for better jobs but instead pressure them to get married. The declining female participation in development is a major problem in the global south. Learning institutions also have gender-based quotas favoring the admissions of men over women. It limits women life chances to better paid jobs. Women are also sexually harassed at workplaces (PALUDI, 2013). The global south economies may continue to develop and more women may continue to drop out from the workforce, but it comes at a cost of deepening and destabilizing gender inequality.

2.2

The cooperative conflict concept as referred by Sen is the bargaining that exists between household members over the decisions that affect them. It is used to explain on the gender relations and how they influence well-being. Cooperative conflict is a model of intrahousehold bargaining that was theorizes and assists in understanding the power differentials that exist between men and women in their households. The model by Sen predicts that in a certain relationship, the individual with bargained outcomes that are in close conformity to their preferences than the preference of the other party; has more self-interest (in actuality as well as self-perception); has the greatest household income contribution; and is in a favorable breakdown position, hence will lose less if defeated (MORRIS, 2009).

3. AGRICULTURE

3.1

Risk aversion by peasant farmers means that peasant farmers are not willing to adapt new types of seeds, new planning practices or even new fertilizers that may improve average yields, due to the substantial variations in outcomes resulting from the new practices. For a new farming practice, even with a small long-term variance, usually has high variance because the novelties require experimentation. At start-up, the farmer would be required to change their skills in order to accommodate new practice into the specifics of their local situation. Most farmers are economically precarious hence prefer the tried-and-true farming practices (Binswanger, & Sillers, 1983).

3.2

Various factors converge and make food security a global issue. There is increase in global population, change in diets, limited access to water, and increased costs for fertilizer and fuel. Countries such as china and India have changed their consumption patterns and the issue of climate change has also led to extreme weather patterns that hinder food production. Complexity of the current food crisis is also due to poor harvests, flooding and drought due to climate change, the imbalance between agriculture and biofuels, low food stocks, changing consumption patterns, low agricultural investment, increased oil prices as well as poor political leadership (BEHNASSI et al., 2011). There are various promising prospects to avoid food shortages. The Food and Agriculture Organization has started to invest in rural markets along with rural infrastructure by coming up with public programs that enhance long-term economic growth for the poor. It provides short-term food security through vouchers for seeds, and fertilizer, for increase agricultural production. Others are subsidies as safety nets to improve households’ purchasing power. The World Food Programme has come up with “Food for Assets” program to provide new infrastructure, and new skills for increase food production. The International Water Management Institute has also come up with water investments and policies to upgrade the management of rainfall and runoff for more diversify in food production. USAID has also assisted in access to finance and agricultural technology (BEHNASSI et al., 2011).

3.3

There are various key difficulties in the formulation of agricultural policies in the global south. Most countries do not have the understanding of current agricultural policy making processes. The main challenges they face in policy formulation include inadequate funding, availability of weak research-extension farmer input supplier linkages, inadequate logistical support, as well as poor management and coordination of staff. Policy makers are faced with conflicting agendas from sectors such as trade, climate and energy. Due to lack of access to information, agricultural policy researchers do not understand the initiative of the private sector in issues such as pricing of fertilizer and output. There is also the imbalance between Tax policies and agricultural policies due to political reasons. The process also suffers from ineffective participation of stakeholders, who play a passive role in policy formulation leading to systemic mistakes in new policies. Conflict between other sectors is also unavoidable (BEHNASSI et al., 2011).

4. Africa

4.1

There are various development challenges that face Africa today. The first challenge is the increasing youth population that creates high unemployment levels. 70 percent of Africa’s population is the youth. Unemployment of the youth has led to high youth poverty levels in Ethiopia, Uganda, Zambia and Nigeria. The second issue is poverty and inequalities. Poverty rates have significantly declined but, inequities and disparities have led to high income inequality gap. Africans per capita income is smaller than the world average and has remained stagnant. Disparities in basic services like health, education as well as social participation prevent Africans from realizing their potential, and hinder social and economic development (KREMER, & LIESHOUT, 2009).

Africa is finding it hard to do business due to unstable policy regimes, lack of public sector reforms, and weak fiscal as well as operational independent judiciary. Small and medium enterprises do not gain from fiscal, and policy incentives in the public sector. Another issue is the conflicts that tear countries apart. The international community has been intervening in conflicts in Mali, Congo and Guinea Bissau. African countries do not often agree on governance reforms, limiting investments and weakening domestic economies (KREMER, & LIESHOUT, 2009).

Africa is addressing its problems though first investing in education. African countries are starting to provide must free and compulsory elementary education. Good governance is also reducing conflicts among nations and regions. Effective leadership through welfare and social structures improve people’s access to basic services. African is also investing heavily in agriculture and industries for job creation. Through enlightening people on family planning, Africa continues to address poverty. Through regional and international partnerships, Africa encourages foreign investment and trade for economic development. Africa is moving away from agreements with Western countries that do not have mutual benefits and starting to partner with emerging markets such as China through bilateral agreements that allow exchange of technology and energy for agricultural products. There is more trade with China and the Gulf States that include exchange of natural resources for credits and more imports from the continent. With key reforms in foreign investment policies, Africa is protecting its domestic markets, as well as attracting investments in key sectors such as the energy industry for increased economic production (KREMER, & LIESHOUT, 2009).

5. AID

5.1

Aid and development in the global south is influenced by the history of a country and its colony. Global south countries have different histories and political systems that were inherited from their colonies. Aid and development is influenced by colonially-drawn boundaries that are responsible for creating the problem initially. For example, Global south countries that were not aligned to a first or a second world country in the Cold War were offered aid to become allies of either the United States or the Soviet Union. These Third World countries adopted either capitalism or communism economies and received aid from the side they supported. Since then, Global south countries have become recipients of aid from the West for economic development. Africa, Asia and Latin America have become targets for aid from Western governments and have used it for industrialization and economic growth. But overdependence on aid by the Third World economies has led to underdevelopment. Some countries have failed due to the traditional conventional approaches from the West leading to more disparity between the rich and poor (BAKER, 2014).

5.2

Since 2000, ‘doing good’ for development changed with the introduction of partnerships with multilateral organizations, donors as well as partner countries. There was the development of the partnership approach to development assistance that includes the sector approach as well as poverty reduction strategies. It introduced of Aid effectiveness approach where donors have to enter into agreements to ensure better harmonization, alignment, as well as results. Earlier, assistance was through projects and evaluation. The donor was the only one to evaluate for efficiency and effectiveness of the projects. However since 2000, there have been structural adjustment policies that require development evaluation beyond the project level. Evaluation is more complex and involves all policy-based approaches. All participating stakeholders are evaluated for accountability (Collier, & Dollar, 2001).

Aid effectiveness has since assisted donors and aid agencies to be more effective and have a positive impact. Through the new partnership approach, donors and recipient countries harmonized their activities to meet the Millennium Development Goals of poverty reduction. The principle of partnership required mobilization of national governments, the development agencies, and civil society to a single national strategy through a well-coordinated approach. There were emerging aid providers that still received aid from western countries. They included China, India, Korea, Turkey, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, and Brazil, among others. Multinational corporations, international NGOs, the civil society and philanthropists also became major donors (Collier, & Dollar, 2001).

5.3

The MDGs have had a profound difference in many people’s lives. There has a been a reduction in Global poverty by almost a half and over 90 percent children in developing regions can access primary education. Disparities between the enrolment of boys and girls have narrowed. There are also gains in the fight against diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis. Child deaths before age five have also decline by half in the past decade (Wilkinson, & Hulme, 2012).

Countries such as Brazil have achieved their targets while Benin has lost track to realize its goals. Other successes include reduction in poverty population in china from 452 million people to 278 million. The goal to half the amount of people surviving on less than $1 daily was realized in 2008 due to reduction in poverty in China, India and East Asia (Wilkinson, & Hulme, 2012). More has to be done to meet targets on sanitation, education and child mortality.

The post-2015 development agenda has the prospects of dealing with various issues that include ending poverty and hunger, improvement of health and education, improving the sustainability of cities, combating climate change, and protection of oceans and forests. There are 5 main dimensions. The first is to leave no one behind by not only reducing poverty but ending poverty. The second puts sustainable development at the core through improving climate change and eradicating environmental degradation. Third prospect is transforming economies for jobs as well as inclusive growth through harnessing innovation, business potential and technology to diversify economies. Fourth is enhancing peace, openness and accountability in institutions through emphasis on good governance. The last is forging a new partnership for solidarity, mutual accountability and cooperation of civil society organizations, local and national governments, the scientific and academic community, multilateral institutions, and businesses. It is an ambitious and long-term agenda that is will change people’s lives and provide protection of the planet for many future generations (Wilkinson, & Hulme, 2012).

References

BAKER, A. (2014). Shaping the developing world: the West, the South, and the natural world.

BEHNASSI, M., DRAGGAN, S., & SANNI YAYA, H. (2011). Global food insecurity rethinking agricultural and rural development paradigm and policy. Dordrecht, Springer. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=690916.

Binswanger, H. P., & Sillers, D. A. (1983). Risk aversion and credit constraints in farmers’ decisionmaking: A reinterpretation. The Journal of Development Studies, 20(1), 5-21.

Collier, P., & Dollar, D. (2001). Can the world cut poverty in half? How policy reform and effective aid can meet international development goals. World development, 29(11), 1787-1802.

KREMER, M., & LIESHOUT, P. V. (2009). Doing good or doing better: development policies in a globalizing world. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.

MORRIS, C. W. (2009). Amartya Sen. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Morrison, W. M. (2013, March). China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service.

PALUDI, M. A. (2013). Women and management: global issues and promising solutions. Santa Barbara, Calif, Praeger.

Wilkinson, R., & Hulme, D. (Eds.). (2012). The Millennium Development Goals and beyond: global development after 2015 (Vol. 65). Routledge.

Wollscheid, C. (2014). China: Economic Review and Outlook 2013-2020.