Social Problems: A Five Decade Review

Social Problems: A Five Decade Review

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Social Problems: A Five Decade Review

As identified in previous readings, social problems are undesirable situations across the country and even the globe. Despite being a developed nation, the USA has had a protracted war with poverty. In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared “war on Poverty”. In his strategy to fight poverty, he targeted an improvement in education, increase in access to quality healthcare, access to economic resources for the poor in order to make ends meet, and increase in the number of jobs. Fifty years down the line, America has made visible steps towards ensuring that it completely eradicates poverty from its borders and ensure that people can be self-dependent. This paper analysis the state of poverty in the USA for the last fifty years and efforts that have been made to eradicate it. Using a major theoretical framework, the paper seeks to create deeper understanding of the problem and its impacts on the future of the society and finally suggesting how the situation can be remedied.

The percentage of the population in poverty in USA has reduced from 1968 to 2012. However, despite this, there is still a lot that will need to be done before the country completely gets rid of poverty. In .2012, approximately 49.7 million Americans were living below the poverty line. This included 13.4 million children. While USA is considered to be an economic power house, only 50% of the country’s lover income earners are able to make it out of this bracket over a period of 20 years. Further, the issue of poverty seems to be deep rooted. About 40% of the differences in the income of parents today is reflected in the children’s income in future. This shows the strong and lingering impacts that result from growing up in poverty. The battle with poverty in the USA has not been fought without the help of NGOs. Instead, for the last fifty years, the fight has been through a mutual understanding between the government and NGOs. A program that is designed to increase the level of economic security was used to lift over 45 million Americans from poverty in 2012 alone (So, 2014). Between 1968 and 2012, the program had lifted an average pf 27million people from poverty which culminates to avoiding approximately 1.2 billion “person years” of poverty during this period. Within this period, social security has also contributed a lot in ensuring that the elderly do not fall into poverty. In 2012, social security reduced the poverty rate by 8.5% among all individuals while it reduced the same by 39.9% among the people above the age of 65%. The unemployment Insurance (UI) reduced poverty by 0.8% (The Council of Economic Advisors, 2014). The change in employment status is significant to the country’s fight against poverty as unemployment is one of the main predictors of poverty. The rates of poverty have also fallen across all races and ethnic group and the gaps by race have slightly shrunk from those in the previously years. However, there are still major gaps that need to be speedily addressed. In 1995, approximately 60% of the African Americans were living in poverty compared to only 20% of the whites. Currently, the poverty rate for African Americans stands at 27.8%. However, this is still twice the rate for whites. This shows that the problem of poverty is not isolated from other social problems such as racism.

Sociologists have come up with different theories to approach the issue of poverty. One of the theories that they have relied on is the theory of social conflict. According to this theory, since there is an enormous amount of wealth in the modern societies, there is no reason why some parts of the population should live without access to t=essential amenities and meeting basic needs. According to conflict theorists, this situation only exists because the people in power want it to exist. They assert that the working poor are paid very low wages while their employers make huge profits from their work. For the unemployed, the social theorists view them as victims of this power structure. The wealthy impose great opposition on programs that can be used on eradicating unemployment such as job training and education because they do not want to support these projects through paying extra taxes. To escape blame, the wealthy people try to blame individualism as the main cause of poverty and state that it results from the poor failing to put in enough effort. They instead ignore the social injustices and circumstances that are beyond the control of individuals. Following this, the wealthy engage in charitable activities in the bid to help the poor. While the world applauds these efforts, social conflict theorists observe this as a way of the government and other wealthy people to perpetuate economic inequality and poverty (Ikejiaku, 2012). This is because welfares and the charities only serve to quell the social unrest that would otherwise threaten the status quo. By carefully analyzing the actions of the government and the wealthy, one realizes that the welfares and charities are a way of entrenching them and legitimizing their positions. When the poor are given handouts, all they do is that they learn to become dependent rather than independent. They also acknowledge that the rich and the government are at a higher economic status than they are. Due to these seemingly “acts of good faith”, the poor do not get the opportunity to sit and review the numerous injustices that they have suffered for them to remain in their position of poverty. Instead, they only think of thanking the government and other charities for providing a single day’s meal (Bobo & Fox, 2003). Further, social conflict theorists state that after a while, the poor accept the judgment that the rest of the people pass on them and they adjust to this life and actually portray signs of lack of ambition to come out of this class. The conflict theorists do not view poverty as being essential or functional in any way (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2009). Instead, they view it as a situation that arises because some people are eager to benefit from the poverty of other people. Poverty eventually becomes a problem if some people feel that the manner in which resources are distributed is unjust and that the situation should be remedied.

Social conflict theorists believe that the only way of resolving the current poverty crisis is through a political system that agrees to empower the poor. Any programs that are laid out without the agreement of the political class are doomed to fail. However, this is not likely to happen because the political class would like to remain in power. Therefore, the solution must come from the poor. The poor should become organized in political groups that can agitate for their rights (Kneebone & Berube, 2014). Currently, poverty is a social problem that has resulted in people from different corners expressing concerns. As a result, a social problem must be solved through a movement that closely engages the society. Therefore, it is only through political enlightenment that the poor can come out of the current situation. Since there are available resources for everyone, the only problem is the distribution. Therefore, the group that holds the powers of distribution determines the people likely to live in poverty. If the poor become politically enlightened, they will have the ability to champion for their rights and for a better system of distribution of resources (Kotler & Lee, 2009). Despite some theorists arguing that some of the people are poor because they do not work hard, with a weak foundation guiding policy making, it becomes very difficult for the people to come out of poverty. Therefore, an enlightened poor class is required to seize the opportunity and become politically enlightened so that it can demand for equal rights and creation of a system that is void of favoritism of the rich.

In conclusion, the paper shows the steps that the USA has made in tackling poverty. However, research shows that poverty still exists in the country. Borrowing from the social theorists shows that the reason for this poverty still existing is because there are classes that benefit from the poverty of other people. Therefore, until the poor are politically enlightened, the situation is likely to persist for a long time. As such, the paper shows that the solution for poverty lies in creating a high level of political awareness among the people.

References

Bobo, L., & Fox, C. (2003). Race, Racism, and Discrimination: Bridging Problems, Methods, and Theory in Social. Social Psychology Quarterly,Vol 66 No 14, 319-332.

Ikejiaku, B.-V. (2012). Poverty-Conflict Nexus: The Contentious Issue Revisited. European Journal of Sustainable Development 1(2), 127-150.

Kneebone, E., & Berube, A. (2014). Confronting Suburban Poverty in America. New York: Brookings Institution Press.

Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2009). Up and Out of Poverty: The Social Marketing Solution. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall.

So, G. (2014). From “Pockets of Poverty” to Potential Prosperity in Appalachia: Examining Mass Media Narratives of Poverty Stereotypes in Appalachia. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, Vol. 5, No. 2, 71-98.

The Council of Economic Advisors. (2014). The War on Poverty 50 Years Later: A Progress Report. The Council of Economic Advisers, 1-53.

Zastrow, C., & Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2009). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers

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Cultural Reaction paper

Cultural Reaction paper

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Introduction

Cultural awareness is an important aspect of any community. It includes the ability to respect and appreciate the cultural values, perceptions and beliefs of a community. It is a necessity where people have to interact with other cultures. What one culture considers as inappropriate differs from the view of another culture. As such, a social worker must be aware of this differences to be able to effectively impact the community. Cultural reaction refers to the response that a culture receives from those that are not part of it. This can range from people feeling that:

  • The culture is superior to theirs
  • The culture is inferior to theirs
  • The culture can be assimilated into the existing culture in the community

(Quappe & Cantatore, 2005)

Fayetteville is a town that is largely known for the military community that it has. Medical Social Workers are considered to be important members of the community at Fayetteville. Their core role involves interviewing clients and their families. It also entails coordinating and planning programs or activities that meet the social and emotional needs of the clients and their families. The cultural system in focus is the Hawaiian community in Fayetteville. The estimated population of the Native Hawaiian community is at less than 0.5% (United States Census Bureau, 2015). According to a census report, out if the twelve thousand, nine hundred and forty two businesses registered in the town as at 2007, less than 25 businesses are owned by the native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population (United States Census Bureau, 2015).

This paper attempts to understand the culture of Hawaiian natives. This will be achieved through conducting interviews among Hawaiian natives in Fayetteville. The data collected will be analyzed against research on cultural identity, the cultural norms of the Hawaiian peple, world view, religious practices, common child reasing practices, accultration, sociopolitical histories as well as the culture-specific delivery process. The findings will influence the cultural awareness that social wokers have of the native Hawaiian population in Fayetteville, North Carolina.

Personal Assumptions and Biases

Mention the word Hawaii and the first impression that comes to mind is great food and a beautiful island that is considered as one of the most beautiful vacation spots in the Pacific. The people are friendly and seem to never be in a hurry. People are in no hurry. The general perception is that Hawaiian natives are predominantly colored. The Hula dance is a practice that many are familiar with and associate with hawaiian culture. The impression is that Hawaii is a place whose culture is founded on enjoying life and basically having a good time.

Accultration of Hawaiian culturein Feyetteville is not significant considering that the population of native Hawaiians in the community is negligible. This made it difficult to conduct interviewsaasit entailed a lot of research on loccating parts of the communitythat had majority of the native hawaiian population. This made it a challenge to collate the information. In addition, many of the Native hawaiian population have assimilated into american culture. The children especially know very little of their native culture.

Cultural Identity and Norms

From research collected through interviews among the native Hawaiian community, one thing that came across very strongly was the importance of family among the native Hawaiian community. The community has put together social gatherings thatallow them to celebrate their culture in north Carolina. The Ka Pu’uwai ‘O Hawai’i (also known as the Hawai’i club of North Carolina) is a private club whose core mission is to encourage an ‘Ohana (family) within the community so as perpetuate Hawaiian culture (The Hawai’i Club of NC, 2015). The club is made up of families that are either Hawaiian natives or they lived on thee island for a long time and as a result fell in love with the culture and thee people. They organize a number of activities each year for networking and celebrating Hawaiian culture. The potluck tradition is founded on a common hawaiian culture where a person is expected to carry a gift in the form of food when visiting a home. According to hawaiian culture, it is common for guests to take off their shoes at the main door. It iscommon courtesy to gift someone with food and also when one is living, it is considdered good manners to carryleft overswith you as you leave.

A common custom in weddings is the pandango. This is otherwise known as the money dance. The newlyweds perfoem a solo dance while the guests bestow monetary gifts upon them (Schachter, 2013).

World view

Hawaii is widely known as a tourist hot spot. The economy is largely dependent on the tourism sector (Schachter, 2013). Hawaiian natives in Fayetteville are associated with potluck events. Their food is one of the unique elements of their culture. As such, many parts of the world now offer Hawaiian cuisine. Hawaii is considered as one of the most beautiful vacation spots in the Pacific. The people are friendly and seem to never be in a hurry. People are in no hurry. The general perception is that Hawaiian natives are predominantly colored. The Hula dance is a practice that many are familiar with and associate with hawaiian culture. The impression is that Hawaii is a place whose culture is founded on enjoying life and basically having a good time. The people are friendly and focus on togetherness. As such, they focus a great deal on the perpetuation of their culture.

Religious Practices

The traditional religious practice of nativve Hawaiians were based on religion that was polytheistic and animalistic. They had a number of gods and spirits thatthey worshipped. The chiefs were considered as deity as well. Howewever, this religion was later replaceed by chrisitianity. While a number of ceremonies practiced till today are nborrowed from Hawaiian religion, much of their practices are no longer practiced. The American Indian Religious freedom Act protects hawaiian religious practices (Schachter, 2013).

Child Rearing Practice

A common practice that Native Hawaiians family is ‘Ohana (family). It is an essential element of the community and has a significant role in the raising of children. NativeHawaiians aregreatly influenced by the strong connection they have with family (DeBaryshe, Yuen, Nakamura, & Stern, 2006). This is largely because they live in multigenerational households. As such, they are in direct contact with grandparents and thee restof the extended family. The result is children tend to have better emotional support and are closely related to their family mebers. Such children are also familiar with Hawaiian cultural practices . This is done through nteraction with family members from different generations who passon what they know to the younger generation (DeBaryshe, Yuen, Nakamura, & Stern, 2006).

Based on information provided y cultural historians, native hawaiian child rearing practies are centered on being affectionate and undulgent towards infants. Native Hawaiian parents may engage in teaching that is not very detailed and depend on indirect methods to mould the child’s behavior.native Hawaiian parents prefer to not use praise as well as material rewards as they fear establishing a culture of dependence on external incentives in their children (DeBaryshe, Yuen, Nakamura, & Stern, 2006).

Native Hawaiian parents tend offer their children high levels of support.The result is such children tend to have a healthy self image and are less prone to depreession especially if the child is from a poor economic background.

Sociopolitical histories, accultration and culture-specific delivery process

Hawaiian society has evolved over the years too what it is today. The highest authority in the community wa sthe king followedby the high chief (ali’i). The king’s powers including controlling taxes, overseeing certain religious rituals and the leader in times of war. The king was surrounded by a team of advisors. The most superior of these advisors were the chief minister and the high priest who gained audience with the king on many occasions. They were regarded as the king’s chief advisors in matters of state, war and cultural practices.

Below the chief advisors were the ali’i (chiefs of all ranks). Their position was subject to the king’s discretion as well as their family tree. As such, there was a hierarchy within this rank as well. Those of lesser rank came ffrom a famiy where the father was a man favored by the chief that had married a woman of ali’I lineage (Schachter, 2013). Those aAli’i that had the title conferred on them by the king held the lowest rank as this title was not a birth rite. The king conferred this right to a man based on his strength or a sppecial skill that he possessed. However, such an Ali’i could not pass this title to his children.

The chiefs and the king had many attendants. Those that were regarded as commoners were expected to kneel as a sign of honor and respect to the ali’i and the king (mo’i). A commoner was expected to kneel in the presence of a chief who was having a meal (Quappe & Cantatore, 2005). On the face of it,it appears quite oppressivefor the commoners who had no significant status. Many commoners performed the role of workers thatwere skilled in particular areas such as farming, construction etc. The lowest rank in society was the kauwa (outcasts). This title was a birth rite passed down through generations.

According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, acculturation refers to the cultural modification of people by either borrowing traits from another culture of the merging of cultures as a result of interacting for a long period of time. The assimilation of the values of another group can manifest in the form of memberships in common social groups and institutions. An example of this is the NC club for Hawaiian families seeking to keep in touch. These families consist of native Hawaiians as well as American families that have lived in Hawaii for a long time and fell in love with the place, its people and culture. Such interaction not only perpetuates certain Hawaiian cultural norms such as potluck but also result in this culture being influenced by that of American families. Institutions are a huge determinant of the ability to perpetuate certain cultures and norms. According to native Hawaiian culture, children are expected to receive guidance and instruction from the older members of the family. This conflicts with the US education system which is based on instilling a sense of independent thinking in the child. The result is native Hawaiian children are acculturated into a mix of customs giving rise to a number of internal and external conflicts. It becomes difficult for them to assert their own identity especially when they attain adolescence (Schachter, 2013).

Conclusion

Native Hawaiian culture is rich in customs, beliefs and practices. While certain elements of culture norms and practices are no longer practices, the core values of family (‘Ohana) and togetherness continue to be perpetuated by the community not only in Hawaii but also in different part of the United States where there is a settlement of Hawaiians.

References

DeBaryshe, B. D., Yuen, S., Nakamura, L. N., & Stern, I. R. (2006). The Roles of Family Obligation and Parenting Practices in Explaining the Well-Being of Native-Hawaiian Adolescents Living in Poverty. Hulili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian Well Being Vol. 3, 103-126.

Quappe, S., & Cantatore, G. (2005). What is Cultural Awareness, anyway? How do I build it? Retrieved from Culturosity: http://www.culturosity.com/pdfs/What%20is%20Cultural%20Awareness.pdf

Schachter, J. (2013). The Legacies of a Hawaiian Generation: From Territorial Subject to American Citizen. Berghahn Books.

The Hawai’i Club of NC. (2015). ALOHA! WELCOME TO KA PU’UWAI ‘O HAWAI’I – THE HAWAI’I CLUB OF NORTH CAROLINA. Retrieved from hawaiiclubnc: http://www.hawaiiclubnc.org/

United States Census Bureau. (2015, February 5). Fayetteville (city), North Carolina. Retrieved from census.gov: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/37/3722920.html

Conclusions of an Integrative Research Review.

PHARMACOGENOMICS IN THE NURSING LITERATURE

Name:

Course:

Instructor:

Institution:

Date of Submission:

Synopsis

In the research 50 people were screened to obtain the duplicates. A summery was reviewed to ensure that those who did not meet the inclusion criteria were eliminated and left out. Data about them was were extracted and they were verified by authors to check on the discrepancies if they exited. Data was the organized and analyzed for various reasons.

The purpose of the study was to review and solve the problem of inadequacy of knowledge among the clinical officers and medics who have specialized in pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study, three attributes came out from the pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetics and they included the following definition of various problem faced by nurses and medics; science study, genomic, generic and pharmacology

During the study the 136 articles were identified the prospects of the title that were identified in the study was to eliminate the titles that were duplicated. The summary of 180 reports were reviewed to check on the unnecessary articles which did not meet the inclusion criteria.

The data that was abstracted from various articles were used to determine that the study was included in the analysis. The information about the authors, their nationality, article type, their objectives and purposes also indicated that the study was included in the articles. Also the discussion involving the nursing implications were wer4e arranged in three various groups.

The study about the scientific contribution, baseline comprehension of knowledge discovery about pharmacogenomics was reviewed in the study. Here the integrative review was carried out to through intensive examination of the state of science of inheritance and variation .the concept of pharmacogenetic, clinical practices and nurses responsibilities among others were some of the studies that were reviewed.

During research the following reserve tools were employed to ensure efficiency in data collection and interpretation. Narrative reviews were used to deal with variations in responses to medical behavior due to variation in a single gene. Narrative review also provided an overview of an individual medication, the importance of advanced nursing activities and the resources related to personalized medication. Data was analyzed and presented in tables and charts.

The purpose of the study was to review the clinical and medication aspects of the pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories(Beery & Hern 2004).. Moreover the study also noted that the necessity for the nurses to have a painstaking ability to judge to judge the effectiveness of pharmacogenomics .Finally the study also revealed that education should entail ethical and legal procedures regarding genomic medication because the nurses and medical practitioners would be held liable and professionally responsible for understanding pharmacogenomics of drugs administration.

Credibility

The topic was not clearly defined. The literature review resulted in a sample that was homogeneous from the sample articles. No narrative review was included in describing the systematic of evaluating such methods, strategies employed, articles retrieved, and the reasons for final sample selection. The results of pharmacokinetic and pharmacogomics about the variations in the conceptual definitions .pharmacogenomics was explained in the article to have a percentage of 21% while the pharmacokinetic was defined by 25.5%.

The search for the studies and the evidence was not comprehensive. The article also provided level three evidence by representing an in vitro pharmacogenetric research. Whereas all the journals and the articles the minimum level of evidence, narrative and opinion manuscript or level VII. They include topics were not assessed for quality as most of the implications were generated in the context of future in several articles, pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetic were viewed far off in now and here clinics rather than education or research. The design characteristics and the findings of the study were not displayed sufficiently as Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.

The conclusions are not credible as they lack empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities.

Clinical significance

Across the studies the strength of association was not found to make the difference in the patient outcomes. The review resulted into a homogenous article samples with the majority of them being narrative samples. According to Moher, there was no narrative article reviews that contained a description of evaluating the system methods such as the number of the retrieved articles, the reason for the final sample selection and the search strategies that were used in the process (Beery & Hern 2004). The intended purpose of the articles was to review the clinical aspects of pharmacogenetics. However around 40 % of the articles were not well prepared for the defined purpose. For example in one of the articles the purpose of the statement was absent within the text of the article.

The conclusions given are not relevant to the care of the nurses During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories.

Conclusion

Pharmacogenomics is vital in prescription of individual drug therapy by choosing the right drugs to be administered the patients. Through the integrative review limitations identified a need to embrace and recognize the importance of burgeoning field. The field of Pharmageconomics should be keenly monitored as it has been implemented in various capacities. Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.

Lack of empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities. The present literature is limited in terms of the scope, number and the type of articles to be used.

References

Beery, T. A., & Hern, M. J. (2004). Genetic practice, education, and research: An overview for advanced practice nurses. Clinical Nurse Specialists, 18(3), 126e132.

Conclusions of an Integrative Research Review.

PHARMACOGENOMICS IN THE NURSING LITERATURE

Name:

Course:

Instructor:

Institution:

Date of Submission:

Synopsis

In the research 50 people were screened to obtain the duplicates. A summery was reviewed to ensure that those who did not meet the inclusion criteria were eliminated and left out. Data about them was were extracted and they were verified by authors to check on the discrepancies if they exited. Data was the organized and analyzed for various reasons.

The purpose of the study was to review and solve the problem of inadequacy of knowledge among the clinical officers and medics who have specialized in pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study, three attributes came out from the pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetics and they included the following definition of various problem faced by nurses and medics; science study, genomic, generic and pharmacology

During the study the 136 articles were identified the prospects of the title that were identified in the study was to eliminate the titles that were duplicated. The summary of 180 reports were reviewed to check on the unnecessary articles which did not meet the inclusion criteria.

The data that was abstracted from various articles were used to determine that the study was included in the analysis. The information about the authors, their nationality, article type, their objectives and purposes also indicated that the study was included in the articles. Also the discussion involving the nursing implications were wer4e arranged in three various groups.

The study about the scientific contribution, baseline comprehension of knowledge discovery about pharmacogenomics was reviewed in the study. Here the integrative review was carried out to through intensive examination of the state of science of inheritance and variation .the concept of pharmacogenetic, clinical practices and nurses responsibilities among others were some of the studies that were reviewed.

During research the following reserve tools were employed to ensure efficiency in data collection and interpretation. Narrative reviews were used to deal with variations in responses to medical behavior due to variation in a single gene. Narrative review also provided an overview of an individual medication, the importance of advanced nursing activities and the resources related to personalized medication. Data was analyzed and presented in tables and charts.

The purpose of the study was to review the clinical and medication aspects of the pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories(Beery & Hern 2004).. Moreover the study also noted that the necessity for the nurses to have a painstaking ability to judge to judge the effectiveness of pharmacogenomics .Finally the study also revealed that education should entail ethical and legal procedures regarding genomic medication because the nurses and medical practitioners would be held liable and professionally responsible for understanding pharmacogenomics of drugs administration.

Credibility

The topic was not clearly defined. The literature review resulted in a sample that was homogeneous from the sample articles. No narrative review was included in describing the systematic of evaluating such methods, strategies employed, articles retrieved, and the reasons for final sample selection. The results of pharmacokinetic and pharmacogomics about the variations in the conceptual definitions .pharmacogenomics was explained in the article to have a percentage of 21% while the pharmacokinetic was defined by 25.5%.

The search for the studies and the evidence was not comprehensive. The article also provided level three evidence by representing an in vitro pharmacogenetric research. Whereas all the journals and the articles the minimum level of evidence, narrative and opinion manuscript or level VII. They include topics were not assessed for quality as most of the implications were generated in the context of future in several articles, pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetic were viewed far off in now and here clinics rather than education or research. The design characteristics and the findings of the study were not displayed sufficiently as Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.

The conclusions are not credible as they lack empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities.

Clinical significance

Across the studies the strength of association was not found to make the difference in the patient outcomes. The review resulted into a homogenous article samples with the majority of them being narrative samples. According to Moher, there was no narrative article reviews that contained a description of evaluating the system methods such as the number of the retrieved articles, the reason for the final sample selection and the search strategies that were used in the process (Beery & Hern 2004). The intended purpose of the articles was to review the clinical aspects of pharmacogenetics. However around 40 % of the articles were not well prepared for the defined purpose. For example in one of the articles the purpose of the statement was absent within the text of the article.

The conclusions given are not relevant to the care of the nurses During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories.

Conclusion

Pharmacogenomics is vital in prescription of individual drug therapy by choosing the right drugs to be administered the patients. Through the integrative review limitations identified a need to embrace and recognize the importance of burgeoning field. The field of Pharmageconomics should be keenly monitored as it has been implemented in various capacities. Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.

Lack of empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities. The present literature is limited in terms of the scope, number and the type of articles to be used.

References

Beery, T. A., & Hern, M. J. (2004). Genetic practice, education, and research: An overview for advanced practice nurses. Clinical Nurse Specialists, 18(3), 126e132.

Strategic Management Oil and Gas

Contents Page
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3

Drivers for the Joint venture……………………………………………………4

Benefits of the joint venture……………………………………………………6

Potential issues with the joint venture…………………………………………8

Recommendations……………………………….……………………………..9

Conclusions……………………………………………………………………11

References……………………………………….……………………………12
Introduction

Joint ventures have become increasingly common in the energy sector where companies come together with the aim of combining resources in order to succeed in undertaking projects. This has come about as a result of the high costs and risks that are involved with undertaking projects in the energy sector. Through joint ventures, partners have a high chance of succeeding in undertaking the big energy projects as opposed to each of the companies undertaking the project on its own. This is because the two companies are able to share the costs that are incurred in the project as well as coming up with an effective strategy to oversee the project by working with personnel and managers who have varying background and extensive experience. This paper explores the joint venture between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy which was aimed at exploration and investment towards drilling of power which would be receiving gas from the Kandhkot gas field. The agreement was signed by the MD and CEO of PPL Asim Murtaza Khan and CEO and Director Orion Energy David M. Thomas on June 28, 2013.

This joint venture has been chosen as it involved two well established companies in the energy industry with different backgrounds. Orion Energy is based in UK while Pakistan Petroleum Ltd is based in Pakistan. The two companies have varying strengths which made them well placed to contribute significantly in the venture. The joint venture was also significant from the fact that it demonstrated the interest of UK based companies for offshore exploration where the venture welcomed and approved by the British government. PPL on the other hand has a strategic advantage given the fact that it is based in Pakistan where the project was being undertaken. The fact that the two companies have a different background will help to identify some of the benefits that come about from the venture as well as the challenges that are likely to be experienced. The venture will also help to identify some of the key factors that make such ventures successful and how the managers can be able to overcome the challenges that they experience (Edwards, 2010).

Drivers for the Joint venture

There were various drivers that led to the joint venture between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy. The key driver for the joint venture can be said to have been the desired to invest in an income generating project which would offer return for both companies. Joint ventures are aimed at a common goal of earning maximization as the shareholders in both companies want nothing less than returns on the capital that they have invested in the company. The fact that undertaking a project on its own could be a too complex and risky affair for a single companies lead them to forming joint ventures. This has been the case with Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy where the two companies have identified an opportunity that they can take advantage of in order to maximize their returns. In order to reduce the risks involved and increase the chances of success, the two companies have formed a joint venture in order to carry out the project together (Choo, 2002).

The need for technical expertise was also a key driver for the joint venture where Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) needed the technical assistance of Orion Energy to undertake the project. The Pakistan market is not as established as Britain which means that Orion Company has an added advantage in terms of technical expertise for its staff. The company also has had extensive experience in undertaking other similar projects in different parts of the world and Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) needed this kind of technical expertise in order to undertake the project and this led to the joint venture. Orion Energy key driver in engaging in the joint venture was to take advantage of the opportunities arising in the offshore market (Craig, 2003).

This has been a trend with most of the western energy companies which get into ventures with companies in foreign markets where there are opportunities for investment. This is as a result of the limited market and opportunities in their local markets which force them to seek opportunities elsewhere. The venture between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy for instance was aimed at exploration and establishment of a power plant in Pakistan which would enable the two companies operate supply energy to Pakistan. There are limited opportunities within Britain and with the high competition in the market the company has sought for opportunities elsewhere (Jones, 2012).

The fact that the project was costly to be undertaken by one company was a driver as it would require a high capital outlay. The Pakistan Petroleum Company PPL as such was not in a position to undertake the project on its own as a result of limited financial capability. Undertaking the project jointly would therefore minimize the capital invested by each of the companies. It is for this reason that the company opted to get to a joint venture with Orion Energy an established company in UK which will help to provide additional capital in order to undertake the project (Bern, 2011).

Benefits of the joint venture

There are various advantages that are likely to come about from the joint venture as outlined below;

  1. Reduced cost of investment

One of the key benefits that come up with the joint venture between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy is the reduced cost of investment for each company. Project in the energy sector normally require a high capital outlay where a company may not be in a position to cater for all the cost of the venture. In this case for instance, Pakistan Petroleum Limited could not have the financial ability to solely undertake the project despite being in close proximity to where the project was being undertaken. By undertaking the project jointly the two companies were able to share most of the costs involved which made it possible to undertake the project without financial constraints. When projects are undertaken jointly there is likelihood of there being a higher capital outlay as opposed to one company undertaking the project on its own. The increased capital investment in this case means that the scope of the project can be expanded to bring about higher returns that it would have been the case if the project was undertaken with limited capital (Cole, 2007).

  1. Risk diversification

Risk diversification is another critical factor when undertaking projects in the energy sector. There have been many instance where the projects undertaken did not materialize or bring about the expected outcome. If this is the case then it means that there was total loss of the capital invested in the particular project which can be disastrous if it was being undertaken by a single company. Joint ventures however are advantageous as they ensure that if the project fails then one company does not have to incur all the loss. With the high capital investment that comes about with the joint ventures, there is normally extensive research done before undertaking the project and this helps to minimize cases of the project failing. The minimal capital investment in the joint ventures mean that each of the individual companies will have finances left which it can use to invest in other projects that generate income as opposed to investing all the capital in one project which could fail and result to total losses for the shareholders (Martin, 2010).

  • Diversity in experience and expertise

This is another major benefit that comes about as a result of joint ventures in the energy sector where companies get to being together staff who have different expertise and experience. Combination of the knowledge, skills and experience by managers from Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy is likely to bring about better outcomes in the project work. The staff from the British origin for instance have wide experience on the global energy market while the staff from PPL have a good experience on the Pakistan energy market where the project is to be undertaken. The staffs from the two companies have been through different experience which makes them well placed to undertake the project jointly and successfully (Kohl, 2013).

Potential issues with the joint venture

There are various issues that are likely to come about in the process of undertaking the Joint venture project between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy as follows;

  1. Differences in expectations and objectives

The fact that the two companies have a difference background and have been operating in different markets could result to differences in expectations and objectives. Each company has a different rate of growth and objectives towards achievement of its long term goals. The key stakeholders in the two companies such as the shareholders and top executives could be having different expectation from the joint venture. The variance in interests between the two companies could result to each of them making decisions that are more favorable for them without considering the interests of the other company. If the varying expectations are not met then this could result to the joint venture breaking up (Ireland, 2013).

  1. Poor planning

Poor planning is another issue that is likely to come about with the joint venture that is being undertaken by the two companies. For a project to succeed there has to be proper planning where the different roles to be undertaken are assigned to specific departments and people. Planning is also important in ensuring that there required resources for the project to be undertaken are availed at the right time to ensure that the project starts at the right time and that there are no stoppages. Poor planning could result to conflicts arising in the partnership when one of the partners blames the other as being the main cause for failure and this results to eventual breakup of the partnership (Gazzini, 2014).

  • Governance challenges

Governance is another potential issue that is likely to arise with the partnership. The joint venture brings together managers from the two companies who are expected to work together towards the achievement of the final goal. A challenge could however arise when the managers from one of the companies feel that they are more powerful or influential because their company has contributed a higher capital in the venture. These kind of conflicts in management slows the productivity and achievement of the final goals (Roney, 2003).

  1. Complex decision making

The joint venture is likely to experience a challenge of complexity in the decision making process. The fact that there are managers drawn from the two companies that are required to oversee the project could result to lack of proper coordination in the decision making process. The fact that the two companies are located in different nations with Orion Energy being from the UK could slow down the decision making process especially if the top executives have to be consulted before the final decision can be arrived at (Gruner, 2013).

Recommendations

  1. Establishment of a governance and decision making model

To overcome the issue of conflicts in governance and complexity in decision making, the tow companies should establish a governance and decision making model. The model will offer details of the structure of leadership in the joint venture from the top executives to the lower level managers. The model should also state clearly the roles of each of the managers in the organization and the departments that they head. The individuals to hold the various positions should be selected before the onset of the project and communicated to all the members of the organization. This will help to reduce cases of conflict where some of the managers try to take responsibility over their colleagues without such authority being granted to them. The model will also ensure there is smooth decision making in the organization where it is clear on who is to give the final authorization for the decision to be effected. Effective decision making ensures that changes in the organization are made at the right time in order to take advantage of the opportunities that arise in the market. This recommendation has been ranked first as it will help to solve most of the other issues that come about in the organization. If there is a good management it becomes easier to manage the two partners and ensure that a balance is achieved between their interests and expectations.

  1. Taking time to understand and align partners goals

The variance in interests and expectations from the two partners in the joint venture arise as a result of failure of the partners to take time to understand the varying interests. If the partners take such time and understand why each of them is getting into the partnership, then it is possible to find a balance between the interests and expectations of the two companies. In this way a better working relationship is established where each partners does not focus own interests but also takes into consideration the impacts of decisions made on the other partners. Understanding and alignment of goals should be done on a continuous basis given that the interests of the partners will change from time to time. To enhance understanding of the expectations, there should be regular communication where the progress of the venture is assessed and decisions are made on any changes that need to be made. This recommendation has been ranked second as it is important but can only be achieved if there is a good management structure in place. If the managers are in constant conflicts and the decision making channel is poor, then there cannot be proper understanding and consideration of the partner interests.
Conclusions

In conclusion, joint ventures can be said to be a common undertaking for companies in the energy sector. The main reason for this is the high risk involved in undertaking projects and investment in this sector as well as the high risk. For this reason companies opt to get into joint venture with partners in the same industry and who have similar goal. One such venture is the joint partnership between Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) and Orion Energy which was aimed at exploration and establishment of a gas energy plant in Kandhkot gas field in Pakistan. The key driver for the joint venture was to maximize revenues through investment in a project which would maximize the returns for the two companies. The venture was also aimed at reducing the cost of investment for each of the companies and the risk involved. The main benefits of the joint venture include the sharing of the capital investment which lowers the risk for each of the partners leaving them with capital to invest elsewhere. The venture also combined staff with expertise and varying backgrounds who could work together to offer greater value in achievement of a common goal. Some of the key issues that the joint venture is likely to face include the variation in interests and expectations from the two partners which could result to a break up. Challenges also arise in governance and decision making process or from poor planning and role assignment. To overcome these challenges, an effective governance and decision making model should be established as well as taking time to understand the expectations of each partner.

References

Bern, G. (2011). Investing in energy: A primer on the economics of the energy industry. Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press

Choo, C. W. (2002). The strategic management of intellectual capital and organizational knowledge. Oxford [u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press.

Cole, G. A. (2007). Strategic management: Theory and practice. London: Thomson Learning

Craig, J. C. (2003). Strategic management. London: Kogan Page

Edwards, D. W. (2010). Energy trading & investing: Trading, risk management and structuring deals in the energy markets. New York: McGraw-Hill

Gazzini, T. (2014). Foreign investment in the energy sector: Balancing private and public interests.

Gruner, A. (2013). Multi-Dimensional Risk and Investment Return in the Energy Sector: The Case of Electric Transmission Networks. St. Gallen

Ireland, R. D. (2013). Strategic management: Competitiveness & globalization : cases. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning

Jones, G. R. (2012). Strategic Management. Cengage Learning

Kohl, K. (2013). Energy investing for dummies

Martin, F. (2010). Strategic management. Andover: Cengage Learning

Roney, C. W. (2003). Strategic management methodology: Generally accepted principles for practitioners. Westport, Conn: Praeger

Comparison of U.K and U.S Healthcare Systems

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Institution:

The NHS was launched in 1948. One of its core principles is to avail good healthcare to all individuals, regardless of their wealth. Statistics indicate that in every 36 hours, the NHS England handles more than 1 million patients. It covers all the services from end-of-life care, antenatal screening, emergency treatment, routine screenings and transplants (Nuwer, 2013). The NHS is renowned for its efficiency, cost-related problems, effective care, patient-centered care and coordinated care. In terms of equity, it ranked second. It has more than 1.6 million employees, and this puts it in the top five bracket of the largest workforces in the world.

Coverage is universal in the NHS, with all of U.Ks ordinary citizens being entitled to healthcare. The NHS covers various things such as services, cost-sharing, safety nets, hospitals, government and private insurance funds. With regards to services, the NHS covers rehabilitation, preventive services, learning disabilities, inpatient and outpatient, mental health care, physician services and dental care. publicly-covered services also have some level of cost-sharing arrangements (Tighe, 2014). The safety nets ensure that the public purse meets most of the costs, with special patient groups being subjected to unique measures that alleviate costs. Hospitals are directly accountable to the Department of Health because they are structured as NHS trusts. General policy matters and health legislation lie with the parliament.

The NHS undertakes various measures to safeguard quality of care. A key focus is to enhance the safety and quality of social and health care services the NHS uses various means to address quality issues. They include regulatory bodies, targets, national service frameworks and quality and outcome framework (Maskileyson, 2014). The regulatory bodies assess and monitor the quality of services that both private and public health care providers give. This involves regular investigations and assessments of all providers. The government sets targets for a range of variables so as to reflect the quality of care. Regulatory bodies are tasked with monitoring these targets.  The NST was developed in 1998 to improve certain areas of care such as diabetes, coronary, mental health and cancer. The quality and outcome framework was newly developed to measure the quality of care that GPs deliver. It serves as an incentive for improving quality.

The NHS also undertakes various measures to improve efficiency. This remains a key focus, and the NHS employs various tactics to ensure this. They include; high-level efficiency targets, benchmarking and institute for innovation and improvement. The government has undertaken measures to increase social care provision efficiency, centralize procurement and reduce costs of NHS provider. The benchmarking of NHS organizations is done against their peers’ performance, including reference costs, readmission rates and day case rates.

In order to control costs, the NHS budget is set by the government on a three-year cycle. The government also gives a capped general budget for PCTs to control costs and utilization. Each year, PCTs and NHS trusts are expected to attain financial balance. The centralized administrative system guarantees lower overhead costs (Kumar, 2014). A significant percentage of the NHS funding comes directly from taxation. In the new changes that have been enacted by the Cameron administration, 80% of the healthcare budget will be handled by the GPs. All hospitals will also be independent from the Department of Health, and should their books fail to balance, private operators will take them over. These reforms are being undertaken for ideological reasons and to save money. Some of the challenges facing the NHS include the steady increase of life expectancy, as well as the increases in chronic diseases like neurological disorders and cancer.

In the United States, healthcare is provided by various distinct organizations. The private sector owns and operates a significant percentage of the health care facilities. Statistics indicate that in the U.S, 20 % of the hospitals are for profit, 20% are owned by the government, whereas 60% are non-profit (Salzberg, 2012).  The healthcare provision in the U.S comes from programs like the Veterans Health Administration, Children’s Health Insurance Program, Medicaid and Medicare. A significant percentage of the country’s population is insured either on their own, or through the employer of a family member. The government provides the public sector employees with health insurance.

Unlike in the U.K, the life expectancy in the U.S is slightly higher at 78.4 years. Some of the challenges that the healthcare system of the country has been struggling with include lung and heart diseases, high obesity rates, homicides and teenage pregnancies (Gwee, 2009). When it comes to medical innovation, America remains a global leader, and this can be attested to by their contribution to medical innovation in the present and past centuries. The U.S health system has been dogged by various factors such as quality, right to health care, value, access, choice, fairness, cost and efficiency. This explains why the country has been trying to institute various reforms to address these concerns. The U.S healthcare system has come under harsh criticisms from some quarters who insist that the quality of care being delivered does not represent value for money as is the case in the U.K.

Healthcare providers in the country encompass medical products, healthcare facilities and health care personnel. Although the county, state and federal governments own some facilities, most of the country’s health care system lies in private hands. Compared to other countries such as the U.K, the U.S healthcare spending is regarded as the most costly. However, the quality of care remains relatively low as can be proven by infant mortality rates (Chen, 2015). The country’s healthcare spending represents about 18% percent of its GDP (Nuwer, 2013). The regulation and oversight of the U.S healthcare system is governed by involved institutions and organizations. The state and federal governments subjects the country’s healthcare system to extensive regulation to safeguard efficiency.

Unlike the U.K, the U.S healthcare system does not pay much attention to equality of care, as the system is often subjected to political interference. The U.S has moved to address these concerns by instituting certain measures of effectiveness including access to care, population health and innovation. These are meant to safeguard affordability, coverage, vulnerable populations, and the U.S workforce.

In conclusion, the U.K and U.S healthcare systems exhibit numerous similarities and differences. Although the U.S system has a better choice of health provider and modern technology, the healthcare is too costly, and this disadvantages the poor citizens (Archibald, 2013). The U.K system is praised for its equality and universality, although some critics suggest that it has long waiting times and a system that is overly-bureaucratic. The U.S system takes advantage of its insurance scheme, whereas the U.K system prides itself in its access to all. Both countries remain keen on providing the best health care to their citizens through various reforms in the sector.

Bibliography

Archibald, M. E., 2013. A spatial analysis of community disadvantage and access to healthcare services in the U.S.. Social Science & Medicine, 90(10), pp. 11-23.

Chen, M.-P., 2015. Bubbles in health care: Evidence from the U.S., U.K., and German stock markets. The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 31(4), pp. 193-205.

Gwee, M. C.-E., 2009. Problem-Based Learning: A Strategic Learning System Design For The Education Of Healthcare Professionals in the 21ST Century. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 25(5), pp. 231-139.

Ker, J.-I., 2014. Deploying lean in healthcare: Evaluating information technology effectiveness in U.S. hospital pharmacies. International Journal of Information Management, 34(4), pp. 556-560.

Kumar, D., 2014. Modelling Rural Healthcare Supply Chain in India using System Dynamics. Procedia Engineering, 97(12), pp. 2204-2212.

Maskileyson, D., 2014. Healthcare system and the wealth–health gradient: A comparative study of older populations in six countries. Social Science & Medicine, 119(23), pp. 18-26.

Nuwer, M. R., 2013. Chapter 23 – Public policy and healthcare systems. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 118(45), pp. 277-287.

Salzberg, C. A., 2012. Policy initiatives for Health Information Technology: A qualitative study of U.S. expectations and Canada’s experience. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 81(10), pp. 713-722.

Seddon, J. J., 2013. Cloud computing and trans-border health data: Unpacking U.S. and EU healthcare regulation and compliance. Health Policy and Technology, 4(2), pp. 229-241.

Tighe, P. J., 2014. Geospatial analysis of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems pain management experience scores in U.S. hospitals. PAIN®, 155(5), pp. 1016-1026.

Corporate social responsibility for all sectors to create social difference and enhance reputation/responsibility

Corporate social responsibility for all sectors to create social difference and enhance reputation/responsibility
It is unfortunate that at this era, some business leaders still support Milton Friedman argument that “the social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.” (1970, p. 1). Supporting such an argument at such a time while the benefits of using corporate social responsibility (CSR) for business sustainability are evident is misguided. In this age, consumer awareness on environmental and social issues is heightened and it only business that are in denial that can afford to ignore this awareness. Consumers today expect business to take responsibility on the manner in which their operations affect society and natural environment. Hill (2001) highlights that the idea behind CSR is that business must adopt CSR principles to promote sustainability. The author defines sustainability as “an organization’s activities, typically considered voluntary, that demonstrate the inclusion of social and environmental concerns in business operations and in interactions with stakeholders” (Hill, 2001, p. 32). The above means that more than ever before organizations will be judged based on their social roles in society and how well they apply social, ethical, environmental, and responsible standards in running their business operations.
In the article The Case against Corporate Social Responsibility, Karnani (2010) argues that companies cannot claim to serve a social purpose and earn profits at the same time. This is because when companies act in the public interest to create sustainable businesses, they go against shareholders interest, which is to increase profits. However, Du, Bhattacharya, and Sen (2007) believe that it is possible to strike a balance between public interest and shareholder interests. CSR strategies are aimed at making the world a better place by ensuring that organizations produce healthier foods, make fuel-efficient equipments, conserve non-renewable energy, and treat their employees in an ethical manner.
Today’s consumer is not just interested at price and quality of goods and services, but they also expect the companies to use some part of the profit to make a social impact. The squabble that correlating public interest and shareholders interest is impossible misses the point that “Corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities have the potential to create several distinct forms of value for customers. It is the customer perception of this value that mediates the relationship between CSR activities and subsequent financial performance.” (Noked, 2011, par. 2).
It is understandable that those against CSR are worried that they may not be able to measure the outcomes from CSR investments on how they enhance the profitability of the firm. Perhaps they should consult tons of research that positively demonstrate that “CSR leads to outcomes such as increased customer loyalty, willingness to pay premium prices, and lower reputational risks in time of crisis.” (Du, Bhattacharya & Sen, 2007, p. 232). Rather than risk a bad reputation that has more impact on a firm’s profitability, it is better to adopt CSR because each of the above outcomes has the potentiality to increase profitability of the firm.
Perhaps the reason why some companies are quick to downplay the effectiveness of CSR on business profitability is that they do not communicate their activities to the public, thus their activities doe not garner the intended benefits. Bortree (2014) emphasizes that CSR communication is as important as activities, but some organizations seems to forget this important step during CSR implementation. The research is clear that communication about CSR “can lead to stronger relationships with publics, more positive attitudes among stakeholders, and increase its legitimacy outlook (Bortree, 2014, p. 5). It is important to note that, CSR activities like the one undertaken by “controversial industry sectors” (sod, beer, gambling e.t.c.) might attract a lot of scepticism in the public, but as Dorfman et al. (2012) argue “how companies communicate their CSR activities may determine the degree to which the public accepts the programs as legitimate (5). In fact, I believe that no company requires CSR programs as the companies in the ‘controversial industry’ to help the companies to revert the negative views among the public. The latter authors also add that engaging in CSR activities demonstrate that the previously mentioned companies accept their ethical and social obligation to society at large (Dorfman et al., 2012). It is obvious that the public image of such like companies is already at risk, and since they have to protect their core business, then CSR becomes the better option as the companies try to pass off their innocence to the consumers.
Factually, even those companies that claim not to engage in CSR are somehow undertaking activities to create a good reputation, so why not engage in corporate social responsibility and create social good in society, while u reap largely from doing good? CSR programs are diverse and they are manifested in many forms including philanthropy, ethical business practices, and product-based activities (Du, Bhattacharya & Sen, 2007). However, organizations do not have to undertake all forms of CSR, for even a little effort will go a long way in enhancing public image and presenting the business as legitimate. CSR is not just for the ‘sinful’ industry, as the activities are for every business that wants to create a social difference by doing well to do good.

References
Bortree, D.S. (2014). The State of CSR Communication Research: A Summary and Future Direction. Public Relations Journal, 8(3): 1-8.
Dorfman L, Cheyne A, Friedman LC, Wadud A, Gottlieb M (2012) Soda and Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Campaigns: How Do They Compare? PLoS Med 9(6): e1001241. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001241.
Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., and Sen, S. (2007). Reaping Relational Rewards from Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Competitive Positioning. International Journal of Research in Marketing 24, no. 3 (2007): 224-241.
Friedman, M.(1970, Sept. 13) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp- business.html.
Hill, J. (2001). Thinking about a more sustainable business: An indicators approach. Corporate `Environmental Strategy, 8(1),30–38.
Karnani, A. (2010, Aug. 23). The case against corporate social responsibility. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748703338004575230112664504890.
Kotler, P., & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: Doing the most good for your company and your cause. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Noked, N. (2011, Feb. 28). Investing in Corporate Social Responsibility to Enhance Customer Value. The Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance And Financial Regulation. Retrieved from http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/corpgov/2011/02/28/investing- in-corporate-social-responsibility-to-enhance-customer-value/.