Appreciative Inquiry Asset Based Community Development Paper
It has been noted that United States as a nation has been shaped by immigration since the arrival of the newcomers four hundred years ago. Immigration has contributed in making America and its citizens what they are today. It has also contributed towards the many economic, political and social processes that are basic to America as a nation. Throughout the history of United States, immigration has been occurring. Large-scale immigration occurred in four peak periods namely: the inhabiting of the novel colonies, westward growth during the intermediate of the nineteenth century and the rise of cities during the turn of the twentieth century. This last peak began in 1970’s and continues to date (Zingher, 2014).
These peak periods of immigration have coincided with basic revolutions of the State’s economy. The first peak aided the start of European suburbs in the Americans. The second gave room for this young country, Unites States to supersede its colonial economy and move to an agricultural one. It is during the third peak that industrial revolution led to the growth of a manufacturing economy (Schurtman, &Lillard, 2014). Immigration to the United was primarily by Europeans during the presiding decades of 1880. This was driven by the industrialization in the Western parts of Europe and the famine of Irish potato. The industrial revolution of the United States and the expanding frontlines of the AmericanWest was drawing the immigrants to the United States shores. It is worth noting that Chinese immigrates were earlier observed to be in great numbers back in 1850s and this was after the discovery of Gold precisely in California.
The United States has become a nation of immigration and immigrants and hence adjusts its immigration policies very rarely. As such, the politics surrounding the immigrations may be termed as greatly divisive (Gomez, 2014). The result of this case has been an increase in the disengagement from the economic and societal forces that hurl immigration. Once converts have been done, they take years to legislate them.
To date, United States is on the need for a major reform in addressing the enduringhitches of illegal immigration. Those of the immigration system also needed to be reformed since they have not been revised since 1990 (Zingher, 2014). The push for an inclusive immigration reform has gone back to the congressional stage where cross-party groups in the House and Senate likewise are engaged in a noteworthy negotiation to come up with legislations that would increase the implementation at the nation’s boundary and interiors, legalization of the unauthorized immigrants who are estimated at eleven million. In 2007, the CIR legislation failed in the Senate and determinations to change the nation’s immigration laws were sidelined. Revisiting of the immigration agenda was adopted by both parties after the outcome and voting trends of the 2012 presidential elections.
Working of the Immigration System.
It is in the 1965 immigration and nationality act that guiding principles and the different ways of immigrating to the Unites States were largely established. They take place in three primary immigration streams which include family (re)amalgamation for U.S. citizens and legalized permanent occupants with close family members; convening legitimate labor market wants; and harbor for those in want of humanitarian protection. The most common ways of immigration are through family-based or occupation based channels. The family based immigration falls under the principle of family unit. The principle provides that close family members of State’s citizens can unite with their U.S. families without arithmetical limitations. For their adult wedded and unwedded children with their children can be reunited but this takes a longer time. For the family based immigrants sponsorship by a competent relative under the defined six categories is a must. There are also employment based visas provided for permanent immigrants with the aim of meeting the nation’s fiscal and labor market wants. It has a limitation of one hundred and forty thousand visas per year. Statistics indicate that these immigrants accounted for between twelve percent (2003) and twenty two percent (2005) of the legal immigrants in the past decade(Schurtman&Lillard, 2014). The employment based green cards come in five categories of workers and the majority of them must be supported by their employer.
The unauthorized immigrants go into the United States through the crossing of land borders secretly between recognized ports of entry, by means of documents deceitfully for admission at ports of entry or even extending a legal temporary visa. In the early 1970s is when this illegal immigration began building up reaching relative high levels. The population of these illegal immigrants grew between 1990 and 2006 by an average of 300,000 to 500,000 persons per year (Schurtman, &Lillard, 2014). This was resulting from the rapid job creations in collaboration to other factors like powerful push factors within Mexico. Illegal immigration has been found to be a determinant of the economic conditions through the markedly growth within a robust economy with great demands for low-skilled labor and the narrowing in line with the economic contractions. The entrance of illegal immigrants in massive numbers refreshed certain communities and contributed to local economic growth. The rapid and unrestrained social change coupled up with the pressure on civic services brought about by persons who are illegal immigrants has inspired anger and resentment hence immigration has become a hotly debated issue of state concern.
A New Era
The figure of unauthorized immigrants residing in the United States is enormous though a number of indicators imply that migration undercurrents have set in with the effect of reduction of unlawful immigration in the future. This is even as the economy of the United States recoils. The decline in illegal immigrants has been witnessed since the year 2007 with a decline in number of arrests made in line with migrants trying to traverse the border illegally. These new trends are influenced by a number of factors (Gomez, 2014). The first factor being the diminishing of lower-skilled labor demand in the sectors that employed unauthorized immigrants. Secondly, the costs, dangers and difficulty of making an illegal immigration due to the accumulation of immigration enforcement at the boundaries. Looking at the factor in combination, we can predict a lasting new development that is expected to remain in place in the near future.
Immigration Benefits and Costs
An acknowledgement of the real benefits brought about by illegal immigrants on the supply side of the American economy is in existence. This is the major reason as to why the business community is compete against a simple crackdown. Economic costs on illegal immigrants are also in place. These are resulting from America’s generous social insurance institutions. Thinking of it logically the cost of securing the borders would still be in place no matter the number of illegal immigrants. The illusion that immigrants harm the economy of the United States should be thrown out of hand. At the moment, there is a higher percentage of foreign-born Americans and yet the economy is still strong with a higher total gross domestic product. In collaboration to this, there are more Americans working than ever with higher productivity per worker. This economic boom might not have been as a result of immigration but also it is not in order to falsely lay blames on the immigrants for hurting the economy at a time when it is at an all-time high(Zingher, 2014). Increased immigration flow corresponded with a steady and considerable reduction in unemployment in the past two decades. A comprehensive accounting of the benefits and costs of immigration has found that the benefits outdo the costs.
Economic Principles for Effective Immigrant Program
An effective immigrant working program for the future of immigrants will be guided by a number of economic principles and as such, recommendations. These principles should be borne in mind. They include:
Biometric identification of all guest workers in America. A sister program to the one in existence (US-VISIT) will be in order in the essential enforcement efforts and in authentication of guest workers by American companies. Currently an effective system for internal enforcement does not exist.
An effort to have the existing migrant workers register with the guest worker program is also desired. This could be effectively achieved through positive incentives for the compliance and negative incentives (punishments) for non-compliance. To have the program working the United States companies also need incentives (Gomez, 2014). The success of the program is dependent entirely on the companies support through passage and enforcement. The guest worker status should not be used as a path to citizenship and also should not include the rights of United States social benefits. Compliance to the program is dependent on legal entry for guest workers.
This legal entry shall be made efficient through the contingent upon a brief waiting period. The program will desire that the government agencies shy away from micromanaging migrant labor. It is important to note that the use of the program as an excuse to create another large federal bureaucracy will lead to its failure.
After the entry into the program, bonds could be used to monitor compliance. A condition of finding a sponsoring employer within duration of one month with day laborers finding long-term sponsoring employers would make the program more effective.
Punishment should be two way for both the migrants and employers who do not comply with the new laws. The migrants also are required to respect all American laws and traditions since it is the host country.
Gomez, J. H. (2014). Immigration And The Next America. Vital Speeches of The
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Schurtman, M., &Lillard, M. C. (2014). Remedial And Preventive Responses To The Unauthorized Practice Of Immigration Law. Texas Hispanic Journal of Law & Policy, 2047-119.
Zingher, J. N. (2014). The Ideological and Electoral Determinants of Laws Targeting
Undocumented Migrants in the U.S. States. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 14(1), 90-