PHARMACOGENOMICS IN THE NURSING LITERATURE
Date of Submission:
In the research 50 people were screened to obtain the duplicates. A summery was reviewed to ensure that those who did not meet the inclusion criteria were eliminated and left out. Data about them was were extracted and they were verified by authors to check on the discrepancies if they exited. Data was the organized and analyzed for various reasons.
The purpose of the study was to review and solve the problem of inadequacy of knowledge among the clinical officers and medics who have specialized in pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study, three attributes came out from the pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetics and they included the following definition of various problem faced by nurses and medics; science study, genomic, generic and pharmacology
During the study the 136 articles were identified the prospects of the title that were identified in the study was to eliminate the titles that were duplicated. The summary of 180 reports were reviewed to check on the unnecessary articles which did not meet the inclusion criteria.
The data that was abstracted from various articles were used to determine that the study was included in the analysis. The information about the authors, their nationality, article type, their objectives and purposes also indicated that the study was included in the articles. Also the discussion involving the nursing implications were wer4e arranged in three various groups.
The study about the scientific contribution, baseline comprehension of knowledge discovery about pharmacogenomics was reviewed in the study. Here the integrative review was carried out to through intensive examination of the state of science of inheritance and variation .the concept of pharmacogenetic, clinical practices and nurses responsibilities among others were some of the studies that were reviewed.
During research the following reserve tools were employed to ensure efficiency in data collection and interpretation. Narrative reviews were used to deal with variations in responses to medical behavior due to variation in a single gene. Narrative review also provided an overview of an individual medication, the importance of advanced nursing activities and the resources related to personalized medication. Data was analyzed and presented in tables and charts.
The purpose of the study was to review the clinical and medication aspects of the pharmacogenomics and the pharmacokinetics. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories(Beery & Hern 2004).. Moreover the study also noted that the necessity for the nurses to have a painstaking ability to judge to judge the effectiveness of pharmacogenomics .Finally the study also revealed that education should entail ethical and legal procedures regarding genomic medication because the nurses and medical practitioners would be held liable and professionally responsible for understanding pharmacogenomics of drugs administration.
The topic was not clearly defined. The literature review resulted in a sample that was homogeneous from the sample articles. No narrative review was included in describing the systematic of evaluating such methods, strategies employed, articles retrieved, and the reasons for final sample selection. The results of pharmacokinetic and pharmacogomics about the variations in the conceptual definitions .pharmacogenomics was explained in the article to have a percentage of 21% while the pharmacokinetic was defined by 25.5%.
The search for the studies and the evidence was not comprehensive. The article also provided level three evidence by representing an in vitro pharmacogenetric research. Whereas all the journals and the articles the minimum level of evidence, narrative and opinion manuscript or level VII. They include topics were not assessed for quality as most of the implications were generated in the context of future in several articles, pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetic were viewed far off in now and here clinics rather than education or research. The design characteristics and the findings of the study were not displayed sufficiently as Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.
The conclusions are not credible as they lack empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities.
Across the studies the strength of association was not found to make the difference in the patient outcomes. The review resulted into a homogenous article samples with the majority of them being narrative samples. According to Moher, there was no narrative article reviews that contained a description of evaluating the system methods such as the number of the retrieved articles, the reason for the final sample selection and the search strategies that were used in the process (Beery & Hern 2004). The intended purpose of the articles was to review the clinical aspects of pharmacogenetics. However around 40 % of the articles were not well prepared for the defined purpose. For example in one of the articles the purpose of the statement was absent within the text of the article.
The conclusions given are not relevant to the care of the nurses During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories. During the study various implications were discussed and with and all the stakeholders came to an agreement that the nurses required to have the capability of applying pharmacogenomics know how in practicing nursing assessment and more elaborate and detailed family and patient stories.
Pharmacogenomics is vital in prescription of individual drug therapy by choosing the right drugs to be administered the patients. Through the integrative review limitations identified a need to embrace and recognize the importance of burgeoning field. The field of Pharmageconomics should be keenly monitored as it has been implemented in various capacities. Thorough research should be conducted aiming to support the nursing implications that occur during the practice.
Lack of empirical studies and theory has greatly thwarted the establishment of a robust foundation to build upon. It should be mandatory for nurses to engage in inter disciplinary conversations that involve pharmacogenomics so as to meet the expected practice responsibilities. The present literature is limited in terms of the scope, number and the type of articles to be used.
Beery, T. A., & Hern, M. J. (2004). Genetic practice, education, and research: An overview for advanced practice nurses. Clinical Nurse Specialists, 18(3), 126e132.