Business Law

BUSINESS LAW
Question 1: Advice Abbie as to whether she is obliged to use the new equipment

Abbie should not be obliged to use the new equipment because of forceful regulations in employment about harassment that are against the law. The Harassment Act of 1997 protects employees from any form of harassment from the supervisors/managers.[1] The law prohibits any form of harassment including imposition of orders contrary to employee’s consensus with the regulation. Abbie is under the protection of the Harassment Act; therefore, she is not required to oblige to the new orders. Abbie should pursue the employer according the provisions of the employment act. The Equality Act of 2010 provides platform and mechanism for employees to pursue the harasser.[2] According to the act, an employee that is subjected to any form of harassment by the employer, especially on background aspects like age, race, gender, and reassignment should pursue legal redress against the employer. This law protects employees against forms of work bullying, including assigning work descriptions that stress the employee.

In the modern employment sector, especially in private employment, harassment and bullying are becoming common problems. Forms of mistreatment are unlawful and unaccepted by the Harassment Act of 1997.[3] The employer is required to create conducive work environment that is safe from any form of harassment, intimidation, and mistreatment. These forms of mistreatment are unlawful and the employers that contravenes the law act against the policies and legislations outlined by the government. The case of Abbie is a perfect example of a form of bullying and intimidation. According to the Equality Act of 2010, bullying includes a range of activities and actions such as abuse of authority or power, which violates the dignity of an individual.[4] By trying to force an employee to an equipment that he or she is not comfortable using amounts to an act of bullying. The Harassment Act of 1997 notes that bullying includes offensive activities such insults, intimidation, and malicious acts. It is apparent that the case of Abbie is a form of intimidation and threats that seek to undermine and humiliate the victim.

The law argues that employers should not impose regulations and rules that amount to any form of humiliation and undermine the authority of an employee. Employment statutory in the UK provides the basis for respect and preservation of individual dignity through proper handling of individuals. Employment policies include the Employment Act of 2002 that requires employers to provide employments opportunities that improve workers’ careers through regular training and practice.[5] The case of Abbie works against the provisions of different employment and work statutory in the UK, hence, the employee (Abbie) should not be obliged to obstructive regulations because the law protects her against any form of humiliation and undermining actions. The law protects individual employees against abusive employers that disregard rights and privileges that employees enjoy. The Equality Act of 2002 provides ambient background of cases that protects individuals against forms of harassment.[6] The case of Abbie should be viewed as form of employee harassment because Roz, who is new in the company, is aware that Abbie, the machinist, has been using old and manual machines, despite knowledge that Abbie lacks knowledge of using modern tools and machines. Roz should initiate a process of enlisting the use of new equipment by training the machinist. This could reduce any form of stress and help Abbie adapt to the new changes. Forceful implementation of regulations violates individual freedom because employees must not be subjected to intimidation and forms of harassment and mistreatment.

The law in the UK protects individual employees that use new machines; the provisions made in the regulations of 1998 require the employer to ensure that equipment guarantee safety. This ensures that equipment is suitable to the purpose and is not subject to risks. The provisions further claim that selecting work equipment for employees should be done in regard to health standards and conditions as well as health and safety measures of employees. The regulations also require the employer to choose the equipment that suits the needs of the worker and ensure that health and safety measures are guaranteed. On maintenance and provision of instructions, the law requires all the employers to give workers the safety and health measures/manuals before they use the machine or work equipment. The regulation provides that where appropriate, the employer should provide both written and oral instructions in relation to the use of the machine. This is to ensure that the employee is protected against any form of risks. The regulation further advices employers that all the employees that either have a direct or indirect access to machine or work equipment have adequate information in terms of usage and safety measures. There should be written instructions on the use of the equipment.

According to Arnold, the guidelines on how the equipment is used in the process of production should have guidelines that outline the conditions and methods that the equipment can be used.[7] The regulations also require employers to give information regarding the foreseeable abnormal situations regarding the use of the equipment and necessary measures that should be taken if such abnormal situations occur. Importantly, the regulation directs the employers that employees who use the new equipment should have adequate experience. Furthermore, the employer should ensure that the instructions and information on the equipment are comprehensible to the employee. Regarding training, the regulation requires employers to ensure that the employees that use the machine have adequate training and experience. The regulation directs employers to make sure that workers understand methods adopted while using the equipment as well as the risks that it entails and the precautions to be taken.[8]

The regulations further direct the employers to guarantee that the supervisors and managers have adequate training for the purpose of enhancing safety and health measures. It is against this background that Abbie should not obliged to utilize the new machine. Roz has not met the requirements of this provision. She has not provided adequate instructions to ensure that Abbie understand information regarding safety and health measures of the new machine. Furthermore, Abbie has not received any form of training or experience on using the new equipment. Therefore, she lacks information regarding precautions and safety measures of using the equipment. The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations of 1998 provides measures for protection against health hazards.[9] According to the regulations, the employer must ensure that the employee that is subjected to specified risks and hazards should receive protection measures. The regulations provide that workers subjected to risks should have protective measures to minimize the effects of the hazards. Looking at the case of Roz and Abbie, it is apparent that Abbie lacks protection from specified risks posed by the equipment. Therefore, she should not be obliged to use of the new equipment. Roz should meet the regulations provided by act of 1998, including providing adequate training and protection as well as instructions and information on the safety and health measures of the machine.

Question 2: Advise Roz as to any action she can take in relation to the comments made by Dennis

Employment Act of 2002 (Dispute Resolution) provides measures and means of solving conflicts at work. The act provides statutory procedure and measures that ensure employment conflicts are resolved amicably. It highlights the means of achieving conflict resolution through statutory procedures and conflict management procedures. The act covers among other factors, disciplinary measures that cover conflicts in employment.[10] The law protects employees against dismissal without giving notice, explaining the reasons for dismissal, circumstances for dismissal, as well as right of an employee such as reception of full compensation before dismissal. The UK has placed much emphasis on workplace mediation and conflict resolution; the government initiated The Gibbons Review Team to assist it in initiating programs for legislative changes.[11] The government asked the Gibbons Review Team to find options and measures for improving and simplifying employment dispute resolution. The Gibbons Review Team recommended that the government should repeal all the traditional statutory dispute resolution procedures and find informal, flexible, and easy approaches to employment conflict and grievances.[12] The Gibbons Review Team placed a great emphasis on the need for employees, employers, and the stakeholders to find alternative methods and approaches to conflict resolution. In particular, the team argued that mediation provides the best alternative approach to conflict resolution.[13] The Gibbons Review Team recommended that mediation provide flexible, informal, and pragmatic means of solving conflicts and providing positive outcomes. The government adopted the recommendations of the Gibbons Review. Legal Acts in the UK support conflict resolution based on the mediation process.[14]

Roz should find a way of managing the conflict between herself and the manager. She should develop strategies and procedures of ensuring that the conflict between the two is resolved in an cordial manner. Roz should use the mediation process to solve the conflict. The mediation process ascertains that all parties are satisfied by the outcome of the process.[15] In the case where Dennis wants Roz to work under him while managing employees that work in the warehouse, Roz should initiate the mediation process, which will guarantee that both parties are satisfied and those working in the warehouse agree with the changes. The mediation will provide an amble process that is trustworthy by all participants in the conflict.[16] There are many ways of handling the mediation process[17]. One of the ways is using legal proceedings whereby individuals in the conflict give evidence in a court of law. In the event that the court procedure is followed in the process of solving the conflict, the court is required to maintain the confidentiality of the mediation process.[18]

Roz can use grievance resolution procedures to solve the conflict with the manager. The procedure uses the mediation process to reach amicable resolutions. This procedure starts with informal resolutions whereby Roz and Dennis try to discuss and find the solutions. In the case where they cannot reach a consensus on their grievances, they can enlist the service of higher managers. This is important because the management reach resolution by define roles and giving jurisdiction of duties.[19] Roz should try using the mediation process because it provides several advantages. Mediation gives her the opportunity to talk to the manager and express her grievances and try to reach consensus. The process will enhance a better understanding between the parties.[20]

Of significance is that mediation provides mechanisms for faster response between the parties under conflict. It will give Roz and Dennis the opportunity to solve the conflict without one of them becoming entrenched. In addition, the process will guarantee the stability of the relationship between the manager and employee. The process solve issues without involving third parties that could blow the issue out of proportion and in some cases result in subjecting them to intimidation and harassment.[21] The process further avoids instances in which the issue could slip into the public domain. Therefore, Roz and Dennis should discuss and reach consensus without infringing any party or going against the company rules.[22]

Bibliography

Agusti-Panareda, J. “Power Imbalances. Questioning.” Dispute Resolution Journal 59.2 (2004): 101-23.

Alberts, J., Heisterkamp, B., and McPhee, R. “Disputant perceptions of and satisfaction with a community mediation program.” International Journal of Conflict Management 16.3 (2005): 218-244.

Arnold J. and O’Connor, K. “How negotiator self-efficacy drives decisions to pursue mediation.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36.11 (2006): 2649-2669.

Arnold, J. “Mediator Insight: Disputants’ perceptions of third parties’ knowledge and its effect on mediated negotiation.” International Journal of Conflict Management 11.4 (2000): 318-336.

Barrett, J. “In search of the Rosetta Stone of the Mediation Profession.” Negotiation Journal 15 (1999): 219-227.

Barsky, A. and Wood, L. “Conflict avoidance in a university context.” Higher Education Research and Development 24.3 (2005): 249-264.

Bellman, H. “Some reflections on the practice of mediation.” Negotiation Journal 14 (1998): 205-210.

Berggren, K. “Do formal mediation programs work in the settlement of employee-employer disputes?” Schmidt Labor Research Center Seminar Research Series. (2006).

Bingham L. “Employment Dispute Resolution: The Case for Mediation.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly 22.1-2 (2004): 145-174.

Bingham, L. “Mediation at work: Transforming workplace conflict at the United States Postal Service.” IBM Center for Business and Government: Human Capital Management Series (2003).

Bingham, L. “The politics of evaluation. Lessons learned from the evaluation of workplace dispute resolution programs.” Labor and Employment Relations Association Series. Proceedings from the 59th Annual Meeting (2009).

Equality Act 2010, c.15. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents&gt;

Gewurz, I. “(Re)designing mediation to address the nuances of power imbalance.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly 19.2 (2001): 135-162.

Gibbons, M. A review of employment dispute resolution in Great Britain, London: DTI, 2007.

Hallberlin, C., Walker, D. and Chung, W. “Dispute System Design and Justice in Employment Dispute Resolution: Mediation at the Workplace.” Harvard Negotiation Law Review 14 (2009): 1-50.

Johnston, T. Knowledge and use of mediation in SMEs, Acas Research Paper, (2008) 02/08

Protection from Harassment Act 1997, C. 40. Web. 25 Apr. 2015. <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1997/40/contents&gt;

Qc, B. H., & Morris, G. S. “The Employment Act 2002 and the crisis of individual employment rights.” Industrial Law Journal 31.3 (2002): 245-269.

The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 Order 1998, SI 1998/2306

[1] Protection from Harassment Act 1997, C. 40.

[2] Equality Act 2010, c.15

[3] Ibid. 40.

[4] Ibid. 15

[5] Qc, B. H., & Morris, G. S. “The Employment Act 2002 and the crisis of individual employment rights.” Industrial Law Journal 31.3 (2002): 245-269.

[6] Equality Act 2010, c.15

[7] Arnold, J. “Mediator Insight: Disputants’ perceptions of third parties’ knowledge and its effect on mediated negotiation.” International Journal of Conflict Management 11.4 (2000): 318-336.

[8] Bingham L. “Employment Dispute Resolution: The Case for Mediation.” Conflict Resolution Quarterly 22.1-2 (2004): 145-174.

[9] The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 Order 1998, SI 1998/2306

[10] Barrett, J. “In search of the Rosetta Stone of the Mediation Profession.” Negotiation Journal 15 (1999): 219-227.

[11] Bingham, L. “Mediation at work: Transforming workplace conflict at the United States Postal Service.” IBM Center for Business and Government: Human Capital Management Series (2003).

[12] Gibbons, M. A review of employment dispute resolution in Great Britain, London: DTI, 2007.

[13] Hallberlin, C., Walker, D. and Chung, W. “Dispute System Design and Justice in Employment Dispute Resolution: Mediation at the Workplace.” Harvard Negotiation Law Review 14 (2009): 1-50

[14] Bingham, L. “The politics of evaluation. Lessons learned from the evaluation of workplace dispute resolution programs.” Labor and Employment Relations Association Series. Proceedings from the 59th Annual Meeting (2009).

[15] Berggren, K. “Do formal mediation programs work in the settlement of employee-employer disputes?” Schmidt Labor Research Center Seminar Research Series. (2006).

[16] Bellman, H. “Some reflections on the practice of mediation.” Negotiation Journal 14 (1998): 205-210.

[17] Barsky, A. and Wood, L. “Conflict avoidance in a university context.” Higher Education Research and Development 24.3 (2005): 249-264.

[18] Johnston, T. Knowledge and use of mediation in SMEs, Acas Research Paper, (2008) 02/08

[19] Arnold J. and O’Connor, K. “How negotiator self-efficacy drives decisions to pursue mediation.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36.11 (2006): 2649-2669.

[20] Alberts, J., Heisterkamp, B., and McPhee, R. “Disputant perceptions of and satisfaction with a community mediation program.” International Journal of Conflict Management 16.3 (2005): 218-244

[21] Agusti-Panareda, J. “Power Imbalances. Questioning.” Dispute Resolution Journal 59.2 (2004): 101-23.

[22] Gewurz, I. ‘(Re)designing mediation to address the nuances of power imbalance’, Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 19.2 (2001): 135-162.

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Exploring international nursing students clinical learning experiences within the university Setting

METHODOLOGY

Methods

Both subjective and quantitative methodologies are utilized as a part of studies all through numerous disciplines, including science and the sociologies. Subjective (qualitative) examination is concerned with complete and itemized portrayals of occasions (Schneider, 2012). Quantitative exploration develops measurable models to clarify occasions. Subjective and quantitative examinations have a few preferences and burdens, contingent on the scientist’s point and territory of core interest (Gopee, 2011). Qualitative exploration is helpful amid the early phases of a study when the analyst may be uncertain of precisely what will be contemplated or what to concentrate on. This kind of exploration does not require a strict configuration arrangement before it starts. This gives the scientist opportunity to let the study unfold all the more characteristically (Speziale & Carpenter, 2011). Another focal point to subjective exploration is that the specialist increases more itemized and rich information as complete composed portrayals or visual proof, for example, photos. This kind of examination takes a gander at setting and social significance and how it influences people, which is worthwhile especially in the sociologies (Stuart, 2013). One of the disadvantages of qualitative research is that the researcher is heavily entangled in the study process, thus giving him/her a subjective view of participants and the study.

Aims

The point of this study was to investigate the understudies’ encounters of the clinical environment and supervision of the doctor’s facility based arrangement of training in Cyprus, and structures the premise for future replication when nursing has completely moved to the ”college framework”.

The particular goals were:

  1. To investigate how understudy attendants discover their experience of the learning environment and supervision in clinical situations.
  2. To recognize which components of the clinical environment and supervision add to learning.
  3. To make an information base on clinical learning and supervision that will frame a beginning stage for future studies in Cyprus.

The Questionnaire

The point of this study was to investigate the understudies’ encounters of the clinical environment and supervision of the doctor’s facility based arrangement of training in Cyprus, and structures the premise for future replication when nursing has completely moved to the ”college framework”.

The particular goals were:

  1. To investigate how understudy attendants discover their experience of the learning environment and supervision in clinical situations.
  2. To recognize which components of the clinical environment and supervision add to learning.
  3. To make an information base on clinical learning and supervision that will frame a beginning stage for future studies in Cyprus.

Ethical Concerns

Prior to the start of the study, the analyst must layout to the members what the examination is about, and after that ask their assent (that is, authorization) to undertake (Munhall, 2012). Considering this, it is not generally conceivable to increase educated assent. This is worthy the length of what happens to the members since it is something that could undoubtedly transpire in ordinary life (Bulman & Schutz, 2013). For instance, if the examination includes watching individuals in a transport line, those individuals may be seen by anybody when they are in the line.

Participants must be given data identifying with:

  • Purpose of the examination.
  • Procedures included in the examination.
  • All predictable dangers and distresses to the subject. These incorporates physical harm as well as conceivable mental.
  • Benefits of the examination to society and conceivably to the individual human subject.
  • Length of time the subject is relied upon to take an interest.
  • Person to contact for answers to inquiries or in the occasion of harassment.

Members must be altogether questioned towards the end of the study (Gerrish & Lacey, 2010). They must be given a general thought of what the specialist was researching and why, and their part in the examination ought to be clarified. They must be told on the off chance that they have been cheated and given reasons why. They must be inquired as to whether they have any inquiries and those inquiries ought to be addressed sincerely and as completely as could be allowed (De, 2015).

This is the place members are misdirected or wrongly educated about the points of the examination. Case in point, in Milgram’s investigation of submission, the members thought they there giving electric stuns to a learner when they addressed an inquiry off-base. In all actuality, no stuns were given and the learners were confederates of Milgram. This is sometimes important especially with a specific end goal to dodge request attributes (i.e. the education of an investigation which leads members to think they recognize what the scientist is searching for).

In any case, members must be bamboozled as meager as could be expected under the circumstances, and any misleading must not bring about trouble. On the off chance that you have picked up members’ educated assent by misleading then they will have consented to participate without really recognizing what they were consenting to. The genuine way of the examination ought to be uncovered at the most punctual conceivable open door, or possibly amid questioning (Chang & Daly, 2007). In the event that the member is liable to question or be troubled once they find the genuine way of the examination at questioning, then the study is unsatisfactory.

Members and the information picked up from them must be kept mysterious unless they give their full assent. No names must be utilized as part of an examination report. Participants and the information picked up from them must be kept unknown unless they give their full assent. No names must be utilized as part of an exploration report (Kothari, 2005).

From the very begin of an examination, members must be mindful of their entitlement to quit taking an interest in the study. Indeed, even towards the end of the study, the member has a last chance to withdraw the information they have accommodated to the examination in accordance with Nirmala and Edison (2011).

Statistical methods

Measurements refers to the assortment of systems by which qualities of a populace are derived through perceptions made in an agent test from that populace (Waltz, Strickland & Lenz, 2010). Since researchers once in a while watch whole populaces, testing and measurable induction are paramount. This article first examines some general standards for the arranging of examinations and information visualization. At that point, a solid accentuation is put on the decision of proper standard measurable models and techniques for factual surmising (Taylor, Kermode, Roberts & Roberts, 2006). (1) Standard models (binomial, Poisson, ordinary) are portrayed. Use of these models to certainty interim estimation and parametric speculation testing are likewise portrayed, including two-example circumstances when the intention is to analyze two (or more) populaces with admiration to their methods or differences. (2) Non-parametric derivation tests are additionally depicted in situations where the information test appropriation is not perfect with standard parametric dispersions. (3) Re-inspecting techniques using numerous arbitrarily computer produced examples are at long last presented for assessing the attributes of a dispersion and for measurable derivation. The accompanying segment manages techniques for handling multivariate information. Systems for managing clinical trials are additionally quickly looked into (Andrew & Halcomb, 2009). Finally, the last area talks about measurable PC programming and this aides the audience through a gathering of bibliographic references adjusted to diverse levels of ability and points in accordance to Powers & Knapp (2011).

The participants

Approval depicts the strategies used to dissect pharmaceutical items so that the information produced will consent to the prerequisites of administrative groups of the US, Canada, Europe and Japan. Adjustment of Instruments portrays the methodology of altering, checking or amending the graduations of instruments with the goal that they conform to those administrative bodies (Brink, Van & Van, 2007). This book gives an intensive clarification of both the crucial and handy parts of biopharmaceutical and bioanalytical routines approval. It instructs the best possible techniques for utilizing the instruments and investigation strategies in a controlled lab setting. As stated by Fitzpatrick & Kazer (2012), perusers will take in the suitable methods for alignment of research center instrumentation and acceptance of scientific systems for examination. These systems must be executed appropriately in every single managed laboratorie, including pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical labs, clinical testing research facilities (healing centers, medicinal workplaces) and in nourishment and restorative testing research facilities.

Validation of the instruments

Approval depicts the strategies used to dissect pharmaceutical items so that the information produced will consent to the prerequisites of administrative groups of the US, Canada, Europe and Japan. Adjustment of Instruments portrays the methodology of altering, checking or amending the graduations of instruments with the goal that they conform to those administrative bodies (Indrani, 2005). This book gives an intensive clarification of both the crucial and handy parts of biopharmaceutical and bioanalytical routines approval. It instructs the best possible techniques for utilizing the instruments and investigation strategies in a controlled lab setting (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2014). Perusers will take in the suitable methods for alignment of research center instrumentation and acceptance of scientific systems for examination (Ellis, 2010). These systems must be executed appropriately in every single managed laboratorie, including pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical labs, clinical testing research facilities (healing centers, medicinal workplaces) and in nourishment and restorative testing research facilities.

References

Andrew, S., & Halcomb, E. (2009). Mixed methods research for nursing and the health sciences. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell Pub.

Brink, H., Van, . W. C., & Van, R. G. (2007). Fundamentals of research methodology for health care professionals. Kenwyn: Juta.

Bulman, C. & Schutz, S. (2013). Reflective Practice in Nursing. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Chang, E. M. L., & Daly, J. (2007). Transitions in nursing: Preparing for professional practice. Marrickville, N.S.W: Elsevier Australia.

De, C. M. (2015). Nursing research using participatory action research: Qualitative designs and methods in nursing. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Ellis, P. (2010). Understanding research for nursing students. Exeter: Learning Matters.

Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Kazer, M. W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York: Springer Pub.

Gerrish, K., & Lacey, A. (2010). The research process in nursing. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

Gopee, N. (2011). Mentoring and Supervision in Healthcare. 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.

Indrani, T. K. (2005). Research methods for nurses. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research methodology: Methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Munhall, P. L. (2012). Nursing research: A qualitative perspective. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Powers, B. A., & Knapp, T. R. (2011). Dictionary of nursing theory and research. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Schneider, . (2012). Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence Based Practice. Marrickville: Harcourt.

Speziale, H. S., & Carpenter, D. R. (2011). Qualitative research in nursing: Advancing the humanistic imperative. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Stuart, C,. (2013). Mentoring, Learning and Assessment in Clinical Practice: A Guide for Nurses, Midwives and Other Health Professionals. 3rd Edition. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Taylor, B. J., Kermode, S., Roberts, K., & Roberts, K. (2006). Research in nursing and health care: Evidence for practice. South Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Thomson.

Nirmala, V, & Edison, J. S. (2011). Research methodology In nursing. Kochi: Jaypee Brothers Pub.

Waltz, C. F., Strickland, O., & Lenz, E. R. (2010). Measurement in nursing and health research. New York: Springer Pub.

Internation Banking- Bonus Seasons

ANALYSIS OF STANDARD CHATERED BANK IN UK

This is one of the best banks in United Kingdom and was formed back in 1969, which was through a merger of two banks, the Standard Bank of British South Africa and the India Chartered Bank , Australia and China. The bank was capitalizing on the expansion of business between Europe and Asia (Sc.com, 2015).
In the United Kingdom and the entire Europe, there have been measures to improve effectiveness and resilience of the banking system by the European Banking Authority. The directives fro EBA gave instructions on issues to do with remuneration that would help companies from taking the unnecessary risk that would destabilize the concerned institutions during the occurrence of the risk. Standard bank in United Kingdom is doing some market capitalization within the banking sector. This being one of the leading banks in Unite Kingdom means it is a crucial bank in the financial industry. Market capitalization of a company is the total market value of a company’s outstanding shares (Channel NewsAsia, 2014).
The share price of the standard group has been going down since 2014, compared t 2013 which recorded high revenue after tax compared to 2014. P/ E ratio is realized by dividing market value per share with earnings per share (Sc.com, 2015).

 

 

 

 

 

Year ending:

31/12/2014 31/12/2013
Revenue (m): 18,334.00 18,777.00
Profit before tax (m): 4,235.00 6,064.00
EPS (¢): 102.20 164.40
P/E ratio: 9.90 10.00
PEG: n/a n/a
EPS growth (%): (28.00) n/a

Values are quoted in the stock’s local currency: US cent

This was 2011, but the report was different for the fiscal year ending 31st December 2014 where the firm had to cut bonuses. According to the management team of the standard bank, the bank profits went down by 30%, and this forced the company to waive bonuses. Currently in the stock exchange market value of standard chartered bank share is estimated to be around 93.55pounds that have been trending for a while. In 2013, the CEO was issued with a bonus because the company had accrued a good amount of income, and it was doing very well in the stock exchange market. Earning per share in 2013 was commendable, and this was the reason the bank was comfortable on awarding its bankers with real rewards (wilson, 2015).

When compared to 2014 things have been tough to the extent that the bank revenue went down by a significant margin. This forced some bankers in the company to be deducted some amount from their salary because the Bank was finding it hard to finance its operating cost. In 2014, the bank market value went down as compared to 2013. Earning per share in 2013 was 64.4 which reduced in 2014 to 102.2, this highly affected the revenue generation of the standard chartered bank and led to reduced income (wilson, 2015).
Reduced earning per share was sending the information that the bank in 2014 was not fairing well in the stock market it in 2013. This was the reason the firm found it hard to award individuals in 2014 as they did comfortably in 2013. The bank has been offering one of the best remuneration packages in the banking industry, but this blow of 2014 changed things and profoundly affected many things within the organization. The issue of reduced revenue for Standard Bank Uk has made investors and shareholders get concerned with what is happening with their highly coveted bank. The shareholder is in need of right measures to being put in place and make sure the deficit is corrected. They are arguing that even the paying of bonuses should put on hold first and first make sure the bank gets back on the course of creating wealth to shareholders, and growing in the market. According there is need for the bank to make the right decisions that will enable the earning per share to shareholders increase for this will pool in people to be willing in purchasing the bank’s shares in the stock exchange market (wilson, 2015).

The above information compares the market performance of the standard chartered bank as at 31 December 2013 and December 2014. As seen from the figure revenue realized in 2013 was more compared to 2014, and this was still reflected in the case of profit after tax in both years. In 2013, the EPS of the bank was more compared to that of 2014 meaning the firm was doing well in the stock market in 2013 compared to 2014. In the case of standard chartered bank P/E ratio between the two years more was realized in 2013 meaning that more share were sold during this period of 2013 compared to 2014. The PEG ratio is for determining a stock value while taking the company’s earnings growth into consideration. From the provide information, it is clear that the company is growing the EPS increased by 28% in 2014 meaning the bank was generally doing well in the stock market.
It is clear that standard chartered pays generous bonuses that are said to have limited deferrals. According to the investor report of 2011 which included the remuneration report it showed how much the bank was paying its code staff. Below is a chart giving more details about the same.

Bibliography

Channel NewsAsia, (2014). Standard Chartered says net profit fell 37% to US$2.51b in 2014. [online] Available at: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/business/international/standard-chartered-says/1694618.html?cx_tag=similar#cxrecs_s [Accessed 22 Apr. 2015].

Driving investment, trade and the creation of wealth across Asia, Africa and the Middle East. (2013). 1st ed. [ebook] London: standard Bank. Available at: http://reports.standardchartered.com/annual-report-2013/pdf/2013-Annual-Report.pdf [Accessed 22 Apr. 2015].

Sc.com, (2015). About Us – Standard Chartered Bank United Kingdom. [online] Available at: https://www.sc.com/uk/about-us/ [Accessed 22 Apr. 2015].

Sc.com, (2015). Standard Chartered Bank United Kingdom. [online] Available at: https://www.sc.com/uk/ [Accessed 22 Apr. 2015].

wilson, H. (2015). Standard Chartered stumbles into 2014. The Telegraph. [online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/10565723/Standard-Chartered-stumbles-into-2014.html [Accessed 22 Apr. 2015].

Toy Design/Children Development

Toy Design/Children Development

Student’s Name

Institution

Toy Design/Children Development

When designing a toy or a children’s game, it is essential to include features that increase the time children concentrate on it, its safety, education the children are likely to learn, and its affordability. Children are at an optimal stage of intellectual growth, and they need activities that facilitate the same. This study approves the appropriateness of a game designed for children aged between 5 and 7 years.

The Pucsticth Game serves the purpose of entertaining and educating children while ensuring safety. The game is programmed to be compatible with iOS and Android platforms. It aims at developing cognitive skills among children. A player can select one category among playground, classroom, home or nature, and then select a level of difficulty that ranges from 1 to 5, with 1 the easiest, and 5 the most challenging. It displays 3 clues based on category and level of difficulty. When a picture box appears, the player needs to state the correct answer by capturing the required object using the device’s camera. For instance, if the answer is required to be a banana, the child takes its picture and a fact such as that it is composed of 75% water appears. Points are recorded for each object identified, after which a fact relating to the object is provided to the child. The child’s progress is identifiable as the results are saved for the parent or guardian to review. The child can proceed to a higher level when he/she makes a significant progress.

The game invokes creativity and discovery hence learning. Children between 5 and 7 have play as the best way to learn. It arouses their cognitive ability, a feature that Rai & Mitchell (2006) explore in their empirical study. They wished to analyze children’s ability to attribute inference in their knowledge. They carried out different tests to test their hypotheses, the first being on 31 5-year-old children. The test showed that the children were sensitive to the access of the premises by another person, when predicting the concerned person’s ability to select a target after eliminating options among 3 cartoon characters. The second reaffirmed the finding by judging the thought of the other person on the target, and if the other person really knew what the target was. The last test deduced that children incorporated inference by elimination as compared to syllogistical inference. Children were concluded to be strongly discriminatory in the elimination process. Children at the age of 7 can even explicitly express the understanding of inference. The study asserts that the early insight into inference by elimination enhances the understanding that individuals can derive knowledge without necessarily having direct perceptual access.

The game is greatly supported by this study. To start with, the method used in the study greatly relates to what the children undergo during the game. Children have to identify an object in pictorial representation, and relate to a real object. This invokes both forms of inferences considered in the study. Secondly, the game advances with the child’s intellectual growth. This apparently relates to the study’s affirmation that although the same experiment was conducted on children of all ages five through seven, children aged seven could clearly express their knowledge of inference as compared to the 5-year olds, who just utilize it subconsciously. Therefore, the game is essential in both assessing and promoting cognitive ability among children.

One of the benefits of the game is that it is multi-gender. While girls are generally emotional even at a tender age, boys are easily influenced by their peers (Bartgis, Lilly, & Thomas, 2013). Moreover, girls are more attracted by colors like pink as compared with boys. This game does not disintegrate any group. It has several objects that could be required for the answer, thus insinuating a captivating feature to all boys and girls.

Attention span is also an aspect that the game considers. Children are certainly distracted, but at the age of 5, they can easily ignore minor distractors. Abraitis (2010) states the average attention span of a child aging between 5 and 7 is 10 to 15 minutes. However, this could depend on several factors as well. For instance, if the activity is collectively being done by a group of children, the attention can extend even up to 25 minutes. Abraitis also notes personal interests are the most vital in motivating children, since anything that conforms to their individual interests can double the attention span. The Pucsticth game is considerate of the span since it is comprehensive of other activities and objects.

The ease in playing the game is another merit. The child only needs to select the game on the device, and then start it. Children’s attention is diverted whenever they encounter difficulty in their activities. The game can additionally be played in any setting, and complemented by the portability of supporting devices, children can play it anytime. Ease in playing is also facilitated by the clarity of pictures and sensitivity to photos taken by the children. The game appreciates the low expertise in children cognitive ability, which is captured in the levels it provides, and also the limited skills in taking photographs, which is embraced in the considerate evaluation of photos. An additional appealing feature about the game is its safety. The game exclusively requires an iOS or Android supporting device. Once children are shown how to play, they can play on their own without any need for close supervision.

Moreover, the fact that children play the game on devises that can support iOS and Android implies intellectual development that is technologically facilitated. It is noteworthy that there is an incline into the use of technology across all aspects in life, contrary to the conventional manual operations. Children need to be prepared to undertake activities that are based on technology, including academic learning (Bartgis, Lilly & Thomas, 2003). Furthermore, the devices can be supportive of other games, and thus the parent or guardian does not need to buy more toys that operate on a similar platform. The game offers a significant steps towards the progress of embrace of technology among children.

However, the game needs to be incorporated with others that involve more movements. Since the Pucsticth Game is noticeably passive, which can lead to conditions such as unfit bodies among children at the tender age. Such conditions might intensify to overweight, which is hazardous to health. Therefore, the guardian or parent needs to control the amount of time spent on the game and any other less physically involving game. The drawback is contradicted by the attention spans among children, and may, therefore, be not a major issue. Conclusively, the Pucsticth Game is effective in entertaining, intellect developing, easy and safe for 5 to 7 year-old children.

References

Abraitis, M. (2010). Science for 5-7 Year Olds: Science for 5-7 Year Olds. Luton: Andrews UK Ltd.

Bartgis, J., Lilly, A. R., & Thomas, D. G. (2003). Event-related potential and behavioral measures of attention in 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds. The Journal of general psychology130(3), 311-335.

Rai, R., & Mitchell, P. (2006). Children’s Ability to Impute Inferentially Based Knowledge. Child Development77(4), 1081-1093.

Attachment of Premature Infant

Attachment of Premature Infant

[Name]

Institution

 

Attachment of Premature Infant

Introduction

            Neonatologists as well as parents are increasingly being concerned regarding the impacts of the survival of immature infants with respect to emotional, behavioral, mental, and motor development. A plethora of studies have been conducted on attachment development in high-risk infants. However, the findings on the attachment quality of preterm infants, especially on low-birthweight preterm infants have been found to be contradictory as well as inconsistent (Brisch et al., 2005).  Studies have found out that psychosocial, low socioeconomic statues and prematurity factors have a significant effect on emotional development. In particular, the psychological distress of the parents of preterm infants has been found to change early interactions. Premature birth has the potential to impact upon parental attitudes and perceptions hence affecting child behavior (Borghini et al., 2006). A good number of studies have demonstrated that the interaction styles of parents of premature preterm infants and full-term infants are not similar. Whereas full-term infants smile more and fuss less, preterm infants have been found to smile less and fuss more. Besides, parents of full-term infants have less level of activity and simulation as compared to parents of preterms.

Borghini, A., Pierrehumbert, B., Milijkovitch, R., Muller-Nix, C., Forcada-Guex, M., &

Ansermet, F. (2006). Mother’s attachment representations of their premature infant at 6 and 18 months after birth. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(5), 494-508.

This article sought to explore parental attachment representations towards low-birthweight preterm infants. Borghini et al. (2006) hypothesized that parental attachment representations will be changed in the course of the first months after being discharged from the hospital.  A control group of thirty families with full-term infants as well as 50 families with a premature infant between 25 and 33 gestation weeks took part in this study.  The study assessed perinatal risks in the course of hospitalization. In addition, the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) was administered to parents when their children were between six and eighteen months old.  The findings of this study indicated that the severity of the perinatal risks has a considerable effect on the parents’ attachment representations.  At 18 months, 30% of the parents of a premature born infant had secure attachment representations while at six months, only 20% of the parents of a premature born infant had secure attachment representation.  In the control group, 57% of parents of full-term infants had secure attachment representations at 18 months while 53% of the parents of full-term infants had secure attachment representations.   Borghini et al.  (2006) also found out that parents of low-risk premature infants in most cases have detached representations.  Distorted representations were also found to be common in high-risk cluster of premature infants.  Results from this study therefore suggest that mothers’ reaction to a premature birth is closely associated with severity of postnatal risks.  Since secure attachment representations were found to be affecting both parents of high-risk infants and low-risk infants, Borghini et al.  (2006) recommended that further studies should be conducted to examine whether preventive intervention for both high-risk and low-risk premature. This study had several limitations. For instance, the study had significant differences in rates of participations between control and clinical groups and as such, Borghini et al. (2006) pointed out that there is need to examine the parental reasons for refusing or accepting to take part in such kind of research. Another limitation for this study is that parental socioeconomic status might have influenced the findings of this study. In particular, a socioeconomic level was found to be low in the high-risk group and as such, it might have affected the results of this study.

Brisch, K.H., Bechinger, D., Betzler, S., Heinemann, H., Kachele, H., Pohlandt, F…Buchheim et

al.(2005).  Attachment Quality in Very Low-Birthweight Premature Infants in Relation to Maternal Attachment Representations and Neurological Development. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5(4), 11-29.

This article attempted to examine the development of attachment within very low-birthweight pretern infants in terms of maternal attachment representations as well as neurological development.  The Strange Situation Procedure was employed to classify the quality of attachment in preterm infants at 14 postnatal months.  The Adult Assessment Interview was utilized to assess maternal assessment representations and was associated with the quality of attachment in preterm infants.  The study also took into consideration neurological development at 14 months.  Results from this study demonstrated that the distribution of the quality of attachment within preterm infants (2.9 not classifiable, 10% insecure-disorganized, 2.9% insecure-ambivalent, 2.5% insecure-avoidant and 60% secure) was similar with the findings of studies of term infants.  Brisch et al. (2005) also found out that there was no correspondence between infant quality of attachment and maternal representations of attachment. Nonetheless, this study found out that neurologically impaired infants were in most cases insecurely as opposed to securely.  Brisch et al. (2005) concluded that if the neurological outcome of very low-birthweight preterm infants is damaged, they in most cases have insecure quality of attachment. To this effect, Brisch et al. (2005) argued that reducing risk factors for the development of neurological impairments may have a preventive impact on the emotional as well as somatic development of high-risk infants. The study recommended that further research need to be conducted to get answers about the interplay among emotional development, neurological risk factors and somatic development. Brisch et al. (2005) also indicated that there is need to assess the infant’s disorganized attachment quality, trauma as well as unresolved maternal loss.  This study had several limitations. For instance, the study relied upon normative information from other studies with term infants as opposed to having a control group of term infants, which of course would have been advantageous to the study. Second, there also the possibility that informing the raters of the SSP regarding vision handicaps as well as bilateral hearing of premature infants might have biased their ratings.

The gender conflicts in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles.

In the play of Susan Glaspell’s play, it was written in the year 1916. The setting of the play is in a kitchen, the sphere, and everything surrounding shows the women’s lives. It shows the writers being preoccupied with the culture, which is bound by the sex and gender roles. As it has been explained in the title. Trifles mean something of little or no importance. The women in this society are seen as the trifles, which has no importance. Only found only in the kitchen. They do not seem to be helpful, but men are seen as crucial according to what they do. Glaspell decides to question the woman and man irrelativeness in the society, by stirring up tension and drama, which reveals the differences between the two narratives the woman and the man. She argues centrally on the roles of a woman in the society, how perspectives and knowledge are devalued or valued in some particular contexts.

The play surrounds the murder of, John Wright, who was found to have been strangled in his house lying in his bed. His wife Minnie is the suspect from killing. They are supposed to be main actors, but they do not appear anywhere in the play but the attorney does appear. According to Holstein, he sees the two different narratives as. Parallel in the scene the men approaches the home where Mr. Wright was murdered, as the crime scene investigators while the women approach it as a home. In this context, the men are there as the professionals and are there to gather information on the investigations.

The women are there to get the preparation of personal effect that they need to carry to Mrs. Wright, who is imprisoned. The way women and the men view the crime is very different. The women know who the killer from the evidence they saw in the kitchen, but due to them going through similar abuse in the society decides to cover up for their friend. Men, on the other hand, does not enter the kitchen where evidence was, due to men’s ignorance that the kitchen is the world of women they leave the truth behind which was very open. It gives us knowledge that the women way of getting to know about the evidence gave them knowledge and the decision on how to act on that particular findings or the knowledge. The women instantly learned about the life Mrs. Wright has been living, not only the research on a murder case. Mrs. Wright was staying or living in the kitchen, unlike other people who live in the living room. As this is this way of getting some facts from the woman, the women have the ability to gain power for low status and can keep them quiet at the end of it.

The men undermine the women and are not allowed to contribute to the investigation Though they are the best in giving solutions. The power and authority of men are questioned when they kept crises crossing each other in the house with their actions leading to nowhere it showed their incompetence and ineffectuality ( Michigan Press, 2004. Print)

When the two women were at the scene of the crime they move very closer to each other which shows the bond of the women. The cherries of the jar in the room simplified the life of Minnie, which was so dark and needed some light. She was isolated from the community that makes her cold in life and marriage, which teamed her apart. The name Minnie was symbolic being minimal or mini. It referred to the minimized right of a woman in the society.

The bird that had been caged in the house symbolized Mrs. Wright is kept in the cage, which is in the house. The cage of the bird being destroyed and killed means Mrs. Wright was being killed by strangling by her husband. The keeping of the bird in the cage was symbolic of Mrs. Wright is not allowed to be outside the world, trapped inside the building. So her killing her husband, was done in order to set herself free. It explains how women have been misuse and only confined in homes they are not allowed to mix with other people. They way the women and men came up in the investigation, gives us the two different modes of judgment from both sexes. Women are the best investigators than men though men see themselves as superior it does not depict that in this play ( Michigan Press, 2004. Print).

The women developed the form of bonding because they came from the same geographical background that made them have sympathy with each other. Due to the same dissatisfaction and frustration, which arose from patriarchal relations in the gender, the women decided to hide the glue in order to challenge the judicial system, which is male-centered. The people, who share the same characteristics, tend to stick together when a problem comes in and protect each other.

The community is an enclosed, which makes everyone a suspect though Mrs. Wright was in bed with the husband when being strangled, she did not wake up to help if it was real. Minnie having the singing bird in the house signified that she loved singing, but his husband did not allow her to sing. In the end, John Wright did kill the bird that was the only company for his wife.

In their house, they did not have telephone meaning they did not want to connect with the neighbors. The neighbors describe Mr. Wright, as a good man, a farmer in public. His wife was not allowed to socialize with her female friends. Minnie was a good singer in the church but when she got married she changed drastically. Minnie did not have a child, and being confined in the house alone, limited her social life, and changed a personality. Home should be a place where someone feels comfortable, but this has been questioned a lot by the feminists. According to women home, is an arena of drudgery and abuse. For Minnie, it was a place of physical and psychological abuse where she had no peace, but fear taking the better part of her life. For Mr. Wright, he needed a complete silence in his house, by refusing telephone and killing the bird is symbolic of silence. Smith has some claims that there is some possibility that Minnie was being battered by her husband, which let to isolate herself, from the church choir and fellow women. The battered people tend to isolate themselves from people in order to avoid being asked and telling them what they go through or feel. Staying alone which only gave her many problems than if she had involved herself in doing something better. This shows that, not all married women enjoy the marriage life, but they hide their problems and keep distant from friends and relatives. In doing, this they think they are saving their marriages from being seen as going to ruins. The same secrets that she kept reached a point when the pressure went higher and her whole life broke apart.

In this book, the women joined hands in is created by the same sense of being in a place, pressure caused by the spatial division, and the inferior status in them a hierarchy of social gender. Women in trying to end domestic violence and the injustices use trifles, in the movement of women as good example of the effect of bonding. In the trifles, there are female detectives; they are both gone through similar experiences while living in Midwest. They did challenge the patriarchal relations of gender when they hid crucial evidence from the male. The same is the woman’s honor when six of unnamed women, who lives in Midwestern, they did question the honor of women when they admitted to doing some dishonorable things. When Gordon Wallace is being accused of a murder case, he refuses to take an alibi due to his believe that woman’s honor will be destroyed. The women later decided to provide an excuse to Wallace though they were sacrificing their honor ( Michigan Press, 2004. Print|).

The women of honor are meant to dehumanize and limit women in the society. The men in the play use their names, but the women use their husband’s name and their won. The six women in the play were only identified according to their characteristics; the scornful one, the cheated one, mercenary one, the silly one, the shielded one and the motherly one. Their names had some meaning and expressions of the different feminists and the way the society sees them. The character of women who wants to save Wallace is an indication of love in women, but there is no such thing in men.

Conclusion

This book explains a strong sense of a given place, the stories of crime and the place committed has a lot of meaning of inner conflicts of the offender and the victim. In any crime, there is a possibility of to be changed by an effort by manmade and the social construction, which needs to be descriptive and static only. From the similar experiences of women in the society, they know the truth but hides for fear of men who down look upon them. From the continuous suffering of the women, they decide to change the meaning of honor by questioning the patriarchal of the society. The writer cares about the way gender is being constructed in a given place as well as how the place has been gendered. The society ought to view women in a better way because if they had considered them, they could have first information concerning the murder case of one of them.

Works Cited

Hinz-Bode, Kristina. Susan Glaspell and the Anxiety of Expression: Language and Isolation in the Plays. Jefferson, N.C: McFarland & Co, 2006 of Michigan Press, 2004. Print. Internet resource.

Gainor, J E. Susan Glaspell in Context: American Theater, Culture, and Politics, 1915 – 48. Ann Arbor, Mich: Univ. of Michigan Press, 2004. Print.

Ben-Zvi, Linda. Susan Glaspell: Essays on Her Theater and Fiction. Ann Arbor (Mich.: University of Michigan press, 2002. Print.

Development in Oil and Gas Retail Industries

Name:

University:

Course:

Tutor:

Date:

Development in Oil and Gas Retail Industries

Introduction

            Research has shown that markets for petroleum and liquid fuels have been experiencing dynamic change in relation to demand and supply. For example, the markets have shown possible for new supplies of oil specifically from tight and shale resources. In the same regard, the demand for petroleum and petroleum products has been increasing in developing countries such India, China, and Middle East countries. On the other hand, the demand for liquid fuels among developed countries as the United States appears to have peaked.  This can be attributed to long periods of unrelenting high oil prices and improvements in efficiency and conservation hence slowed or reduced growth in the demand for liquid liquids among mature oil consumers. This has led to the Europe and the United States reassessing long-term inclinations in liquid fuels markets (EIA 2014). This paper intends to examine the main components of this reassessments, risks, and opportunities for the future dynamics of the world oil and gas industry.

Main Components of the Reassessments

            It is evident that Europe and the United States are interested in the sustainability of liquid fuels that are being consumed at a high rate among developing countries such as China and India (EIA 2014). Essentially, the demand for such products in emerging nations has been increasing. As a result, they are being consumed at a higher rate as compared to the rate of replenishing the same. This is worrying trend that needs to be addressed considering the fact that it compromises on future generations’ ability to access liquid fuels in the future.  Essentially, Europe and the United States intend to provide a solution to this challenge. It is essential for them to find ways to reduce the demand. More and more emerging countries are consuming more liquid fuels on a daily basis. It is evident that many of them are committed to improving their economy and being ranked among developed nations. As such, they require more oil products. Nevertheless, their reliance on the scarce commodity can be addressed to avoid further increase in demand (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014).

The issue of sustained high oil prices also needs to be addressed. It is evident that the world has been dealing with high oil prices for many years. Increased demand for the resources among developing countries is likely to result into a further increase in oil prices. Essentially, Europe and the United States are interested in stabilizing the oil prices to avoid further increment. For instance, they can reduce the demand by encouraging concerned countries to embrace the use of alternative sources of energy (Starr 2014).

It is also evident that the countries are considering looking for new sources of oil particularly from tight and shale resources (EIA 2014). This is an opportunity as well as a risk to the world. Shale gas can go a long way in boosting global recoverable natural gas resources. In the same regard, this can aid in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions that have become a major concern to the world. Research has also shown that shale gas can lead to the creation of job opportunities.  National energy supplies can also be boosted through the application of the same strategy. However, this also comes at a cost. Specifically, hydraulic fracturing involves the consumption of approximately 25 million litres of fresh water. Essentially, it is hard to develop shale resources in areas where fresh water is hard to find. Europe and the United States also intend to address such concerns (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014).

Increased demand for liquid fuels poses an environmental threat. First growing emerging economies have failed to come up with strategies to ensure reduction in carbon emissions as a result of increased consumption of liquid oil. This is unlike the case with most developed countries. For example, the United States has been able to reduce carbon emission through increased efficiency and the use of alternative sources of energy. This is also the case with most developed European countries. The reassessment is also aimed at improving efficiency and carbon emission resulting from increased demand for liquid oil (Starr 2014).

In the same regard, the United States and Europe are concerned with environmental conservation. It is evident that the development of tight and shale resources pose a hazard to the environment. The same case applies to the extraction of oil. Many emerging markets are more interested in increasing the demand for the scarce resources despite the negative effects that may be associated with the same. Reassessments are also aimed at providing a lasting solution to this problem. Specifically, failure to handle the issue can have a negative impact on environmental conservation (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014).

Opportunities

The reassessments are likely to result into a number of opportunities. For one, this will lead to environmental conservation. Essentially, Europe and the United States are likely to propose strategies that can help emerging markets to embrace social responsibility when consuming liquid fuels. Specifically, they will be able to avoid strategies that are likely to result into high levels of environmental degradation. It will also give the developing market the chance to embrace efficiency and conservation to reduce the consumption of the products (Starr 2014). Likewise, they will also have the opportunity to play a part in improving the protecting the environment against degradation to ensure a better tomorrow. Generally, the move by the United States and Europe to reassess the long-term trends of the fuel markets will make the world a better place (Bergsten 2013).

The oil and gas industry has been known to be a major contributor of environmental pollution. This is one of the main reasons as to why many developed nations have come up with stringent measures to ensure social responsibility among individuals and corporates. The reassessment gives the industry the opportunity to address some of the concerns raised by critics and individuals in the past. In particular, it can be able to play a role in protecting the environment. This will go a long way in changing people’s attitude towards the industry. Generally, oil and gas products will be consumed in moderation and in a responsible manner (Saulnier & Varella 2013).

Correspondingly, the reassessment will result into emerging markets such as China and India to embrace the use of alternative sources of energy. The current demand for liquid fuel is alarming. It is through the use of alternative sources of energy that the countries will be able to reduce their reliance on liquid fuels. Consequently, this will also lead to increased environmental protection. The use of alternative energy can also lead to the creation of job opportunities. This also implies that the reassessments can lead economic development especially among developing countries. Increased demand for alternative energy will lead to the development of their industry. However, one can easily argue that more jobs will be lost as a result of reduced demand for liquid fuels (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014).

Similarly, the reassessments by the United States and Europe will also give the future generations the opportunity to access the scarce resources. In particular, they will also be able to access liquid fuels. In essence, the current demand for such resources can lead to their eventual depletion. In the end, the future generation may not be able to access the same (Hunt & Evans 2014). As mentioned earlier, the move by the United States and Europe will also lead to a better future with low levels of environmental pollution resulting from carbon emissions. There might no future not unless world leaders come together to handle the issue of environmental degradation. This is a problem that cannot be solved by one individual (Starr 2014).

The future oil and gas industry must also be forced to invest more and more in research and development. This is the only way in can be able to deal with increased demand for its products as well as environmental degradation. It is through continuous investment in research and development that developed countries such as United States and Europe have been able to reduce their reliance on liquid fuels, hence reduced demand. The global oil and gas industry can also benefit in a similar manner through investment in research and development. For instance, this will lead to the development of new environmental friendly ways of extracting oil to reduce environmental pollution. This will also lead to increased efficiency, hence low consumption of oil and gas products (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014).

The reassessment can also enable the United States and Europe to address the issue of high oil prices.  Specifically, they two regions can get the opportunity to find a lasting solution to the problem. For instance, they can come up with ways to reduce reliance on the scarce products. Normally, prices of products skyrocket when the demand is high. The problem is worsened when dealing with scarce resources. This implies that the reduction of demand can also result into the reduction in the price of a commodity. People consume petroleum and petroleum products on a daily basis. There are those who consider this a basic need. As such, addressing the skyrocketing prices can be considered a major task that requires the effort of the entire world (Beeson & Bisley 2013).

Risks

There are risks associated with the reassessment by Europe and the United States. For one, they can impact on the world’s ability to address the issue of depleting oil and oil products. Tight and shale resources have been considered by many scholars to have the potential to become the new sources of oil resources. However, the disadvantages associated with their extraction can lead to countries being sceptical on whether or not to engage in the extraction process. This means that new sources will not be developed despite the fact that the demand for liquid fuels has been increasing in the recent past.  As such, oil prices can increase as the resource becomes scarcer on a daily basis (Stec & Baraj 2009). The world can also fail to pursue an opportunity to reduce carbon gas emissions as a result of relying on tight and shale resources. Fundamentally, individuals may be forced to continue consuming oil in large quantities, hence increased environmental pollution (Starr 2014).

The oil and gas industry plays a major role in the economic development of countries across the globe. Many developed nations relied a lot on the scarce resource to fuel their economy. Reducing the demand for the same can result into the significance of the commodity being reduced. For instance, countries can embrace the use of alternative sources of energy. With this being the case, alternative sources of energy industries will replace the oil and gas industry in the economy. Countries that do not have the ability or expertise and machinery to enhance their alternative energy industry may not be able to fuel their economy in the desired manner (Renaud Gicquel 2013). Essentially, they may be forced to continue consuming oil and gas in large quantities to ensure economic development.

The reassessment can also lead to conflict of interest between different governments and individuals. Research has shown that not all governments or corporates share the desire to ensure environmental protection. There are those that see the importance of protecting the environment for a better tomorrow (Leal-Arcas, Filis, & Gosh 2014). On the other hand, there are also governments that are less interested in the effects high consumption of oil and gas products has on the environment. Most of them are more interested to improving their economy at all cost. Such countries may be opposed to calls to use oil and oil products in moderation or in a responsible as this can easily impact on their ability to fuel their economy in the desired manner (Bergsten 2013). Generally, Europe and the United States must be prepared to address such concerns if they are to achieve their goals and objectives.

Bibliography

Beeson, M & Bisley, N 2013, Issues in 21st Century World Politics, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY.

Bergsten, C F 2013, China’s Rise : Challenges and Opportunities, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC.

EIA. 2014, International Energy Outlook 2014, Retrieved April 22 2015, from U.S. Energy Information Adminstration, http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/ieo/

Hunt, L C & Evans, J 2014, International handbook on the economics of energy, Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA .

Leal-Arcas, R Filis, A & Gosh, E S 2014, International energy governance : selected legal issues, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Renaud Gicquel, M G 2013, Introduction to Global Energy Issues, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Saulnier, J B & Varella, M D 2013, Global change, energy issues and regulation policies, Springer, Dordrecht .

Starr, C 2014, Current Issues in Energy : a Selection of Papers, Elsevier Science, Burlington.

Stec, S & Baraj, B 2009, Energy and environmental challenges to security, Springer, Dordrecht.