The choice of the Balanced Scorecard as the topic for this study was justified on different grounds. The choice was motivated by the changing nature of the business environment, which has driven companies to adopt different management accounting techniques and strategies to ensure that they stayed relevant and competent in the ever- increasing competitive business environment. The changing environment led to secrecy in many companies, which failed to reveal a lot of information regarding the use of management accounting practices by managers and employees. Therefore, there was a continuous need to conduct further studies with respect to specific business contexts. This was the main motivation for conducting this s study was in the context of the SABIC Company, which is considered the largest non-oil manufacturing company in the UAE. Besides, there were not adequate studies that had been done to investigate the use of management accounting practices and techniques in SABIC, both at organizational and departmental levels. Johnson and Kaplan (1987) indicate that performance measurement is the general process of gathering information, information analysis, and reporting information that pertains the performance of the system, individual organization, or component. As such, it can comprise studying strategies or processes that are within organizations, or examining engineering factors and processes in order to assess if the output are consistent with what should have been achieved or intended.
Considering the above factors, Kaplan and Norton (2004) showed that organizations around the globe have used systems that consist of a mixture of financial and non-financial measures to track the progress in the organizations for decades. The Analog Devices Balanced Scorecard that was created by Art Schneiderman at Analog Devices (A mid-sized company of semi-conductors) in 1987 represents one of the systems. Moreover, Malmi (2011) observed that the design of Schneiderman was similar to what is now known as the “First Generation” design of Balanced Scorecard. In addition, in 1990, Schneiderman participated in an unrelated research that was led by Dr. Robert Kaplan in union with Nolan-Norton (US management consultancy), and it is during this study that he described his work on performance measurement. Additionally, in a 1992 article, David P. Norton and Kaplan included unspecified details addressing the design of the balanced scorecard. However, Speckbacher et al. (2000) observed that Norton and Kaplan’s article was not the only paper that was published in 1992 on this topic despite it being a popular success, which saw it being followed by a second paper in 1993. In addition, the two authors published another book in 1996 that was called “The Balanced Scorecard’ and both the first book and this article spread knowledge widely on the balanced scorecard concept, which led to Norton and Kaplan being seen as the concept’s creators. The concept is widely viewed as a major concept for organizations and managers in organizations in UAE.
According to Ahrens and Chapman (2006), there is abundant research in the balance scorecard that covers the adoption, implementation, critiques of the balance scorecard, and the consequences of its adoption, which indicates that the concept of Balanced Scorecard can be effectively used strategically by managers and adopted fully by organizations. Nonetheless, most of the research on this tool was carried out in the western world with good results, which can be replicated in managers and organizations in the UAE. According to Libby et al. (2004), the balanced scorecard studies that were carried out in the Asian countries were confined to survey studies that investigate the rate of adoption. Only a few studies conducted an intensive investigation of the practice of the balanced scorecard in the UAE region (Norhayati and Siti-Nabiha, 2009; Wongkaew, W. 2007). Companies such as SABIC can benefit from an intensive application of the concept of the Balanced Scorecard. SABIC is a multinational company that is based in Middle East based in Riyadh (SABIC, 2014). In the category of non-oil manufacturing companies, SABIC is the largest in the Middle East region. SABIC manufactures petrochemicals products. It is a private company and the Saudi Arabian government control 70% of its shares while private investors control 30% (Cammett, Diwan, Richards & Waterbury, 2015). Although there is evidence of an increased research that attempts to investigate the process of the balanced scorecard, its implementation, and its usage in the organizational context such as (Marina and Selto, 2004; and Kasurinen, 2002), there is still a need for further intensive field research to investigate how the balanced scorecard is appropriately developed and utilized in its organizational context and application among managers. This is, as a result, the design process of the balanced scorecard and implementation shows the response of the company to different pressure coming from the public, as well as the government while maintaining an improved bottom line.
This study seeks to identify the benefits and challenges of using the Balanced Scorecard on a UAE-organizational basis.
- What are the financial perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard in the UAE organization?
- What are the customer perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard in the UAE organization?
- What are the internal processes of the Balanced Scorecard in the UAE organization?
- What are the employee learning and growth perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard in the UAE organization?
Definition of the Balanced Scorecard System
David Norton (a consultant from Boston) and Robert Kaplan (an accounting professor at Harvard University) developed the BSC concept. The Balanced Scorecard concept was first mentioned publicly by Johnson and Kaplan (1987) in their book “Relevance Lost.” The concept was invented on a one-year research initiative that involved the participation of twelve US companies. These companied were identified as the leading companies in performance measurement. Moreover, after its development in the subsequent years, it has become very popular management tool, which is proved in the number of companies that are adopting and implementing the BSC globally. For example, in the US alone, about 60% of the Fortune 1000 US companies either have been experimenting or have implemented the Balanced Scorecard. On the other hand, Neely (1999) showed that an article that was published in the UK by Management Services in 2001 indicated that 57% of all the organizations that were surveyed used the Balanced Scorecard, while as many as 56% of the non-users at that time planned to adopt the concept in future. The trend of accepting and implementing the Balanced Scorecard concept has also gained widespread recognition in the Asian countries and especially among countries in the UAE.
New developments in the concept of BSC’s in the early 2000s began to emphasize on the development of “strategy maps” that demand for an in-depth understanding of the factors that can be controlled by a manager and the inter-relationships between managers. A strategy map is a comprehensive and logical architecture for strategy description and enhances the communication of an organization’s strategy by acting as an understandable and common reference point for all the employees and departments in an organizaion. In addition, it also stipulates the main elements and their linkages for the strategy implementation in the organization (Neely and Adams, 2001). The Balanced Scorecard concept was further driven and evolved in 2004 where researchers such as Norton and Kaplan emphasized more on the strategy of the organization, as well as the alignment of intangible assets including information capital, human capital and organizational capital. As such, the Balanced Scorecard concept has experienced a significant transition from a mere performance measurement tool that is made up of non-financial and financial measures into a redefined strategic management tool that links the multidimensional measures to the mission, strategy, and the vision of the company.
According to Speckbacher et al. (2003), the Balanced Scorecard concept can be categorized into three different types. The first type is Balanced Scorecard as a particular multidimensional framework of measuring performance, which combines financial and strategically non-financial measures. Type 1 Balanced Scorecard, which is the second type, describes strategy through the use of the effect and cause relationships. The third type comprises of the two types and implements strategy by defining objectives, results, action plans, and connecting incentives with Balanced Scorecard. Therefore, there are numerous versions of Balanced Scorecard that are practiced in different companies worldwide. For example, Speckbacher et al. (2003) in his survey of large organizations in German-speaking countries revealed that out of the 42 companies that claimed to adopt a Balanced Scorecard concept, only half of them employed a cause and effect relationship linked to their Balanced Scorecard in order to measure incentives.
Major Strength of the Balanced Scorecard System
As much as there is research on the BSC concept is bombarded by an inconclusive nature of empirical research on the advantages of adopting the Balanced Scorecard, many firms continue to adopt the technique worldwide. Therefore, the wide acceptance of BSC shows that there is a great commitment by companies towards the improvement of their performance, as well as changing their methodologies in conducting their undertakings with the belief that they will retrieve more economic benefits from the process for legitimacy purposes. According to a study by Ittner et al. (2003), which investigated American financial services, organizations did not discover a considerable connection between the economic performance of organizations and the usage of Balanced Scorecard. In addition, the study also revealed that as much as 20% of the study’s participants reported using the Balanced Scorecards, about 75% of these firms reported not depending on business models that casually associate performance drivers to the outcomes of performance. Therefore, this concept shows that the application of BSC varies from one organization to another.
Many companies in the world have used the Balanced Scorecard technique in the management of objective systems . in this case, targets are set, and rewards are issued based on the achievement level of the targets. Other companies use the Balanced Scorecard technique as an information system. In this case, managers employ Balanced Scorecard as a tool for performance improvement. Furthermore, Hoque and James (2000) discovered that about 77% of the companies that used Balanced Scorecard placed little or no emphasis on the cause and effect relationships, in their study of American financial services firms. Ittner et al. (2003) point out that in recent survey studies, there was evidence of the availability of the cause and effect relationship that leads to an improvement in the business efficiency and profitability.
The Balanced Scorecard techniques can be employed as a specific multidimensional measure of the performance framework, which combines financial and strategic oriented non-financial measures. Moreover, it implements strategy through the definition of objectives, results, action plans, and connecting incentives of organizations. In addition, it enables companies to describe the strategy with the use of cause-and-effect relationships.
Criticism Facing the Balanced Scorecard Concept
According to researchers, the Balanced Scorecard concept provides a holistic and more balanced view of performance. Therefore, the term ‘balance’ indicates to the BSC concept does not focus only on the financial aspect of performance but also supplements the measure with three other perspectives that cover the interests of the employees and the customers. The term ‘balance’ also indicates that the Balanced Scorecard concept covers both the short-term and the long-term aims and objectives of the organization. Some researchers postulate that BSC defines a ‘balance’ between external and internal measures and balance between objectively qualified outcome driver and subjectively judgmental driver measures. However, the empirical research shows that this concept of balance is still unclear because firms often focus more on the financial indicators as opposed to the other three perspectives of BSC. Ittner (2003) exemplifies this factor in a study of financial services, where the authors discovered that the financial performance became the chief determinant of bonus. In addition, the concept of ‘balance’ highlights another disagreement on its perceived important stakeholders. Early researchers only consider the interest of the three main stakeholders (shareholders, employees, and customers) as the most important stakeholders that organizations should put into consideration in assessing their business performance.
There are propositions that every selected measure for a balanced scorecard is meant to be an element of a chain of a cause-and-effect relationship that communicates the meaning of the strategy of the business unit to the organization effectively. Therefore, a linear causal relationship exists amongst the four perspectives that show improvement in one dimension, which will lead to improvement in another. However, Ittner et al. (2003) postulate that there is no causal relationship amongst the four perspectives of Balanced Scorecard since cause and effect logic is a vital element in measurement systems of performance. Moreover, Malina and Selto (2004) indicate that the use of a Balanced Scorecard technique does not simply indicate the usage of more measures. It represents a collective approach of a using a few strategically critical measures together in a single report, in a manner that makes cause and effect relations transparent. Therefore, it keeps the managers from sub-optimization through improving one measure at the expense of the others.
According to Norreklit (2000), the causal chain logic is not essential for the qualification of a system as Balanced Scorecard. However, Brignall (2000) contends that the chain is a vital element of the Balanced Scorecard concept and shows some differences from the other integrated performance measure systems. Therefore, it is important for organizations to develop the four perspectives and link them together. The Balanced Scorecard technique lacks substance since it assumes the cause and effect argument are rendering the concept flawed. In addition, it gained fame because of its rhetoric promotional aspect as opposed to its substance. Additionally, the Balanced Scorecard concept is quite generalized. Therefore, the choice of the four basic dimensions and their interrelationships are problematic in some instances.
Challenges Facing the Balanced Scorecard Concept
The Balanced Scorecard technique is viewed as offering a holistic performance evaluation that allows managers to come up with better decision-making strategies that are based on the assumption that managers can understand the information presented to them. However, too much information has the capacity of affecting the ability of managers in reconciliation and interpretation of multiple measures in BSC, which may create biases among managers. Such managers are not appropriately objective when making business decisions. Furthermore, Malmi (2011) shows that the information that is available to most of the decision-makers has an influence on the task of performance evaluation. Therefore, managers who deal with detailed strategies depend more on strategically linked measures of performance and less on non-linked measures when compared to managers with less knowledge of the Balanced Scorecard strategy.
According to Tuomela (2005), the unique features of Balanced Scorecard that are strategically associated measures of BSC do not considerably reduce selective attention bias. This aspect leads to conflict between top management and divisional managers. Additionally, the common measure bias in assessing the performance for the Balanced Scorecard results due to data quality and effort related. Recent research shows that the assurance report provision on the Balanced Scorecard or the process accountability requirement extends the use and application of unique measures in assessing performance.
This research has applied methodological techniques that are effective in the evaluation of the Balanced Scorecard implications in the UAE organizational setting. The Impact of BSC in the organization is analyzed by focusing on factors that influence competitiveness and sustainability of organizations in the UAE. In addition, the aims and objectives of this study are addressed in answering the research question and staying within the scope of the research. The study performed the qualitative research techniques in a case studies approach in order to capture the marketing, innovative, financial analysis, information management, and other strategies that fall under both the business level and enterprise strategy categories. All the four aspects of the BSC are analyzed in order to determine the manner in which the organization attains a state of competitive advantage and sustainability. As such, the research utilized an appropriate methodological approach that enhance the provision of accurate evaluation technique regarding the impact of BSC in the UAE organizational setting, which is effectual in the realization of the objective outcome.
The research project herein presents a qualitative research that focused obtaining comprehensive knowledge on Balanced Scorecard in terms of the benefits and challenges facing the UAE-based organizations. The study utilized a qualitative research approach and utilized an explanatory case-study design. The qualitative research provides a rich and detailed information on organizational behavior based on the analysis of people’s perceptions, attitudes, and opinions. As such, qualitative research provides in-depth details in terms of descriptive data on benefits and challenges of balanced scorecard among the UAE organizations. A qualitative design facilitates the contextual analysis of the subject matter based on a limited number of events and research the nature and extent of the relationship between variables as it places the real-life situation into perspective, hence, providing a stable ground for application and generalization of ideas inform of valid and subjective conclusions. . In addition, the study utilized the review of literature approach to collecting secondary data based on existing information on the field of interests, which may take an empirical form. Therefore, the study of the extant literature enables the researcher to identify areas of agreement, resolve contradicting areas, and identify gaps in the set of information, while at the same time compare his primary findings with the existing information in order to assess the validity of the research results and conclusion.
The research setting is the study area of the research. This study was conducted in UAE. The study is based on SABIC as the case study organization. It analyzes the implementation and use of BSC technique in the organization in order to uncover the challenges and benefits of the BSC technique in the organizational setting.
The sample is collected from a population of managers and non-managers in the SABIC organization. The sample that contained 50 participants is selected through simple random sampling criterion from the organization. The semi-structured interviews consisting of close-ended questions were sent to them through email in order to familiarize themselves with the subject matter. The randomized sample selection criterion is effective in the elimination of subjective and personal form of biases from the data.
The interview questions were distributed to respondents by email, and during the interview session, the researcher read out the question and the respondent selected his response from the choices provided in the document. The data collection is conducted through the semi-structured interview, which was conducted through telephone calls and Skype depending on respondents’ preference. The closed-ended questions in the interview were designed such that they facilitated the achieving of the study’s objectives through providing conclusive answers to the research question. The secondary data that is obtained through a review of the literature is obtained prior to sending and obtaining responses to the interview. The data constitutes of information that reflects the organizational implications of BSC.
As indicated in the study conducted by Saunders et al. (2009), the data analysis technique in this study constitutes of three main stages that include the reduction of data, the representation, and display of data, and the drawing of valid conclusion based on the obtained results. The data reduction phase constitutes of the simplification, focusing, and obtaining both content and thematic value of the data through abstracting the responses and transforming them into brief and useful information, capturing the relationship between ideas, as well as variables of interests. The display and representation of data entail representation of data into a descriptive statistical form that utilizes diagrammatic representation of information in a manner that draws a number of basic conclusions. Such representations enhance comparative and content analysis of data, therefore, facilitating the understanding of the strategic framework of the case study company. The conclusion phase entails drawing of relevant and valid conclusion that meets the study’s objectives.
The study upholds anonymity and confidentiality of data, as respondents are assigned numerical means of identification in order to protect their identity. As a result, confidentiality of data ensures that the integrity of data is protected as provided in the ethical code. In addition, participants will participate voluntarily based on the provision of verbal or written informed consent after they have been briefed on the nature of the study and the use of the collected data. Moreover, respondents are informed that they can withdraw their participation from the study whenever they wish.
The results presented in this chapter takes into account the main concepts of BSC as presented by primary data from the interview study and secondary data provided by the literature. The framework applied is designed to enable the researcher to analyze the findings of this study, links the results to the interview questions in such a manner that the headings correspond to the various sub-structured interview questions. As such, the findings of this study present the in-depth analysis of balanced scorecard implications on organizations in the UAE. The responses are not analyzed individually due to the large sample size and the used of closed-ended interview questions, which made the answers difficult to distinguish. As such, the results obtained are sufficient in examining the challenges and benefits of the balanced scorecard in the UAE organizations.
Results on the Demographic data
The findings were based on a sample of 50 respondents. Out of the 50 participants, 31 were male while 19 were female respondents. all the respondents were UAE citizens and came from the SABIC organization that has more than 500 employees. Forty-three employees had more than 30 years while remaining seven employees fell between 20 to 30 years range. The findings reveal that 11 employees had a less than 5-year occupational experience, while 30 employees had 5 and 10-year experience. The remaining 9 employees had more that 10-year professional experience. 27 employees held managerial positions while the remaining 23 employees held non-managerial positions. Five employees were from the IT department, and the fifteen employees were from the finance department. Fifteen employees were from the customer service department, and the remaining were evenly distributed among the operations, administrative, and human resource departments. All the employees were from a the same organization that can be classified under the consumer products manufacturing company
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics: A frequency Table of Demographic Data
|Age||below 20 years||Frequency||0|
|20 to 30 years||Frequency||7|
|Type of Company qualification||Governmental||Frequency||0|
|Job experience||Less than 5 year||Frequency||11|
|Above 10 years||Frequency||9|
Results on Comparative analysis of Financial and Non-financial measures
When asked about the use of financial and non-financial measures, most respondents (70%) of the respondents supported the claim that ‘The financial measures should be used more heavily than the non-financial measures when making strategy decisions.’ However, 10% of the respondents were neutral regarding the subject matter. The remaining 20% of the respondents did not support the claim and felt that financial decisions should not be applied more than non-financial measures in the decision-making process. Similar to the first claim, 70% of the respondents supported the claim that ‘Financial measures are trustworthy and reliable methods compared to customer related, internal processes, and learning and growth to determine success of your company.’ 10% were neutral and failed to support or oppose the assertion while the remaining 20% disagreed with the claim.
In addition, 90% of the respondents supported the assertion that ‘The BSC (financial and non- financial) results can be used to make strategy decisions at the corporate level, since the data is consistent with data managers use to make strategy decisions.’ The remaining 10% did not support or opposed the claim. The hypothesis that ‘The non-financial measures of the BSC such as learning and growth, internal processes, and customer-relations are more important in determining success of your company than the financial measures of the BSC.’ Was supported by 50% of the sample, while the remaining 50% opposed the claim. Additionally, all respondents agreed with the assertion that ‘Financial performance measures should be emphasized when analyzing BSC results.’ The claim that ‘Emphasis should be put on non-financial measures of the BSC because non-financial measures are more flexible and reliable than financial measures,’ was supported by only 20% of the respondents. a total of 30% of the participants were neutral on the subject while, 50% of the respondents opposed the claim. Nonetheless, all respondents opposed the claim that ‘Financial measures are unreliable and undependable compared to customer-related, internal process, and learning and growth to determine success of your company.’
Results Based on the Financial Perspective
The results show that most respondents (76%) believe they have implemented the financial aspect of the BSC into the organization through cost containment low expenses maintenance. A significant proportion of respondents (62%) assert that they have sufficient sources of revenue generation that would ensure profit maximization and sustainability of the organization. nonetheless, 74% of the participants felt that they have not adopted efficient spending patterns, as they end up losing money to unforeseen circumstances and emergencies such as machine maintenance, reworks, and deficient products. Even so, 88% of the respondents attribute their financial success to high customer satisfaction level. While all respondents stated financial perspective results in the increased ability of the organization to invest in learning and growth. However, only 40% of the respondents supported the claim that ‘The financial perspective plays a significant role in achieving our mission.’
The results show that the customer perspective of the BSC is well captured in the organization as demonstrated by the high number of satisfied SABIC consumers. All respondents stated that the company always meets the expectations of its consumers. In addition, 90% of the respondents assert that the quality of the produced product has significantly improved over time. The respondents (88%) state that the nature of their products and services has increased, and that the company has encountered a significant increase in its market in terms of the number of consumers’ served. Additionally, 78% of the respondents state that the demand for SABIC products has increased, while the same proportion of respondents supports the claim that ‘We take regular and frequent actions to learn what products and services our customers need and want.’ 50% of the respondents indicate that the organization takes feedback from its consumers in a consistent manner. Nonetheless, only 40% of the respondents support the claim that The BSC helps us increase market share, reduce customers complaints, increase the satisfaction rate of our customers. All respondents agree with the claim that ‘The Customer Perspective plays a significant role in achieving our mission.’ Additionally, 90% of the respondents state those customers’ perspective results in the improved financial outcome. In this case, 98% of respondents supported the claim that ‘The customer perspective is an outcome of very efficient operations and service excellence.’
Results based on Internal Processes Perspective
Most respondents demonstrated limited knowledge regarding the internal processes as demonstrated by the low proportion of respondents supporting various claims with regard to the organizational process and practices in relation to the company’s success. A total of 50% of the respondents claim that the company has improved its internal processes and operation through the implementation of current and advanced technology. Additionally, 40% of the respondents state that the organization has recently implemented the Total Quality control strategy, the remaining 600% either did not understand the meaning and implication of total quality management or did not support the claim. The table responses are presented in the summary table 2.
Table 2: Summary of Internal Perspective Results
|Internal perspective of BSC||Proportion of respondents who supported the claim in Percentage|
|We have improved our internal operations & processes through up-to-date technology in the fields.||50%|
|We are adopting the Total Quality Management Quality philosophy through (ISO certifications, Malcolm Baldrige., etc)||40%|
|We have improved our quality control processes||35%|
|We have improved our product/service||40%|
|We consistently meet the expectations of our community and environment||20%|
|Our operations are very efficient||30%|
|The improvement in our internal operations & processes leads to better customers satisfaction||20%|
|The internal operations & processes is an outcome of a strong learning & growth orientation in our organization||40%|
|Our make it easy to achieve our mission||10%|
|The internal operations & processes play a significant role in achieving our mission.||25%|
|The internal operations & processes lead to better customer satisfaction||30%|
|The internal operations & processes lead to better financial results||60%|
Results on Employee Growth and Learning Perspectives
The results from the interview show that organization has established a modern learning infrastructure to develop the intellectual and career abilities of the employees. All participants of the study support this notion. Additionally, 40% of the respondents felt that the company has implemented competency model-based practices in the recruitment process. All employees support the notion that their jobs are challenging and satisfying. Other aspects of the employee growth and learning perspectives received insignificant attention from respondents who could not make a decision on whether they support or oppose the claims.
These findings show that the UAE organization experience limited challenges in the implementation and application of BSC. In addition, these findings reveal that the organization has achieved a level of BSC perspectives as they have implemented these perspectives in their daily processes and practices. These findings show that the organization has reaped significant benefits it terms of market expansion and penetration, as well as profit maximization by utilizing the consumer and financial perspectives. Moreover, these findings reveal that the internal organizational perspectives are only explored to the quality management extent and that the UAE organizations have a lot to learn and adopt from these perceptions. In addition, these findings show that the employee learning and growth perspective is utilized to the information acquisition and management level only. As such, the organization face huge expansion and success potential by exploring the aspects of BSC that are partially utilized in the workplace
The benefits retrieved from using BSC have seen a widespread application of the concept not only in European nations, but also in some Asian organizations. Organizations perceived the Balanced Scorecards as beneficial as it can enhance economic benefits and increase the legitimacy of the organization. The tool is effective in evaluating whether an organization is doing well or poorly as it provided a deep analysis and understanding of the status of the organization. The tools also serve as a warning towards threatening market conditions. Some of the challenges experienced in the use of BSC include difficulties and replacing old analytical methods with BSC. The implementation of a strategy map is also quite a challenging task. The strategy map requires a combined effort from various departments of an organization, which requires a detailed study of a company. In addition, it is difficult to consolidate the strategy maps of departments with the organization’s holistic strategy map. Setting up the tool and creating mutual understanding between the unit of an organization is also challenging.
This study is subject to a few limitations. For example, since it was a qualitative study that involved a single company from the UAE, the obtained findings might not be usable to other organizations outside the UAE or even within the UAE manufacturing sector. In addition, since the researcher carried out the interviews through telephone and Skype calls, there was an acute absence of one on one interview at the time of carrying out the research. Therefore, the researcher based on the responses retrieved from the interviewees expressed the process of developing and designing the Balanced Scorecard into a strategy map. This factor leads to the researcher recommending that the findings could be more accurate with direct observations and one on one interview. Nonetheless, such a problem in can be minimized with the data triangulation method that is deployed. This method allows the researcher to support the data collected from the interviews and with collaborative factual evidence from the case annual reports of the SABIC company’s annual reports and other relevant documents from the case company.
The collected information retrieved by the researcher originated mostly from the interviews that were carried out by the managers and staff members of the company and other documents such as the annual reports of the case company. Therefore, the research risked tendentiousness of the interviewees. Consequently, the researcher suggests that future research should be conducted with more interviews for them to achieve objective results. In addition, the interviews should be divided into the various departments that are contained in an organization such as the technology department, the marketing department, etc. to ensure that the employees are able to get the most accurate answers to the research questions.
Ahrens, T. & Chapman, C. S. (2006). Doing qualitative field studies: positioning data to contribute to theory, Accounting, Organisations and Society, 31(8), 819841.
Brignall, S. & Modell, S. (2000). An institutional perspective on performance measurement and management in the new public sector. Management Accounting Research, 11(3), 281-306.
Cammett, M., Diwan, I., Richards, A., & Waterbury, J. (2015). A Political Economy of the Middle East. New York: Westview Press.
Hoque, Z, & James, W.(2000).Linking balanced scorecard measures to size and market factors: impact on organisational performance. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 12, 1-17.
Ittner, C.D., Larcker, D.F. & Meyer, M.W. (2003). Subjectivity and the weighting of performance measures: Evidence from a balanced scorecard. The Accounting Review, 78 (3), 725-758.
Johnson H.T., & Kaplan R.S. (1987), Relevance lost: The rise and fall of management accounting. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kaplan, R.S., & Norton, D.P. (2004). Strategy maps. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing Corp.
Kasurinen, T. (2002). Exploring management accounting change: the case of balanced scorecard implementation. Management Accounting Research, 13, 323-343.
Libby, T., Salterio, S.E., & Webb, A. (2004). The balanced scorecard: the effects of assurance and process accountability on managerial judgement. The Accounting Review, 79(4), 1075-1094.
Malina, M.A., & Selto, F.H. (2004). Choice and change of measures in performance measurement models. Management Accounting Research, 8, 459480.
Malmi, T. (2011). Towards explaining activity-based costing failure: accounting and control in a decentralized organisation. Management Accounting Research, 8, 459-480.
Norhayati, M.A. & Siti Nabiha, A.K. (2009). A case study of performance management system in a Malaysian Government-Linked company. Journal of Accounting and Organisational Change, 5(2), 243-276.
Norreklit, H. (2000). The balanced scorecard-a critical analysis of some of its assumptions, Management Accounting Research, 11 (1), 65-88.
SABIC (2014). SABIC history. Retrieved from https://www.sabic.com/me/en/ourcompany/.
Speckbacher, G., Bischof, J. And Pfeiffer, T. (2003). A descriptive analysis of the implementation of balanced scorecards in German speaking countries. Management Accounting Research, 14, 361-387.
Wongkaew, W. (2007). Managing multiple dimensions of performance: a field study of balanced scorecard translation in the Thai Financial Services Organisation. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.