Art History –Museum Paper

Art History –Museum Paper

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Art Comparison

This is formal comparison between two paintings at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan, Adam and Eve Before The Fall (ca.1723-25) by Francois Le Moyne and The Expulsion From Paradise (ca. 1740) by Charles Joseph Natiore, brings to light two related situations, one is a show of action and the other is a show of consequence. The paintings are full length portraits of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, the two characters are not looking at the viewer, and they seem to be engaged in something common to them. The scale of both figures is a full size imagery of the human size, they are distanced away from the front of the picture, this gives the impression of an independent environment different from the viewer’s surrounding’s.

The portrait of the Adam and Eve before the fall shows Adam and Eve both nude in the Garden of Eden, the painting is engraved in a copper frame that is decorated skill fully, four layers of decorations are visible separated by a thin dotted line, the layers of the decorations of the frame are deep-set one underlying of the other as they fall in inline to finally attach to the portrait. Adam is seated in relaxed posture; one leg crossed over on top of the other and his left hand leaning on a rock, on his right hand is a fruit handed over to him by eve. He looks directly at Eve with a smile. On the other hand Eve is seen standing; her left leg is leaning on a rock, her right hand is seen handing over a fruit to Adam, her left arm is seen to be pointing at the snake on the tree of life. The tree has a brown stem, it has green leaves and yellow fruits, on the tree the is a snake spiralled around the stem to   middle of the tree, at the head of the snake there is a human head overlooking Adam and Eve. The background is dull and expansive, the garden is lush and full of vegetation, at the horizon the sun is seen setting in, and the sky is depicted as blue with traces of roughly painted white clouds afar.  There are animals in the garden, a lion and a rabbit are seen sprawled in harmony just beside the rock Adam is seated on, a lioness is on the other side of the garden, this depicts the harmonious living of wild animals and human beings in the Garden of Eden. From Adam’s posture, it can be said that he is very comfortable receiving the fruit from eve and he has no doubts. His face is slightly leaning to the right and angled upwards facing Eve, this is a show of affection he has towards Eve. Eve is seen to be looking down towards Adam, the expression on her face is indifferent, she seems unsure of her action as she points back to the snake on the tree. The painter used a deep set dull back ground that shows clearly the bodies of Adam and Eve which are light in colour, the colours are not in high contrast but they create a clear three dimensional image of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (Hughes, 2012).

In contrast to Adam and Eve before the fall, The Expulsion from Paradise shows more skill in the art, the portrait has more texture, colours and details. The portrait has a copper frame around it with two layers of decorations around it. The Expulsion from Paradise portraits Adam and Eve being ordered to leave the Garden of Eden; Adam is seen standing but this time he has a lush of leaves around his private parts unlike in the Adam and Eve Before the Fall, his hands are clasped together and his head is angled upwards with  his eyes looking upwards. He seems to be pleading for forgiveness. Eve is seen seated on a low rock, a lush of leaves is covering her private parts, her left hand is leaning on a rock while her right hand is on her face, her head is angled downwards leaning to the right, a tear is glistening on her cheek. Her looks depict sorrow and regret. In mid-air, there is an half size image depicting God, dressed in a white gown and a red robe fashioned around His left shoulder, His left hand is angled pointing to His head. The look on His eyes is sharp and it shows anger and frustration, His right hand is lying straight across his body; grey clouds block the view of His entire body. An angel is seen overlooking the whole situation from aside, he is clad in a grey robe covering only half of his lower body, and wings are seen protruding from his back. Other angels are seen overlooking from afar, only their heads are seen, their bodies are covered by the deep cloud cover. Above God’s head there is a glimmer of light, it is square in shape, yellow light seems to be coming from inside, it depicts the entrance to heaven. The tail of a snake is seen on the back ground, it seems to be running away from the scene, a white goat is seated between Adam and Eve, and a brown cow is laid down behind Adam. The lustre  of the background is lighter compared with the one on the Adam and Eve Before The Fall portrait, green plants with white flowers are part of the vegetation, there is a tree with green leaves and yellow fruits on it, other trees are visible and at the horizon the sun’s rays are seen blocked by a tree, there is a mountainous view afar with a blue sky and dark grey clouds fully filled (Hughes, 2012).

The painting fully depicts what happened in the Garden of Eden after Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit. This portrait shows God casting Adam and Eve out of the garden, the painter put to considerations all aspects of the dooms day for the two, the colours used by the painter give a vivid imagery of the expulsion from the garden. The texture of the painting is not concrete; a lot of images have been included in the painting all in an effort to give a realistic imagery of the situation in a portrait. Shades of green were used in creating the vegetation and the ground colour; plants were drawn with a darker shade while God, Adam, Eve and Angels were painted with a lighter shade for them to be seen clearly outstanding from all other images in the painting (Hughes, 2012).

Finally, both paintings share common similarities as one was a tribute to the other, through their similarities and differences both paintings though done by different painters, describe the life of Adam and Eve Before and during the expulsion.

Reference

Hughes, R. (2012). Nothing if Not Critical: Essays on Art and Artists. Random House LLC.

The Effects of Nutrition and Obesity on Current and Developing Type II Diabetes in Children

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Effects of nutrition and obesity on current and development of type II diabetes in children

Diabetes is a condition that holds a high record in chronic categories. The state brings a lot of concern from various research teams in a move to foster control of the human health. All efforts from different angles are directed at finding the ultimate cure or control for the diabetes condition (Scheen 166). The condition that is reported to have fallen into the categories of chronic diseases by the year 1998 has shown a great danger to many young generation across the word. This condition becomes more of concern in the New York City following the fact that the Americans are reported to have high death toll compared to other states in the world. According to the reports released by the American survey team, the condition is becoming one of the most costly chronic disease among the young citizens of America (Reaven 149). The diabetic states happens to be a chronic disease that calls for close attention and with great interns in the practical knowledge. The condition is reported of late to be high among the young kids in the United States of America. Records from recent surveys reveal that between 8% and 45% of the young children are being diagnosed with new cases of diabetes each and every year. This percentage only reflect the number of cases of newly diagnosed type II diabetic children in the aged 11-19 In New York City (Markovic 523). The diabetic cases in the young children in the United States of America as well as in the general world brings challenging scheme that actually very few individuals can precisely define. Close attention to the young children at such instances have been reported to play an important aspect of success in clearly understanding the situation on the ground. This research tries to bring an understanding of the epidemic disease that is quickly spreading and colonizing the young, as well as the old aged in the globe. The research reveals that the bright aspect of conditional treatment has been fruitless in the cases of the young children with most of them being diagnosed at an age that can’t clearly define the live style culture.

From the research findings it is clear that diabetes type II condition has totally revolutionized the way that the body of the young children regulate the glucose levels. This implies that the body system of the young kids is profoundly changed in nutritional aspect. The research capitalizes on the aspect that the human body frequently break the food that we take into glucose and other key nutritional factors that the body requires in order to thrive. Failure to sustain the point of glucoses balance in the body, the human nutritional chemistry is entirely altered. The alteration was pointed out to be worse case in instances of the young children who are growing. The young body typically need a lot of energies to thrive and grow uniformly (Mankad 192). According to the findings, it was revealed that the failure in securing vital nutrients in the body system leads to a condition of uncontrolled growth in this young folks. In a simple explanation, the control of glucose in the body of the young children plays all the key evolutional aspects of development.

In the study, the young children are reported to have highly been affected by the fact that nutritional factors in the globe are at constant change. The research revealed that the changes in the mode and trends of the standard feeding systems are a prime contribution to the significant depreciation in the serenity of health in the New York City at the present day. According to research conducted in the United States of America in the year 2005, it was reveal that in very 20 deaths, one of them is attributed to by diabetes. The study further depicted that the death tolls up to 8,700 deaths in each day with an average of six deaths every minute. In this interest, this study further realized that the core aspect that contributes to most of such deaths originate from the type II diabetes. According to the data collected this study established that the diabetes type two is well linked to the instances of obesity and nutritional essence. In the year 2008 a lot of complaints were erected and directed at the retrieval of the critical aspect of health living. In this campaign lead by the world health organization, it was revealed that a great number of individuals were being diagnosed with the type two diabetes. The toll was on a rise claiming lives and scaring many off the typical lifestyles. In many, forcing a change in dietary scheme. The records reveal that by that very year at least 171 million individuals had diabetes with all of them reported of suffering from type ii diabetes. It’s shocking on the quick rise in the standard morbidity in the cases of diabetes over the past years. Based on this argument this study ventured out and found that an average morbidity of cases has increased by 26% from the year 2002 to 2013. The research further depicted that the rise in the morbidity is indicated by the increase in the cases of diabetes type two. From the findings, it’s clear that the claim of live by this chronic disease is projected to be on the rise in the next six years. Owing to this, fear looms that the death toll in the years to come is expected to claim more young lives compared to the old aged.

The research suggests that more attention should be put forth by the scientists to evaluate the mode of nutrition among the citizens. The cases of diabetes are termed as lifestyle factored. According to research by a team from the Texas University, death arising from the diabetes can be curbed if the modes of nutrition are regulated. The point was well furthered in the research by revealing that the very most important consideration in the cases of diabetes is the intake of calories and the balance of energy determinant factors of the body. From the data collected, it’ clear that the cases of diabetes 2 are commonly contributed to by two main aspects of life (Dandona 272). In this case, the data collected reported two cases. Aspect of lifestyle, which we have control over, and the aspect of a genetic lineage that we have little control over. In this argument, the research reveals that only 20% of diabetes type 2 are related to the instances of genetics. In the other remaining percentage, the cases are contributed to by the lifestyle aspect.

According to the findings, in the genetic stand, persons with given set of combination gene are likely to develop or resist the development of this class of diabetes. In this aspect, the role of the gene in the development of diabetes type 2 is mostly linked in families and mostly in twins (Karakurt 176). It was revealed that the cases reported of children that acquire diabetes type ii through such mode are very minimal and that the percentage does not make significant contribution.

The research found out that genetic aspect plays an important role in the control of the day to day activity of an individual life. According to the research, this cause of diabetes type 2 is well implicated in families that are known to hold a long standing record of diabetes cases in the blood stream linage only. According to doctor woodruff, children born to such parents contains 20% chances of suffering from the defection. The research finding revealed that the development highly depends on the lifestyle aspect of the family (McCullough 176). Such instances have been reported to be well controlled so far and have shown tremendous results in early realization of the character within a family lineage. This implies that with well information on the family background, the gene can be controlled and thus prevented from expressing in the instances of offspring. The research findings further reveal that susceptibility to diabetes type two is lower in modern generation following the advancement of technology that tend to protect the young ones from full blown cases of genetically linked type two diabetes.

According to the research, the principal contributor to the cases of diabetes in the New York City as well as other developed state is the sudden change of lifestyle among the individuals. The research reveal that two aspects come to play when talking about a change of lifestyle in the modern world. Firstly it was found that the current lifestyle has much contributed to the lazy style of leaving. Individuals all over the globe are targeting at leading a luxurious life where they are deprived of physical exercises. The health, on the other hand, is put into jeopardy (Wright 245). According to research conducted by a health team in the year 2003 in the United Kingdom, 76% of the residents were projected to be obese. This was linked to the reckless life lead by this individual. In this study the results pointed out that among the 76%, 51% were young individuals aged between years 11-19. The news is a shock following the disclosure that the cases of obesity in the world are projected to raise by a margin of 89% by the year 2030 if no action is taken. The revelation means that, for every four individuals one is obese or likely to be obese (Bergdorf 221). According to the data collected, results seem away far unrealistic following the argument that, for every two obese individuals one is likely to be diabetic by the year 2030.

This research then puts it clear that a balance should be established between the caloric intake and the physical activity of an individual. From the data collected from medical records, it was revealed that an imbalance in the two leads to cases of medical instability in the body facilitating the occurrence of a change in the body metabolic process. This kind of imbalance is associated with the insulin resistance. The insulin resistance is an important factor in the development of diabetes. The study revealed that among the leading obese contributors, insulin resistance is commonly linked to cases of diabetes type two. It was further pointed out that type two diabetes also accrues following the central obesity. This type of obesity comes as a result of the accumulation of fats in the lower abdomen. This form is commonly more prevalence of people who have little exercise in life and with high rates of calorimetric consumption (Haixia 231). The research revealed that all the young children that are experiencing this sort of obesity are reported to be type two diabetic. The central obesity has been implicated in other cases of disorders in the life of young children including heart attacks as well as blood problems. In a research conducted by a team of researchers from the Northern Carolina, the accumulation of fats in the central belly tend to lead to the production of metabolic complication (Manger 244). The fats produce some hormones and other substances that are reported to be harmful to the body organs. Such materials have been published of causing damage to the blood vessels as well at the pancreases in the cases of young children. According to the study, obesity in this aspect has highly contributed to the continued deterioration of the human stability in the metabolic system. The alteration in the metabolism mode has been well implicated in the instances of type two diabetes among youths aged five years and 19 years. The cases worsen in situations where the children come from families with a lineage of genetically susceptible individuals to cases of diabetes type two. The diabetes in this set of children is expressed at an early age of around three years. According to the records drawn from the directories of world health organization, such children are subjected to further anomalies, and most of them end up dead at an early age of around nine years. The research findings pointed out that the few who also survive tend to function poorly in the life aspects and the health status of such children is always at jeopardy (Vague et al 276). In another research conducted in the laboratories of the John Hopkin University, results revealed that individuals with obese conditions have a poor control of hormonal production. The study showed that when obesity diseases strike individuals at a young age, their body system tend to fail to function correctly forcing most of their biological process respond incorrectly and at instances the responses are negative. In such cases, the body fails to function properly and instead turn against its regular process. The cases of obesity at points have been implicated in instances of cancer among the young individuals. The research revealed that that the lowering of one’s weight through physical exercises works a lot well in the cases of reducing instances of diabetes. The results further pointed it out that the regular physical activity and proper nutrition among the youths does not only reduce instances of obesity but as well reduces the instances of experience of the defective gene. In an explanation by a medical scientist, the regular loss of weight and proper nutrition by youths, facilitate the reduction of the cases of diabetes type two in genetically susceptible individuals (Draznin 234). The findings further showed that a proper nutrition reduces the cases of type two diabetes and helps control the medication in the healing process. The research findings points out on the importance of capitalizing on the principal aspect of responsible living.

From the analysis of data it is revealed that the real aspect of diabetes redemption holds in the ability to control the human character pertaining the way they eat. From data collected it was pointed out that eating habits of all the human being directly affect the cases of obesity that directly reflects on the aspect of diabetes type two. In all the cases studied, levels of cholesterol intake and fatty food intake are the essential response point. The study showed that the control on the account of food consumption plays a key role in the young children shield from diabetic instances. The study encourages for what is termed as the energy balance in the nutritional category (Draznin 211). The Study reveals that in the lives of the young children, a reduction in the cases of fat intake by 30% accumulates a reduction in the cases of diabetes by 50%. Nutrition plays a vital role in the remedy of the chronic disease control among the young children. The study revealed it out that intake of low carbohydrate foods is highly discouraged in cases of diabetes two. The low carbohydrate consumption effects are not well known, and the ultimate case is likely to cause an increased defect in the standard functionality of the glucose control system. The error increase chances for development of type two diabetes cases among the young generation. The research further reveals that the key controlled nutrition results to a reduction in cases of new diagnosis by 26%.

Therefore it’s clear to state that two key aspects play role in the prevention of diabetes type two. The two aspects include, nutrition control and obesity watch among the young generation.

Works cited

Draznin, Boris. Clinical Research in Diabetes and Obesity: 2. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 1997. Print Draznin, Boris. Clinical Research in Diabetes and Obesity: 2. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 1997. Print

Vague, Jean, Philippe Vague, and F J. G. Ebling. Diabetes and Obesity: Proceedings of the Vth International Meeting of Endocrinology, Marseilles, June 19-21, 1978. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica, 1979. Print.

Vague, Jean. Diabetes and Obesity: Proceedings of the 5th International Meeting of Endocrinology, Marseilles,june 19-21, 1978. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1979. Print

Manger, William M. The Dash Diet to End Obesity: The Best Plan to Prevent Hypertension and Type-2 Diabetes and Reduce Excess Weight. , 2013. Print

Bergdorf, Kristoffer S. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: Progress and Challenges with Complex Genetics: Phd Thesis. Kbh.: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2013. Print.

Wright, Hillary. The Prediabetes Diet Plan: How to Reverse Prediabetes and Prevent Diabetes through Healthy Eating and Exercise. , 2013. Print.

McCullough, Megan B. Reconstructing Obesity: The Meaning of Measures and the Measure of Meanings. , 2013. Print.

Dandona, P, and A Chauduri. “Glycaemic Control and Macrovascular Complications of Type 2 Diabates.” National Medical Journal of India. 21.6 (2008): 271-274. Print

REAVEN, Gerald M. “Insulin Secretory Function in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Matter How You Measure It?” Journal of Diabetes. 1.3 (2009): 142-150. Print

Karakurt, Papatya, and Mağfiret K. Kaşıkçı. “The Effect of Education Given to Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Self-Care.” International Journal of Nursing Practice. 18.2 (2012): 170-179. Print.

Scheen, Andre J. “Devices for the Treatment of Diabetes: Today.” Artificial Organs. 16.2 (1992): 163-166. Print.

Markovic, T.P, S.M Furler, A.B Jenkins, L.V Campbell, E.W Kraegen, and D.J Chisholm. “Importance of Early Insulin Levels on Prandial Glycaemic Responses and Thermogenesis in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.” Diabetic Medicine. 12.6 (1995): 523-530. Print

Mankad, Kunjal B. “An Intelligent Process Development Using Fusion of Genetic Algorithm with Fuzzy Logic.” (2015). Print.

Haixia, Chen, Fu Lingling, Dong Peng, Zhang Xin, and Lu Xueming. “Acute Toxicity Evaluation and Compositional Analysis of a Polysaccharide from the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus Obliquus.” (2009): 1-4. Print

Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity

Table of Content

Executive Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

A review of the Equal Pay Act (1970) 4

Skill 4

Effort 4

Responsibility. 4

Working Conditions. 5

Establishment 5

Reasons for Gender-based Pay Gap. 5

The undervaluation of Women’s Work. 5

Segregation in the Labour Market 5

Traditions and Stereotypes. 5

Work/life balance Issues. 6

Theoretical and Ethical Understanding of Gender-based Pay Gap. 6

Kantian Ethics’ Analysis of the Situation. 6

The Utilitarian Perspective of Compensation Discrimination. 6

Approaches to Equal Pay Allocation. 7

Equal Pay Review.. 7

Specification of Entry Salaries. 8

Adherence to the Equal Pay Act (1970) 8

Gender sensitivity in Recruitment and Selection. 8

Conclusion. 8

Recommendations. 9

References. 10

 

Executive Summary

The report entails the most recommended approaches to providing equal and fair pay allocations irrespective of gender differences. By taking a critical review into legal and ethical considerations in assigning salaries, the report provides the most appropriate approach to providing equal pay to employees. These are recommendations that can be put in place by small, medium size as well as large organizations in order to ensure that there is equality in their payroll. The paper begins with a situation analysis of the current difference in the pay levels between male and female employees. A review of the Equal Pay Act is used to provide a clearer insight into the legal requirements with regard to provision of equal salaries to both men and women. Moreover, an ethical and theoretical perspective of the situation such as the Kantian and Utilitarian interpretations are used to encourage employers to put in place measures to control the situation. This leads provision of the best practices and policies that can be adopted by the company in ensuring that discrimination issues are eliminated. It is through this that the paper provides a summary of key points and recommendations that can be used to completely solve the matter within the institution.

Introduction

In spite of the fact that women are hardly half of the size of the workforce in any organization, there is a challenge when it comes to allocation of payments. In most instances, the jobs that are performed by women are set to pay less when the paydays finally come. It would not be correct to conclude that these tasks require low level skills or are less demanding. The challenge begins with lack of appropriate policies that look into pay equity issues in the organization. As a result, it is time to come up with proper strategies that can be used to manage the workforce efficiently and give fair pay allocations to both men and women (Economic Justice, 2015, p. 2).

A review of the Equal Pay Act (1970)

The Equal Pay Act (1970) provides that employers have the duty to provide equal pay to both men and women in the workforce. The Act stipulates that differences need only be realized when differences appear in job characteristics. Otherwise, men and women performing the same tasks need be paid equally. There are certain pillars in these jobs descriptions are made and any differences expected with respect to pay are provided for. These pillars include skill, effort, responsibility, working conditions and establishment (U.S Equal Employment Commission, 2012, p. 1).

Skill

The skills of an employee can be measured in terms of experience, ability to perform, education and training that is required to perform the job. In order to ensure that equal pay is allocated to the same rank of employees in a gender sensitive way, employers have to focus more on what skills are required for the job and not what skills the individual employees possess (Hartmann & Treiman, 2010).

Effort

Effort refers to the amount of physical and/ or mental exertion required to perform the job. In the event that both men and women utilize their efforts at the same level in any single job, then this needs to be reflected in the pay.

Responsibility

The Act defines responsibility as the degree of accountability that is needed to perform a job. Minor deviations in responsibility due to gender differences should not lead to inequality in pay allocation for the employees. Managers have to identify the unpreventable situations in which some sexes may be discriminated against with respect to responsibility, for instance, in the case of maternity leaves (U.S Equal Employment Commission, 2012, p. 4).

Working Conditions

The clause requires that one job performed by two employees in the same working environment should guarantee equal pay to both of them. A deviation from this requirement would amount to gender inequality.

Establishment

The prohibition that prevents against compensation discrimination only applies in the case of jobs that are within an establishment. The Act defines an establishment as a specific place of business and not the entire business or enterprise (Armstrong & Stephens, 2012).

Reasons for Gender-based Pay Gap

Men and women performing the same job within the same environment may be paid differently due to certain discrimination causes. These reasons are provided below. In most instances, these reasons cut across all organizations; small, medium and large organizations.

The undervaluation of Women’s Work

More often, men earn more than women for doing jobs of equal value due to the way in which women’s competencies are valued compared to those of men. Jobs that are rated to have similar skills and qualifications or experience may be paid less when they are dominated by women (European Commission, 2011, p. 1).

Segregation in the Labour Market

The other reason as to why women earn less than women within the same institution is due to the discriminatory nature of the labour market. There are tasks that tend to be reserved for men at the expense of women. This is due to certain false perceptions that men would perform better in those positions. However, this is not the case, in most instances.

Traditions and Stereotypes

Discrimination is directly pegged to traditions and stereotypes. Traditions and stereotypes have a direct influence on pay differences. For example, when it comes to career choices, women tend to be ‘reserved’ for easier options that would attract less compensations. However, this is an option that organizations may not have control over (European Commission, 2011, p. 2).

Work/life balance Issues

Women find it more challenging to balance between social responsibilities and the responsibilities at the workplace. In case of performance-based payment systems, they may perform less compared to the men who are available for work in most cases.

Theoretical and Ethical Understanding of Gender-based Pay Gap

A proper critique to the discrimination in payroll figures in a gender-bias can be provided on the basis of ethical theories. More specifically, the Kantian and Utilitarian theories can be used to explain the need to have a proper compensation system that takes into account the right measures for pay allocation and not gender-based decisions.

Kantian Ethics’ Analysis of the Situation

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) developed a set of ethical theories that have been referred to by managers in making important organizational decisions and policies (Yount, 2011, p. 1). Kantian ethics tells people what morality keeps them from doing. The theory then does not tell you what you ought to do always. Some actions may be praiseworthy, but doing them may not yield the best results as could have been the case if they were not carried out.

Applying the Kantian ethics to the context of pay discrimination between men and women, it is indeed right to identify some jobs that only fit men. Moreover, women would also find specific jobs that they can handle best. However, this leads to situations of pay discrimination in the end. Therefore, Kant would require that they be no gender-based assignment of roles and duties in the organizations. People need to perform equal tasks, provided they have the same skills and required expertise (Yount, 2011, p. 3).

Kantian ethics have been applied by human resource managers in making sound employee-related decisions. From the time they were formulated, these ethical standards have been applied to many business contexts. Therefore, the recommendations developed need to be in line with the provisions of this set of ethics.

The Utilitarian Perspective of Compensation Discrimination

Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that stipulates that the rightness or wrongness of an act can only be based on the overall well-being of those affected by the act (Eggleston, 2012, 452). According to this theory, people are free to make decisions as they would prefer, but the overall outcome of their actions would be used to determine whether such actions are wrong or right. It is not the expected outcome but the actual outcome of an event that is used to rate it as either bad or good.

In light of the situation of pay discrimination, the outcome of the act is harmful to the women since it leads to economic imbalance in the society. There is need to put in place better policies that would help get rid of this negative implication of gender bias in pay allocation. The role of the human resource managers, therefore, would be to come up with a set of working policies that would help allocate payments equally to both men and women within the workplace. This would begin with fair assignment of roles within the organization.

The popularity of the Utilitarian theory of business ethics is as a result of its relevance to real-life and business activities. In reality, what is considered wrong would lead to harmful implications whereas the good acts would lead to positive impacts on those affected (Eggleston, 2012, p. 452).

Approaches to Equal Pay Allocation

Equal Pay Review

In order to ensure that there is fair compensation to both men and women employees in an organization, the organization need to carry out an equal pay review periodically. An equal pay review involves making comparison between men and women’s pay in an organization. In the event of significant differences, an investigation into the causes has to be done. It is from this that policies and strategies are put in place to minimize the causes.

An equal pay review is a five-step process that any organization can perform periodically. First, the human resource managers are required to decide on the scope of the review and pre-determine the data that is to be required. This could be done on the basis of departments in the organization (Equality Commission of Northern Ireland, 2012, p. 5).

The second step in the review involves identification of sections where men and women are doing equal work. This is done with the help of the organizational structure and the departmental specifications of an organization. The third step involves collection of pay data and identification of equal pay gaps. In the event that pay gaps are realized, the data collected is moved to the fourth stage where reasons for the difference are established. The final stage involves putting in place policies and measures to solve the challenges (Equality Commission of Northern Ireland, 2012, p. 5).

Specification of Entry Salaries

Employees have to be informed of the entry salaries for the various job positions that are open to an organization (Equal Opportunities Commission, 2009, p. 16). Therefore, it is the role of the human resource managers to ensure that the entry salaries are adhered to. Any deviation from these initial agreements on the basis of gender discrimination or any other form would lead to challenges in the organization.

Adherence to the Equal Pay Act (1970)

The organization need to set its compensation plans with regard to the legal expectations. All the payment parameters have to be considered in determining the payment strategies and setting the amount of salary for all the employees. It is important to allocate compensation to job positions and not to the holders of those positions. This would play a significant role in eliminating cases of discrimination.

Gender sensitivity in Recruitment and Selection

Employees should be recruited into various job positions on the basis of their qualifications, skills and all the other requirements as per job descriptions. There should be no positions reserved for men or women. This would lead to differences in payroll structures in a discriminatory manner. There should be a situation in which both male and female job candidates have equal opportunities of recruitment into the organization.

The employment policies of an organization need to be adhered to. In the event that pay difference issues are not addressed therein, it is appropriate for the human resource managers to call for partial amendments of the excluded sections and include them in the organizational policies. This needs to be done in accordance with the Sex Discrimination Act (1984) that prohibits direct and indirect discrimination on the grounds of sex, marital status, pregnancy or even potential pregnancy (Commonwealth of Australia, 1998, p. 5).

Conclusion

It is, therefore, important for the organization to operate with regard to the legal and ethical elements of organizational performance. By borrowing from these theories, an organization would ensure that there is equity in payment systems. In addition, the organization needs to put in place measures such as equal pay review in order to discover any differences in payment between men and women in order to ensure that the organizational performance is driven by equity in payment and fair terms of employee compensation.

Recommendations

In order to ensure that the organization takes into account all the requirements with regard to remuneration allocations, it is important to put in place appropriate policies. The major steps that can be taken include:

  1. Fair terms of conducting recruitment and selection. This should be free of any pre-set elimination of some groups from certain job positions.
  2. Comparison of the organizational policies to the ethical theories; the Kantian and Utilitarian theories among many others. It is from this that sound decisions can be made with regard to fair pay determination.
  • Decision-making based on standard law like the Equal Pay Act (1970) and Sex Discrimination Act (1982) in order to keep up with the legal perspectives of fair salary allocation.
  1. Regular equal pay review to detect and find solutions to any deviations in the extent of difference in pay gaps in the organization.
  2. Initial specification of the entry salaries so as to ensure that there are no disagreements among the employees with regard to pay differences based on gender.

References

Armstrong, M., & Stephens, T. (2012). A handbook of employee reward management and practice. London [u.a.], Kogan Page.

Commonwealth of Australia (1998). Equal Pay Handbook. Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. Available at: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/content/pdf/sex_discrim/equal_pay.pdf [Accessed: 11 April, 2015]

Economic Justice (2015). The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap. Spring. Available at: http://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/ [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

Eggleston, B. (2012). Utilitarianism. Lawrence: University of Kansas. Available at: http://www.benegg.net/publications/Eggleston_Utilitarianism.pdf [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

Equal Opportunities Commission. (2009). A systematic Approach to Pay Determination Free of Sex Bias. Available at: http://www.eoc.org.hk/EOC/Upload/UserFiles/File/EPEV/EPEVBook2Web-e.pdf [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

Equality Commission of Northern Ireland. (2012). Equal Pay Review Kit: A Step-by-step Guidance. Ireland: Equality Commission of Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www.equalityni.org/ECNI/media/ECNI/Publications/Employers%20and%20Service%20Providers/EqualPayReviewKit.pdf?ext=.pdf [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

European Commission. (2011). What are the Causes? Europe: European Commission. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/gender-pay-gap/causes/index_en.htm [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

Hartmann, H. I., & Treiman, D. J. (2010). Women, work, and wages: equal pay for jobs of equal value ; Tabellen. Washington, National Academy Press.

U.S Equal Employment Commission. (2012). Facts about Equal Pay and Compensation Discrimination. United States: U.S Equal Employment Commission. Available at: http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-epa.cfm [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

Yount, D. (2011). Immanuel Kant’s Ethical Theory; Rights and Duties. Messa Community College. Available at: http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/BUS205-11.3.2-Immanuel-Kants-Ethical-Theory.pdf [Accessed 11 April, 2015]

International Energy Policy

International Energy Policy

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Tutor:

Date:

Table of Contents

International Energy Policy. 3

Abstract 3

Introduction. 3

SWOT ANALYSIS. 3

Strengths. 4

Weaknesses. 5

Opportunities. 7

Threats. 10

Conclusion. 11

References. 13

 

International Energy Policy

Abstract

The aim of this paper us to use the SWOT analytical tool to critically discuss the potentials and impact of the exploration of unconventional oil and gas and one renewable energy source on the energy policy of a specific country. The paper discusses the issue in terms of situation, problem, solution and evaluation.

Introduction

In the context, the country of choice is the U.S. and one renewable energy source on the policy of the U.S. is wind. The stance of the United States’ gas supply has advanced considerably over the years. On the other hand, the wind power industry of the United States has expanded significantly in the recent past. In fact, the 1980s heralded the advent of the modern wind industry of the U.S. Basically, this is as a result of the U.S. government partnering with the industry to develop the technology and facilitate big commercial wind turbines. The following is a SWOT analysis discusses the potentials and impact of the exploration of unconventional oil and gas, and wind energy.

SWOT ANALYSIS

One of the uses of a SWOT analysis is evaluating the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of, in this context, the two aforementioned industries. However, they are incorporated into a situation, problem, solution and evaluation to give structure.

Strengths

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

The unconventional oil and gas reservoirs are found deep underground. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies are increasingly being embraced—there is rapid growth. It has taken the sector many years to reach the present exploration level. The quantity of proven gas reservoirs—mostly as a result of gas reservoirs discovered in shale formations— has grown considerably since 1980s (Schurr, 2013, 212). Exploration of unconventional oil and gas has a considerable impact on the economy of the U.S., investments, and employment.

Unconventional oil and gas can have different characteristics. They include extra heavy oil and oil sands. The technology required in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas is different from the one used in the exploration of conventional oil and gas. The technology used in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas uses considerable amounts of water (Muradov, 2014, 9).

U.S. is seeking to embrace more eco-friendly sources of energy. The U.S. is actively seeking alternatives for coal and unconventional oil and gas are seen as replacements. It is projected that the future prices for natural gas will be low, thereby, sufficiently meeting the domestic needs. Furthermore, there are “onshore shale reserves and resources; increase in oil production, and unconventional onshore projects” (UOGR, 2012).

Wind Energy

The United States’ wind power sector has grown considerably over the past few years. In fact, the capacity produced by the country’s installations makes the country among the top three in the world. For instance, by 2010, the total capacity produced from wind power installations in the U.S. accounted for 35,139 MW (Castellano, 2012, 39).

The United States’ Department of Energyis striving to “achieve a generation mix with 20% wind energy by 2030” in a bid to support the development of the local manufacturing industry and associated employment (Lindenberg, 2009, 61). Other strengths: the expenses of wind energy are relatively low compared to non-renewable energy; there are minimal emissions of carbon—only in the construction and transportation only; it is a clean form of energy; it is not risky to the health and environment; and the source (wind) is absolutely free.

Weaknesses

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

Ultra-deep wells are required to reach the unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. As such, advanced technology is required in the exploration. Lack of the relevant technology can hamper and make the exploration of unconventional oil and gas economical. Research and development initiatives for the sector require a lot of funds. It is projected that the coverage of gas unconventional gas basins not less than 31 states in the U.S. A large number of the employees are unskilled.

The extra heavy oils can be extremely viscous and distributed in shale formations whose permeability is low. There is a myriad of problems associated with heavy oils (Muradov, 2014, 9). For instance, conventional methods cannot be used to produce, transport and/or transport them. Another example is the expensive and problematic process of pumping extra heavy oils from the reservoirs and refining; this is as a result of the high presence of sulfur and some metals among them vanadium and nickel.

The exploration of unconventional oil and gas leads to a lot of air and water pollution. Incidentally, the pollutants resulting from the production of unconventional oil and gas exceed the recommended levels. For instance, excessively high levels of elements such as formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide and benzene have been found in production sites adjacent to inhabited places (Maceyet al., 2014). The other problem is that unconventional oil and gas are non-renewable sources of energy; despite their extensive coverage and projected longevity, their supply is limited.

Huge amounts of water are pumped into wells by the steam injector. Reduction of drinking water is a risk. Furthermore, water aquifers can be inadvertently contaminated. Trucks delivering the water to the production sites can destroy roads whose construction did not consider their axle weight.

Wind Energy

There are several problems associated with wind power installations in the U.S. The first problem is related to weather changes. The power output is relatively low compared to other sources and can vary because of inconsistent wind and fluctuating speed of the wind. Second, the installation is a costly undertaking. For instance, it cost approximately $ 1 billion to install approximately several thousands of turbines at Altmont Pass. Another problem is insufficiently developed transmission infrastructure that can impede implementation and the selected sites.

Figure 1: The picture above shows an offshore wind farm in Rhode’s Island; Image courtesy of American Wind Energy Association

Opportunities

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

New technology: over the years technology has been developed, in order to enhance the exploration of unconventional gas reserves. The new technology enables the blasting of fossil fuels confined in shale formations. The most notable aspects of the technology are horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—surface mining and steam assisted gravity drainage— are used in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Horizontal drilling approaches the well at an arc after it has attained the desired depth of the reservoir. Horizontal drilling enables maximum contact with the productive section of the reservoir, thereby increasing the oil and gas produced by the well. The upshot is that technology development enables the commercial development of unconventional gas reserves, notably shale gas reserves (Maurice, 2013).

The U.S. is seeking to embrace more eco-friendly sources of energy. The U.S. is actively seeking alternatives for coal and natural gas has proved its reliability. The sector has a bright outlook. It is projected that the future prices for natural gas will be low, thereby, sufficiently meeting the domestic needs and enabling exportation to other nations. Investment activities are underway to improve the infrastructure. Other opportunities include “onshore shale reserves and resources, increase in oil production, and unconventional onshore projects” (UOGR, 2012).

The exploration of unconventional gas and oil can yield increased production if the explorers take advantage of surface mining and steam assisted gravity drainage to. For instance, between 2005 and 2008, the U.S produced approximately 7 million barrels every day; by 2009, it had risen by 2 million barrels daily to approximately 9 million barrels (International Monetary Fund Research Department, 2012,54).

There are extensive basins in the U.S.  Input from the federal government can help the sectorin minimizing the exploration risks of the private sector and boosts their diminishing research and development funds.

Figure 2: The picture shows a typical process of exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Image courtesy of http://www.infrastructureusa.org

Over the years, the federal government has supplemented the private sector’s innovation with “complementary input”—research and development programs such as specific technology demonstrations. The unskilled employees are employed as roughnecks—those doing hard manual labor. Despite being non-renewable, they are abundant reservoirs and other alternatives such as wind power and conventional oil and gas.

Figure 3: The image above shows American roughnecks at work. Image courtesy of Reuters

Wind Energy

Fluctuation of wind speed which comes after the winds die can be countered by diverting water around hydroelectric dams in areas bordering hydroelectric projects. Diverting water around hydroelectric waters to substitute the fluctuating winds cushions the system from overloading. The U.S. government works closely with the industry; for instance, the Department of Energy sponsoring the development of NASA wind turbines and offering tax rebates to the industry.

The U.S. government undertakes various measures in alleviating the impact of the installations on life. For instance, through its federal agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, it came up and published with guidelines for designing and installing wind turbines to reduce deaths of birds and bats (USFWS, 2010). Stopping the quest for wind power and make it not an answer to energy needs; and lobbying for sufficient distances between inhabited areas and industrial installations.

The funding of the development of wind turbines by the U.S. government led to the pioneering of the present-day design of the multi-megawatt wind turbines in terms of aerodynamics, structure and acoustic engineering. Other opportunities include the U.S. government harboring objectives for renewable energy, making wind energy the ideal choice, the sector being less competitive.

Threats

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

The federal government might enact policies rolling back tax breaks, impose extra taxes on the oil and gas sector, and, through the Environmental Protection Agency consider regulating hydraulic fracturing technology used by the oil producers. Regulation: the federal government regulates the exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Incidentally, the federal government has a framework governing the exploration of unconventional oil and gas on federal land. The Federal Acts and Regulations on water usage have compelled the sector to resort to water recycling. An example is the upsurge of new water treatment plants in Philadelphia: entrepreneurs and other established organizations have come up with creative portable treatment plants and technologies in a bid to manage the waste water. For instance, Reserved Environmental Services, located near New Stanton, Philadelphia, use zero liquid discharge wastewater treatment technology to treat shale gas wastewater amounting to hundreds of thousands of gallons every day.

Wind Energy

Halting the quest for wind power as a solution to energy problems can be effective seeing that the installations cost the taxpayers dearly, are a concern to the public health and affect wildlife. Influencing legislation requires political connection and may not augur well for sector because the politics are regarded as murky waters.

It has negative effects on life; for example, wildlife such as birds risk deaths from wind farms and people living nearby the installations claim to get Wind Turbine Syndrome. There is also conflict with providers of renewable energy and people referred to NIMBY—it is an acronym for Not in My Back Yard, denoting proponents who support it as long as it is not constructed near their places; and opponents such as API/ANGA lobby groups that support other likeminded organizations in attacking the feasibility of wind energy.

Conclusion

To sum it up, wind energy and exploration of unconventional oil and gas can ably provide an ideal solution to the energy problems. Wind is a clean and renewable source of energy, making an ideal substitute for non-renewable sources, especially in the context of climate change.  Though wind can sometimes be unpredictable, erratic and unreliable, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. On the other hand, exploration of unconventional oil and gas is fraught with problems. However, there is an insatiable demand for energy, and the exploration of unconventional oil and gas has economic and social benefits. As such, the problems brought about by the exploration can be perceived as collateral damage.

References

Castellano, R., 2012. Alternative Energy Technologies.Paris: Archives contemporaries.

International Monetary Fund.Research Dept, 2012. World Economic Outlook, October 2012: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Lindenberg, S., 2009.20% Wind Energy By 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U. S. Electricity Supply. Collingdale, PA: DIANE Publishing.

Maurice B. D., 2013.Screening criteria and technology sequencing for in-situ viscous oil production.InHein, F.J.,  Leckie, D. Larter, S. &Suter, J.R. eds. Heavy-oil and oil-sand petroleum systems in Alberta and beyond. Winceby: AAPG Studies in Geology 64, p. 655–668.

Muradov, N., 2014. Liberating Energy from Carbon: Introduction to Decarbonization. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Schurr, S.H., 2013. Energy, Economic Growth, and the Enviro

International Energy Policy

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Tutor:

Date:

 

Table of Contents

International Energy Policy. 3

Abstract 3

Introduction. 3

SWOT ANALYSIS. 3

Strengths. 4

Weaknesses. 5

Opportunities. 7

Threats. 10

Conclusion. 11

References. 13

 

 

International Energy Policy

Abstract

The aim of this paper us to use the SWOT analytical tool to critically discuss the potentials and impact of the exploration of unconventional oil and gas and one renewable energy source on the energy policy of a specific country. The paper discusses the issue in terms of situation, problem, solution and evaluation.

Introduction

In the context, the country of choice is the U.S. and one renewable energy source on the policy of the U.S. is wind. The stance of the United States’ gas supply has advanced considerably over the years. On the other hand, the wind power industry of the United States has expanded significantly in the recent past. In fact, the 1980s heralded the advent of the modern wind industry of the U.S. Basically, this is as a result of the U.S. government partnering with the industry to develop the technology and facilitate big commercial wind turbines. The following is a SWOT analysis discusses the potentials and impact of the exploration of unconventional oil and gas, and wind energy.

SWOT ANALYSIS

One of the uses of a SWOT analysis is evaluating the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of, in this context, the two aforementioned industries. However, they are incorporated into a situation, problem, solution and evaluation to give structure.

Strengths

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

The unconventional oil and gas reservoirs are found deep underground. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies are increasingly being embraced—there is rapid growth. It has taken the sector many years to reach the present exploration level. The quantity of proven gas reservoirs—mostly as a result of gas reservoirs discovered in shale formations— has grown considerably since 1980s (Schurr, 2013, 212). Exploration of unconventional oil and gas has a considerable impact on the economy of the U.S., investments, and employment.

Unconventional oil and gas can have different characteristics. They include extra heavy oil and oil sands. The technology required in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas is different from the one used in the exploration of conventional oil and gas. The technology used in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas uses considerable amounts of water (Muradov, 2014, 9).

U.S. is seeking to embrace more eco-friendly sources of energy. The U.S. is actively seeking alternatives for coal and unconventional oil and gas are seen as replacements. It is projected that the future prices for natural gas will be low, thereby, sufficiently meeting the domestic needs. Furthermore, there are “onshore shale reserves and resources; increase in oil production, and unconventional onshore projects” (UOGR, 2012).

Wind Energy

The United States’ wind power sector has grown considerably over the past few years. In fact, the capacity produced by the country’s installations makes the country among the top three in the world. For instance, by 2010, the total capacity produced from wind power installations in the U.S. accounted for 35,139 MW (Castellano, 2012, 39).

The United States’ Department of Energyis striving to “achieve a generation mix with 20% wind energy by 2030” in a bid to support the development of the local manufacturing industry and associated employment (Lindenberg, 2009, 61). Other strengths: the expenses of wind energy are relatively low compared to non-renewable energy; there are minimal emissions of carbon—only in the construction and transportation only; it is a clean form of energy; it is not risky to the health and environment; and the source (wind) is absolutely free.

Weaknesses

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

Ultra-deep wells are required to reach the unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. As such, advanced technology is required in the exploration. Lack of the relevant technology can hamper and make the exploration of unconventional oil and gas economical. Research and development initiatives for the sector require a lot of funds. It is projected that the coverage of gas unconventional gas basins not less than 31 states in the U.S. A large number of the employees are unskilled.

The extra heavy oils can be extremely viscous and distributed in shale formations whose permeability is low. There is a myriad of problems associated with heavy oils (Muradov, 2014, 9). For instance, conventional methods cannot be used to produce, transport and/or transport them. Another example is the expensive and problematic process of pumping extra heavy oils from the reservoirs and refining; this is as a result of the high presence of sulfur and some metals among them vanadium and nickel.

The exploration of unconventional oil and gas leads to a lot of air and water pollution. Incidentally, the pollutants resulting from the production of unconventional oil and gas exceed the recommended levels. For instance, excessively high levels of elements such as formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide and benzene have been found in production sites adjacent to inhabited places (Maceyet al., 2014). The other problem is that unconventional oil and gas are non-renewable sources of energy; despite their extensive coverage and projected longevity, their supply is limited.

Huge amounts of water are pumped into wells by the steam injector. Reduction of drinking water is a risk. Furthermore, water aquifers can be inadvertently contaminated. Trucks delivering the water to the production sites can destroy roads whose construction did not consider their axle weight.

Wind Energy

There are several problems associated with wind power installations in the U.S. The first problem is related to weather changes. The power output is relatively low compared to other sources and can vary because of inconsistent wind and fluctuating speed of the wind. Second, the installation is a costly undertaking. For instance, it cost approximately $ 1 billion to install approximately several thousands of turbines at Altmont Pass. Another problem is insufficiently developed transmission infrastructure that can impede implementation and the selected sites.

Figure 1: The picture above shows an offshore wind farm in Rhode’s Island; Image courtesy of American Wind Energy Association

Opportunities

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

New technology: over the years technology has been developed, in order to enhance the exploration of unconventional gas reserves. The new technology enables the blasting of fossil fuels confined in shale formations. The most notable aspects of the technology are horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing—surface mining and steam assisted gravity drainage— are used in the exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Horizontal drilling approaches the well at an arc after it has attained the desired depth of the reservoir. Horizontal drilling enables maximum contact with the productive section of the reservoir, thereby increasing the oil and gas produced by the well. The upshot is that technology development enables the commercial development of unconventional gas reserves, notably shale gas reserves (Maurice, 2013).

The U.S. is seeking to embrace more eco-friendly sources of energy. The U.S. is actively seeking alternatives for coal and natural gas has proved its reliability. The sector has a bright outlook. It is projected that the future prices for natural gas will be low, thereby, sufficiently meeting the domestic needs and enabling exportation to other nations. Investment activities are underway to improve the infrastructure. Other opportunities include “onshore shale reserves and resources, increase in oil production, and unconventional onshore projects” (UOGR, 2012).

The exploration of unconventional gas and oil can yield increased production if the explorers take advantage of surface mining and steam assisted gravity drainage to. For instance, between 2005 and 2008, the U.S produced approximately 7 million barrels every day; by 2009, it had risen by 2 million barrels daily to approximately 9 million barrels (International Monetary Fund Research Department, 2012,54).

There are extensive basins in the U.S.  Input from the federal government can help the sectorin minimizing the exploration risks of the private sector and boosts their diminishing research and development funds.

Figure 2: The picture shows a typical process of exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Image courtesy of http://www.infrastructureusa.org

Over the years, the federal government has supplemented the private sector’s innovation with “complementary input”—research and development programs such as specific technology demonstrations. The unskilled employees are employed as roughnecks—those doing hard manual labor. Despite being non-renewable, they are abundant reservoirs and other alternatives such as wind power and conventional oil and gas.

Figure 3: The image above shows American roughnecks at work. Image courtesy of Reuters

Wind Energy

Fluctuation of wind speed which comes after the winds die can be countered by diverting water around hydroelectric dams in areas bordering hydroelectric projects. Diverting water around hydroelectric waters to substitute the fluctuating winds cushions the system from overloading. The U.S. government works closely with the industry; for instance, the Department of Energy sponsoring the development of NASA wind turbines and offering tax rebates to the industry.

The U.S. government undertakes various measures in alleviating the impact of the installations on life. For instance, through its federal agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, it came up and published with guidelines for designing and installing wind turbines to reduce deaths of birds and bats (USFWS, 2010). Stopping the quest for wind power and make it not an answer to energy needs; and lobbying for sufficient distances between inhabited areas and industrial installations.

The funding of the development of wind turbines by the U.S. government led to the pioneering of the present-day design of the multi-megawatt wind turbines in terms of aerodynamics, structure and acoustic engineering. Other opportunities include the U.S. government harboring objectives for renewable energy, making wind energy the ideal choice, the sector being less competitive.

Threats

Exploration of Unconventional Oil and Gas

The federal government might enact policies rolling back tax breaks, impose extra taxes on the oil and gas sector, and, through the Environmental Protection Agency consider regulating hydraulic fracturing technology used by the oil producers. Regulation: the federal government regulates the exploration of unconventional oil and gas. Incidentally, the federal government has a framework governing the exploration of unconventional oil and gas on federal land. The Federal Acts and Regulations on water usage have compelled the sector to resort to water recycling. An example is the upsurge of new water treatment plants in Philadelphia: entrepreneurs and other established organizations have come up with creative portable treatment plants and technologies in a bid to manage the waste water. For instance, Reserved Environmental Services, located near New Stanton, Philadelphia, use zero liquid discharge wastewater treatment technology to treat shale gas wastewater amounting to hundreds of thousands of gallons every day.

Wind Energy

Halting the quest for wind power as a solution to energy problems can be effective seeing that the installations cost the taxpayers dearly, are a concern to the public health and affect wildlife. Influencing legislation requires political connection and may not augur well for sector because the politics are regarded as murky waters.

It has negative effects on life; for example, wildlife such as birds risk deaths from wind farms and people living nearby the installations claim to get Wind Turbine Syndrome. There is also conflict with providers of renewable energy and people referred to NIMBY—it is an acronym for Not in My Back Yard, denoting proponents who support it as long as it is not constructed near their places; and opponents such as API/ANGA lobby groups that support other likeminded organizations in attacking the feasibility of wind energy.

Conclusion

To sum it up, wind energy and exploration of unconventional oil and gas can ably provide an ideal solution to the energy problems. Wind is a clean and renewable source of energy, making an ideal substitute for non-renewable sources, especially in the context of climate change.  Though wind can sometimes be unpredictable, erratic and unreliable, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. On the other hand, exploration of unconventional oil and gas is fraught with problems. However, there is an insatiable demand for energy, and the exploration of unconventional oil and gas has economic and social benefits. As such, the problems brought about by the exploration can be perceived as collateral damage.

 

References

Castellano, R., 2012. Alternative Energy Technologies.Paris: Archives contemporaries.

International Monetary Fund.Research Dept, 2012. World Economic Outlook, October 2012: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Lindenberg, S., 2009.20% Wind Energy By 2030: Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U. S. Electricity Supply. Collingdale, PA: DIANE Publishing.

Maurice B. D., 2013.Screening criteria and technology sequencing for in-situ viscous oil production.InHein, F.J.,  Leckie, D. Larter, S. &Suter, J.R. eds. Heavy-oil and oil-sand petroleum systems in Alberta and beyond. Winceby: AAPG Studies in Geology 64, p. 655–668.

Muradov, N., 2014. Liberating Energy from Carbon: Introduction to Decarbonization. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Schurr, S.H., 2013. Energy, Economic Growth, and the Environment. London. Routledge.

UOGR. 2012. SWOT Analysis. USA Oil & Gas Report, Q2 2012, Issue 2, 9

USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), 2010.Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations. Washington, D.C: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

nment. London. Routledge.

UOGR. 2012. SWOT Analysis. USA Oil & Gas Report, Q2 2012, Issue 2, 9

USFWS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), 2010.Wind Turbine Guidelines Advisory Committee Recommendations. Washington, D.C: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Operations Management

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Name

MT435

Opearations Management

Institution

23rd November, 2014

Operations Management to assist Albatross Anchor

Introduction

Albatross Anchor has had exponential growth since its inception. It has grown from a family based business that had four members to employing one hundred and thirty people. The successive quick growth of Albatross Anchor’s business has given rise to operational shortcomings that are at present hindering Albatross from achieving its revenue perspective. The principle of this essay is to scrutinize Albatross Anchor’s operational shortcomings and recommend operational amendments that will smooth the progress of Albatross to stay viable both in terms of their product and the earnings in relation to their competitors. Furthermore, improving competencies will improve the essential economic resources that Albatross Anchors will require to sustain potential growth. We review the changes that the company needs to implement to achieve efficiency and meet the company’s needs as well as those of their customers.

Question one

Challenge one: Cost Management

Although Albatross are currently at par with their competitors in terms of product quality and pricing, its revenue scope can vary to the degree that it is 35% less than its rivals. The divergence in income limitations is ascribed to inefficiencies in functions. So as to stay at a competitive level, Albatross Anchors should focus on lowering production costs that would enable them to achieve larger profit margins. They would be able to decrease fixed costs by increasing production since this would spread the costs across more units and hence decreasing the price per unit they are needed to pay in return. As the production levels increases the production costs decrease accordingly. As Russell & Taylor (2011) noted, increase in production levels decrease production costs  which in turn will enable them to regain profit margins lost to shortcomings in production hence make them healthier competitors in the market.

Challenge two: Time management

Albatross is incurring losses due to the time lost in the production facility where there is a delay of 36 hours while switching from the production of one product to the next. Also, a delay is experienced in the receipt of raw materials and the shipment of products. It is mainly attributed to the idle sitting of raw materials and products in the warehouse. I would recommend that they combine the receiving and shipping departments and move them to one area. Another recommendation is that they install a second production so that they can simultaneously manufacture both products.

Challenge three: Performance management

The delay in the production reduces the performance of the business in a great way. To further ensure that the performance is improved, Albatross should update and organize their administrative offices in a manner that would increase their efficiency.

Challenge four: Technology adoption

Lastly, I would recommend that they review their accounting department’s software to ensure that it will benefit them with accounts payable, receivable and the payroll system. In addition to this, it is important that they update their obsolete and outdated machinery that is not only a health hazard to the workers, but also a great disadvantage compared to their competitors. Upgrading the systems would help lower manufacturing and administrative costs thus maintain an edge in profit margins according to Hill & Jones, 2009. Whereas upgrading the technology would enable Albatross be in compliance with the US safety and environmental standards.

Question two

Proposed changes and / or alterations

Update and organize the administrative offices. The administrative offices are presently unorganized, dilapidated and incompetent. With an upgrade in technology, e.g. computers, faxes, emails, accounting software, etc., Albatross would function more competently thus running the business more lucratively. A disorganized office can lead to missed payments, improper billings, poor communications, mismanagement, and worst of all poor customer service (Harvard, 2004).

Install new state-of-the-art and modern technology production lines. Modern technology will allow for a safer and a quicker fabrication of the anchors. The updated production technology will enable Albatross to manufacture bulk batch orders with a reduction of lead time thus serving the customers better compared to the competitors. Furthermore, with improved efficiencies, the company can look at price cuts to achieve added competitive advantage.

Another change would be the division of the production areas of the two products. It would increase productivity since there would be a loss of downtime given that at present Albatross experiences a 36 hours downtime in the change of manufacturing process. With this alteration, the company would produce more products in less time hence building customer satisfaction that in turn ensures improved gains.

Relocate the shipping area to the west end of the building. The current location of shipping is on the east as it has been since inception of the company because shipments are done by truck. Now that Albatross has expanded to include shipment by rail, it is more convenient to relocate the shipment to the west end since the rail access is only on the west of the building. This will let the consolidation of dispatch into one area and will in turn free up receiving for the reception of raw materials exclusively. With the alterations, receiving will not do double work and this will lead to a lower overall cost since more work will get done in less time.

Implications and complications

One implication would be that Albatross can put goals for a fresh administrative function including customer response, communication, and billing thus providing a distinctive consumer service advantage over the competitors. Another implication would be the improved working conditions and enhanced safety measures thus creating a good working environment. A complication that would arise is that with the proposed relocation of the shipping area to the west end, is the lack of a road on that end that cause great limitations. Also, there would be complications in the installation of new production lines since it would require clearance of some of the space already in use by the current line.

Gantt chart

Proposed changes Gantt chart

The administration office organization will require at least two weeks and this implies that other changes could not be effected without first accomplishing a greater percentage of this task as shown in the gnat chart above. As the office organization nears completion, division of production areas to have the two products in distinct areas will start. As the two products get different areas then the installation of new production lines should begin to go concurrently with the division. The new lines will be installed mainly at night and during non-manufacturing hours to minimize the interference with the production. Lastly there will be the relocation of the shipping area that will take effect with the products from the new lines that will enable a smooth transition of events and processes in Albatross Anchor.

References

  1. Harvard business essentials: Managing projects large and small.(2004). Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  2. Hill, C., & Jones, G. (2009). Theory of strategic management(9th ed., International ed.). Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
  3. Russell, R., & Taylor, B. (2011).Operations management: Creating value along the supply chain(7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Climate Change

 

Climate Change

Name:

Institution:

Course Code:

Has Climate Variability, or have Climate Extremes, Changed?

In the last few years, changes in climate extremes and variability occurrences have received immense attention. According to environmental scholars, the difficulty in understanding changes in climate extremes and climate variability is being caused by interactions between variability and the mean. It is important to note that such associations vary from one variable to another based on their distribution in terms of statistics. A good example is the fact that the distribution of temperature in most times appears in the form of a normal distribution. In this case, the non-stationarity of the distribution infers variations in the variance or mean. In the case of such a distribution, the rise in the mean results in fresh record high temperature; however, a variation in the mean does not infer any adjustment in the variability.

When the variability changes without changing the mean, it implies a upsurge in the possibility of both cold and hot extreme as well as the total value of the extremes. Other groupings of changes in both variability and mean would result in dissimilar outcomes. All the above mentioned changes can influence a number of aspects of precipitation extremes, especially the strength of precipitation (Jan & Van, 2003).

Why is Earth’s atmosphere dynamic?

The evolution of the earth’s atmosphere has been through volcanic outgassing and from the evolution of organisms that generate oxygen. This has occurred over the period of 3.5 billion years and has resulted in the change in the composition of the atmosphere from a planet that is oxygen-less to one that can support complex life. Human activities are among the major reasons why changes in the atmosphere are occurring today in a dominant manner. These human activities include the combustion of fossil fuel and change in land use, which have changes the climate of the planet through changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, changes in the rainfall patterns and reflectivity of the atmosphere (Kshudiram, 2008).

Today, according to environmental scientists, the atmosphere is comprised of 78% nitrogen, 0.9% argon, 21% oxygen, approximately 0.04% carbon dioxide and a surfeit of other elements, particulate aerosol and compounds. The atmosphere of the earth is also held up to the planet by the gravitational forces and from thermo drive of the air molecules. As such, it is crucial noting that radioactive energy from the sun, the earth’s rotation and the distribution of water bodies and land, are the primary drivers for the physically dynamic atmosphere of the earth. Therefore, the temperature inclines and the earth’s rotation jointly create convective cells of atmospheric movement on the globe. These processes, as a result, produce latitudinal belts and prevailing winds of high and low pressure around the planet (Kshudiram, 2008).

Do you think global warming might bring us to an Ice Age? 

I am of the view that a warming planet is one whose probability of winding up in an ice age is very high. The reason for such a belief is that the earth is always experiencing cooling and warming and we have been in one of the warming cycles for roughly 12,000 years. Based on scientific findings on the same, it is indispensable that the earth will hit another huge chill sometimes in 100,000 year to come. If that occurs, most parts of the planet, especially North America and Europe, will have a thick cover of ice. Environmental research indicates that the heat that is stuck on the earth’s atmosphere from the greenhouse effect will come to counterbalance this cooling and essentially prevent the planet from experiencing another ice age. Though this sounds as good news, the findings still cautions that global warming is not a bed of roses, either. This is because it could result in severe and hostile effects on the planet, especially diminishing global food supply and the rise of sea levels (John, 2009).

How can a solid Earth be a dynamic and evolving planet?

It is true that over the years the solid earth has displayed enormous evolution as well as dynamism. This is mostly because a larger portion of the planet’s geophysical and geological activities happen due to the cooling of the planet to space. Thereby, the cooling effect results in the induction of currents of hot and rising as well as cold and sinking materials, which are referred to as conventions. In the earth’s mantle, conventions act as the engine of plate tectonics and provides rise to the formation of continents and ocean basins. A similar experience occurs to convention in the earth’s liquid-iron outer-core powers of the earth in the geomagnetic fields. In order to understand how the earth has been evolving in the above described manner, physics of the earth’s interior play a crucial role. Scholars and scientists employ numerous experimental, theoretical and observation methods to examine the dynamics and structure of the earth from atomic to global level (Joel, Smith, Klein & Saleemul, 2003).

Write up the water balance equation; explain every term in the equation

Within a watershed, all water that fall as rainfall can be stored in the soil, released from the watershed through subsurface flow or runoff or be returned to the atmosphere. The process explained above is normally simplified by the water balance equation demonstrated below.

Q = P – ET ± St

Where:

  1. Q = release of water outside of watershed through subsurface flow or runoff
  2. P = precipitation
  3. ET = evapotranspiration (both evapotranspiration and evaporation)
  4. St = soil storage

The equation is very crucial since it indicates that provided a steady amount of rainfall or precipitation, O will increase of ET is reduced. The implication is that if plant cover within a watershed is reduced, evapotranspiration may also reduce, thereby, increased runoff becomes the most likely thing to occur. The occurrence of these effects is at times desirable but in some other case not. In the same way, if more stream flow (Q) is desired, such as for recreational purposes, either ET or St must be decreased or P must be increased. This is in most instances achieved by adding up impervious surfaces such as roadway within a drainage basin (Warrick, 2001)

The main features of water budget for the arctic/northern rivers.

Precipitation is a considerable freshwater source for bionetworks at more southerly latitudes, happening for the most part during the protracted summer spell. Additionally, north, snowstorm dominates the yearly freshwater budget. High-latitude glacial deserts obtain low levels of rainfall and as such have a marked moisture discrepancy. Nautical locations commonly receive greater amounts of rain and snow than mainland regions. The most significant contribution of freshwater into marine ecosystems is often snowstorm. It accrues over winter, autumn and spring, and partially determines the greatness and harshness of the spring freshet (Warrick, 2001).

Give a short description about your carbon footprint.

My carbon footprint is defined by my daily actions in regard to their impact on the environment I live in. Acts such as eating, entertainment, commuting and sheltering contribute to my carbon footprint. These acts contribute to the overall greenhouse gas emissions in the planet, which have been blamed for climate change (Stuart, 2009).

Can you think about some ways to reduce the carbon footprint of your everyday life?

I have chosen to manage my daily actions to reduce my carbon footprint. During my daily commute, I prefer to use walk or use public transport instead of driving my car especially if the distance I have to travel is short. In my quest for decent and comfortable shelter, I have chosen to use energy efficient appliances in the house and switching off lights and appliances that are not in use (Stuart, 2009).

I have also installed solar panels to subsidize some of the electricity that I consume from the main grid, which is often produced using non-renewable energy sources. I also recycle consumer products as well as some of my non-biodegradable wastes. Everyone can apply these methods in their lives to make sure we all contribute in reducing and managing climate change.

References

Jan, C., & van, D. (2003). Impacts of Climate Change and Climate Variability on Hydrological Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Joel, B., Smith, R., Klein, J., & Saleemul, H. (2003). Climate Change, Adaptive Capacity and Development. New York: Imperial College Press.

John, H. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kshudiram, S. (2008). The Earth’s Atmosphere: Its Physics and Dynamics. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Stuart, S. (2009). The Carbon Footprint Wars: What Might Happen If We Retreat from Globalization? New York: Edinburgh University Press.

Warrick, A. (2001). Soil Physics Companion. New York: CRC Press.

CONGRESSIONAL BACKGROUND PAPER

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE OF THE CAUCASUS REGION
Ahurastan is a young country that is not yet identified internationally, but it poses a threat to established nations such as Azerbaijan.
The country is sparsely populated as compared to its neighbors, with the Kurds making up a large percentage of the ethnic grouping.
The country is largely Islam, and its official religion is Shia Islam. A negligible percentage of the people attend other religions.
The economy of the country is pitiable as the country depends on imported oil and gas. However, the agricultural sector is growing at a faster rate.
The country has a conflict with Iran because of its separation from the mainland. This conflict has made the Ahurastan improve its military in a bid to defend its independence.
It also has a longstanding conflict with Azerbaijan over the ownership of the oil reservoirs with Ahurastan claiming that it owns part of the wells.
The country provides support to the SAPA rebels claiming that they have a stake in the leadership of Azerbaijan.
The US has a choice to make concerning the conflict in this region since it has several interests in it.
First, the US has to make an evaluation of the status of the region before deciding on a particular route to take.
The US has three choices to make, and these include the use of information, a military strike on Ahurastan and advancement of financial aid to the region (Special Intelligence 2015).
1. DISCUSSION/BACKGROUND. The Caucasus region is under several challenges including a poor economy and unending conflicts. The youngest country in the region is posing serious threats to the stability of the region, first through the conflict with Iran because of the boundaries. Secondly, the country supports opposition groups in Azerbaijan leading to instability in the country. This implies that measures have to be taken to reduce the influence of this small nation in the region. However, this is going to be a hard task for the US, as it has to consider the implications of any of its moves. The fact that the region has oil reserves becomes a tricky situation for the US as its past with Iraq still poses a threat to its real intention in the region. Moreover, Ahurastan has some might in its military and has an ally in the Soviet Union implying that any military strike will lead to a full-blown war (Special Intelligence 2015).
2. CURRENT STATUS. The US has allies in the region in Azerbaijan and Armenia meaning that any operation has a place for proper planning and support. Azerbaijan and Armenia have been receiving financial aid from the US for sometimes implying that their economies are better than other nations in the region. This also implies that their military might is improving. However, Ahurastan poses a military threat because of its partners and allies. Moreover, the country has a well-coordinated intelligence system that the US needs to be aware of before any decision is made. However, the economy of Ahurastan is in shambles implying that its military might be able to last only for a few battles (Special Intelligence 2015).
3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS. The chance of the US winning a battle in this region is very high because of the state of politics and economy in the region. However, the consequences of such action could be detrimental to its allies in the region and the US. This implies that any course of action decided upon by the US should consider all the avenues and implications. The most viable course of action is to use diplomacy to bring the countries together. Moreover, the US could use propaganda and financial aid to convince the leaders of these nations to work together.

Bibliography
Ahurastan. “National Intelligence Estimate.” In Notional Exercise Materials – For Educational Purposes Only. 2015.
“Special Intelligence Report 101200Mar2019.” In Scenario Reference Book 1. 2015.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY

 

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


 

Research Questions

The purpose of this qualitative research design questions was to explore different strategies that the manager can implement to retain employees. The overarching research question for is study is, what strategies do call center managers implement to reduce employee turnover?

Hypotheses:

We will be testing the Null hypotheses (): there is no significant relationship between rewarding employees with excellent salary packages and the rate of employee turnover vs. the alternative (): there is a relationship between rewarding employees with excellent pay packages and the rate of employee turnover

Constructional relationship

Carla (2014) suggests that research shows that compensation is not the best motivator that increases job satisfaction. In fact, personalities of the employees are much better predictors. The constructs are relational, but studies show that they are not the causal effect of employee turnover, and therefore we accept the null () hypothesis. A total of 25,000 participants examined, and determination was at 40% of the variability in the job satisfaction ratings. The employees found to be emotionally stable, explicitly extrovert and very conscientious people tend to like their jobs more. Personality is not the most important determinant of the levels of engagement. Therefore, this builds a strong credibility for our hypothesis because compensation does not indicate compensation therefore no correlation. The biggest cause of disengagement has an incompetent leader.

Discussion & Conclusion

Carla (2014) suggests that the envisioned doctoral study questions will not be achieved by using Bivariate correlations. Since from the research, there are more factors in a business environment than just the remuneration package (X) that will predict the employee turnover (Y). Such other factors include the company benefits, employee personalities (conscientiousness, extraverts, emotional stability) and the company management and leadership framework. Therefore, considering that employer’s performance is what drives the compensation plans increase in salaries. It is noted that David (2012), the rises in employee’s pay rely on the ranking and the performance ratings. Thus, this study research will require a more argumentative multivariate method to be more appropriate and exact.

References

Carla Valencia (2014): “Motivation and Productivity in the Workplace

David K. Williams (2012): “The right compensation plan: Igniting Business”

Ruth Mayhew (2013): “Example of an Employee Compensation Plan

Hamlet Loves Ophelia

Name of Student

Name of Instructor

Subject

Date of Submission

Hamlet Loves Ophelia

Introduction

The Shakespeare’s play Hamlet is replete with fascinating themes, styles, humour and tragedy. The play is performed at a time when Hamlet the prince of Denmark was dramatizing and contemplating on a revenge mission against his uncle Claudius. It is believed that Claudius murdered king Hamlet who was his brother and father to prince Hamlet. The king then succeeded to the throne and took Gertrude, the wife to the late king Hamlet as his wife. The action of his mother being married by King Claudius is a painful experience to prince Hamlet who learns later from a ghost that Claudius killed his father. The aspect of love in the tragedy is developed by Polonius daughter Ophelia who is courting prince Hamlet. The love turns sour when Ophelia’s brother and father do not approve this relationship. The paper will focus on the expression of prince Hamlet’s love towards Ophelia as brought out from major scenes in the play. The paper will include quotes that will depict how Hamlet loved Ophelia via the actions and statements he is seen to make in the play.
Hamlet loves Ophelia

Love is the main theme stipulated in Shakespeare’s tragedy play. The play depicts various instances where love between characters is demonstrated. Ophelia commits suicide on realizing that her beloved father, Polonius, has been killed. This essay paper will focus on the expression of Prince Hamlet’s love towards Ophelia. Hamlet is seeking revenge for his father’s death and hence he is secretive of his love for Ophelia (Act 3, scene 4). He is shielding Ophelia from Claudius; Hamlet fears that if the king knows about their relationship he might harm his lover. Hamlet declares his love for Ophelia during her funeral; he quips that the love of Laertes and other blood brothers, could not match the quantity of love he has for Ophelia (Act 5, scene 1, 270). The love is enormous considering that Laertes is Ophelia brother whom they grew up together. Ophelia is mesmerized by Hamlet’s love; she provides statements that prove his love for her. She demonstrates his desire through the romantic actions he had during their meetings. She quips memorable moments when Hamlet caught her by the wrist, tender showered her with affection and held her (Act 1, scene 3, 85). The confession reveals a reciprocation of Hamlet’s love towards Ophelia. Therefore, it is evident that Hamlet loves Ophelia through the actions and expressions in various scenes of the play.

The Hamlet love for Ophelia in the play is one filled with many disappointments and opposition. Hamlet tries to maintain a relationship amid strong disapproval from Ophelia’s father and brother. At one point, Hamlet admits openly that he is in love with Ophelia. Ophelia says that Hamlet had importuned her with much love in an honourable fashion and that Hamlet had uttered a speech of love with the holiest words from heaven. (1:3, 11). The instance depicts the strong love that existed between them. Hamlets love for Ophelia is also portrayed in the dream when ghosts appeared to him disclosing to him about Claudius murdering his father. The scene makes the reader insinuate that hamlets love for Ophelia never quavered. On that part of the ghost revelation, he was in deep thoughts of his father’s betrayal by his mother and Claudius. To evade this, he pretends to be insane and because of his deep love for Ophelia he wants to destroy the hope she held about the future of their love. Hamlets go along and pretend to reject insults hauls to him by Ophelia (Act 3, scene 1). In this nunnery scene it is evident that Hamlet loved Ophelia, this is seen when he feigns insanity by repeating that he did not love her and telling her to go to a nunnery. From this scene, it is evident that there exists a deep love between them because if surely he was mad, what was the reason of repeating these words to Ophelia? Hamlet love for Ophelia is brought out in the play when he realises that he has two women he loves, one is his mother and the next is Ophelia. However, he takes the painful step of rejecting Ophelia because he had lost faith in his mother after she married King Claudius, a love that was sacrificed from his father. Thus, he fears to marry Ophelia because he fears her to be dishonest. The scene clearly shows that Hamlet loved Ophelia that is why he feared to marry her comparing her with his mother.
Conclusion

The Shakespeare’s tragedy reflects Hamlets plan to revenge his father’s death against king Claudius. The revenge does not come readily because of the love triangle that exists between Hamlet and Ophelia. The play is seen to be prolonged by their love because the ghosts that revealed about King Claudia murdering Hamlet’s father came in the earlier scenes. However, due to a strong love that existed between Hamlet and Ophelia, he is seen to deny the truth and not until the last scene when the Hamlet decides to revenge. Hamlet love for Ophelia is seen in the grave when he confronts Laertes at the graveside of Ophelia. He pretends to be insane in a plan to depict his love with Ophelia. From these instances, it is clear that Hamlet loved Ophelia.
Work cited
Mowat A. Barbara, Werstine Paul. Hamlet, Perfection Learning, New Folger Library Shakespeare, 2003

BUSINESS ECONOMICS

 

 

BUSINESS ECONOMICS

Student Name

Course code

Date of submission


 

Question Responses

Question A

  1. Reasons for Applying Quantitative Easing

Quantitative easing is an alternative form of monetary policy in which the central bank purchases government securities in order to stimulate money supply and lower interest rates. The technique of quantitative easing aims at flooding financial institutions with capital in order to promote increased liquidity and lending, which in turn increase money supply. By targeting increased private sector spending in the economy, quantitative easing aims to return inflation to manageable levels. Generally, quantitative easing is considered when short term bank interest rates are at or approaching zero. The process does not involve printing of new currency notes as this could be detrimental to the economy (Joyce & Tong, 2012).

There are factors that could have motivated the ECB president to apply quantitative easing within the Eurozone. One of these factors could have been the need to boost economic growth in the Eurozone by encouraging more lending by European commercial banks. It is the case that before the decision to apply quantitative easing, interest rates in the European Union were substantially low, and in some cases approaching zero. The low rates were a disincentive to commercial banks as they risked lending money to the private sector. The decision by the ECB to apply quantitative easing could raise interest rates and encourage commercial banks to increase their lending levels. This could in turn encourage more private sector entities to seek finances to invest in the economy (Krishnamurthy & Vissing-Jorgensen, 2011).

Another motive could have been the desire to maintain health price levels in the Eurozone. A low and stable inflation is crucial to a prosperous and thriving economy in the eurozone. By applying quantitative easing, the ECB aims to keep inflation at target levels to spur more economic activity in the Eurozone. To achieve this, the ECB could ease long term interest rates by attempting to increase money supply by buying securities from holders. By reducing interest rates, the ECB encouraged financial institutions avail more loans to private borrowers. This has the effect of keeping inflation at low levels, which is vital for meaningful economic growth (Peersman, 2011).

The third reason could be encourage investors to seek refuge in riskier investments because of higher returns. Quantitative easing programs have the effect of substantially forcing down interest rates, especially yields on interest rates. This generates investment increases in company bonds, stocks and such like riskier but high return investments. In essence, quantitative easing generates wealth for individual and corporate investors (Kiyotaki & Moore, 2012).

  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Quantitative Easing

Quantitative easing can be both a beneficial and a risky move. On the positive side, quantitative easing encourages more lending by financial institutions. In providing commercial banks with more cash, the central bank compels these institutions to be more willing to lend out more money to the private sector. Such loans in return act to further boost the economy through high business development and consumer spending. As more money enters the economy, the general public and consumers have more money to spend. This in turn increases business profits and creates more jobs. Ultimately, this cycle could result in new levels of consumer confidence and economic recovery especially during periods of economic stagnation (Christensen & Rudebusch, 2012).

Another advantage of Quantitative Easing is that compared to other monetary measures, it does not involve currency manipulation. Although Quantitative Easing increases money supply, it does not involve printing of actual money or devaluation of currency. This keeps the current account very competitive, while promoting economic recovery and higher employment. Moreover, quantitative easing reduces the need for austerity measures in cutting budget deficits. Austerity measures are not advisable considering the size of the Eurozone’s economy and the unique challenges associated with each country’s economy (Baumeister & Benati, 2010).

The main disadvantage of Quantitative Easing is that it can drive inflation much higher and hurt the economy. This is the biggest concern for central banks and governments in general. As more money circulates freely through the economy, prices are likely to rise. As supply of money increases, the supply of goods remains the same, thereby increasing the competition for goods. This leads to increased prices, causing inflation to soar. Excessive inflation can cause the economy to operate inefficiently. Another disadvantage of Quantitative Easing is that it creates tension with international trade partners. Increased money injected into the economy can be used by consumers and the government to import new services and goods from other countries. In the long run, this may cause the value of the importer’s currency to decrease and thus discourage more international trade. For example, China stopped exporting minerals to the United States due to the latter’s quantitative easing program (Joyce & Tong, 2012).

Another potential disadvantage of Quantitative Easing is that it encourages uncontrolled debts. Increased money supply and low interest rates encourages additional borrowing by both businesses and consumers. Although some debt can help stimulate economic growth, excessive debts as a result of wanton loans can further exacerbate an already fragile economic situation. Moreover, Quantitative Easing can cause increase government deficit as was witnessed in the United States in 2010 where it reached debt ceiling (Eggertsson & Woodford, 2003). A study by Bridges and Thomas (2012) revealed that most benefits associated with Quantitative Easing do not outlast the QE programs. When the central bank stops supplying more money, economic recovery often gets put on hold or begins to reverse. Although there is hope that new consumer confidence will inspire fast economic recovery, this only tends to be a short-term economic fix. This effect is evidenced by the fact that whenever Quantitative Easing programs are about to end, stock markets tend to fall.

Critics of quantitative easing in the eurozone argue that the program is a stealth method of reducing the value of the Euro and therefore making eurozone exports cheaper. This can be unfair for emerging markets within the eurozone as they see their exports become less competitive internationally (Joyce & Tong, 2012). Because eurozone debt is financed by Quantitative Easing, individual governments in the eurozone may be tempted to enforce less market discipline with regard to reduction of fiscal deficits and tackling of underlying economic problems. If this is sustained long enough, public sector debt may rise uncontrollably. The end result would be unexpected rise in commodity prices, leading to cost-push inflation. According to Christensen and Rudebusch (2012), large scale quantitative easing could make it extremely difficult to sell bonds back to the market once the QE program is ended. This can potentially damage the ability of the consumers and private sector to borrow in future, thereby leading to higher interest rates and reduced economic growth.

Question B

  1. Nash Equilibria

The Nash equilibrium are when the two policy makers agree on the mixture of policies, that is both follow a contractionary policy or an expansionary policy. In either case, the pay off is higher as shown in the payoff matrix. If both policymakers pursue a contractionary policy, the payoff is (3, 2). For this choice of action, 3 is the maximum of the second row while 2 is the maximum of the second column. Hence, both policy makers pursuing a contractinary policy results in Nash equilibrium. If both policymakers pursue an expansionary policy, the reward is (2, 3). 2 is maximum in the third row while 3 is maximum in the third column. Hence taking the expansionary policy also results in nash equilibrium.  This shows that agreeing on mixture of policies is the best decision both policymakers would make. Disagreeing would result in nil payoffs for either policy makers, hence none would like to take such a move.

  1. Best Choice Analysis: Choosing Between Contractionary And Expansionary Policies

Contractionary and expansionary policies are two types of policies commonly used to correct economic inefficiencies. The contractionary policy is used as a macroeconomic tool by the central bank to slow down an economy. Generally, contractionary policies are enacted to limit money supply and ultimately the amount of spending in a country.  This is achieved by raising interest rates, reducing the money supply and by increasing reserve requirements. Contractionary policies are used mostly during periods of high economic growth rate, during which time, spending and availability of money are high (Wright, 2012).

Contractionary policies work by increasing the interest rates at which central banks lend commercial banks. This has the effect of increasing the rate at which commercial banks lend individual and private sector investors.  When commercial banks’ lending rates are higher, it becomes expensive for investors and individuals to get loans. This reduces spending and eventually contains inflation. Contractionary policies also work by requiring commercial banks to keep cash reserves to enable them meet withdrawal demands. Increasing reserve requirements reduces the amount of money available for banks to lend. As a result, there is lower money supply in the economy (Woodford, 2003).

The main advantage of contractionary policy is that is reduces inflation by stabilizing prices and increasing consumer confidence. This leads to non-erratic consumption due to reduced price fluctuations. Because it involves less government expenditure, government revenue can be used to pay of debts. The main drawback of contractionary policy is the reduction of economic growth as s result of the reduction in supply of money. This can lead to stunted economic growth if the contractionary policies are prolonged (Wright, 2012).

Expansionary policy on the other hand is a form of fiscal policies aimed at increasing money supply in an economy. Inflationary policies are generally adopted during periods of low economic growth and have an effect of increasing government expenditure. Expansionary policies can be implemented in the form of tax cuts, increased government spending or rebates. Generally expansionary policies increase the demand for foreign bonds. It also leads to increased exports, which helps maintain balance of trade (Joyce & Tong, 2012).

Expansionary policies are a useful tool for managing periods of low economic growth. It fuels economic growth of the country by reducing restrictions on loans and interest rates, leading to increased outpour of capital into the economy. Due to an increase in revenue and profits, expansionary policies result in increased demand for labor. Easier borrowing acts as an incentive for firms to increase operations and hire new employees. Thus, expansionary policies lead to reduction of unemployment (Bridges & Thomas, 2012).

On the flip side, expansionary policies are associated with many risks which make the policies less applicable. First, it is difficult for policymakers to precisely know when to expand money supply so as to avoid causing high inflation. There is also a wide time lag between the time when the policy is put in place and when it produces the desired effects in the economy (trickle down effect).  Another risk is that expansionary policies increase the level of government expenditure, thereby leading to reduced national revenue. A severe reduction in government taxes would lead to an increase in government budget deficit (Woodford, 2003).

In conclusion, both contractionary and expansionary policies are crucial in managing the economy. As highlighted in the foregoing discussion, both policies have their benefits and risks, and are applied under different economic circumstances. Regarding the case of the two policy makers (Finance Minister and Central Banker), they must take into account the prevailing economic scenario before agreeing on the right policy.  The factors influencing money supply must be analyzed in details so that the most optimal decision can be implemented. Since the two policies cannot be pursued simultaneously, it is prudent for the two policymakers to understand the pros and cons of each policy vis-à-vis the economic situation to avoid loss of capital.

References

Baumeister, C. & Benati, L. 2010. Unconventional monetary policy and the great recession – Estimating the impact of a compression in the yield spread at the zero lower bound. Working Paper Series No. 1258, European Central Bank.

Bridges, J. & Thomas, R. 2012. The impact of QE on the UK economy — some supportive monetarist arithmetic. Bank of England Working Paper No. 442.

Christensen, J. H. E. & Rudebusch, G. D. 2012. The response of government yields to central bank purchases of long-term bonds. Economic Journal, vol. 122(564), pp. F385–414.

Eggertsson, G. & Woodford, M. 2003. The zero bound on interest rates and optimal monetary policy. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 1, pp. 139–211.

Joyce, M. A. S. & Tong, M. 2012. QE and the gilt market: a disaggregated analysis. Economic Journal, vol. 122(564), pp. F348–84.

Kiyotaki, N. & Moore, J. 2012. Liquidity, business cycles and monetary policy. NBER Discussion Paper no 17934, March.

Krishnamurthy, A. & Vissing-Jorgensen, A. 2011. The effects of quantitative easing on interest rates: channels and implications for policy. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, vol. 2, pp. 215–87.

Peersman, G. 2011. The macroeconomic effects of unconventional monetary policy in the euro area. ECB Working Paper Series No. 1397.

Woodford, M. 2003. Interest and Prices: Foundations of a Theory of Monetary Policy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wright, J. 2012. What does monetary policy do at the zero lower bound? Economic Journal, vol. 122(564), pp. F447–66.