Online Education at Pillar College

Benefits of Creating an Online Degree Program in Higher Education

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Introduction

(A summary of Haythornthwaite, C. A., & Kazmer, M. M. (2004). Online education culture and learning: Research and practice. New York: P. Lang )

Online learning otherwise referred to as E-learning is currently the in thing in the 21st century. It has altered dramatically and transformed how we viewed attending classes in the past. It involves a student attending his or her classes from the comfort of their home without physically being there for class. It integrates the use of the internet and computer technology in the delivery of lessons by teachers to the students. A research conducted by an organization for the Education Department showed that in a tested performance, the students engaged in online lessons would grade in around 59th percentile in comparison to the normal student attending regular classes who would rank in 50th percentile. This for sure tells that online learning is headed places, and it is the future.

People who are already in the working environment and cannot attend regular classes are considered in these programs; the beauty of online learning is that you can have your lessons anywhere! The selling point of these programs is that they charge cheaper compared to regular classes and they take a shorter duration of time to complete. A course that would take four years to complete in a regular class takes only three years on maximum to complete. It is also a lifesaver to the international student as he can attend classes even without flying to the host country. A study conducted by an organization for the Education Department brought interesting findings; it showed that online learning could be more suitable than the conventional classes. Initially, we viewed the online lessons as better to nothing but now it is competing with the normal classes to rank as a much better choice.

Reasons to Consider Online Learning

(A summary of Goldstein, L. (2005). A Guide to College & University Budgeting. Foundations for Institutional Effectiveness. Publisher: N.A.C.U. Business Officers.)

Online programs have numerous advantages the list is endless. In this paper, I will lay my focus on some of the reasons that our institution has to take to mind as we consider offering these programs. So why should we offer online programs?

Flexibility: Students faces two major hurdles in their quest for more knowledge time factor and the location issue. Online learning tackles both of these hence making learning convenient for everyone. One can study at their own time when they feel that they are free. In conventional classes, we have fixed timetables whereby one has to be there at a specific time or else miss the lessons. Due to our busy schedules at times, it is impossible to make it to some classes. In online programs, students have the leisure of studying at the times that they want. You could study at five in the morning, at midnight…whenever you feel like it. This option is very friendly especially in companies and to those people who are working and are only seeking to further their studies. They can choose only to study for two hours in the evening or at their own free time over break hour and lunch hour. This is economical for the companies that want to upgrade the skills of some of their employees, as they do not have to let go of them. This means no loss for the company as they go about upgrading their employees and letting them further their skills, this is a plus for them. The program is open to adjustments hence tailored to fit into anyone’s busy schedule (Howard etl, 2012).

Accessibility: Online lessons also tackle the issue of location. One does not have to attend the actual classes as you can access the educational resources from virtually any place one is, provided one has a connection to the internet and a gadget such as a tablet, Smartphone or a laptop. Our institution will not only rely on our domestic market here but also on overseas students, students in our neighboring countries, neighbor states and even those in other continents. This is a great way to attract international students and people based in far away locations. It is also appealing and convenient to companies and that working person who wants to further their education. This is because they do not have to incur transportation costs to the place of study, and it does not strain them. This hence opens a new market for us as an institution. Online programs also open doors to lots of resources for the student. There are many resources online including books, journals, videos etcetera. Bringing all this to the doorstep of the student without breaking a sweat makes the program appealing to the busy student (Stephenson, 2001).

Increased Student-Student and Student-Instructor Interaction: Online learning has a component that enables them to enhance communication. They integrate chat applications and messenger clients that enable communication, which may be between the student and another student, student, and a teacher or the administration at large. This is particularly helpful to the student who is shy and finds it hard to approach a fellow student or the lecturer with a question. With online learning, one does not have to trace someone physically to ask a question as it is made easy all you have to do is inbox your query. The second party then replies at their own time making it convenient compared to the conventional methods. This hence appeals to some people and, therefore, taps a new market for us. Synergy is also highly encouraged as there is a dynamic interaction between the students and their instructor, ideas, information and resources with a smooth flow. Discussions among the different parties greatly contribute to this synergy.

The discussions in online platforms are of high quality. This is because it gives a student time to ponder on the comments and contributions of other students before making a comment of their own. A student can review previous contributions and hence it gives time for digestion of information and people can easily correct each other. In conventional learning methods it does not give a student to analyze and digest information before contributing, it also does not allow for future references. This allows the student to participate actively and contribute to the class discussions as well as absorb a cocktail of information contributed by other students. The online platform also allows for some level of anonymity. This will shield the students from any forms of discrimination be it gender-based discrimination, age-based discrimination, disability-related or racial. This shall be appealing to the market we have not tapped into yet (Bender, 2012).

Competitiveness: many of the big names already offer online classes. Included in this category are the likes of Harvard and Oregon State, us following suit makes us appealing to the person who follows names of prestige. This makes us relevant to the market and gives us a competitive edge as we receive recognition and earn our space among the giants in terms of education provision. With this, we have an advantage over those institutions that have not yet integrated online programs in their curriculum. With this competitive edge, I believe we shall plow in more revenue.

Expansion: Online learning programs are a form of expansion for our institution. It is an expansion worth far much less than the normal expansion process. If we were to expand our services to nearby towns, nearby states or even overseas countries we would have to invest in sending a team to the ground to assess the area, invest in setting up facilities and buildings, paying rents and rates among other costs. In our view, online learning expands our market to far towns, the student in the remote places of our state, students from neighboring states, a busy working person and international market at large with less money. In growing our market base, we are sure going to get more revenues and in the process spend less. This will guarantee us profits in the end (Stephenson, 2001).

Appealing to today’s business environment: Today, most companies and organizations have expanded their operations. We find workers in different locations, different states, and even continents. Online would be the way forward if the organizations wanted to upgrade the skills of the workers. Take the example of Coca-Cola Company; the company is located in almost every nation around the world. If the company wanted to upgrade the skills of its marketing department, for example, it would be tedious and much expensive process to put all the workers in conventional classes. It would also lead to the workers having different skills, as the education may not be uniform in the different countries and schools around the world. If the company wanted to find a cheaper and effective method, they would turn to online lessons. This is because enrolling their workers in online classes in one institution ensures that there is uniformity in the skills imparted to the workers. It is also easy to track the progress of the students and, in the long run, saves the company money. In our case, it would mean one new client to our books who would come with hundreds of thousands of potential students along. This can be a major achievement to our institution and a big step forward (Finkelstein, 2006).

Conclusion

Online marketing is the way forward; it opens new opportunities and markets we have never looked into before. There is a bright future that prevails for those who embrace the change in society. As the old saying goes, ‘the client is always right’. We have to bend according to their wishes to attract them. I recommend that we embrace online learning to soar to our potential.

Work Cited

Bender, T. (2012). Online teaching enhancing student learning. Sterling, VA: Stylys.

Finkelstein, J. (2006).Synchronous teaching and online learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A John Wiley & Sons Imprint.

Goldstein, L. (2005). A Guide to College & University Budgeting. Foundations for Institutional Effectiveness. National Association of College & University Business Officers.

Haythornthwaite, C. A., & Kazmer, M. M. (2004). Online education culture and learning: Research and practice. New York: P. Lang.

Ko, S. S., & Rossen, S. (2010). Teaching online: A practical guide. New York: Routledge.

Stephenson, J. (2001). Teaching & learning online. London: Kogan Page.

Howard, C., Schenk, K., & Discenza, R. (2012). Distance learning and university effectiveness: Changing educational paradigms for online learning. Hershey, PA: Information Science Pub.

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URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Introduction

The metropolitan setting is highly complex. In recent years, public strategies have been targeted at eliminating slums, minus taking into consideration the possibility of their dwellers to find solutions to the actual complications that slums supposedly create. Particularly, in the modern-day era of globalisation, it is imperative to emphasize the resources that urban settlements can provide the disorderly metropolitan. This necessitates a reconsideration of understandings on development. Supportable urban growth will only be conceivable when there is a concentration on resolving the challenges of the bulk of urban peoples in techniques that utilize their inventiveness and engage them in the making of resolutions.

In relation to a whole array of resources, natural and artificial pointers on developing nations, three-dimensional and demographic metropolitan growth involve the worsening of physical, financial and communal living environments for a big and growing part of the metropolitan populace. In this background, this paper explores the conflicts between housing- associated activities, social instruments and public procedures, in addition to the necessity to define justifiable solutions that encourage the well- being of the majority of urban inhabitants.

It is on this basis; local, domestic and global policies have progressively developed from oppressive tactics aiming to eliminate slums and manage the ‘unwanted inhabitants’ to an integrating opinion of the urban inhabitants. From this position, in its responsibility as organiser, the government offers amenities and acts as a controller of procedures and activities in the urban scope. The plan has led to improved statute, communal infrastructure and amenities. However, it has resulted to increased corruption and has compelled the poor to convert to small businesses and become accountable for their survivals. However anticipated some features of this evolution may be, it implies that the mainstream of the urban underprivileged is still surviving in highly susceptible conditions.

In a setting of globalisation of financial and political freedom, the consequence of such programmes has been the destitution of poorer segments of the populace, the explosive increase in the quantity and dimension of towns, and ever more multifaceted and exorbitant complications that need to be resolved. The ground-breaking solutions recommended are too often untenable, and there is an obvious inability to go past conventional planning and administrative tactics. This is despite the extensive acknowledgement that determining the city challenge in the undeveloped countries is critical (De Filippi 2009).

The growth of slums in emerging nations is a creation of 20th- and 21st- century urban development and signifies the very principle of the Third World metropolitan. Efforts have been implemented to eradicate slums, but they have virtually failed since they do not explore the urban concept that creates the slum to start with. In the examination of these roots, the paper recommends a three-track tactic that needs taking into consideration nationals’ demands and requirements; assessing the available materials; and, ultimately, applying urban control in a way that nurtures collective benefits. To continue in this direction, it is essential to endorse a participatory style in both communal and administrative terms, adjusted to the particular spatial and communal setting of respective metropolitans. The slum is categorised by the dangerous nature of its environment. Nonetheless, it can sincerely be understood as a setting of cultural inventiveness, economic creation and communal revolution. Definitive urban organization principles are based on comprehensive preparation concerning land distribution, infrastructural administration, and resolutions on technical facilities and systems. In the slums, though, this technocratic method is challenged by the social activities of persons, households and social assemblies, predominantly the deprived ones. These dwellers choose to their own emergency resolutions to urban assimilation difficulties, and they do so at the root level at which these complications are modelled – normally the parcel of land, the family, and lastly the district. In the majority of cases the outcome is an individual or household construction on a parcel of land that is engaged either unlawfully or by casual agreement, without being associated with the routine services. While poor citizens identify the significance of infrastructures and city services for their survival, they do not regard them a minimum obligation to move in.

The topic of land possession is one of the important issues concerning slums in developing nations. In numerous poor regions of the city, a majority of the populace do not possess the land on which they have constructed their houses. In particular cases, ordinary types of land possession still occur, and the parcel is apportioned to a household by the local society. On exceptional occasions, this resolution is lawfully recognised by the government. Commonly though, land habitation is deliberately ignored in support of prevailing governmental, commercial and supervisory measures, often on the basis of the Western regulation enacted during the colonial years.

It has been projected that from 25 to 70 per cent of city residents in the Third World nations live in slums (World Bank 2009). Reliable land tenure is, therefore, one of the main difficulties facing root-level and state authorities in these republics. According to the United Nations, safe land tenure is a crucial element for the incorporation of the urban underprivileged, as is their acknowledgement by the state authorities. It can similarly inspire families to participate in the promotion of their parcels and expand their usage. This offers them shield against possible expulsions and gives them an advantage that may work as a pledge in particular markets.

Land possession is not obviously the only problem that concerns the poor inhabitants of the towns: availability of communal services and structures is an essential part of all city incorporation strategies. The underprivileged are poor since they also experience challenges accessing city facilities; furthermore, when they ultimately get this right its price is correspondingly greater compared to other city groups. Resulting from the recent assessment of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme and Cities Alliance (2006), availability of clean water and to wastewater management amenities has increased over the past decade. But while the condition in urban regions have improved than in the villages, the challenges are by and large comparable: communal amenities and major structures are insufficient, the socio-spatial sharing of facilities is discriminatory, public-private conglomerates are functional in an illogical method, governmental and economic administration is poor, and preservation is inefficient.

The slum topic is not negligible to urban growth – it is at the exact centre. Urban development happens mainly in developing nations whereby populaces move from the countryside to urban areas at a very rapid rate. As per Nath(2007), approximately 923,986,000 individuals, or 34% of the globe’s entire city population, reside in slums; about 44% of the urban populace of all emerging areas joint reside in slums; approximately 79% of the city populace in the Third World nations reside in slums; roughly 5% of the city residents in developed areas reside in slum-like circumstances. The aggregate number of slum residents in the globe augmented by around 35 percent throughout the 1990s, besides in the following three decades the global total of slum tenants will rise to around two billion if no determined action to resolve the difficulty of slums is initiated.

In both regional and demographic relations, the globe is increasingly becoming urbanized. This course now impacts nearly all the developing nations in the world. The speed of urban development in several nations in the South remains to be great, and customarily leads to a grave decline in living situations for most city residents. The statistics quoted in the UN study indicate a lot: conditional on the phase of poverty in every nation, every two to three city residents out of five reside in slums, with substantial implications for their own existence and the existence of imminent generations: risky environments for them, uncertainty for their descendants.

The scope of the city-rule change is more observable if viewed at in historical viewpoint. In 1800, a measly four percent of the globe’s population resided in an urban setting, a percentage that increased to 15 percent a century later and to 30 percent in five decades. In 2000, 46 percent, that is, nearly half of the nearly 7 billion residents of the globe were city inhabitants. Universally, this percentage is probable to hit 60 percent come 2030, owing mainly to urbanisation in the developing nations. This tendency goes in tandem with an increase in city centres to above one million dwellers. Global, there were 11 such metropolises in 1900, 83 five decades later, and 411 in 2000. However, come 2003 the UNPD ascertained that a mainstream of the present three billion metropolitan inhabitants – who will reach five billion come 2030 – continue to reside in small city groups. In the emerging nations, 15 percent of the populace reside in regions of above five million occupants, 25 percent in a city of between one to five million, 9.5 percent in an accumulation of half to one million dwellers, and 51.5 percent in cities of below 500,000 occupants (Prasad 2003).

The risky situations in the developing republics ought to not obscure the point that poverty, ecological decline and social discrimination are by no ways only to be encountered in the lowliest nations on the globe. Such an opinion would ignore major features of urban account, and socio-spatial inequalities that even currently make Western metropolises endure poverty regions. Using domestic waste as an instance, United Nations Human Settlements Programme and Cities Alliance (2006) indicated that from the 12th to the 19th centuries unhygienic situations prevailed in the capital of France minus triggered a specific uproar among the residents.

City poverty in the developed nations is not only an ancient fact – irrefutably, it remains in existence. A research in the Monde Diplomatique World Bank(2009) educated book lovers that the Portuguese administration had just introduced a special transfer scheme, reserved at more than one billion dollars, whereby 150,000 individuals residing in slums between two towns were to relocate to more satisfactory accommodation. Even though as indicated by United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (2008), a majority of slum-inhabitants live in the urban groups of developing states, it is projected that seven percent of city inhabitants in the wealthy nations live under exceptionally perilous environments, while public spending for sponsored housing and town restoration is escalating downward. Additional deficiencies and even more perilous living circumstances may be dreaded as a result.

Evidently, it obvious that irrespective of the metropolitan or section of the globe, poverty and perilous surroundings is closely associated. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2007) has established this in Europe via its researches and city poverty pointers: a concentration of poor families, over-population, and an absence of elementary material luxuries, regional localisation, poor conveyance linkages and availability of urban facilities. Researches carried out in Canada throughout the1990s also establish a relationship between poverty and city occurrences. Poverty augmented substantially between 1990 and 1995, increasing from 4.3 to 5.6 million individuals, predominantly in urban regions. A majority of destitute citizens reside in the metropolitan centres, in which the leading economic undertakings are focussed. This is owing to the categories of accommodation they get admission to, and to the services offered by the closeness of public amenities. Singh(2006) approximates that in France roughly one million families are ineffectively housed, or are not housed completely.

Conclusion

While the recognized discourse rotates around the mitigation of poverty and social discrepancies, financing for sponsored houses is being reduced. The practices of social seclusion and spatial disintegration best clarify these improvements, and they are generally appropriate. The fact is that the inclination towards prejudiced and prejudiced urbanisation is found universally, in both wealthy nations and developing ones.

References List

Davis, M 2007, Planet of slums. London, Verso.

De Filippi, F 2009, Slum[e]scape: a challenge for sustainable development projects : echoes from the XXIII UIA Congress of architecture, Torino 2008. Firenze, Alinea.

Earthscan, 2010, State of the world’s cities 2010/2011 bridging the urban divide. London. http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=517195.

Nath, V 2007, Urbanization, urban development and metropolitan cities in India. New Delhi, Concept Publ.

Prasad, B 2003, Urban development: a new perspective. New Delhi, Sarup & Sons.

Singh, R B 2006, Sustainable urban development. New Delhi, Concept Pub. Co.

United Nations Centre For Human Settlements2008, The state of the world’s cities 2008 / harmonious cities. London, Earthscan.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme, & Cities Alliance 2006, Analytical perspective of pro-poor slum upgrading frameworks. Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Human Settlements Programme. http://www.unchs.org/pmss/getPage.asp?page=bookView&book=2291.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2007, Enhancing urban safety and security global report on human settlements 2007. London, Earthscan.

World Bank 2009, Reshaping economic geography. Washington (D.C.).

Islamic Resurgence

Introduction

The revival of Islam in recent times has been construed as causing a great challenge to the status quo. Islamic resurgence is based on the premise that Muslims have to return to their basic fundamental faith. However, the resurgence of Islam has had different connotations, with some definitions claiming that it is associated with extremist, fanaticism and anti-American ideologies. In essence, Islamic resurgence has been experienced on a global level, and has not been limited to countries that esteem Islam. The resurgence of Islam dates back to the 1970s and has affected the spread of western ideologies in Islamic states.

How Islamic resurgence and its religious knowledge contradicts western norms

The re-emergence of fundamental Islamic thought has emerged as a reaction to western colonialism. Additionally, the resurgence has been precipitated by the search for the restoration of Islamic pre-eminence particularly in Islamic states. Therefore, Islamic resurgence contradicts western ideologies, specifically in regard to the hegemony of the west. Since the onset of globalisation, the west has dominated the world agenda, and the onset of Islamic resurgence in the 1970s has been viewed as a threat (Hamid 21). The countervailing impact of Islamic resurgence upon the hegemony of the west is a point in case. The new world order, as advanced by the west, desires to create a political democracy and an international law that are secular. The resurgence of Islam contravenes this establishment, by proposing Islamic states to observe the basic ideologies of Islam.

By creating a world order defined by the United Nations, Islamic states desired to counter the hegemony of the world superpowers by having their own believe systems based on the Quran. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of international communism offered the west an opportunity to establish the new world order. However, the Islamic world, through Islamic resurgence has assumed the role of the bogeyman, and thus compromised the efforts of the west (Voll 43).

The ideology of the global village has been coined by the west to create hegemony. Muslims have however found a way out of this through Islamic resurgence, and formed a sense of distinctiveness from the western world (Mehden 61). From the above illustration therefore, the Muslim world has refused to identify itself with neo-imperialist policies and have rather reaffirmed its religious beliefs and practices. Consequently, the conflict between the west and the Islamic world has been quite visible.

Before 1970, Islamic resurgence was a prominent theme, although it had not been implemented. As early as 1945 when the domination of the west was at the peak, Muslims such as Abu Hurairah and Abu Dawud had predicted the success of the movement (Kramer 113). The Muslims had indicated that Allah would raise his people through reviving its religion. In response to this prediction, a number of revivalists emerged and offered the renewed interpretation of Shariah laws. The revivalists focused on interpreting the Quran and the Sunnah in relation to existing conditions.

The Islamic resurgence of the present age has been viewed as a reaction against the imperialism of the west. From the surface, the colonial legacy of the west left deep scars in the relationship between the Muslims and the west. The Islamic resurgence is therefore a product of Muslims feeling a sense of inferiority complex. Even at the end of colonialism; challenges that existed between the west and the Muslim world were never resolved. Instead, a feeling of inferiority complex persisted, because the Muslims continued to depend upon the technologically superior west (Hamid 21).

From this analysis, it seems apparent that Islamic resurgence was necessitated by the hardships that Muslims experienced due to the domination of the west in world matters. Most of the alliances that existed before the resurgence were tilted to the advantage of non-Muslims superpowers. In the economic sphere, for instance, operations of western entities such as the World Bank and the international monetary fund were tilted in favour of non-Muslims. Muslim governments that abided by the requirements of these economic entities were trapped into never ending cycles of debt payment (Hamid 21). Even then, the structural adjustment programs proclaimed by the Briton institutions were very unfriendly to a common citizen within Muslim countries.

The current Islamic resurgence has been associated with deep condemnation of the hegemony of western powers. Moreover, post-colonial Muslim states which lean towards western ideologies have received equal condemnation. These condemnations centre on aspects such as the failure of Muslim states to receive the desired economic benefits of western hegemony. Additionally, condemnations have focused on the deliberate move by the west to disfigure Muslim culture (Tamimi 47). The Islamic resurgence in this regard revolts against the persistent subordination of Muslims by the west and their proxies.

The Islamic resurgence desired to have full independence from western influence by revolting against the international order that had been created by the west. The failure of western polices to offer equal advantage to Muslims in regard to wealth signified that Muslim states would remain economically backward. Additionally, the economic hardship that was being experienced by all Muslims made them to coalesce under a common umbrella, which they believed could press for their interests. The ideology of social justice was quite appealing to Muslims, because it helped them to release their frustrations about the unfulfilled expectations of the western hegemony (Haddad and Esposito 58). This suggests that the Islamic resurgence could not have emerged had the pro-western policies been able to achieve the desired reward.

Islamic resurgence came at an appropriate time, with the emergence of the oil boom of the 1970s. Most oil fields were located in Islamic states and by monopolising oil trade; Islamic states could effectively battle western ideologies. Associated with the Islamic resurgence were the OPEC oil prices, which exhibited the ability of Muslim states to control the affairs of the world (Abu-Rabi’ 55). For instance, Islamic nations such as Libya, Iran and Saudi Arabia used their financial resources derived from oil wealth to promote the ideology of Islamic resurgence. For the first time in history, the enormous oil resources were used to promote Islamic activism, which gained the attention of the west. Islam gained new confidence, and this generated new knowledge, which was used to highlight on the plight of Islam. For example, Muslims effectively used the media in order to highlight on the suppression that the Muslim world was going through.

Modernity was viewed as a threat to Islam. The Islamic resurgence was visualised as a manifestation of Muslim reaction to modernity. In fact, modernity was envisaged by Muslims as a ‘crisis’ (Watt 18). This was based on the understanding that the onset of modernity would be accompanied by secularism and the decline of religion. Muslims, therefore, made an effort to create their own identity, which would protect their religion. Against all odds, Muslims are not opposed to western technology. Islamic resurgence has only taken advantage of these technologies to strengthen their cause. New knowledge generated by the west has therefore been used at their disadvantage. In particular, information technology has been used to spread Islamic propaganda messages.

As illustrated, Islamic resurgence has been focusing on strategies that can be used to prevent modernity from infiltrating into Islam. Modernisation has been associated with crime, immorality, divorce and sexual freedom. Values of Islam are opposed of these vices, and the advent of Islamic resurgence has been viewed as the best strategy to overcome these societal ills. Furthermore, aspects such as individualism, which are highly emphasised in the western ideologies, have been viewed as contradicting the communal livelihood of Muslims (Ball 11). The Islamic resurgence in part protects these values. In this regard, the new world order proclaimed by the west became contradicted by the Islamic social order, in which the man-to man relationship rather than individualism is highly esteemed.

Western thoughts acknowledge the separation of the state and religion. This is quite contrary to Islam, in which religion is never a separate entity from political, social, economic and cultural factors. The Islamic resurgence considers all aspects of life as being governed by Islam. The contradiction between Islamic ideologies and western thinking can also be envisaged in an attempt by the west to fight the Islamic resurgence. For example, the west published amateur works which depicted Islamic resurgence as a monolithic movement. These assertions were viewed negatively by the Muslim world, considering that Muslims expected the west to consider making the playing field to be equal to ensure that both Muslims and non-Muslims enjoy their rights (Bashier 63).

Noticeably, the intellectual paradigm that the west bases its arguments upon is faulty according to the Islamic resurgence. Muslims acknowledge that the west does not consider them as equal partners in the affairs of the world, but rather as subordinates. The emergence of Islamic resurgence has come as a necessity, in order to depart from the new world order that serves the western colonial interests. The fundamental ideologies of Islam have been focusing on revolting against the social, economic and political exploitation of the west (Tibi 31). In regard to this, a number of schools of thoughts have emerged, which are meant to protect Islamic ideologies. For instance, the Confucian Islamic world has been particular in defending the interests of Islam, thanks to the Islamic resurgence.

Defining Islamic resurgence has been a matter of great controversy, considering that some western thinkers have viewed it negatively. The limited definition of the concept to encompass aspects of terrorism has not been forthcoming, and has created animosity between Muslims and the west. Therefore, western conventional wisdom cannot define the concept. By defining the concept as strictly political also deviates from its main purpose. The west fails to capture the fact that just like the new world order, Islamic resurgence is a universal concept that defends the religious, political and cultural aspects of Muslims in the midst of western ideologies (Voll, Revivalism and Social Transformations in Islamic History 171). The western world has actually failed to recognise this concept because of the secular revolutions that are emerging in the global world. The aspect of resurgence signifies that there exists an effort to revive certain aspects of Islam which existed, but have been diluted by the onset of western domination. In essence, the current efforts are geared towards revitalizing the 20th century Islamic laws, which made the religion to be quite distinct. Consequently, Islamic resurgence has achieved greater benefits as exhibited in the number of high profile status of Islam in the global world. Additionally, the lives of common Muslims have improved immensely.

Conclusion

The religious knowledge associated with the Islamic resurgence contradicts western norms. The establishment of the new world order by the west created capitalistic and individualistic ideologies, which contradicted Islamic values. The social order established by the Islamic resurgence was opposed to the secular values that were esteemed by the west. Moreover; opposition to the western norms became a necessity due to the failure of globalisation to create an equal economic, social and political environment for both Muslims and non-Muslims. Furthermore, the oil boom in Islamic countries helped to increase the confidence of Muslims. This made them to use new knowledge such as information technology in order to highlight on the human right oppressions that Muslims experienced. The Islamic resurgence in this sense was a powerful force, which coalesced Muslims into a common entity to fight for recognition. An attempt by the west to fight the Islamic resurgence was an indication that its ideology was against western norms. From the illustration, however, it seems apparent that the contradiction between Islamic resurgence and the west could easily have been leveraged if the economic desires of Muslims could have been taken care of. Nevertheless, conflicts between the western ideology and Islamic resurgence was driven a notch higher when the latter used oil prices to seek attention from its adversary, the west.

Works Cited

Abu-Rabi’, Ibrahim M. Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modern Arab World. New York: SUNY Press, 1996.

Anu. Islamic Resurgence: a Definition. 2011. 31 October 2014 <http://press.anu.edu.au/islamic/quest/mobile_devices/ch01s03.html&gt;.

Ball. Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East. 1994. 31 October 2014 <http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a283035.pdf&gt;.

Bashier, Zakaria. Sunshine at Madinah. The Islamic Foundation: Leicester, 1990.

Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck and John L. Esposito. The Contemporary Islamic Revival: A Critical Survey and Bibliography. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1991.

Hamid, Abdul. “Islamic Resurgence: An Overview of Causal Factors: A review of “Ummatic” Linkages.” IKIM Journal 9.1 (2001): 16-46.

Kramer, Martin Seth. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East. New York: Transaction Publishers, 2011.

Mehden, Von der. Two Worlds of Islam: Interaction between Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.

Tamimi, Azam. “‘Fundamentalist Islam and the Media.” The Balance 2.1 (1996): 45-52.

Tibi. “The Iranian Revolution and the Arabs: The Quest for Islamic Identity and the Search for an Islamic System of Government.” Arab Studies Quarterly 8.1 (1986): 29-44.

Voll. “‘Renewal and Reform in Islamic History.” Voices of Resurgent Islam 3 (1983): 32-47.

—. “Revivalism and Social Transformations in Islamic History.” The Muslim World LXXVI.3 (1986): 168-180.

Watt. Islamic Fundamentalism and Modernity. London: Routledge, 1988.

Database Systems

Part A

For the police custody system, the identifiable spatial and non-spatial entities include;

Crime, Reporter, Witness, Offender, Victim, Police, Detective, Location (city and district are derived entities from location) and Address

Assumptions

  • That the reporter of the crime is not necessarily the witness
  • That a district is a larger division than a city
  • That a crime is recorded by a police and investigated by a detective

The table below summarizes the entities and their relationship

Entity name Description Relationship with other entities
Crime This is the offense Belongs to a type, affects a victim,
Reporter A citizen who reports the crime Has address,
Offender The person who commits crime Has address, commits a crime, offends
Police That who records the crime Records crime notes
Victim That who is affected by the crime Has address
Witness That who witnesses a crime Witnesses a crime, has address
Detective The police who investigates a crime Investigates
Address Address Has a district
District A region Has a city
City A city
Type

N/B: the attributes names have been shortened for easier labeling of the E-R diagram.

For example crime_id is shown as c_id, district is shown as dist and offender_id is shown as o_id. Foreign key, which creates the relationship of entities, are shown on the relationship. Primary key attributes are underlined.

ER1

ER2
Part B

The relational schema is shown below. Normalization has been shown

1NF

Crime (crime_id, district,city,date,object,crime_notes,reporter,city,district, address,victim_id,reporter_id,police_id,detective_id.witness_id,offender_id)

Reporter (reporter_id, NRIC_No,names,phone, address,postal_code,city,district)

Offender (offender_id, NRIC_No,names,phone,age,gender, address,postal_codecity,district)

Police (police_id,police_registratin_number,name)

Victim (victim_id, NRIC_No,names,phone,age,gender, address,postal_codecity,district)

Witness (witness_id, NRIC_No,names,phone, address,postal_codecity,district)

Detective (d_id,reg_number,name)

2NF

Crime (crime_id, district,city, date,object,crime_notes,reporter,,victim_id,reporter_id,police_id,detective_id,witness_id,offender_id)

Reporter (reporter_id, NRIC_No, f_name,l_name,phone, address)

Offender (offender_id, NRIC_No, f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address)

Police (police_id,police_registratin_number, , f_name,l_name)

Victim (victim_id, NRIC_No,f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address)

Witness (witness_id, NRIC_No,f_name,l_name,phone, address)

Detective (d_id,reg_number, f_name,l_name)

Address (address_id,address,postal_code,city,district)

3NF

Crime (crime_id, date,object, crime_notes,reporter,victim_id,reporter_id,police_id,detective_id,witness_id,offender_id,city_id)

Reporter (reporter_id, NRIC_No, f_name,l_name,phone, address_id)

Offender (offender_id, NRIC_No, f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address_id)

Police (police_id, NRIC_No,police_registratin_number, , f_name,l_name)

Victim (victim_id, NRIC_No, f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address_id)

Witness (witness_id, NRIC_No,f_name,l_name,phone, address_id)

Detective (d_id,reg_number, f_name,l_name)

Address (address_id,address,postal_code,city_id)

City(city_id,name,district_id)

District (district_id,name)

The relations have been elaborated in the table below

Crime (crime_id, date,object, crime_notes,reporter, victim_id,reporter_id, police_id, detective_id, witness_id,offender_id,city_id,date_resolved,status)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
pk Crime_id NOT NULL integer
Date NOT NULL DATE
object NULL VARCHAR2(64)
Crime_notes NOT NULL Integer
fk Reporter_id NOT NULL Integer
Fk Police_id NOT NULL Integer
fk victim_id NOT NULL Integer
Fk Detective_id NOT NULL Integer
Fk Witness_id NOT NULL Integer
Fk Offender_id NOT NULL Integer
Fk City_id NOT NULL integer
Date_resolved NULL DATE
status NOT NULL VARCHAR2 (6)

Reporter (reporter_id, f_name,l_name,phone, address_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk Reporter_id NOT NULL Integer
Pk NRIC_No NOT NULL Integer
F_name NOT NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name NOT NULL Varchar2(32)
Phone NOT NULL Varchar2(15)
Fk Address_id NOT NULL Integer

Offender (offender_id, f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk Offender_id Not NULL Integer
Pk NRIC_No NOT NULL Integer
F_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
Phone Not NULL Varchar2(15)
Age Not NULL Integer
Gender Not NULL Varchar2(6)
Fk Address_id Not NULL Integer

Police (police_id,police_registratin_number,name)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
pk Police_id Not NULL Integer
pk Police_reg_number Not NULL Varcher2(10)
F_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)

Victim (victim_id, f_name,l_name,phone,age,gender, address_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk NRIC_No NOT NULL Integer
Fk Victim_id Not NULL Integer
F_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
Phone Not NULL Varchar2(15)
Age Not NULL Integer
Gender Not NULL Varchar2(6)
Fk Address_id Not NULL Integer

Witness (witness_id,f_name,l_name,phone, address_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk Witness_id NOT NULL Integer
Pk NRIC_No NOT NULL Integer
F_name NOT NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name NOT NULL Varchar2(32)
phone NOT NULL Varchar2(15)
fk Address_id NOT NULL Integer

Detective (detective_id,reg_number, f_name,l_name)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
pk Detective_id Not NULL Integer
pk Detective_reg_number Not NULL Varchar2(10)
F_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
L_name Not NULL Varchar2(32)

Address (address_id,address,postal_code,cit y_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk Address_id Not NULL Integer
Address Not NULL Varchar2(32)
Postal_code Not NULL Integer
Fk City_id Not NULL Integer

City(city_id,name,district_id)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
Pk City_id Not NULL Integer
Name Not NULL Varchar2(32)
Fk District_id Not NULL Integer

District (district_id,name)

PK/FK Field name Null/Not NULL Data type
pk District_id NOT NULL Integer
Name NOT NULL Varchar232

The oracle sql schema is shown below

create table district (

district_id integer not null,

name varchar2(32) not null,

CONSTRAINT district_id_pk PRIMARY KEY (district_id)

);

create table city (

city_id integer not null,

name varchar2(32) not null,

district_id integer not null,

PRIMARY KEY (city_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_district_id FOREIGN KEY (district_id) REFERENCES district(district_id)

);

create table address (

address_id integer not null,

address varchar2(32) not null,

postal_code integer not null,

city_id integer not null,

PRIMARY KEY(address_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_city_id FOREIGN KEY (city_id) REFERENCES city(city_id)

);

create table detective(

detective_id integer not null,

detective_reg_numer varchar2(10) not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

primary key(detective_id),

CONSTRAINT detective_uni UNIQUE (detective_reg_numer)

);

create table witness(

witness_id integer not null,

nric_no integer not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

phone varchar2(15) not null,

address_id integer not null,

primary key(witness_id),

CONSTRAINT witness_uni UNIQUE (nric_no),

CONSTRAINT fk_address_id_w FOREIGN KEY (address_id) REFERENCES address(address_id)

);

create table victim(

victim_id integer not null,

nric_no integer not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

phone varchar2(15) not null,

gender varchar2(6) not null,

age integer not null,

address_id integer not null,

primary key(victim_id),

CONSTRAINT victim_uni UNIQUE (nric_no),

CONSTRAINT fk_address_id_v FOREIGN KEY (address_id) REFERENCES address(address_id)

);

create table police(

police_id integer not null,

police_reg_no varchar2(10) not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

CONSTRAINT police_uni UNIQUE (police_reg_no),

primary key(police_id)

);

create table offender(

offender_id integer not null,

nric_no integer not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

phone varchar2(15) not null,

gender varchar2(6) not null,

age integer not null,

address_id integer not null,

primary key(offender_id),

CONSTRAINT offender_uni UNIQUE (nric_no),

CONSTRAINT fk_address_id_o FOREIGN KEY (address_id) REFERENCES address(address_id)

);

create table reporter(

reporter_id integer not null,

nric_no integer not null,

f_name varchar2(32) not null,

l_name varchar2(32) not null,

phone varchar2(15) not null,

address_id integer not null,

primary key(reporter_id),

CONSTRAINT reporter_uni UNIQUE (nric_no),

CONSTRAINT fk_address_id_r FOREIGN KEY (address_id) REFERENCES address(address_id)

);

create table crime(

crime_id integer not null,

o_date DATE not null,

object_used varchar2(26) not null,

crime_notes varchar2(256) not null,

reporter_id integer not null,

police_id integer not null,

detective_id integer not null,

witness_id integer not null,

offender_id integer not null,

city_id integer not null,

victim_id integer not null,

date_resolved DATE,

status varchar2(6) not null,

type_of_crime varchar2(10) not null,

primary key(crime_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_city_id_c FOREIGN KEY (city_id) REFERENCES city(city_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_offender_id FOREIGN KEY (offender_id) REFERENCES offender(offender_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_witness_id FOREIGN KEY (witness_id) REFERENCES witness(witness_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_detective_id FOREIGN KEY (detective_id) REFERENCES detective(detective_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_police_id FOREIGN KEY (police_id) REFERENCES police(police_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_reporter_id FOREIGN KEY (reporter_id) REFERENCES reporter(reporter_id),

CONSTRAINT fk_victim_id FOREIGN KEY (victim_id) REFERENCES victim(victim_id)

);

Part C:

The schema is populated as shown below. This is the test data

—district

insert into district

values(1,’Kota Kinabalu’);

insert into district

values(2,’Tawau’);

—city

insert into city

values(1,’Kota Kinabalu’,1);

insert into city

values(2,’ Kuantan’,1);

—address

insert into address

values (1, ‘post 345’,267,1);

insert into address

values (2, ‘post 25′,267,1);

—detective

insert into detective

values(1,’DCR1234′,’Denis’,’Dennis’);

insert into detective

values(2,’DCR1235′,’erick’,’erick’);

—witness

insert into witness

values (1,123456789012,’Wang’,’Wang’,0123456765,1);

—victim

insert into victim

values(1,098765432123,’Paul’,’Paul’,’012345676′,’male’,28,1);

insert into victim

values(2,0987654321549,’Lewis’,’Lewis’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(3,098755432154,’Wang’,’Wang’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(4,0987654321540,’Eliud’,’Wang’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(5,098765435154,’John’,’Close’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(6,0987654321541,’Scwaz’,’Nigger’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(7,098765432154,’Samson’,’Bible’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(8,098565432154,’Achahi’,’Dan’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(9,098705432154,’Van’,’Gaal’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

insert into victim

values(10,098761432154,’Jane’,’Marson’,’012345678′,’female’,19,1);

—police

insert into police

values(1,’PODEW345′,’Brian’,’Brian’);

—offender

insert into offender

values(1,465432123456,’Peter’,’peter’,’0123234567′,’male’,45,1);

insert into offender

values(2,565432123456,’Mercy’,’Victoria’,’0123234567′,’female’,45,1);

insert into offender

values(3,865432123456,’Peter’,’samuel’,’0123234567′,’male’,23,2);

insert into offender

values(4,065432123456,’Peter’,’Eliud’,’01267434567′,’male’,19,1);

insert into offender

values(5,165432123456,’Peter’,’peter’,’0123234567′,’male’,40,2);

insert into offender

values(6,665432123456,’Mercy’,’clear’,’0123834567′,’female’,23,1);

insert into offender

values(7,265432123456,’Peter’,’Steve’,’0123234567′,’male’,51,1);

insert into offender

values(8,765432123456,’Sos’,’John’,’0123214567′,’male’,15,2);

—repoter

insert into reporter

values (1,123456789012,’Derdus’,’Pros’,0123456765,1);

—crime

insert into crime

values(1,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,to_date(‘2014-10-30’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’closed’,’Murder’);

insert into crime

values(2,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’gun’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,”,’open’,’robbery’);

insert into crime

values(3,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,”,’open’,’Murder’);

insert into crime values(4,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,2,1,5,1,1,to_date(‘2014-10-30’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’closed’,’Murder’);

insert into crime

values(5,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’gun’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,6,1,1,to_date(‘2014-10-30’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’closed’,’robbery’);

insert into crime

values(6,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,4,1,1,to_date(‘2014-10-30’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’closed’,’Murder’);

insert into crime

values(7,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,2,1,2,1,1,”,’open’,’Murder’);

insert into crime

values(8,to_date(‘2014-1-10’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’Knife’,’The accused stubbed him with a knife’,1,1,1,1,3,1,1,to_date(‘2014-10-30’, ‘yyyy-mm-dd’),’closed’,’Murder’);

Part D:

  1. The crimes would be related by type or location of occurrence
  2. based on type of crime , the sql query is

SELECT o_date, type_of_crime COUNT(DISTINCT type_of_crime) AS “type_of_crime”

FROM crime

GROUP BY type_of_crime;

  1. based on city of occurrence

SELECT o_date, type_of_crime COUNT(DISTINCT city_id) AS “city of occurrence ”

FROM crime

GROUP BY type_of_crime, o_date;

  1. select distinct crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,

offender.f_name,offender.l_name,police.f_name,police.l_name,

detective.f_name,detective.l_name,count(crime.witness_id)

from crime,offender,police,witness,detective

where (select distinct count(witness_id) from crime)>5 and

status=’crime’ and crime.offender_id=offender.offender_id and

crime.police_id=police.police_id and

crime.detective_id = detective.detective_id

group by crime.witness_id,crime.o_date, offender.f_name,offender.l_name,police.f_name,police.l_name,detective.f_name,detective.l_name;

  1. select distinct crime.witness_id,crime.o_date, offender.f_name,offender.l_name,police.f_name,police.l_name,detective.f_name,detective.l_name,count(crime.witness_id) from crime,offender,police,witness,detective where crime.o_date > to_date( ’04-Oct-2014′, ‘DD-Mon-YYYY’ ) and status=’crime’ and crime.offender_id=offender.offender_id and crime.police_id=police.police_id and crime.detective_id = detective.detective_id group by crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,offender.f_name,offender.l_name,police.f_name,police.l_name,detective.f_name,detective.l_name;

Part E

This section shows sample, queries, their english equivalent and related screenshots. Sqlfiddle online tool was used to generate the database schema and run queries (SQL Fiddle, 2014).

  • Close a crime case; the ID of the case is always provided

UPDATE crime SET status = ‘closed’ WHERE crime_id = 2;

Before query

After query run

  • Sort victims using their first name ,last name and gender

Select victin_id,nric_no,f_name,l_name,phone,gender,age from victim order by f_name,l_name,gender;

  • Joining tables

List crimes with all its details such assigned detective, reporter, witness, type of crime and reporting police from cloded crimes

select crime.o_date,crime.object_used,crime.crime_notes,crime.date_resolved,

crime.type_of_crime,police.f_name,detective.l_name

from crime left join police

on crime.police_id=police.police_id left join detective on crime.detective_id=detective.detective_id where status=’closed’;

  • Grouping using group by

List the crimes that are related by the fact that they occure in the the same city

SELECT DISTINCT o_date,type_of_crime,COUNT(city_id) AS city_Count

FROM crime GROUP BY type_of_crime, o_date;

  • Use of where clause

List all robbery crimes

select o_date,object_used,crime_notes,date_resolved from crime where type_of_crime=’robbery’;

  • Logical comparison

select distinct crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,

offender.f_name as offender ,police.f_name as police,

detective.f_name as detective

from crime,offender,police,witness,detective

where (select count(witness_id) from crime)>5 and

status=’open’ and crime.offender_id=offender.offender_id and crime.police_id=police.police_id and crime.detective_id = detective.detective_id

group by crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,offender.f_name, police.f_name,detective.f_name;

  • Sub-queries (sub-query is in the where clause)

List of crimes that are still in progres with a witness occuring more than five times

select distinct crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,

offender.f_name as offender ,police.f_name as police,

detective.f_name as detective

from crime,offender,police,witness,detective

where (select count(witness_id) from crime)>5 and

status=’open’ and crime.offender_id=offender.offender_id and crime.police_id=police.police_id and crime.detective_id = detective.detective_id

group by crime.witness_id,crime.o_date,offender.f_name, police.f_name,detective.f_name;

  • COUNT functions

List distinct types of crimes and their number

select distinct type_of_crime,count(witness_id) from crime group by type_of_crime;

References

CHEN, P. (2002). Data Modeling with Entity-Relationship Diagrams.

Class and Entity-Relationship Diagrams . (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2014, from toronto.edu: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~sme/CSC340F/2005/slides/tutorial-classes_ERDs.pdf

Daisy, S. (2004). Developing a crime Analysis information system for police servoce in a developing country: The case of zambia police service.

Greenwald, R. (2001). Oracle Database (Third ed.). O’Reily.

Oracle. (2014). Oracle Database Installation Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Microsoft Windows. Oracle .

Saber, M., & Khan, R. S. (2010). Design of a Hospital-Based Database System (A Case Study of BIRDEM). International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2(8), 2616-2621 .

Smith, J. (2014). TECHNOLOGY: SQL Developer. Retrieved October 31, 2014, from Oracle : http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/issue-archive/2014/14-may/o34sqldev-2193423.html

Song, Y., Evans, M., & Park, E. (1195). A Comparative Analysis of Entity-Relationship Diagrams. Journal of Computer and Software Engineering,, 3(4).

SQL Fiddle. (2014). SQL Fiddle. Retrieved October 31, 2014, from SQL Fiddle: http://sqlfiddle.com/#!4/0a232/34

Techonthenet. (2014). Oracle/PLSQL: CREATE TABLE Statement. Retrieved October 31, 2014, from Techonthenet: http://www.techonthenet.com/oracle/tables/create_table.php

Human Relations

Communication in the workplace

Communication in the workplace has important implications for both employees and firms. The quality of communication in the workplace, for instance, influences a person’s day to day enjoyment and satisfaction at work. For firms, on the other hand, internal relations have an effect on organizational advantage since these relationships are essential in promoting cooperation in teams, creating intellectual capital, and enhancing job satisfaction among workers – factors that affect organizational productivity or performance. In fact, lack of communication has been cited as a key contributing factor to low employee morale. Human relations relates to the interpersonal and group interactions in the workplace. Certainly, communication is a key element in facilitating these interactions in business. Indeed, human relations is often viewed from the perspective of trying to develop systems as well as communication channels to facilitate creation of strong interpersonal and group relationships among employees. Therefore, human relations refer to the ability of individual employees to interact in a healthy manner with their colleagues in order to build productive relationships.

As earlier mentioned, communication is a core element of human relations. The ability of employees to convey messages clearly to their colleagues while also taking time to listen, with the aim of gaining proper understanding of an issue or situation, is highly necessary to building strong, healthy relationships. Some important aspects pertaining to communication and human relations are self-disclosure and trust. Employees’ willingness to share their personal views and feelings among themselves helps to bring them closer. In other words, communication helps individuals to be more comfortable with each other which facilitate human interaction. Strong relationships among employees in an organization make it easy for human resource managers to form strong, healthy relationships between different levels which translate to a stable, well focused workforce.

Human relations can be regarded as a process of fostering workplace culture, which is aided by effective communication. Effective communication in business is open and candid and plays a crucial role in building a stable workplace culture. By helping individuals to share meaning, ideas and thoughts, effective communication fosters the creation of a positive culture that defines a particular organization. Communication at the workplace creates an environment where employees work together in accomplishing projects and provide motivation to each other as they pursue organizational goals. This is what helps to build a strong organizational culture that promotes organizational productivity. In the absence of a stable and inviting culture in the workplace, serious challenges may arise in the logistics of managing employees. This implies that communication fosters good human relations which facilitate employee management.

In general, communication is a core element in human relations. It promotes interactions between individual employees and within groups. In the same way, effective communication helps in the formation of healthy relationships between workers and the management in a business set-up.

Getting along with your managers, co-workers and customer

Human relations in business are about the establishment of an appropriate environment whereby managers, workers, and customers get along well. To begin with, getting along well with one’s manager could be an important driver to happiness in the workplace. An employee’s relationship with his/her manager also determines his/her job performance. When an employee relates well with his/her boss, a job that may not be so great can eventually become more satisfying. Likewise, a great job may turn out to be a nightmare if there is a terrible relationship between an employee and his/her boss. One can establish a good relationship with his/her manager by being open to feedback, not personalizing workplace decisions, and respecting the preferences of the manager by giving him/her the benefit of doubt. Again, one should avoid complaining behind his manager’s back and avoid causing drama in case of disagreements. Overall, employees can get along with their managers by respecting the positions they hold in an organization and understanding that a good relationship has an effect on their work experience and job satisfaction.

In most cases, people work in an environment characterized by a diverse group of co-workers who possess different set of skills and have different backgrounds, values and interests. This diversity can be a source of organizational strength but may also give rise to conflicts among colleagues. To prevent this shortfall, individual employees must strive to get along well with their colleagues. This demands strong interpersonal skills, a proper understanding of organizational culture, and ability to adapt the style of work in a manner that will enable one to work with different personalities. For one to get along well with co-workers, he/she needs to learn about their interests, take time to listen, be friendly to them, avoid gossiping and stereotyping, offer help where possible, accept constructive criticism, and practice common courtesy. Getting along well with co-workers can foster team cohesiveness which is good for an organization. Besides, it has certain psychological benefits. For example, it makes one to feel accepted by others, which is important for job satisfaction. Again, a good relationship among employees can also be a source of personal support especially because work life may not always offer positive experiences.

Customers are undoubtedly the lifeblood of a business. As such, every organization must strive to build a strong rapport with them. By establishing a good relationship with customers, an organization can assure itself of a stable and flourishing business. To do this, business organizations must make every interaction count. While an organization may have succeeded in creating a credible reputation, one negative experience can send clients running to the competitors. Another important thing in ensuring a business organization gets along well with its customers is to establish connections with customers. This can be done by communicating with customers through emails, social media or websites. Organizations should also listen to their customers and reward loyalty in order to make them feel appreciated and valued. In general, getting along well with customers is a key aspect for every business organization since every business depends on a rich customer base for survival.

Managing conflict

Conflict is an unavoidable occurrence in organizations. Conflicts occur in both top-level management and in small groups of employees. As such, managing organizational conflicts is a crucial aspect in human resource management. It is important to note that not all forms of organizational conflicts are bad and dysfunctional. Some may pave way for positive changes and opportunities within an organization. However, all conflicts need to be resolved carefully to prevent negative outcomes. Among other things, human relations focuses on ensuring workplace conflicts do not escalate to dangerous levels since this can seriously affect the reputation of an organization. As such, the ability to manage conflicts is an important skill for managers.

Conflict management in an organization helps to strengthen the bond between employees themselves and between employees and the management (Rahim, 2011). It also aids in ensuring a cohesive management panel. Conflict management goes a long way in reducing stress and tension among employees which helps them to bond more closely for organizational and individual success. Indeed, tussles and fights have a negative effect on one’s personal life and spreads negativity in an organization. Therefore, conflict management plays an important role in promoting the well-being of individual employees, as well as organizational performance. Managing conflicts is highly crucial in an organization since a high level of negative conflict can be a recipe for employee dissatisfaction which can lead to expensive turnover and decreased productivity. Besides this, conflict management can foster creativity and innovation in an organization. Effective conflict management strategies can also foster organizational learning whereby organizations can benefit from different points of view that emerge during conflict organization (Rahim, 2011). In a learning organization, employees are able to express their opinions freely and make useful suggestions without the fear of triggering a conflict.

Sometimes, conflict may be a sign of an underlying problem especially one that relates to workplace relationships. For example, it may be a sign of ineffective communication and dysfunctional organizational culture among other aspects that relate to human resource management. In such cases, conflict management helps to strike out such problems, which helps to build a strong workplace culture. Generally, conflict management helps employees to understand and appreciate the differences that may arise among them and thus improve interpersonal and group relationships. This, in turn, promotes organizational success.

Reference

Rahim, M. A. (2011). Managing Conflict in Organizations, 4th Ed. New Brunswick, NJ:   Transaction Publishers.

Leadership style paper

The National Representative’s Affiliation composed a phase of disaster model to help crisis directors plan for and react to a disaster, otherwise called the ‘life cycle’ of thorough crisis administration. The four phases of disaster are preparedness, mitigation, response; and recovery. (FEMA EMI, 2009).

In this case, tornadoes and severe storms have been predicted to take place in Arkansas. The county emergency manager stays alert and aware of the day’s weather forecasts. He is also wary of all the official information that comes in from outside. When the tornado takes place, it causes devastating damage to Cray City. Power lines goes down, all water mains are broken, pink insulation appears to be everywhere, siding is wrapped around trees, cars have been flipped, and it now appears that no structure went unscathed. The officer is able to speak with key officials and responder agencies.

This is because they had been prepared, as a few years ago; they had secured grant funding to implement an interoperable radio system. The shared characteristics around different varieties of technological and natural disasters recommend that a significant number of the same administration techniques can apply to all such crises. An all-hazards methodology to crisis preparedness supports viable and predictable reaction to any disaster or crisis, paying little attention to the cause Preparedness includes steps to diminish defenselessness to disaster effects, for example, damages and misfortune of life and property.

Communications are likewise a fundamental variable in accomplishing precision, great timing, and right evaluating of an occasion’s extent. There are a few paramount parts of correspondences. One is the specialized capacity to convey rapidly and proficiently. This means having designated phone, radio, telex, and other electronic systems accessible, on perfect frequencies, and with reinforcement frameworks if there should arise an occurrence of disappointment of the essential framework. Capability to convey over a wide and broad range is likewise essential. An alternate significant part of correspondences is brief, well-disposed relations with the media, all of which could be of huge administration in times of crisis (FEMA Working Group, 2007).

In this case, there were several communication conscious steps that should have been taken to contain the situation. To start with, radio and phone communication would have been the major communication channels in this case. This is due to their reliability and ability ro convey urgent messages. At the juncture where the tornado began, they could have called for reinforcement in order to save some of the people who were injured. If any of these means failed, they could have employed texting services as they are also a reliable means. In the case, phone lines were dead, and could not be relied on. Thus, texting was the only available option of communication.

The increase of recurrence and extent of regular and human-made disasters throughout a decade ago made it clear that conventional crisis, emergency, and catastrophe administration instruments have ended up being ineffectual. In this respect, accepted methodologies portrayed by progressive system and centralization have been supplanted by decentralized crisis administration frameworks (FEMA EMI, 2009).

In this case, there is need to make risky decisions in order to try and save the situation. For instance, there needs to be coordinated effort as well as organizations in and crisis settings that will be underlining decentralized. There needs to be also an adaptable structure alongside significant managerial and administration conveyance changes, presents to its own particular notable issues to the table. One of such issues is synergistic decision making.

Barbra et al. (2005) portray competency as a “particular proficiencies needed for viable execution, inside the connection of a job’s obligations, which attains the objectives of the organization”(p. 3). Coordination among emergency managers and the whole community and all stakeholders at all levels is essential to effective emergency management.

In this case, the situation almost gets worse due to lack of technology utilization. There needs to be instant inventions and innovations towards the use of available technology. These innovations recently are continuously utilized broadly within associations with substantial armadas and field administration associations to run regular operations. Notwithstanding they are likewise assuming a part in storm harm evaluation and cleanup. Different offices and associations have been turning to these innovations to enhance catastrophe reaction. Red Cross employees, case in point, use handheld gadgets to evaluate harm in the result of characteristic calamities (FEMA Working Group, 2007). While previously, the Red Cross staff might hurry to the scene with clipboards under control to do their evaluations, now they utilize tough nomad handhelds to transfer data instantly to investigators at Red Cross home office.

As stated by Waugh, disaster administration happens inside a legitimate and additionally political setting. It is vital that the debacle managements be acquainted with the legitimate structure controlling disaster preparedness, administration, and moderation. The anticipation and administration of catastrophes needs a multifaceted methodology (Waugh n.d). This is on the grounds that there are diverse agencies included in the disaster reaction deliberations.

In this case, there exists a vicinity of shifted disaster administration associations and agencies as a result of the decentralized nature of the US government (Mcentire and Dawson 2007, p. 59). The associations and agencies have distinctive commands and work utilizing diverse lawful systems. This can result in an overlap in the work done by the bodies (Mcentire and Dawson 2007, p. 60). Once in a while, the federal prerequisites for offering aid clash with local necessities. Accordingly, states may not request elected support actually when it is vital, particularly if the federal prerequisites are politically disliked

Hoffman (2009) states that vulnerable groups are regularly ignored throughout and after disasters. Vulnerable groups, which incorporate the monetarily hindered, appear to endure the most throughout disasters (Hoffman, 2009). This is on account of they don’t have the emotional, economic, and social assets that can help to relieve that catastrophe (Hoffman, 2009). Disaster administrators ought to have a rundown of such burdened persons with the goal that they can accept the fundamental backing throughout a disaster (Hoffman, 2009). Large portion of the monetarily impeded persons tend to be from ethnic minorities who are isolated from social order (Hoffman, 2009).

In this case, there are ethical issues that have to be followed to the letter. All persons have the right to a reasonable treatment and a powerful legitimate solution to guarantee the insurance, regard and happiness regarding their rights concerning the anticipation measures arranged or if the powers neglect to act to embrace aversion and disaster hazard decrease measures and to organize relief (Etkin, 2006) .All persons should receive prompt help in the occasion of a regular or innovative disaster, including the benefit of essential wellbeing administrations. Compassionate help is given reasonably, fairly and without segregation, indicating due respect for the helplessness of victimized people and for people’s and assemblies’ particular needs.

References

FEMA Working Group. (2007). Principles of Emergency Management. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS230/Principles%20of%20EM.pdf

FEMA Emergency Management Institute (EMI), (2009). The College List. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/collegelist

Barbara, J. A., Macintyre, A. G., Shaw, G., Seefried, V., Waterman, L., & deCosmos, S. (2005). VHA–EMA Emergency Response and Recovery Competencies Survey, Analysis, and Report. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/EMCompetencies.asp

Kapucu, N. &Garayev, V. (2011). Collaborative Decision Making in Emergency and Disaster Management. International Journal of Public Administration, 34,366-375. Retrieved from http://sangyubr.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/collaborative-decision-making-in-emergency-and-disaster-management.pdf

Etkin, D. (2006, September). Emergency Management Core Competencies. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/EMCompetencies.asp

Buck, D., Trainor, J. & Aguirre, B. (2006). A Critical Evaluation of the Incident Command System and NIMS. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3), 1-27.

Problem-Solution Report Writing on the Cost of Healthcare

Introduction

Healthcare is one of the top economic and communal problems facing many nations in the world. In most nations, the increase in health insurance and medical care has resulted to an unfavorable outcome to livelihood of several citizens. It has been noted in many nations that; failure to pay required medical care has amplified not only to those citizens who are not covered but also to those insured. Over the past 50 years medicine has improved worth of life and enlarged life expectancy ensuing to disparities in healthcare access. One of the top contributing issues is poverty in many nations. The causal path linking poor health results and scarcity are very complex. Through carried out studies on healthcare organisms plan, and inefficiencies are rising to be undertaken in many nations due to widespread appreciation of cost repression need.

Summary

 

Wasteful expenditure in the U.S. healthcare scheme is a widely accredited and seemingly intractable crisis. Healthcare costs caused by inappropriate and preventable use of medicines surpass $200 billion in 2012, according to IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics estimates. This study finds that even though unnecessary costs are considerable, encouraging advancement is being made in tackling some of the disputes that drive inefficient spending in many parts of the healthcare system.

Problems facing cost of healthcare

 

In most countries, avoidable costs in healthcare are usually incurred annually. The most contributing factor of this avoidable cost expenditure is delayed evidence-based treatment and non-adherence accounting for over 67% of the total cost. The problems facing cost of healthcare includes:

  1. Medication of non-adherence. This entails patients not taking their medicines appropriately. This results to complications that are expensive to treat, and it may worsen the health outcomes.
  2. Misuse of antibiotics. This results from inappropriate prescriptions and misdiagnosis that misleads to provide patients with antibiotics. Due to their low cost and misperceptions against severe diseases contribute to their overuse and misuse. This problem results to antimicrobial resistance and downstream avoidable costs as well as expensive treatment.
  3. Delayed evidenced-based treatment practice. This occurs due to delayed supply of medicines to patients. Diagnostic and screening capabilities can minimize and support timely delivery of medicines to curb costlier complications.
  4. Other problems include Mismanaged poly-pharmacy, Sub-optimal use of generics, and medication errors.

Solutions to these problems

 

  1. Regulations should be laid down on the supply and prescription of antibiotics.
  2. Government should also enhance adequate supply of medicines in all areas in a timely basis.
  3. The public should also be taught on the essentials of following doctor’s prescriptions to the letter and seeking medical advice and check-ups to qualified healthcare staffs.
  4. Public should also be encouraged for frequent medical checks so as increase of chronic diseases they are treated in early stages.

 

Recommendations

 

To promote and support upgrading in the worth and cost on the growing effectiveness and level of patient commitment in sinking healthcare expenses. The recommendations are;

  1. Employ technology for automatic filling of recommendation prescription, and automated prompt calls to patients.
  2. Motivations to empower and motivate pharmacists to implement a new patient service model and take part in the plan, with clearly defined benefits and objectives and a long-term plan.
  3. Training course that is obtainable to other healthcare stakeholders and pharmacies who can gain from the advance and the lessons educated.

Conclusion

 

There are a lot that healthcare stakeholders can do to endorse the responsible use of drugs, to progress health outcomes and finally reduce preventable healthcare costs. Most of these measures entail the involvement of several healthcare stakeholders. Taking into account the precedence actions delineated above, the extent of the improvement prospect in terms of unnecessary costs, and the timing and venture necessary by each action, five guiding principles surfaced which need to be pursued aggressively in order to accelerate progress.

Work cited

IMS Institute. Avoidable Cost In Healthcare.’’ American Health Journal. WEB.

http://www.imshealth.com/deployedfiles/imshealth/Global/Content/Corporate/IMS%20Institute/RUOM-2013/IHII_Responsible_Use_Medicines_2013.pdf