National Patient Safety Goals

There is a joint commission that is bestowed upon the responsibility of ensuring the safety of the patients. There are several goals that have been developed in ensuring patient safety. However, these goals are developed or improved annually by the responsible commission. The purpose of these goals is to ensure the safety of patients both within and without the hospital premises. These rules have to be observed failure to which may result to wrong medication and consequently harm to the patient. The management of the hospitals should ensure that these goals are properly observed. This to a larger extent is governed by the type of leadership present in a hospital. Proper leadership will lead to better management and hence proper coordination of activities within the hospital. This capstone project focuses on the National Patient Safety Goals which is the key in the improvement of hospital operation and safety of the patient.

Correct identification of patients is one of the key goals of the national patient safety measures. Correct identification entails proper recording of the personal details of the patients such as telephone number and patient identification number. This goal is applicable to Behavioral Health Care, Ambulatory, Home Care, and Nursing Care Center among others. During medication, proper identification of the patient is key towards ensuring proper diagnosis. In the event of blood transfer, proper identification of the blood sample in line with the patient’s blood group ensures that the proper blood is given to the right patient. Blood transfusion needs keen identification of the patient to prevent dangers associated with transfusing the wrong blood.

Areas of Critical Access Hospital, Laboratory, and Hospital require an improved communication between staffs. The operation of the hospital often works in structured manner where different duties are undertaken by different persons. The person administering medication is often not the person administering treatment. Therefore, proper communication between the parties involved should be a cornerstone towards effective treatment. The aspect of communication in any organization determines the effectiveness of operations. Safety of any patient is critical in ensuring the objective of saving lives by health practitioners. The person administering treatment should give clear information to the person administering injections and consequently to the person administering drugs.

The other safety goal entails proper usage of medicines. The medical practitioners should ensure proper labeling medicines. This will ensure the patient takes medicines in the prescribed dosage. Education of the patient should also be taken into consideration. The doctor should, therefore, explain to the patient the prescription of the medicine in a way that the patient will understand. In case of previous treatments, the doctor should interrogate the kind of medicine the patient was using and the side effect associated with those medicines. This will also reduce the harm of anticoagulant therapy.

Use of clinical alarms should be effective and improvements should be made to ensure that the alarms attached to medical equipment receive prompt and timely attention. Universal protocol should be ensured to promote the widely recognized measures in health safety. Each department has a specific kind of operation and measures that are set to ensure the overall objective of patient safety is met.

Measures by Administration and Staff in Ensuring the Safety Goals

According to the responses by majority of the respondents in the health sector, administration and leadership of the hospital has the greatest responsibility of ensuring patient safety. The core objective of any hospital is the observance of the patient safety since this is the core business of the hospital. Therefore, we portend that good leadership of the hospital is key in improving the safety in hospitals. Leaders with good leadership skills we always ensure proper coordination of the system and staff in ensuring observance of the safety measures.

Transformational leaders, on the other hand, work more directly with the workers and other stakeholders. Their characteristic is working so that they can enhance the other workers’ motivation. They also use the engagement of their followers through directing by using themselves as the example. They influence the behaviors of the followers towards achieving a set target and a shared vision. The main difference that is between the two is that the transactional leadership is the leadership that operates from the set goals and structures. They do not set their own goals and boundaries but use the existing ones. On the contrary, transformative leadership is the leadership that challenges the existing structures and boundaries, and they create their own and operate on their own system that they create. They are change-oriented. Transactional leadership also promotes the ability and the compliance of working with existing organizational structures, goals set as well as the performance expectations. They do this through supervision; ordering and more specifically they use rewards and punishments to achieve their set goals. These leaders are known to be task and outcome oriented, in that they get satisfied only when they achieve the set goals and the organizational vision and target. They do not set their own ways of doing things but follow the set rules and regulations. These types of leaders are strict time followers and through that they become very effective. However, these types of leaders are hugely affected by constraints of resources as they are not innovative of new ideas to achieve the same expected results. These types of leaders perform well in large and urgent projects that require keen attention of the managers. This is because, they keep their attentions on how the employees work and especially adhere to the set rules and regulations of the project running. Their type of leadership is able to adhere to the status quo.

Transformational leadership, on the other hand, focuses their effort on increasing the employee motivation. Through motivating the employees, they get the sense of ownership in the organization and the results are easily given. In this, they link the employees to the values of the organization and the leaders lead by example that is their largest emphasis. Through this type of leadership, the followers are able to identify the vision and values from the leaders. A transformational type of leadership is the kind of approach that gives a keen focus to an individual’s strengths and his weaknesses. This method helps in improving the employees’ involvement in the decision-making and, therefore, increases their motivation. It is considered a good type of leadership (Kershaw, 2012).

According to McGregor’s theories of work motivation, employees and workers are viewed to be lazy and require motivation through rewarding them as well as punishing them where they go wrong. His arguments also support that work is intrinsically motivating. However, another researcher gives a theory that advocates for a servant leadership in this he argues that it is the best theory as compared to any other.

Good leadership and management skill are very vital in the contemporary world. A good manager in the health care sector should learn how to manage the emotional part of the workers in a firm. This is especially so because, in the health sector where people deal with different kinds of people, it is likely for issues affecting the practitioners directly to arise. Nurses specifically have a “difficult” work to take care of the patients. This tests their emotional strength in a very strong way. Doctors and nurses, for example, require to always be positive about their job. It is necessary because the doctors and the nurses directly deal with the health of the patient, and they are of different types. Emotions are necessary to deal with. This is because the doctors’ and other employees’ emotions influence industrial and organizational psychology.

Changes in the healthcare have influenced leadership in the healthcare and especially in the modern days. Competition in the healthcare is one of the factors that have led to changes. The government has been the sole provider of healthcare. However, due to private investment in the health sector, leadership has been forced to change so as to remain competitive in the healthcare market. The managers of a firm in the health sector should create a very conducive working climate for everyone in the hospital by maintaining high standards of personal respect to the employees in the organization. This helps the workers to feel like part of the organization and offer quality services to the patients who are the clients. Every doctor, nurse, and other practitioners should always be motivated in their work and should feel to belong to the organization set up (Anyango & Ziegler, 1997).

Good leadership specifically in the health sector is very crucial. It is crucial to state that in many occasions when leaders are ineffective, their influence is not felt hence detract them from their main work of goal attainment. Health sector is very sensitive to a slight poor performance from the leaders may cause a major mayhem to the whole industry. An effective leader goes beyond performance. Such a leader is able to increase the organizational ability to meet the contemporary challenges that currently face the organization such as the need to obtain a competitive advantage over others. A hospital, for example, should have a very good leader for them to survive in the market. This is because patients go to the hospital where their problems are well solved. A good leader in a hospital set-up ensures that all doctors and the nurses are doing their work as per the code of conduct. In addition, all practitioners in a hospital should give maximum respect to the patients who are their clients. In addition, the leaders should ensure that all resources are properly supplied in time and used accordingly.

Organizations in the health sector that have a good leadership base obvious get the best results as they wanted and even end up achieving more than they had anticipated. The leaders who exert influence over their members to help meet these goals increase the organization’s chances of success. According to some researchers, the biggest obstacle to the achievement of the organizational goals was the “unwillingness of the managers to give up power and instill proper leadership control”. Team working is essential for the success of the organization. And, therefore, effective managers should encourage team working in the organization if they want to achieve their set goal. Therefore, a good leader who gets good influence to the others helps everyone for them to achieve the organizational goals. According to different researchers, different managers have different styles of leadership (Jennings, Rodgers, & Keane, 2007). Each style of leadership depends upon the individual as there is no school where one is told to use a certain style to achieve the expected results. A leadership style is a specific way by which a manager chooses to influence what other people do in the organization. Developing an effective personal leadership style is very challenging to managers at every level in the organization. These challenges may be felt even highly during tough times such as during an economic downtown or when the customer demand declines.

Good leaders should have the attitude of humility and selflessness. They should not be proud and self-seeking since this could lead to the workers/subordinates feeling unwanted in the firm. Leaders should treat their subordinates with open-mindedness and not practicing some management practices that are out-dated and exploitative and unfriendly to the sub-ordinates. They should practice decency in the working environment, and the subordinates should view them as role models and custodians of proper working ethics. They should in no way allow their subordinates to pinpoint the loop-poles in their behavior. They should avoid situations of unhealthy competition with their subordinates since the latter may feel threatened. This may also show that the leaders are insecure. They should encourage team-work where they should work hand in hand with their subordinates to ensure success of the organization. In the team-work, they encourage the subordinates by valuing individual decision-making and freedom of expression in the organization.

Measures to Curb Barriers and Hurdles in Meeting Safety Goals

Strategic Management in Health Care

World Health Organization denotes that one out ten patients within the developed economies suffer harm while receiving treatment. The health care systems suffer high cost in dealing with litigation costs and the increasing hospitalization as a result of infections. These ailments are as a result of inefficiency and the impact of misaligned incentives. Healthcare organizations are engaging in amassing data, payment processes, and patient care. The objectives of this healthcare are to deliver quality services to the clients as well as maintain growth in terms of operations. The shortages in nurses and specialists in the field of medicine is an impediment to the achievement of the objectives of healthcare organizations. The management in healthcare organizations engages in the establishment of policies and guidelines, which help in the achievement of objectives (Eder, 2000). There are several healthcare areas that need critical evaluation in ensuring better treatment. There has been changing trend in the healthcare of kidney with various organizations employing emerging technologies to counter the disease.

The issue of kidney treatment is bringing uncertainties in the outcome of treatment within United States. However, the changing values and improvement in healthcare system allows institutions dealing with the disease an easy time in delivering healthcare (Eder, 2000). Baxter International is a healthcare organization that deals with the treatment of kidney complications among other diseases. The number of kidney patients has been increasing globally. There has been legislation by governments encouraging peritoneal dialysis in expanding treatment access and enhancing the patients’ quality of life. This is a boost to the healthcare in this field due to the significant increase in peritoneal dialysis patients.

However, there are factors within the external environment that negatively affects the treatment of kidney. These factors consequently affect the achievement and realization of objectives of the healthcare system of reducing the impact of kidney diseases. To produce health products that will be useful all over the world, Baxter for instance utilizes raw materials from several suppliers. There is certain raw material that is found from a limited number of suppliers. This causes the company to experience a shortage of supply in times. The shortage of supply negatively influences the treatment of kidney diseases that may result in fatalities. There is need for the organizations dealing in the treatment of kidney to ensure availability and continuity of supply (Marszalek-Gaucher & Coffey, 2001). There is also need of establishing alternative sources of raw materials to curb this risk.

The values held by the healthcare organizations form the basis of strategy formulation. Companies have to identify the values they hold while formulating the strategy to undertake to accomplish their objectives. The mission and vision of an organization enshrines the direction set by a company in undertaking operations. The mission, vision, and values of an organization form a strategic component of situational analysis and strategy formulation. This is because of the role these aspects play in the determination of the direction of an organization. Every employee in any organization has to be fully conversant with these three inscriptions of a company. Otherwise, the employee assumed to have no information on the requirement of an organization. The formulation of policies and objectives by the management of an organization takes into consideration the vision, values, and mission of the organization. Strategic planning and situation analysis involve the definition of strategy and direction of the company. Decision making on the allocation of resources has its base on the three aspects of the company. The understanding of the company’s vision, mission, and values is key in situation analysis and strategic planning.

Health organizations, as well as other organizations, have been on the verge of engaging in collaboration to improve performance. Baxter, for instance, entered into an agreement with Takeda Pharmaceutical Company. This gave authority to the company to use products from Baxter. This increased coverage of the company by widening the market. Collaboration has been beneficial to companies due to increasing profitability. However, this trend of collaboration is decreasing due to the emergence of better means of doing business. Companies are engaging in technologies that help in improving the efficiency of operations. This reduces the need to have collaborations as companies are able to perform roles even from far of distances. Technologies have been used in the maintenance of data. The smarter approach towards healthcare regards turning data into business and clinical insights. Hospitals and medical centers can engage in effective and quality service provision through the adoption of relevant technologies. Organizations that are forward thinking are engaging in connecting healthcare data, processes, and systems to facilitate secure information and communication sharing. The emergence of other means of doing businesses like mergers has rendered collaboration inefficient. The increasing competition makes the organization strategize on how to achieve its objectives as a single entity. The collaboration trend is ending slowly, but it will still be operation given that emerging businesses need to collaborate with each other (McLaughlin & Hays, 2008).

Non-profit making organizations engage in serving the community without necessarily having to gain profit. However, these organizations require balancing between their expenses and the revenue they generate from their activities. Most non-governmental organizations engage in the management of human welfare. They, therefore, engage to deliver services to the less privileged in the society. Healthcare organizations, whose objective is not to make profits, have to ensure that they charge clients according to their capability to pay. This implies that even the poor can be able to access healthcare from these facilities. These organizations need to establish welfare that is geared towards fundraising. Pooling of funds will assist these organizations to offer services even to the poor in the society.

Healthcare centers need to have a workforce that is qualified for the job. Nurses should possess academic qualifications and have the interest of serving people at heart. They should possess values that are geared towards serving the needy. This means that they should not attach their service to monetary gains. They should possess an understanding of the values of the organizations so as to be able to convey according to the organization’s expectations. The recruits should be persons of good conduct and high integrity and able to work in environments that may at times be unfriendly. These elements are core as they make up a person who is service oriented and not self-centered (Wolf, 2011).

Different healthcare organizations have diverse objectives including profit maximization. Under the cash cow program, organizations should aim at minimizing costs through efficient utilization of resources. Establishment of children’s welfare program can assist in dealing with the issue of problem children. The program is meant to amass resources to cater for the children welfare. The stars and dogs need services provision that ensures welfare is catered. Establishment of a pool of funds is necessary to ensure these programs run efficiently. This avails finances necessary to accomplish the objectives of these programs.

My advice to students willing to undertake nursing is that they should realize the value of nursing and have the heart to serve the community. The drive towards this profession should not be based on the monetary benefits to be realized. The students must be willing to offer their services towards the needy and ensure they are always there to save human life. Given the importance of the profession, students should be prepared to work hard to pursue the course. They should have interpersonal skills and be ready to engage with patients most of their time. Students should always be ready to deliver quality services to their clients as their career choice is driven by the desire to serve.


One of the critical impacts of non-existence of safety goals of patient is the misuse of drugs. Proper diagnosis is necessary especially to patients suffering from drug abuse. The behavioral aspect of health sector encompasses the conditions of patient in the event of drug misuse. Sensitization on drug use is necessary if we are to achieve the objective of ensuring patient safety goals. The approach of public health to drug treatment lays emphasis on the drug users to access treatment. This will help in reducing the harmful effects of drug use alongside reducing the side effects resulting from drug misuse. This includes the related risks like sepsis and hence lives for longer (Bry & Attaway, 2001). The public health perspective is yet to be conceptualized by all in regard to the situation of drug misuse and mental health. Public health approach towards solving this problem is necessary and it requires a commitment to eliminating the vice of drug misuse.

The history regarding the treatment of substance misuse has gone through a range of varied ideological perspectives. These range from professional, legal, and public perspectives. From the public perspective, the issue of drug misuse is seen as a situation that brings a lot of social problems. The social problems include loss of employment and family alongside other problems (Bry & Attaway, 2001). The best approach towards curbing the problem of drug misuse is by reducing the risk attached to the drug misuse. This involves reducing harm amongst the population that has been identified to be victims of drug misuse. The perspective of the public is that proper measures should be developed to ensure handling of economic, social, and health harms. Harm reduction is, therefore, a great concern among the population as it serves to reduce the side effects attached to the misuse of drugs.

Ways should be developed to deal with the issue of problematic drug use. The problematic drug user experiences a series of unwanted consequences that are negative as a result of drug use. Regular and excessive consumption results in psychological, social, and physical problems. Problematic drug use is a relapsing and chronic condition. Misuse of drugs is an example of social deviance among the public. The public view drug users as a lot in the community that defies the good morals of the society. The issue of drug misuse is subject to condemnation by the community and especially those who do not partake in the use of drugs. In this regard, those who participate in this vice of drug misuse are seen as negative light in the society at large (Zweben, 2009).

There has been a lot of media campaign against the misuse of drugs. These campaigns are seen to have contributed to the negative perception of drug users by the public. The media campaigns portray the drug users as dysfunctional and helpless among the community. These addicts are seen to contribute to the immoral activities within the society. Connecting the immoral activities with the problematic drug users makes this lot unacceptable within the society.

The drug users perceive most of the facilities put across such as voluntary and statutory services as having negative attitudes towards the drug users. Drug users thus shy away from seeking help from these facilities who perceive them as minors in the community. Effective rehabilitation of the drug users can only occur if the services handling this group encourage and appreciate them. The negative attitudes in turn may result to treatment that is not adequate as well patient discrimination (Zweben, 2009). The perception of the society has been negative, and this seems to alienate members of the society who misuse drugs. The alienation of these individuals makes them tend to activities that are generally unaccepted in the society.

Several policies have been established to help the members of the society who experience the problematic drug use. Some of these include education to sensitize the drug addicts on the need to lead a drug free life. Members of the society are very supportive of such a program. The support is influenced by the benefits accrued to a society that is drug free. These include the reduction in the immoral activities associated with the drug addicts. According to the society, education should not only be offered to the drug users but also to the non-drug users. This will help in curbing the possible entrant of new individuals into drug misuse. The essence of educating even those who do not misuse drugs is to create awareness among the community on the need of having a drug free community. These individuals will also offer education and counseling to the drug abusers.

The public also feels that penalties given to the drug dealers should be increased. The increasing trend of drug misuse and the adverse effects of drug misuse have necessitated this public opinion. The public supports the enforcement of strict laws and the prohibitionist policies that currently exist. However, part of the public does not support the issue of legalizing cannabis. Law enforcers should make sure that the several laws that have been set to reduce the misuse of drugs are followed. This reduces the negative implications that drug use has on the society at large. The public is also of the opinion that the issue of the drug should be taught to children right from their tender age (Zweben, 2009).

The problem of substance abuse is escalating among the young adults and the youths. An illness that is related to lifestyle accounts for a larger number of mortality within the society. Substance abusers and substance abuse stir up responses in the society that are complex. There are common issues like stigma, punitive responses, and rejection within the society. Lack of awareness as well as understanding of drug abuse causes most of the substance abusers not to be detected and hence they remain untreated. Health professionals, therefore, perceive the problem of untreated cases as resulting from lack of awareness among the public on the issue of drugs. These responses make the drug abusers not to integrate well with the community and hence fail to recover. Service providers have the possibility of being exposed to biasness, as well as uninformed attitudes and beliefs regarding drug abuse. Clinical supervision and education are seen as proper measures that can effectively address these problems. Professionals may not be aware of the attitudes and the biases assimilated from the society (Bry & Attaway, 2001).

Various studies that have been undertaken reveal that health professionals possess negative views regarding drug users. The negative perception induces the professionals not to want work with the abusers. Psychiatrists and practitioners have been identified to possess disapproving attitudes. Several factors have been cited to cause the unwillingness to associate with the drug users among the professionals. These include occupational constraints, attitudinal factors, and lack of motivation among the professionals to study about issues related to drugs.

Doctors should undergo training regarding the issue of substance misuse according to the department of health in the United Kingdom. Few doctors get the chance of attending training courses aimed at providing knowledge of substance misuse. The idea of share care is also recommended where the professionals interact with primary abusers found in the primary care. For instance, drug agency is supposed to provide training workshops and offer advice to the public on aspects relating to the complicated cases of drug misuse (Chappel, 1993).

The initial step in enhancing skills encompasses the expansion of nursing and medical schools. This provides the necessary platform for impacting knowledge on the existing and new professionals on how to deal with drug abusers. The various health conditions suffered by drug abusers should be studied at an in-depth state. This will enable the professionals to deal with the issue of drug from a professional perspective. The existence of school based programs has also served to equip learners with the relevant knowledge regarding the abuse of drugs (Chappel, 1993). This approach of risk focused identification is effective in preventing drug misuse in the school setting.


Bry, B. H.& Attaway, N. M. (2001). Community-based interv. In Wagner, E.F, Waldron, H. B., editors. Innovations in Adolescent Substance Abuse Interventions. Pergamon Press, Elsevier Science, New York.

Chappel, J. N. (1993). Training of residents and medical students in the diagnosis and treatment of dual diagnosis patients. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 25(4): 293-300.

Eder, L. B. (2000). Managing healthcare information systems with Web-enabled technologies. Hershey, Pa: Idea Group Pub.

Jennings, BM, CC Scalzi, JD . Rodgers, & A Keane. (2007). “Differentiating Nursing Leadership and Management Competencies.” Nursing Outlook. 55.4. Print.

Kershaw, Betty. (2012).: “Nursing Leadership and Management ??? Third International Editionnursing Leadership and Management ??? Third International Edition.” Nursing Standard. 27.13 28. Print.

Marszalek-Gaucher, E., & Coffey, R. J. (2001). Total quality in healthcare: From theory to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

McLaughlin, D. B., & Hays, J. M. (2008). Healthcare operations management. Chicago: Health Administration Press.

Wolf, J. A. (2011). Organization development in healthcare: Conversations on research and strategies. Bingley: Emerald Group.

Ziegler, PB, H Anyango, & HD Ziegler(1997). “The Need for Leadership and Management Training for Community Nurses: Results of a Ugandan District Health Nurse Survey.” Journal of Community Health Nursing. 14.2 119-30. Print.

Zweben, J. (2009). Counselling issues in methadone maintenance treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 23: 177 91.



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