The National Representative’s Affiliation composed a phase of disaster model to help crisis directors plan for and react to a disaster, otherwise called the ‘life cycle’ of thorough crisis administration. The four phases of disaster are preparedness, mitigation, response; and recovery. (FEMA EMI, 2009).
In this case, tornadoes and severe storms have been predicted to take place in Arkansas. The county emergency manager stays alert and aware of the day’s weather forecasts. He is also wary of all the official information that comes in from outside. When the tornado takes place, it causes devastating damage to Cray City. Power lines goes down, all water mains are broken, pink insulation appears to be everywhere, siding is wrapped around trees, cars have been flipped, and it now appears that no structure went unscathed. The officer is able to speak with key officials and responder agencies.
This is because they had been prepared, as a few years ago; they had secured grant funding to implement an interoperable radio system. The shared characteristics around different varieties of technological and natural disasters recommend that a significant number of the same administration techniques can apply to all such crises. An all-hazards methodology to crisis preparedness supports viable and predictable reaction to any disaster or crisis, paying little attention to the cause Preparedness includes steps to diminish defenselessness to disaster effects, for example, damages and misfortune of life and property.
Communications are likewise a fundamental variable in accomplishing precision, great timing, and right evaluating of an occasion’s extent. There are a few paramount parts of correspondences. One is the specialized capacity to convey rapidly and proficiently. This means having designated phone, radio, telex, and other electronic systems accessible, on perfect frequencies, and with reinforcement frameworks if there should arise an occurrence of disappointment of the essential framework. Capability to convey over a wide and broad range is likewise essential. An alternate significant part of correspondences is brief, well-disposed relations with the media, all of which could be of huge administration in times of crisis (FEMA Working Group, 2007).
In this case, there were several communication conscious steps that should have been taken to contain the situation. To start with, radio and phone communication would have been the major communication channels in this case. This is due to their reliability and ability ro convey urgent messages. At the juncture where the tornado began, they could have called for reinforcement in order to save some of the people who were injured. If any of these means failed, they could have employed texting services as they are also a reliable means. In the case, phone lines were dead, and could not be relied on. Thus, texting was the only available option of communication.
The increase of recurrence and extent of regular and human-made disasters throughout a decade ago made it clear that conventional crisis, emergency, and catastrophe administration instruments have ended up being ineffectual. In this respect, accepted methodologies portrayed by progressive system and centralization have been supplanted by decentralized crisis administration frameworks (FEMA EMI, 2009).
In this case, there is need to make risky decisions in order to try and save the situation. For instance, there needs to be coordinated effort as well as organizations in and crisis settings that will be underlining decentralized. There needs to be also an adaptable structure alongside significant managerial and administration conveyance changes, presents to its own particular notable issues to the table. One of such issues is synergistic decision making.
Barbra et al. (2005) portray competency as a “particular proficiencies needed for viable execution, inside the connection of a job’s obligations, which attains the objectives of the organization”(p. 3). Coordination among emergency managers and the whole community and all stakeholders at all levels is essential to effective emergency management.
In this case, the situation almost gets worse due to lack of technology utilization. There needs to be instant inventions and innovations towards the use of available technology. These innovations recently are continuously utilized broadly within associations with substantial armadas and field administration associations to run regular operations. Notwithstanding they are likewise assuming a part in storm harm evaluation and cleanup. Different offices and associations have been turning to these innovations to enhance catastrophe reaction. Red Cross employees, case in point, use handheld gadgets to evaluate harm in the result of characteristic calamities (FEMA Working Group, 2007). While previously, the Red Cross staff might hurry to the scene with clipboards under control to do their evaluations, now they utilize tough nomad handhelds to transfer data instantly to investigators at Red Cross home office.
As stated by Waugh, disaster administration happens inside a legitimate and additionally political setting. It is vital that the debacle managements be acquainted with the legitimate structure controlling disaster preparedness, administration, and moderation. The anticipation and administration of catastrophes needs a multifaceted methodology (Waugh n.d). This is on the grounds that there are diverse agencies included in the disaster reaction deliberations.
In this case, there exists a vicinity of shifted disaster administration associations and agencies as a result of the decentralized nature of the US government (Mcentire and Dawson 2007, p. 59). The associations and agencies have distinctive commands and work utilizing diverse lawful systems. This can result in an overlap in the work done by the bodies (Mcentire and Dawson 2007, p. 60). Once in a while, the federal prerequisites for offering aid clash with local necessities. Accordingly, states may not request elected support actually when it is vital, particularly if the federal prerequisites are politically disliked
Hoffman (2009) states that vulnerable groups are regularly ignored throughout and after disasters. Vulnerable groups, which incorporate the monetarily hindered, appear to endure the most throughout disasters (Hoffman, 2009). This is on account of they don’t have the emotional, economic, and social assets that can help to relieve that catastrophe (Hoffman, 2009). Disaster administrators ought to have a rundown of such burdened persons with the goal that they can accept the fundamental backing throughout a disaster (Hoffman, 2009). Large portion of the monetarily impeded persons tend to be from ethnic minorities who are isolated from social order (Hoffman, 2009).
In this case, there are ethical issues that have to be followed to the letter. All persons have the right to a reasonable treatment and a powerful legitimate solution to guarantee the insurance, regard and happiness regarding their rights concerning the anticipation measures arranged or if the powers neglect to act to embrace aversion and disaster hazard decrease measures and to organize relief (Etkin, 2006) .All persons should receive prompt help in the occasion of a regular or innovative disaster, including the benefit of essential wellbeing administrations. Compassionate help is given reasonably, fairly and without segregation, indicating due respect for the helplessness of victimized people and for people’s and assemblies’ particular needs.
FEMA Working Group. (2007). Principles of Emergency Management. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/IS230/Principles%20of%20EM.pdf
FEMA Emergency Management Institute (EMI), (2009). The College List. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/collegelist
Barbara, J. A., Macintyre, A. G., Shaw, G., Seefried, V., Waterman, L., & deCosmos, S. (2005). VHA–EMA Emergency Response and Recovery Competencies Survey, Analysis, and Report. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/EMCompetencies.asp
Kapucu, N. &Garayev, V. (2011). Collaborative Decision Making in Emergency and Disaster Management. International Journal of Public Administration, 34,366-375. Retrieved from http://sangyubr.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/collaborative-decision-making-in-emergency-and-disaster-management.pdf
Etkin, D. (2006, September). Emergency Management Core Competencies. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/EMCompetencies.asp