Archive for June, 2015

A policy analysis of “The case for change (2003)

June 30, 2015

There are terms that will be used in this paper and need contextual definition. The first term is human capital, which is the value that a certain population or persons hold for a nation in terms of knowledge, skills and experience (Brewer & McEwan 2010). It determines the level to which a person is likely be involved in productive activities that benefit the nation. People with less human capital are less likely to be employed. Social justice, defined as the level of justice in terms of wealth distribution, privileges and rights within a society is the other term. Thirdly, there is pedagogy, which refers to the technique and way of teaching, principally as a theoretical model (Mitchell, Crowson, & Shipps 2011).

The policy fronted by this document is a deviation from the old one due to its focus on smart content development as well as regulating the major guidelines that span both the private and public sections of schools

Despite being one of the world powers economically and even academically, England has a scarcity of good degrees, that is, in mathematics and sciences. As a result, the teaching of the subjects is left to people that are more qualified in other fields. For instance, 16% of mathematics teachers in secondary schools are not specialists in the subject. In addition, only 21% and 19% of secondary school teachers have chemistry and physics degrees respectively (Department of Education, UK 2010). That serves as sufficient evidence to show that there is room for improvement when it comes to the proportion and qualification of teachers in the country.

In the academic year 2011-2012, there was a 17% growth of degrees awarded in England while the number of postgraduate courses on offer increased by 31% (Department of Education 2015). That is in comparison with the 2009-2010 academic year before the policy was drafted and began implementation. This is in line with the policy’s motive of casting the education net wider and having professionals with specified professional training in areas not explored before.

However, the implementation of the policy has been adversely affected by economic conditions. Consequently, spending per student has fallen in real terms despite the increased investment on the policy. The nominal spending has significantly increased but due to inflation and other factors including cost of living, its impact has not been felt by a significant section of the society.

Policymakers formulated and implemented policies meant to solve those issues as well as attaining other aims that would shape the educational panorama of the UK in the long-term.

The policy aimed at producing quality, skilled and all rounded students who can be absorbed by the British employment. It also aimed at improving the education systems to make it more accommodative and create a level playing field for all students irrespective of their parents’ social standing.

The education policy has achieved considerable success like the introduction of free schools, alteration of course content and increase in national spending on education. The number of post graduate courses offered has also increased, and so has the number of graduates. That helps increase human capital of the initially poorly endowed and the abandoned class. However, the progress would have been more significant and far reaching were it not for the societal problem of religious extremism, inflation and increased cost of living. The aforementioned, particularly extremism, have made the implementation of the policy especially where some schools had to be closed or policed on how they deliver content.

The policy is based on evidence showing that there are issues that might act as an impediment to the long term development of the nation, national cohesion, social justice and quality of graduates from the system. In that vein, it should devise an implementation plan that diminishes any conflict of interest; one that ensures that societal problems and conditions are taken care of so that they do not force the government’s hand into stopping procedures stipulated in the policy document.

. A nation that can relate better financially is able to achieve a level of integration that cuts across all ages, races, sex or sexual orientation.

Vale stream mapping

June 26, 2015

Value stream mapping in built environments

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Tutor

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College

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Abstract

Manufacturing is an undertaking that uses tools, chemicals, machines, and biological means in producing goods for sale or consumption. Since manufacturing process is the source of products, it has become a crucial step in business. Every organization aims at reducing the cost of production by reducing the operational cost, labor costs and other factors of production in product improvement. The two common approaches used are Value Stream Mapping (VSM) which depicts information and inventory flow improvement and Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a method of improvement that employs five steps of problem analysis; define, measure, analyze, improve and control. In this report, we shall discuss the two methods of product improvement. A case study of a company called Xam is picked in six sigma analysis. The report expects to find that VSM and Six Sigma are invaluable methods of product improvement.


 

Introduction

Manufacturing is becoming a more crucial in the market and this makes companies to concentrate due to the resulting competition. The production through manufacturing has to be increased in efficiency, however, high levels of quality needs to be maintained. The rise in production costs such as labor costs, operating cost in many industrialized countries has made them to outsource their most of the operations. The companies may outsource these operations to countries with lower production costs and wages. Another way to reduce cost and maintain competitiveness in the market is to use lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing is a method manufacturing that tries to reduce wastes in production. These waste can be can result from operations, long lead times, reworking, defects and material waste (Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

VSM is a of flow chart that shows and improves the flow of the inventory and information. The mapping uses the symbols which are known as language of lean.

Purpose of VSM

The aim of employing VSM in manufacturing is to provide the optimum value to the client in terms of goods and services. This is achieved through the value creation in processes through reduction of wastage in designing, building and sustaining quality in production (Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

Reasons for Using VSM

First, the improved events creates a localized improvement which are strengthen by visual stream mapping and analysis. VSM also provides strength through vision plans that links all the activities in a production line. Secondly, the many companies that uses lea conversions have noticed a deficiency in using the improvements events alone. This has called for the use of Value stream mapping. Finally, the VSM analysis acts as a tool that helps in seeing waste and thus be able to eliminate it (Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

The value that’s being analyzed should be of the highest quality, produced at the right time and sold to the customer at an appropriate price.

Principles of Value Stream Mapping

The following five principles are use when constructing a VSM

  1. The value from the standpoint end of the client need to be specified.
  2. The value stream for each products family is specified
  • The product is made to flow so that the customer can pull to allow one to concentrate on perfection.


(Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

Symbols used in Value stream mapping

Production control

 

This shows a scheduling of central production, operation, person or department.

Dedicated process

The icon shows the operation, machine, process or department through which the material flows.

Operators Icon

This show the operator. It depict the number of operators required work in a particular process.

Supplier or Client icon

This icon represents the customer when in the upper right and shows the supplier when in the upper left and the usual end point for the material.

Kanban Post Icon

This symbol shows where the kanban signal reside for picking. The symbol is normally used in a two-card systems inn exchanging the withdrawal and the production kanban.

Sequence Pull icon

This symbol shows the pull system that gives instructions to subassembly processes to generate a predetermined quantity and type of a product. This is typically one unit without using a supermarket.

ERP/MRP icon

The icon shows operation scheduling using ERP or MRP systems. Other centralized systems can also use the same icon.

Push arrow

The icon represents the process of material from one process to the next in production.

Inventory icons

This shows the inventory between two processes.

Shipment icon

The arrows show either the movement of materials to the factories or the movements of finished products from the factories to the clients.

Supermarket icon

This shows the kanban stock point normally referred to as “supermarket”

(Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

Steps of Value Stream Mapping construction

The following steps are taken when constructing a VSM

  1. The first step is selection of the sponsor and setting of expectations.

A person responsible for making decisions, arbitrate solutions and planning the project is appointed. The guy selects the projects that will mapped and should have an idea of the real target.

  1. A team is selected.

A team that is composed of every area is selected for full representation i.e. purchasing, sales and ware house departments.

  1. Then the process to be mapped is selected.

This involves selection of the process to be handled. This may include; service oriented organizations, logistics and manufacturing.

  1. The data is collected and the current state map produced.

The necessary information regarding the process such as inventory, customer demands and materials information should be acquired for generation of the current state map. The future state maps will use the information acquired hence precision is needed in data collection.

  1. Critiquing of the current state

Suggestions are made on the present ideas to identify the areas of wastes in the system.

  1. Mapping the future state

The future state map is compiled basing on the present/current state map and critiques.

  1. Creation of Action plan and Deployment

Using the future state map, a viable action plan is considered and implemented.

  1. Results Measurements

The result is rated to see that the expected benefits are realized. The changes that were made are reviewed and the benefits analyzed.

(Singh, & Sharma, 2009)

Six Sigma

Six sigma is a tool that is used to reduce the variations in a process. It is a tool that deals with improvement. It involves the use of statistical tools to help the management predict the outcome of a process in an organization. The tools can be used every now and then to clarify the elements that causes such problems and by so doing look for ways of removing them. The elements that are usually analyzed include quality control, production lead time among other factors of business. The six sigma strategy has five steps; define, measure, analyze and control normally abbreviated as (DMAIC) (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Define

The top management begins by defining the process. This involves asking the questions regarding the type and who the customers are for a particular product. They shall then identify the problem through customer feedback and then strategize the company’s mission, determine the client’s requirements and set the goals of achieving them.

Measure

This is the key transitional step in the six sigma policy. The problem is refined through inquisition for the root causes and this helps in finding the solutions to these problems. The key features of a system are grouped, measurements systems are proved and data collection is done.

Analyze

The data collected is analyzed in this step. The project team shall use the data analysis tools and techniques to determine and verify the root causes of the problem being studied. For this purpose, the members of the team needs to come up with some hypothesis, identify the few core causes and finally authenticate the hypothesis.

Improve

The step aims at improving the process. Solutions to the problems identified so far are improved and changes are made to the process. The team members have the task of developing the ideas that remove the root causes, test the solutions and harmonize the solutions to yield better results. They then judge if the changes are beneficial or not and if another set of changes are needed.

Control

This the last step of the six sigma. If the system is performing under a required and realistic level, a control measure is put to sustain it. This is done when the improvements and results made in the system has been documented. The team needs to establish measures of maintaining the performance and correction when deem necessary. This step is necessary, otherwise the process may revert to its original state.

(Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Case study

A company called Xam manufactures food products known as pork buns. The company wants to reduce the operational cost to improve financial returns and increase the competitive ability in the market. They decided to implement the six sigma in achieving their desires. A committee was selected to handle the project. The key issues they discussed were reducing the accounts receivables collection cycle, lowering rates of products defects, improving customer satisfaction, reducing the recruit cycle time and reduction of new product development time. The following phases were followed in addressing the product problems.

Results and Discussion

Define phase

The feasible scope of the project was defined and this includes setting the projects goals and objectives. Pareto charts were used to define the hierarchy of attending the problems. The primary problem that was that the buns was due to shrinkage. After the scope project was obtained the goals had to be set; project financial and consequential indices. In this case, the goal was to reduce the defect rate of shrinkage. The time series data for shrinkage was collected. It showed that there was low shrinkage defects in the beginning which rose with time. The objective of the phase was to reduce the defects by 50% in two months. After setting the goal, financial index was then calculated accordingly. Finally, the consequential index takes note of effects that mat occur in trying to reach the target (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Figure 1: Pareto chart (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Measure phase

In this phase, the project situation as a whole is comprehended. Process flow diagram (PFD) is used was used to discussed the related flow processes of the product. A process map is established for inputs and output consideration is constructed for use in cause and effect analysis. Basing on the PFD, and the flow diagram, the members discussed the factors that may have caused the bun to shrink and the results were summarized in a fish-bone diagram as figure 2. The major problems forms the ribs of the fish while the main problem is the fish head (Shrinkage).

Figure 2: Fish bone diagram (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Analysis

The variables were then analyzed. In statistical analysis, the small frozen buns were collected through sampling out each from the container plate. Each bun was re-steamed to test the whether the bun would shrink or not. Also, the type of steaming box and pressure were collected in that level. Among other factors such as dough sheet rolling, ferment time, volume of input ice water and steaming time, the shift seemed to be the main factor in accelerating the defect rate.

Improve phase

A series of integrated experiments were performed in investigating the best approach of improving the quality of the bun. Stuffing temperature, ferment time, volume of input ice, times for dough rolling and steaming time were selected for improvement analysis. The results showed that the most critical factor was input ice volume.

Figure 3: Design of experiments analysis (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Control Phase

After the improvement phase the factors that causes shrinkage of the buns were proposed. The actions were then implemented in the manufacturing process and the results were monitored in the control phase (Chen, Chang, & Huang, 2011)

Conclusion

VSM and Six sigma are tools and techniques that are mainly used in manufacturing a product that is desired by the customer. They guide on the proper steps and approaches that are followed in any production set up. Both method aims at improving the products in order to meet the client’s need. Through implementation of the two approaches, the organization will realize reduced operational cost, quality products, low production lead time and optimum profits.


 

References

  1. Chen, S., Chang, L.,& Huang, T. (2009). Applying Six-Sigma methodology in the Kano quality model: An example of the stationery industry 20(2), 153-170. Doi-10.1080/14783360802622847
  2. Singh, B., & Sharma, S. (2009). Value stream mapping as a versatile tool for lean implementation: 13(3), 58-68. Doi-10.1108/13683040910984338

Interpretation of the New Testament

June 26, 2015

In order to effectively interpret the New Testament, the interpreter should understand the meaning of a given text and the intention of the author as well as the text’s intended audience. In addition, an interpreter should seek out the meaning that is applicable in the modern times. This paper will analyze specific passages in the New Testament and interpret their function in the Christian lives. The writing style will also be analyzed in order to understand the deeper meaning in English (Collins 121).

The Old Testament enjoys extensive internal interpretation as compared to the New Testament. However, some examples can be recognized easily as in the different interpretation of the parables used in the New Testament. Some of the parables are derived from the traditional Christians while others are evangelically supplied. Later gospels interpretations differs from the older ones for example, Mk 9:1 “They See the kingdom of God come with power “has been changed in Mt. 16:28 into “They see the Son of Man come with power”. Another example is Mk.15:39 “Truly this man was the son of God” which changes to “Certainly this man was innocent” in Lk.23:47.

The Gospel of John aims at validating the work and presence of Jesus in the world. The Eternal life is therefore synonymous with the God’s kingdom. The changes that led to the persecution of Jesus “the King of the Jews” may appear irrelevant. However, when being interrogated by Pilate, Jesus answers in John 18: 33-38 makes it clear that his claim of kingship is in the spiritual realm. In his attempt to interpret the New Testament, Apostolic Father Clement of Rome wrote some letters to the church in Corinth. Although his collection is yet to be compiled, he tries to warn the Christians against envy and quotes the New Testament verses in his plea for mutual forbearance. According to Clement, the people who “ went about in skins of sheep and goats” Hebrews 11:37 are Elisha and Elijah. However, this is a major misinterpretation from the author’s point of view. The content in Hebrews targets the Christians in the early church. Therefore, it is not correct to assume that Clement wrote the Hebrews as suggested in Jerome’s day (Jerome & Andrew 99-125).

It is common for modern reader’s to feel that John narratives have deeper meaning than what can be read. No wonder his gospel has become an allegorical exegesis albeit with unattainable underlying significance. For example, the presence of Mary, the mother of Jesus is synonymous with a believing community (McMickle 117). John did not call Mary by her name, so a reader wonders what the deeper meaning of her presence is. The text on the Samaritan woman with five husbands, John 4:18 are also debatable. The five husbands should not be interpreted literally as this is allegorically the idol worshiping being rebuked by Jesus. This is also mentioned in 2Kings 17:30 where the Samaritan Gods are condemned. The presence of allegory and symbolism in the gospel of John cannot be easily noted by a lay reader, but deeper study of the gospel is required to bring out the deeper meanings.

The healing request by the Gentile that gave rise to a vital dialogue with Jesus is expounded by Mathew. He offers a detailed explanation through a story and an insertion by Jesus that faith is not only an important tool for getting what one desires but also for attaining salvation. Being Jesus’ evangelist, Mathew expounds on this particular theme and focuses on the healing of the Gentile. This action offers a perfect paradigm of how to apply Jesus’ teachings in a universal manner. The Jews had previously believed that they had a birthright to inherit the kingdom of God, but Mathew ascertains that this is not the case. Anyone who believes in Jesus has the ability to live a blessed life and attain eternal life (Posset 113).

The above understanding resulted from a ‘redaction-critical’ periscope’s exegesis that compares with the Lucan parallel. While the miracle in itself is a valuable periscope, Mathew emphasis on something greater that the ability of Jesus to perform miracles. On his part, Apostle Peter in Peter 3:17-22, encourages all the Christians undergoing persecution. In Peter 3:13-17, the Christians undergoing persecution are advised to remain loyal to Christ and ensure that they do not suffer in vain. Suffering should be encountered for the good deeds of Christians and not bad deeds. This theme is repeated in Peter 18:1-6 and many interpreters tend to ignore this theme on their interpretations (Posset 58).

Bible scholars have realized the various traces of creedal formulae and hymns of the early Christians. There is rhythmic and hymned structure that allows for easy memorization. Peter 3: 17 says “It is better to suffer, if suffer you must, for good deeds than for bad. 18. Because Christ also suffered for no fault of his own when he, then just one, died on behalf of the unjust”. Since Jesus rose from the dead, Christians are implored not to fear the people that are only capable of killing the physical body (Dohrmann 86) and (Mitch et al, 91).

Conclusion

Interpretation of the New Testament has been undertaken by many people and groups. However, some of them have offered wrong interpretation while others have offered an acceptable interpretation. By exploring the intended meaning of the author and the intended audience, this paper has used a few readings to bring out the deeper meaning within.

Work Cited

Collins, Adela Y. “Apocalypticism and New Testament Theology.” (2008): 31-50. Print.

Dohrmann, Natalie B. Jewish Biblical Interpretation and Cultural Exchange: Comparative Exegesis in Context. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Print.

Jerome, , and Andrew Cain. Commentary on Galatians. Washington, D.C: Catholic University of America Press, 2010. Print.

McMickle, Marvin A. Shaping the Claim: Moving from Text to Sermon. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2008. Print.

Mitch, Curtis, and Scott Hahn. The New Testament. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press, 2010. Print.

Posset, Franz. Marcus Marulus and the Biblia Latina of 1489: An Approach to His Biblical Hermeneutics. Köln: Böhlau, 2013. Print.

Messianic

June 26, 2015

Is John copying from the Isis religion?

According to the bible’s New Testament, Jesus is brought out as a spiritual figure who was born into the world by a Virgin woman. But according to other religions, he is portrayed as a myth. John follows the gospel of God as well as preaches about Jesus according to the history he found and believed in because according to the Egyptians, Horus was the first god of the Egyptians. This brings up the argument of what religion copied the other. Considering the fact that God created the world as well as all the life in it, it is therefore logical to say that John did not copy the Isis as he was following Christianity which was brought about by the Lord who is the father to Jesus.

Is Isis religion copying from the book of Exodus?

Christianity happens to be the first religion as it followed the teachings of God. This would show that all the other religions followed after and hence copied and altered the teaching as they are written in the bible. I would therefore say that the Isis copy the book of Exodus. This because He created everything in the world so His gospel was the first one.

Is John simply stating what Jesus said about Himself or making it up?

No. this is because in the New Testament there were witnesses to the accounts recorded. So everything written was seen by others and hence whatever John said about Jesus was witnessed by others who also collaborated his stories about Jesus.

 

 

 

Is Jesus, God incarnate, called “I AM”, who was recorded in the book of Exodus speaking to Moses?

No. Jesus first appeared in the New Testament of which Moses was long out of the picture. Moses was in the Old Testament. The one that Moses talked to was in the fire at the burning bush who gave him the name “I AM” which means that was God and not Jesus.

Did the Jews think that is what He was claiming?

After the birth of Jesus Christ, the Jews and all the rest already knew that Jesus was the son of God born of the Holy Spirit and that he was not God Himself. So when He said “I AM” the Jews knew He was not trying to claim that he was God.

Reference

Horus Manure: Debunking the Jesus/Horus Connection – jonsorensen.net. (2012, October 25).

Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.jonsorensen.net/2012/10/25/horus-manure-debunking-the-jesushorus-connection/

I AM STATEMENT

June 26, 2015

Is John copying from the Isis religion?

According to the bible’s New Testament, Jesus is brought out as a spiritual figure who was born into the world by a Virgin woman. But according to other religions, he is portrayed as a myth. John follows the gospel of God as well as preaches about Jesus according to the history he found and believed in because according to the Egyptians, Horus was the first god of the Egyptians. This brings up the argument of what religion copied the other. Considering the fact that God created the world as well as all the life in it, it is therefore logical to say that John did not copy the Isis as he was following Christianity which was brought about by the Lord who is the father to Jesus.

Is Isis religion copying from the book of Exodus?

Christianity happens to be the first religion as it followed the teachings of God. This would show that all the other religions followed after and hence copied and altered the teaching as they are written in the bible. I would therefore say that the Isis copy the book of Exodus. This because He created everything in the world so His gospel was the first one.

Is John simply stating what Jesus said about Himself or making it up?

No. this is because in the New Testament there were witnesses to the accounts recorded. So everything written was seen by others and hence whatever John said about Jesus was witnessed by others who also collaborated his stories about Jesus.

 

 

 

Is Jesus, God incarnate, called “I AM”, who was recorded in the book of Exodus speaking to Moses?

No. Jesus first appeared in the New Testament of which Moses was long out of the picture. Moses was in the Old Testament. The one that Moses talked to was in the fire at the burning bush who gave him the name “I AM” which means that was God and not Jesus.

Did the Jews think that is what He was claiming?

After the birth of Jesus Christ, the Jews and all the rest already knew that Jesus was the son of God born of the Holy Spirit and that he was not God Himself. So when He said “I AM” the Jews knew He was not trying to claim that he was God.

Reference

Horus Manure: Debunking the Jesus/Horus Connection – jonsorensen.net. (2012, October 25).

Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.jonsorensen.net/2012/10/25/horus-manure-debunking-the-jesushorus-connection/

The Prodigal Son Parable

June 26, 2015

The Prodigal Son Parable

The parable of the prodigal son told by Jesus is found in the Bible, in the book of Luke, chapter fifteen, verses eleven to thirty-two. Jesus told this parable in his daily teachings, and the listeners included the audience. Among the audience were the Pharisees as the teachers of the law, among other Christians, and a good number of them were sinners. It is significant that the listeners were sinners and Pharisees because the message of the parable touched them directly. For instance, it is the people who found it hard to forgive and forget that Jesus targeted in the parable.

This parable can be interpreted to show the forgiving nature of God (Hamilton, 2008). In the parable, the main character, who is the forgiving father, represents God and his forgiving nature. The central point that Jesus wants to pass by is that God will grant anything to anyone, including a sinner and that God is ready to forgive anyone, regardless of their past sinful life. In this case, the forgiving father agreed to give the prodigal son his share; later he forgave the son, despite the fact that the son misused his share.

The meaning of parable has a lot to do with mercy and forgiveness. It means that God is a forgiving father, and he never bothers the past sins that a person committed. From the parable, we learn that we should have the attitude of forgiving and embracing our mates, regardless of their past dirty life. There is also a lesson from the elder brother who represents the self-righteous in that we should not justify our sin status. When this parable is applied to me this week, it reminds me of a friend who wronged me at the beginning of the week, and I have made a decision to forgive them, forget and embrace them as a brother from another mother.

Reference

Hamilton, J. (2008). The parable of the prodigal son. Charleston, South Carolina: BibioBazaar.

The Story of the Runaway Slave, Onesimus, (Philemon 1: 8 – 21)

June 26, 2015

Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, wrote to Philemon concerning Onesimus, who was a new convert that had abandoned his old master. As a fellow believer and brother in Jesus Christ, Paul wrote out of love of God to reconcile Onesimus to Philemon, a church leader. For the will of God through Jesus Christ is that the Church should be one in mind, spirit and in love, Paul reconciles the two for the spirit to be one. Paul makes it clear in the letter that Onesimus would go back to Philemon not as his bondservant, but as a beloved brother by blood as a fellow Jew and in the Lord Jesus as a fellow believer. Therefore, Paul shares with Philemon as a church leader how to deal with differences in members, to accept Onesimus as a brother despite his earlier escape.

Secondly, Paul demonstrates the love of God through Jesus Christ in reconciling all mankind. Paul clarifies the change of law binding the master and servant from the law of sin to the law of the spirit of life which abounds in love. The relationship between the slave and master stressed on service and pay; Paul refers to this as useless. However, as new beings in Jesus Christ, Paul pleads with Philemon that it is a relationship based on love and brotherhood in the church. In this relationship, everyone considers the other better than themselves because of the love of Jesus Christ which enjoins the believers (Killingray). Unlike the Law of Moses in which the slaves were treated harshly with death punishment, the Christianity love treated slaves as brethren in Christ whatever position they held. They were not subjected to the capital punishment for disobedience is counted at all and for the same cause Jesus Christ was sent to forgive and love. Thus, Paul expresses his trust in the unfailing love of Christ that will propel Philemon to do more as the Lord wills.

The problem in the contemporary world, both in their religious cocoons and secular movements is a failure to believe and trust in the love of God to all men through our Lord Jesus Christ. Thus, in Jesus’ love, all people are equal and have failed in all ways, therefore, should only rely on God’s grace. This Christ’s church leaves no one above another in terms of enslaving servants, nor workers exploiting their masters due to a common bond of brotherly love.

Works Cited

Killingray, Margaret. “The Bible, Slavery and Onesimus.” ANVIL 24 (2007): 85- 96.

Main Issues in Churches Addressed By Paul and Peter

June 26, 2015

The central theme that Paul addressed in his letter to the Corinthians was about immorality that stemmed from the adoption of the paganism of Corinthians. Paul wrote concerning it because this sin began getting its way into the Corinthian church. The letter to the church of Ephesus stressed to the Ephesians that God planned for salvation from eternity to show his glory through grace. He reminded them of the great blessings that are in Christ Jesus for those who believe. The other issue that he addressed is racial or tribal discrimination and living as a child of God. Paul reminded them that there was no Jew or Gentile in Jesus Christ. For all are the same in Christ.

Paul’s letter to the Galatians addressed the controversy among the Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians on circumcision as was in Mosaic Law. The Christians from Judaism wanted Gentile Christians to undergo circumcision as a requirement of the Law of Moses. Paul clarifies that the work of the law was to lead us to Christ, so that the grace might save us. Therefore, no one would be protected by the law. The other letter to the Colossians stressed to them that Christ Jesus was the all- sufficient solution to their heresy.

The church faced the danger of falling to paganism’s immorality, being swayed by men’s philosophies, the Judaism ceremonies and asceticism. To the church of Philippians, Paul wrote them concerning the joy and sufferings he underwent with fellow workers of Christ. He expressed gratitude for the gifts he received from them and warned them against ‘dogs’ who taught Gentiles circumcision. The book of Romans shows the origin of sin and how God planned salvation from sin through Jesus Christ’s death.

Paul’s letter to the Thessalonians exhorted them on their fidelity to the gospel (Houghton). Finally, Paul’s letters to Philemon and Timothy appealed to them to church leaders on how to lead churches entrusted them by God.

Peter addressed his letters to a mature church on living a life that qualifies for the call of salvation. He sternly warns against false teachers and prophets as he called for all to be ready all time for the day of the Lord.

Works Cited

Houghton, Mifflin and Harcourt. Cliff Notes. 2014. 23 5 2014 <http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/n/new-testament-of-the-bible/summary-and-analysis/1-and-2-thessalonians&gt;.

OQI\Observation question and implication

June 26, 2015
OBSERVATION QUESTION IMPLICATION
Jesus did not seek honor from people (chap 1:44,25,) Why was he humble Chap1:45, he avoided the towns(had many people) but people followed him anyway
Christ ministers to his disciples about the kingdom of God in parables(chap 4:10 ) Why did he use parables? So that he may pass the message more clearly to those that could not understand
The unity with which evil spirits have in the man possessed by the same and their fear of Jesus(chap 5:12) Who is greater, the evil spirit or Christ himself That Jesus is more powerful than the evil spirits and that they act by his permission
The Pharisees would rather obey the teachings made by man than follow the teachings of Jesus. (chap 7:5) What makes one unclean? What makes one unclean is what comes out of his heart not what gets into his stomach
Jesus asks for blessings from God for the fish and bread before giving it out to the crowds to eat.(chap 8:7) Why did he ask for blessings while he was Christ? The power of God in blessing our food is far beyond the means. Man cannot live by bread only.
Jesus takes three of his disciples, Peter, James and John up the mountain (chap9:2) Why only these three disciples? Probably because they were more filled with grace and passion for Christ than the rest and hence chosen to witness his transfiguration (his glory).
Jesus talks of institution of marriage as one that began at the beginning(in creation) (chap 10:2) What did Jesus teach about divorce? Only by unfaithfulness should a man divorce his wife not by what Moses taught
Jesus sends his disciples to take a donkey that was tied in the next village, and the owner obliges without hesitation(mark 11:2) Why did the owner agree without hesitation? How did Jesus know of the donkey? The event reflects the sovereignty of Jesus to use anything for his service when he needed it.
A poor widow gives two coins as offering, and Jesus regards her as the one who has put in more than the other rich men(chap 12:41) Why did Jesus regard the offering of the poor widow more than that of the rich who gave in plenty? In all acts of charity, God looks at the heart of the giver, not the quantity given.
Jesus tells his disciples of the suffering they will undergo while preaching the Gospel(chap 13:11) Why should the disciples not worry? The Holy Spirit will fight for them

Questions and Implication from the Book of Revelation

June 26, 2015
  1. The book of revelation talks about rupture, an event. Through the many things that happen nowadays in the church, can we be justified to say that the church has already ruptured or when is will the rupture come and where?
  2. Revelation also gives the message of Christ which say’s “my kingdom is not of this world, but the Kingdom of God is within you”(Revelation, 21:14). It also says that the way that leads to life is straight and narrow. This makes me ask where are we now, and if there is a way to life, what is this thing that we call life in this world?
  3. In chapter fourteen, the scripture says that that if we love God, obey his commandments and whatever we ask in his name, he shall do. People die while some are still asking him to let them overcome death, other get sick while still asking him to take away their cup of sickness in vain, who then obeys his commandments and asks in his name? This could then be a call to radical discipleship of living holy and faithful lives.
  4. John preached to the seven churches in Asia and told them “Grace be with you” (Revelation, 1:4). Where they really churches or symbolic terms and if they were churches
  5. What does revelation mean by the three woes of revelation? According to the book, the tree woes signify great anguish that is said to come to those who pledge their allegiance to the antichrist during the end times. We often hear of the antichrist as a person who lives amongst the Christians and one who has mass followers, does it mean that the end of time is already here. This could imply that there is a binding link between true believers who serve God and demons who fight God (Mulholland, 1990).
  6. What do we mean by seeing the face of God (Revelation, 22.2), does it imply that no man can see God in this world and live? The verse could be directed to the believers meaning that after the tribulations of life, man can still experience God’s fulfillment (Mulholland, 1990).
  7. It is said in the book that God would not leave people comfortless and that he would come to them even in the spirit of truth (Mulholland, 1990). Does that mean that people do not realize the spirit of truth? This could imply that the victory of Christians is through Christ even when they are suffering or in death.
  8. What does rupture and second coming in revelation imply? According to revelation (6.8) second coming will occur after several tribulations in humanity and will be visible to all while rupture can take place anytime.
  9. What does the book imply by the battle of Armageddon? This is stated in Revelation (16:16) and it refers to the gathering of all nations to fight against Christ which is already happening through people who fight Christian churches.
  10. Who is the book of revelation dedicated to? Since it calls for the repentance and salvation of people until God’s coming, the book is written and dedicated to all people.

Reference

Mulholland, M R. Revelation: Holy Living in an Unholy World. Grand Rapids, Mich: F. Asbury Press, 1990. Print.

The English Standard Version Bible:  The book Of Revelation. Containing the Old and New Testaments with Apocrypha.  Oxford:  Oxford UP, 2009.  Print.