Psy 12 Reflection Topic 5

I will incept on the theory on the adolescents that was incepted on Child and adolescent development. This theory defines the complexities of the layers of the environs that is the core causal of effects on the child’s   development.

In Kim Gales’ book, he quotes “The Adolescent: development, relationships and culture offers an eclectic, interdisciplinary approach to adolescence, presenting both psychological and sociological viewpoints” (Dolgin, 2010, p. 510).These levels are forth in the modern world through phases and encompass levels. These are layers closest to the child and contain the structures with which the child has direct contact. The micro-system encompass the relationship and the interactions that a child has with their immediate environs (family, school, neighborhood or even child care surroundings).For instance, a child’s elder brothers may affect his beliefs and behaviors ,likewise the child can affect the elder brothers beliefs and behaviors (Dolgin, 2010).The mesosystem. This layer has some amazing factual behind it; especially in provision of connection between the structures of the child’s micro-system, for example, the link between the child’s teacher and her parents or even between the child’s church and his neighborhood.

The exosystem. This layer defines the social system in which the child does not function directly. The child’s structures here impact the child’s development by interacting with some structures in her microsystem. Examples of this is the schedules in the parent’s workplace or community-based family resources (Dolgin, 2010).At this level, the child may not be directly involved but does feel the positive or negativity brought by the surrounding forces that participates with the interaction with his own system, the macrosystem. This point is forth through Kim’s utterance “adolescents have a tremendous cumulative impact” (Dolgin, 2010, p. 13).This layer could be considered to be the outmost in the child’s phasing during their adolescents. Conversely, this layer is comprised of the cultural values, customs and laws (Dolgin, 2010). The effects of this theory have a cascading effect that lie on the parent’s side due to their obligation of solely being responsible for raising their children.

The last stage is the chronosystem. This phase encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to a child’s environments (Dolgin, 2010). Dolgin points outs that elements within this system can be external, “timing of a parent’s death or internal such as physiological changes that do occur with the aging of the child” (Dolgin, 2010, p. 440).


  1. Dolgin, K. G. (2010).Adolescent development, relationships, and culture-13th edition. Prentice Hall.

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