Compare the age of men and woman in first time marriages

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**Comparing the age of men and woman in first time marriages**

The debate on who between men and women should marry first has been ongoing for several decades. Different researchers have tried to find out whether one’s gender as either a man or a woman affect the time one marries.

Marriage and divorce are very important in studying the social welfare of a family and the society at large.

According to different researches, the time and duration of first marriage has changed a lot in United States during the second half of the twentieth century. Currently people are starting their first time marriage at an advanced age and several adults are cohabiting before settling for the first time marriage. From the same research data, it has been estimated that about half of the first marriages are ending up in divorce.

By analyzing a data consisting of a sample size of 12,279 women aged between 15 to 44 years produced the following results as analyzed depending on their ethnicity for years 2006 to 2010.

The median age at first marriage, 1890 to 2010

Males | Females | |

Mean age | 26.1 | 23.8 |

Using the above graph, the following key analysis can be made.

- The age of first marriage among females is lower than that of males.
- It has been noted that, the average age for first marriage among the males within United States is 26.1 years while that of female is 23.8 years for the period between 1890 and 2010.
- The age of first marriage has been increasing since 1950s among all genders with time, where. For example the median age for first marriage among males was 22.8 years in 1960s. It has increased to 28.2 years as at 2010. The same trend is witnessed among females where the age of first marriage was 20.3 years in 1960s and has increased to 26.1 years at 2010.
- This increase in the age of first marriage can be attributed to the different changes in the way of life as the time has been changing. For example, from different researches it has been noted that people of both gender are currently pursuing career development first before resorting to starting families. People are nowadays attending schools for long than it was six decades ago implying that more important has been attached to individual career growth as opposed to starting families, which was the case before.
- Also the economies have changed and currently people are finding it hard to start families early as opposed to 1960s. With increased population, there has been increased competition for resources. This has pushed people to first seek stable means of earning income before settling down to first marriage.
- Using the variance, it can be noted that the changes within the years of first marriage has been highest among women compared to that of men. This is an implication that females witnessed highest variation on their age of first marriage compared to men.
- The use of coefficient of variation is very important in this analysis in that it will tell us the proportion of standard deviation as a proportion of mean. This is important in getting more meaning of the standard deviation.

Males | Females | |

Mean age | 26.1 | 23.8 |

Variance | 2.383437 | 3.996653 |

Standard Deviation | 1.543839 | 1.999163 |

Coefficient of Variation | 0.05911 | 0.084011 |

- It can generally be noted that the age of first marriage has always been higher among males than in women for over the one decade period.
- There has been general increase in the age of first marriage among all genders mostly within the last two decades.

**Histogram of their ages**

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- From the above histogram, it has been noted that majority of males marries within the age of 26 years, followed by those within 27 years, then followed by those who married within the age of 24 years.
- It can be noted that very few males married within the age of 23 years.
- It is clear from the histogram, that the outliers were the males who married within the ages of 22, 23 and 28 years.
- From the histogram, it can be noted that the age of first time marriage among males is negatively skewed.

**Z- Scores**

A Z-Score is a measurable estimation of a score’s relationship to the mean in a gathering of scores. A Z-score of 0 methods the score is the same as the mean. A Z-score can likewise be sure or negative, showing whether it is above or underneath the mean and by what number of standard deviations.

For x = 23 men = using formula, we get = -1.882

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**Females age within the first marriage**

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From the above histogram,

- Majority of females married within the age of 25 years
- It can be noted that very few males married within the age of 23 years.
- It is clear from the histogram, that the outliers were the females who married within the ages of 22, 23 and 28 years.
- From the histogram, it can be noted that the age of first time marriage among females is negatively skewed.

Using this data, it can be generally argued that the age of first marriage is higher in males than in females.

The age bracket has been on the increase within the period under study.

**Creating a bloxplot related to the data**

**Investigating outliers**

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Statistic | Males | Females | Differences – Males | Differences – Females |

Min | 22.80 | 20.30 | 22.80 | 20.30 |

Q1 | 25.00 | 21.83 | 2.20 | 1.53 |

Median | 26.70 | 24.50 | 1.70 | 2.68 |

Q3 | 27.03 | 25.30 | 0.32 | 0.80 |

Max | 28.20 | 26.10 | 1.18 | 0.80 |

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A bloxplot is important in indicating whether a set of data symmetric, in which it will be equal on every side as it will have been cut at the middle or the data is skewed. For a symmetrical data, the median is approximately found at the middle of the box. From the above two diagrams, the median is the one indicated by the line passing through the box within the bloxplot.

The two bloxplot diagrams have skewed data because the median cuts the boxes into two unequal parts.

From these shape of bloxplot, all the data is negatively skewed because the longer side is on the left side. This is similar to the findings from the histograms which confirmed the age was negatively skewed both for males and women.

It is known that interquartile range, IQR is calculated by subtracting lower first quartile from third quartile. This is the length of the box in the above diagrams.

Using these details we can get outliers. They are defined as any points below Q1 – 1.5*IQR or above Q3 + 1.5 * IQR.

From our data,

**Males**

- IQR males = 27.03 – 25 = 2.03.
- Given this, the outliers would be = 25 – 1.5*2.03 = 21.96 or 27.03 + 3.045 = 30.075.
- Thus there are no data with such value on males’ age, hence no outliers

**Females**

- IQR will be = 25.30 – 21.83 = 3.47
- We calculate outliers to get = 21.83 – 1.5 * 3.47 = 16.63 or 25.3 + 1.5*3.47 = 30.51
- This does have any outliers; implying both ages do not have outliers.

Median age at first marriage | ||

Year | Males | Females |

1890 | 26.1 | 22 |

1900 | 25.9 | 21.9 |

1910 | 25.1 | 21.6 |

1920 | 24.6 | 21.2 |

1930 | 24.3 | 21.3 |

1940 | 24.3 | 21.5 |

1950 | 22.8 | 20.3 |

1960 | 22.8 | 20.3 |

1970 | 23.2 | 20.8 |

1980 | 24.7 | 22 |

1990 | 26.1 | 23.9 |

1993 | 26.5 | 24.5 |

1994 | 26.7 | 24.5 |

1995 | 26.9 | 24.5 |

1996 | 27.1 | 24.8 |

1997 | 26.8 | 25 |

1998 | 26.7 | 25 |

1999 | 26.9 | 25.1 |

2000 | 26.8 | 25.1 |

2001 | 26.9 | 25.1 |

2002 | 26.9 | 25.3 |

2003 | 27.1 | 25.3 |

2005 | 27 | 25.5 |

2006 | 27.5 | 25.9 |

2007 | 27.71 | 26 |

2008 | 27.6 | 25.9 |

2009 | 28.1 | 25.9 |

2010 | 28.2 | 26.1 |

Data retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005061.html

**References**

Copen, C & Et al., (2010). National Health Statistics Reports:* First Marriages in the United States: Data from the 2006 – 2010 National Survey of Family Growth.* Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr049.pdf

Infoplease., (2015). Median Age at First Marriage, 1890 – 2010. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005061.html

Kreider, R & Ellis, R. (2011). Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009. Household Economic Studies, Issued May 2011. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-125.pdf