Health care Management


















Task 1

1.1 The roles played W.H.O, Department of Health or Public Health England and Local Authorities in identifying the incidences of disease in communities

The organizations are involved in a number of ways that they use to identify the incidences of disease in communities, and they involvecarrying out of the community level approaches on the work that will identify the various forms of diseases that affects the surrounding communities (Orme, 2007). These bodies participates in the identification of disease incidences by deploying some of their medical personnel to go to the communities who will be able to identify the incidences of diseases affecting them by either carrying out different tests on individuals within the community or asking questions within members of the community that will guide them in identifying the illness incidences in the community.

The health organizations can also identify the levels of health and diseases in the communities using statistical data that is collected from the reported cases in the hospitals. Such data is important in helping these healthcare bodies to identify the prevalence of diseases affecting the community, and therefore help them to come up with proper approaches and strategies that they can use to approach the community and solve their issues.Other factors such as the prevalence of the consumed diet within the community can help the health bodies to identify the prevalence of certain given diseases within the community and be able to come up with strategies that they can use to counter the phenomenon.

1.2 The epidemiology of Ebola in Cote d’Ivoire

Ebola is a deadly disease that occurs as a result of the infection from the Ebola virus species, and it is spread through direct contact with body fluids like saliva and vomit on avenues such as the broken skin, eyes, nose or mouth for entering other people’s bodies. The infected person tends to have fever and severe headache that leads to vomiting, stomach pains, diarrhea and unexplained bleeding (Klenk, 2013, p. 39). The people at risk in this case are the travelers who can be infected once they come in contact with the body fluids of the infected individuals, and the high risk individuals in this case also involves the healthcare workers or close friends of the victims.

There has been an outbreak of Ebola in Guinea since March 2014, and the outbreak is still ongoing with outbreaks in Liberia and Sierra Leone. These cases have however been complicated, with cases of civil unrest and violence being reported in the affected areas of West Africa. So far the outbreak has a reported total case of 3576 people who are either suspected or confirmed to be infected, with 3145 cases confirmed through laboratory tests and a resultant death of 2365 people. A number of non-governmental organizations have made efforts towards curbing the incidences of Ebola in the country, and the rarity of the disease has lead to more research being carried out to determine the control measures that can be applied to curb the disease. Some of the efforts have had ambulances being distributed to the affected areas with the health centers being established and the general public being trained on how they can manage the infection of the disease (Berger, 2015).The problems that have been identified in this case involves the problems being experienced when crossing borders which has brought a number of economic activities to a halt, along with the lack of communication that has resulted to more spread being made across the larger Guinea population.

The control measures in this case involves the measures that will prevent people from coming in contact with the infected persons, along with the practice of hygiene like constant washing of hands and proper handling of items that have been used by the victims. The people living around the infected areas are advised to avoid handling and eating the wild animals or any contacts with animals like monkeys and bats. The infected or those with symptoms of headache, fatigue, stomach pains or unexplained diarrhea are advised to seek immediate medical attention that will help  prevent further infection or spread of the disease.

1.3 Effectiveness of different approaches and strategies used to control incidences of Ebola

The lack of communication is one of the main problem that has lead to the wide spread of the disease, and therefore many organizations together with different governments have come together to be able to provide avenues that would be used in providing information to people around Guinea as an effort of helping to stop the spread of the disease. The passing of information has been made effective through the provision of the necessary resources that would be used in passing out the right information which would help the general population to avoid the spread of the disease. The outbreak in the country happened at the time when the country had already approved their budget, and therefore the lack of enough money to finance the control of the disease lead to the government seeking other measures that would generate funding to carry out the prevention of the disease. The effectiveness of the funding from donors and other governmental organizations lead to more measures being put in place that was centered on protecting the population along with the medical personnel on the site.

The other approach used to control Ebola involved the people from other countries being advised to avoid the nonessential travel to Guinea and other affected countries like Liberia and Sierra Leone for purposes of preventing them from coming into contact with the infected people (Hand, 2015). The closing of the borders resulted to a number of problems that have resulted to lowering of economic growth in the country, but these efforts have been effective because they have had a long term effect of being beneficial in the prevention of further spread of Ebola to other countries. An effective campaign has also been carried out concerning the symptoms of the disease and possible precautionary measures, and these campaigns have been effective enough to the point where there has been minimal spread of the disease due to proper information being carried out around different countries of the world.

Task 2

2.1 Priorities and Approaches to provision of services for people with Ebola

The major priority that has been made towards the areas with Ebola outbreak has been centered on the prevention of further spread of the disease. Different governments and non-governmental organizations have come together in the effort of strategizing and implementing measures that can be applied to stop further spread of the disease. The priorities have therefore had several measures being put in place such as closing of borders to prevent movement of people which might result to more spread of the disease (Carol, 2014). The infected governments have also established a number of health centers to help contain the already infected people from coming in contact and carrying out the spread of the disease.

The infected governments have also used education as the appropriate way towards prevention and control of Ebola. The education mainly focuses on informing the population concerning proper and careful hygiene that can be applied to prevent the infection or spread of the disease. Such hygiene practices involve educating people on practices such as washing hands frequently using soap and water or recommended sanitizers that will prevent the spread of the disease. People are advised to avoid contact with blood or any body fluids like saliva, feces, sweat, vomit and breast milk which are possible avenues for the spread of the disease. Proper education is given on how people can handle the items that may have come in contact with the blood or body fluids of the infected people. Other proven research methods that are centered on prevention involves advising the general population to avoid certain traditional practices like handling of dead bodies which forms part of the burial rituals within the region.

A number of resources have also been deployed to the affected areas to help in the prevention and control of Ebola. A number of both the governmental and non-governmental organizations have come together for purposes of contributing resources that will help in the effort of curbing Ebola. The resources being contributed involves the testing kits for detecting people with Ebola, and the establishment of the health centers where the infected persons or those with related signs can undergo check-up and be able to receive the necessary medical attention that will help to curb the disease. Different organizations have also deployed researchers who have been able to research and to come up with proper strategies that can be applied to prevent the numerous cases of Ebola infections.

2.2 Relationship between the prevalence of HIV in relation to the requirement of health services to support individuals with Ebola

HIV is an epidemic that has prevalence on the general population. The percentage of people living with HIV is higher in this case because it is a disease that has existed in a longer period, and the fact that it takes longer to carry out its death tolls has lead to more people being negligent and ended up being infected. Both HIV and Ebola infections have affected a larger population, and many countries have made efforts that have been centered on the prevention of the diseases. The generalized epidemic of HIV is more that 1% in the general population, but the risk has been noted to exceed 5% of the general population in a number of at-risk populations which are involved with the high cases of practices like drugs users who use injections and sex workers with minimal information concerning the disease (Jones, 2014, p. 103).

Ebola is however deadly and can take away the life of its patients in a very short period of time. The attention being given for the Ebola infected people is therefore urgent because it is infectious and spreads fast in a given population. The fact that both illnesses have no cure has lead to numerous research being carried out to determine ways that can be used to generate the ways that will be applied to either cure or provide control of their spread. The health serviceresources is therefore urgent when addressing the issues of Ebola as it prevents their fast spread through a given population where the disease has been detected. Ebola is still contained on its spread, and therefore more stern measures are being dedicated on preventing their outbreak that might result to deaths at different populations around the world. HIV has however had a lot of efforts being carried out to prevent their spread, and the fact that it is already widespread has resulted to efforts in being put in place and enough information and healthcare resources that will help in their prevention.

2.3 Impact lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services

The lifestyle choice which involves the aspects of the diet, exercise and substance use have a lot of impact on the future needs of the health of individuals. The choice of lifestyle will directly affect one’s health, and therefore people are advised to practice healthy ways of life for purposes of attaining good health in the future. The preparedness of the governing bodies should however dedicate enough resources in terms of the health and social care services that will be used to observe the health needs of the future population in cases of adversities that will face them. Infectious diseases like Ebola and HIV are some of the illnesses that require sufficient resources to either cure or curd their spread, and therefore enough efforts have to be made in order to prevent the future occurrences of such infections.

Sufficient research also has to be carried out for purposes of prevention on any future spreads of the disease. The research should be able to focus on the curable measures of the infectious diseases, and therefore enough resources should be dedicated to help find the cure of the fatal diseases that affects the population. Enough education should also be carried out on the general population as a way of helping them to live healthier lives and avoid being infected. The education should revolve around the kind of diet being consumed by the general population mainly because the proper diet will improve the immunity of the body and help it to fight against the infectious diseases (Swearengen, 2012). The other educational practices should be focused on encouraging the general population to exercise their bodies as it is healthier for their future livelihoods. The individuals should also be encouraged to live the lifestyles away from substance abuse since the effects of substance abuse can result to more harm being created on the lifestyles of these individuals. Proper attention should therefore be dedicated on the health and social care services in the current and future lifestyles of individuals as a way of avoiding the strain of the resources once the adversities strike the population.

Task 3

3.1 The Health and Wellbeing priorities for people in Health and Social care setting

According to the strategy developed by Islington which is a London borough, they have a shadow health and wellbeing board that has developed plans which are centered on improving the wellbeing of children and adults, and in the process reduce their health inequalities. The borough has the strategic vision of reducing the inequalities of health and the wellbeing of the general population. The outcomes that are focused on delivering this vision involves measure such as ensuring that the every child has the good start in life, then preventing and carrying out the management of the long term conditions that will be focused on ensuring that the length and quality of life has been improved. The measures are also focused on improving the mental and wellbeing of individuals as a way of ensuring that every individual has had a fair share on their health development.

The borough has therefore set up the strategies that focus on the importance of partnerships in the work that they handle together with the joint commissioning of their services so as to attain the more focused utilization of the resources and to provide a good value for the money being spent on the improvement of the projects in place (Johnstone, 2014).The borough has also focused on changing their priorities for purposes of changing with time, and therefore the planning being carried out has been made to stay relevant with the needs of their people.

3.2 Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies for ensuring health and wellbeing of individuals living in a Health and Social care setting

There are numerous services that have been provided in the health and social care units for purposes of ensuring that all the necessary services have been provided to the individuals along with the provision of the necessary resources that will oversee the health and wellbeing of the people. The units always ensure that the services and products being used are of good and proven quality to act in the improvement of the general health in the population. The provided services includes the provision of housing, health inequalities, helping the individuals to carry out the physical activities that will be focused on improving their health along with helping the members on the aspects of tobacco control and problems of alcoholism.

Effective monitoring and refreshing are carried out on the units to ensure that there is continual improvement of services with time. The key priorities are therefore continually identified for purposes of improving the state of the processes and being able to bring the required changes that will tackle the challenges in place and in the process be able to improve the livelihood of the community (Richard, 2012, p. 75).The aspects of poverty and education have been identified to influence the health of the individuals, and therefore the governance of these bodies has enabled the processes to be carried out effectively.

3.3 Changes that could be made to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals in a health and social care setting

A number of changes can be carried out for purposes of improving the health and wellbeing of the individuals, and this involves the use of updated technology that will have the borough using only the best proved items that will bring value to the health of the individuals. The use of improved health apparatus will indicate the high levels of care that is given to individuals for their general health and wellbeing, and the fact that the best medical attention has been given to the individuals is an establishment of how the value for the money being paid out has been accounted and used, an aspect that will also provide confidence and satisfaction for the individuals seeking the services of the health and social care centers(Beger, 2014).

More research activities should also be carried out for purposes of improving the services that will be provided to individuals on their general health and wellbeing. The research should be able to focus on the way effectiveness can be attained from the services that are provided to individuals, and it should also focus on the high quality of health that will be provided on the constant basis in the set up centers. A wider variety of services can also be provided as an improvement strategy to help fit all the required needs of individuals seeking the services for their health and wellness.

3.4 The change4life program

The change for life program is one of the activities that have been implemented in the health and wellness center for purposes of encouraging the change of behavior that will maximize the health of the individuals. The change for life focuses on altering the life of individuals as a way of showing concern for their future wellness and helping them to lead productive lives without causing harm to their bodies. Thebehavioral change involves the aspects such as training the individuals to adopt on proper health practices like avoiding the intake of drugs which are harmful to their bodies, or creating programs that will help the addicted individuals to clean up and start living the healthy lifestyles again.

The change for life will also involve programs that are put in place to keep individuals encouraged and motivated towards attaining their ultimate goals in terms of their health and wellbeing. The change will have groups of individuals coming together and encouraging each other towards the proper ways that they will use to attain their health goals, and therefore the idea of the group will basically be meant for encouragement and motivation on each of the members.






Beger, R. (2014) Health and Wellness. New Jersey: Willpower pub.

Berger, S. (2015) Ebola: Global Status. London: Routledge.

Carol, L. (2014) Guinea: Requests for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit. New York: Cengage Leraning.

Hand, C. (2015) Epidemiology: The Fight Against Ebola & Other Diseases. New York: Wiley Press.

Johnstone, L. (2014) Health and Wellness in London. Wiley and Sons: London.

Jones, S. (2014) Ebola Pandemic: Current Facts For Preparing & Surviving. New Delhi: New Media.

Klenk, H. Feldmann, H. (2013) Ebola and Marburg Viruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. New York: Cengage Learning.

Orme, J. Taylor, P. (2007) Public Health For The 21st Century. London: McGraw-Hill Education.

Richard, B. (2012) Prioritizing on Health and Wellbeing. Chicago: Learns Press.

Swearengen, J. (2012) Biodefense Research Methodology. London: Routledge.



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