Nursing management of patients case study


Nursing care management of patients is one of the most critical areas that nurses should equip themselves with the necessary skills and prowess. Notably, patient health is one of the most essential aspects that nurses should ensure they look into. In some extreme cases, a number of patients have sometimes displayed extra-ordinary symptoms of certain diseases (Gustavsson, 2014). From the case of Mrs. Cook, it is evident that she has a number of health issues that need to be looked into in order to help stabilize her health. Patient medical, social and health history are some of the most critical aspects that should be considered whenever they experience any health issues. For instance, having suffered from Type II Diabetes Mellitus two years back, the current situation that Mrs. Cook is experiencing will be highly dependent on the drugs that she had used then and other medical aspects such as the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). This paper seeks to discuss a number of issues related to Mrs. Cook’s health.

What sort of stroke has Mrs Cook had?

The kind of stroke the Mrs. Cook suffered is the left sided stroke. The ability to speak is often controlled by the left sides of the brain. Therefore, losing her ability to speak implied that Mrs. Cook suffered cerebrovascular accident or CVA) that usually cause adverse effects on the left side of the human brain. It is evident that Mrs. Cook was able to carry out all other activities since other body activities such as movement and sensation is often controlled by the other sides of the human brain. The implication of Mrs. Cooks problems are understandable since in case the stroke caused problems on the the left side of her brain, she could not understand even what other people had to tell her. Most problems that people experience during and after stroke are often related to the side of the brain affected.

                                  Mrs Cook’s medication in relation to her condition

Before making a decision on the types of medication to give to Mrs. Cook, it is quite important to ensure that her past health records are analyzed in order to understand the type of medication that she has taken in the past. In addition, understanding Mrs. Cook’s past medical records will go a long way in determining the type of medication to withhold in order to avoid any medical complications. Dopamine agonists, amphetamines, piracetam (Nootropil), and most currently donepezil (Aricept), have all been utilized in the management of aphasia in either the acute stages or chronic phases. The main justification that has been leveled for the use of such drugs in the medication of aphasia has for a long time been based on the fact that researchers have found two types of major evidence on the disease. Some of the drugs, for instance, dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), have been used to improve the attention span and improve the patient’s learning skills and memory. Notably, learning is a very essential technique that can be used for acquisition of better motor as well as cognitive skills, and, therefore, for useful recovery from Mrs. Cooks sickness related to aphasia.

Besides, various laboratory and clinical data results imply that the aspect of drug treatment might sometimes be used to partially restore the patient’s normal metabolic functions that take place in the ischemic zone that often surrounds the human brain lesion. Moreover, the treatment might also have a neuroprotective effect that follows an acute damage to the left side of the human brain. An example of such medication involves the use of nootropic agent piracetam. Past health records and Mrs. Cooks subscription to the OCP can also lead to withholding some medications that might react with her hormones negatively (Trialists’Collaboration, 2013).

Is Mrs Cook at risk of developing Increased Intracranial Pressure (IICP)?

Despite her health status not being stable, Mrs. Cook is not at a higher risk of developing Increased Intracranial Pressure (IICP). This is because IICP mainly affects very ill patients who have a number of neurologic disorders. In the case of Mrs. Cook, she does not have any severe neurologic disorders except the fact that she suffered a left side stroke. The only risk that Mrs. Cook might be at could be developing Intracranial hypertension (ICP) but not IICP. As a result of her overweight situation and past history with type II diabetes Mellitus, Mrs. Cook is not a higher risk of developing IICP. Usually, IICP affects people who suffer from traumatically induced brain problems. However, Mrs. Cook’s situation cannot be described as traumatically induced. In addition, IICP often results from an injury to the brain that is related to bleeding. In the case of Mrs. Cook, it was found out that she did not suffer any bleeding problems and her condition was not caused by an injury to her brain. Moreover, IICP is often associated with people who suffer from hypertension and people whose blood pressure is relatively high at all times. For Mrs. Cook, there is no history of hypertension in her health records hence putting her out of the risk of developing IICP. However, there is need to ensure that her condition is stabilized so as to avoid any situation that might make her develop IICP in the future.

What are the signs and symptoms of IICP and what nursing assessments
would you conduct to identify this?

The signs and symptoms of ICCP are varied depending on the health status of the patient and the nature of stage that the patient’s medical procedures are. The symptoms also vary depending on whether the patient is an adult or a child. Some of the signs include headache, vomiting, nausea, increased blood pressure, confusion about time, decreased mental abilities, double vision, and eye pupils that do not respond to light changes. Other symptoms include drowsiness, visibly separated sutures, and bulging fontanelle (Nagi & Kaur, 2014). The headache is usually as a result of increased pressure in the brain that causes the blood vessels in the brain to strain in transporting the blood throughout the head. Increased blood pressure is often caused by the high pressure that the blood flows in the brain hence making it difficult for the patients to completely fail to comprehend the external environment. In addition, double vision usually occurs as a result of increased blood flow to the eyes hence making the people suffering from IICP fail to clearly view the surrounding aspects. General body weakness is also evident in patients suffering from the disorder since the brain fails to control all the body activities (Vataja et al, 2014).

In order to carry out assessments on the disease, health care providers should ensure that they make the diagnosis right at the patient’s bedside that is often in an emergency section or a hospital. It is possible for primary care givers to spot early symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure that include headache, seizures, and any other nervous system issues. Nurses can use MRI or CT scan carried out in the head to help in determining the main symptoms of increased intracranial pressure that are internally located in the patient’s brain. In addition, increased intracranial pressure might also be measured when a nurse carries out a spinal tap also known as lumbar puncture on the patient. This can always be measured directly through the use of a device that is usually drilled through the patient’s skull or a specific tube known as catheter that is often inserted through a hollow area in the patient’s brain known as the ventricle (Sharma & Mattoo, 2015).

Areas of concern throughout Mrs Cook’s case study

There are several aspects of concern that need to be looked at before making any medical treatments for Mrs. Cook. The physical, mental, social, emotional, and behavioral aspects on Mrs. Cook’s health are very essential in ensuring that she gets the best medical attention for her condition. Notably, she has a history on such factors as activity and sickness that needs to be addressed based on the facts that would be discussed in this section.

Physical concerns

One of the major physical issues that have been attributed to Mrs. Cook includes her mild overweight situation. As a result of this, she could experience a number of problems if she fails to carry out regular exercise activities. In addition, Mrs. Cook needs to ensure that she maintains a healthy physical body so as to reduce any chances of her falling ill as a result of excess body fats. Due to her weight, it is evident that Mrs. Cook might develop conditions related to high blood pressure that might lead to the risk of developing IICP in the future. However, being a teacher, it is clear that Mrs. Cook takes part in school games such as netball that help her keep her body fitness checked. In order to control her weight, she should ensure that she plays netball more often and not just twice a week. Since being overweight can be associated to diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus type II that she once suffered, she should aim at ensuring her weight is reduced to ensure that her health is not at stake (Kim et al, 2011).

Mental concerns

Thought the only mental activity that Mrs. Cook is involved actively with includes teaching maths in class, there is a possibility that Mrs. Cook overworks herself while in school. Notably, it is of essence to note that teaching mathematics in a middle school is not that easy as it might be quite involving. As a result of this, it is admissible that some of the health problems that Mrs. Cook might have experienced could be as a result of overworking her brain and talking too much while in class and during the school committee meetings that she is part of. In the case of her situation, it is important to ensure that the nurses check her for any mental changes that she might experience at the moment (Kanekar, Zacharia, & Roller, 2012).

Social concerns

Based on how Mrs. Cook relates with her family and friends, it is notable that she has a good relationship with her husband and sons since we are not told of any history of quarrels or misunderstanding. As a result, the support she would get from her family would be essential in ensuring that she heals faster. Her family would also act as care givers in case she falls sick while at home hence help her with household activities.

Emotional concerns

By feeling loved by her husband and sons, Mrs. Cook would be better placed to heal faster since the care and support would make her feel better thereby creating an atmosphere that is effective for her health condition. In addition, the nurses should ensure that they carry out management practices that help take care of her emotions (Jauch et al, 2013).

The likely discharge planning, education and allied health input

In order to help Mrs. Cook heal faster, it is important to ensure that she is well taken care of and educated on the kind of meals that she should take. Due to her weight, Mrs. Cook should be educated on eating more fruits and having more time at home exercising that straining herself at work. Besides, she should be treated in a way that will help her cope with her situation once discharged.

The lifestyle choices that are recommended for someone suffering from CVA as Mrs. Cook should involve active and suitable lifestyle around people who someone cares for and a stress-free life.


In conclusion, it is important to note that nursing care management is quite important in ensuring that patients get better. Through the various aspects that have been included in the essay, it is important to note that brain disorders such as left sided stroke can lead to a number of health issues to a patient. It is therefore, important to understand the patient’s past health status and history in order to help them in going through tough medical situations. The patient’s physical, mental, emotional and mental aspects should also be viewed in order to ensure that the diagnosis and treatment processes are carried out as required. In addition, it is important to ensure that medical tests are carried out at all times to keep the patient on check.


Gustavsson, B. (2014). Management of Increased Intracranial Pressure. InAcute Pediatric Neurology (pp. 211-227). Springer London.

Jauch, E. C., Saver, J. L., Adams Jr, H. P., Bruno, A., Connors, J. J., Demaerschalk, B. M., … & Yonas, H. (2013). on behalf of the American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease, and Council on Clinical Cardiology. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke44(3), 870-947.

Kanekar, S. G., Zacharia, T., & Roller, R. (2012). Imaging of stroke: Part 2, Pathophysiology at the molecular and cellular levels and corresponding imaging changes. American Journal of Roentgenology198(1), 63-74.

Kim, H. J., Song, J. M., Kwon, S. U., Kim, B. J., Kang, D. H., Song, J. K., … & Kang, D. W. (2011). Right–left propensity and lesion patterns between cardiogenic and aortogenic cerebral embolisms. Stroke42(8), 2323-2325.

Nagi, M., & Kaur, S. (2014). Nursing Management of a Patient with Increased Intracranial Pressure: A Review. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Neuroscience4(2), 19-23.

Sharma, R., & Mattoo, P. (2015). Colour Doppler Study of Extracranial Carotid Arteries in             Stroke. Hypertension3(4), 2.

Trialists’Collaboration, S. U. (2013). Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev9.

Vataja, R., Leppävuori, A., Pohjasvaara, T., Mäntylä, R., Aronen, H. J., Salonen, O., … & Erkinjuntti, T. (2014). Poststroke depression and lesion location revisited. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences.


Character alienation

Character alienation is a major theme in many modern societies, which has resulted in authors incorporating the theme into their works. Character alimentation in The Lost World by Michael Crichton and in A Prayer for Owen Meany in John Irving has a similar and a different impact on other characters and the shape of the story. In a culture in which human beings deal with other people who are constantly trying to define them, the characters in the two books have different ways to define themselves.

In A Prayer for Owen Meany by John Irving, alienation changes the course of the story. For instance, Owen is responsible for the change in Johnny’s life after he accidentally killed his mother, Tabby. However, despite the fact that Owen had killed his mother, Johnny can get along with her mainly because he knew that Owen did not intend to kill her (Davis and Kenneth, 40). On the other hand, Owen is permanently connected to the incident, which makes him alienate himself from others. The society did not expect Owen and Johnny to remain friends, which made Owen alienate himself from the society. However, despite alienating himself, he like he owed Owen, which made him vow to help him.

Owen feels like the world has lost its sense of belonging and purpose, which makes him see all actions and activities as purposeful. He starts processing all information, saving everything, and forgetting nothing. He believes the need for a strong moral leader in the community. After being alienated from the society, Owen becomes a Christ figure. However, he is still being made to feel as inferior, as he endures other students raising him overhead in Sunday school.

His parents try to make him believe in himself and integrate with the society again by telling him that he was a result of a virgin birth. However, when playing as the Christ child, he still disturbs the complacent churchgoers. His believe that the society was full of evil doers made him focus on hymns, the Scripture, and chosen works of William Shakespeare (Davis and Kenneth, 40). His alienation has many effects on other characters in the story, with the best example being Johnny. He knew that he had to sacrifice his life to be of importance to other people, with the chosen character being Johnny, simply because he had caused the death of his mother.

Despite alienating himself from the society, he forms a great relationship with Johnny, a relationship that shapes and defines his character. Owen takes care of Johnny, despite the fact that Johnny is bigger than him. His friendship with Johnny makes him vow not to leave his side, which sees him go through the ninth grade two times to make sure that he is always there for him.

Just like in A Prayer for Owen Meany by John Irving, character alienation in The Lost World by Michael Crichton has a major impact on the course of the story. According to the story, Levine and Malcolm try to locate the dinosaurs on the Costa Rican coast. Instead of moving as a group, Levine alienates himself and leaves alone, with the assistance of Diego, a Costa Rican guide. However, things do not go as expected as the dinosaurs quickly kill Diego. With his initial plan being to move alone, Levine is forced to call for help using a high-tech satellite. Malcolm, Thorne, and Eddie, Thorne’s assistance, come to his rescue. By alienating himself, Levine changes Malcolm’s plan in how he was planning to check the dinosaurs. After being saved from the dinosaurs, Levine tries to alienate himself from the group once again by claiming that he did not need to be rescued.

Other characters alienated in the book that changed the shape of the story are the two kids, Arby and Kelly, two stowaway children. Initially, the scientists aimed at finding and studying the dinosaurs. However, after finding the children, they become responsible for their safety. The two kids are alienated from the scientists for safety purposes, especially because the scientists believed the children had nothing to offer in the study. The two kids are seen as liabilities. However, despite being seen as liabilities, the scientists handle their safety, which results in them having divided attention. It makes it hard for them to achieve the desired results as soon as they wanted.

Another similarity between the two cases of alienation is that a second party benefits. For instance, in A Prayer for Owen Meany by John Irving, Johnny benefits from Owen’s alienation as Owen feels the need to hold to Johnny as his friend. On the same note, the two kids in The Lost World by Michael Crichton benefits from the protection offered by Malcolm, Thorne, Levine, and Eddie.

A major difference between character alienation in the two stories is that alienation in The Lost Wood affects more than one character while in A Prayer for Owen Meany affects only one character. The alienated character in A Prayer for Owen Meany focuses on helping other characters in the story while the major characters help the alienated characters in The Lost Wood.

Works Cited

Davis, Todd F, and Kenneth Womack. The Critical Response to John Irving. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger, 2004. Print.

Criminal law


The partial loss of control as a defense was introduced into law by section 54 of the Coroners and Justice Act of 2009. This is a replacement of the defense of provocation that continued to govern cases of murder in this category. This defense is brought into a case to reduce the charge from murder to manslaughter where the defendant can prove that they acted in a set of circumstances that was outside their control. Such a defense is partial and exists only for the charge of murder. The defense was brought up after appellate courts in the English jurisdiction failed to rule consistently on the former defense of provocation that existed under the Homicide Act.[1] This paper is an analysis of this defense in reference to the statement made in Section 54 of the Act.

Loss of Control  

The defense of provocation proved problematic to apply because it often showed gender bias. There was the likelihood that male defendants were favored because they killed out of provocation as opposed to female defendants who killed out of the fear of being victimized, as is the case with domestic violence.[2] As a result, a more stringent rule of loss of control was introduced, and it had similar requirements to those of the defense of provocation though it presented tighter requirements for its application.[3] Section 54 (1) (c) being the part of the legislation in focus for this paper, puts a requirement on the defendant so that a person of their age and sex with a normal amount of tolerance and self-restraint would react in a similar way under the circumstances the defendant executed the murder.[4]

This clause under section 54 removes the reasonable man’s test that was the application under the defense of provocation, and which, therefore, brought widespread speculation and differences in the application of the law. This requirement was removed in the landmark case of Attorney General for Jersey V Holley.[5] In this case, the court ruled that the reasonable man test was no longer sufficient to hold a conviction of murder, or to reduce it to manslaughter.[6] Here, the defendant had been an alcoholic and was engaged in a relationship with an equally alcoholic lady. The relationship had been rough, and the defendant had served prison time because of gender-based violence convictions. In one instance, the defendant’s girlfriend came home and announced that she had had sex with another man. The defendant hacked her with an axe and was thereafter convicted of murder. Upon appeal, the court ruled that there was a loss of control, which was no longer subject to the reasonable man’s test.

The further test of having a similar age and sex as the defendant was applied in the case of DPP V Camplin.[7] The jury, in this case, was allowed to consider the issue of the age of the defendant. Lord Diplock commented that not only is the age of the defendant the central question, but also the reaction that he took, considering what the person of similar age and sex would have done in a similar situation.[8] Therefore, as a result of this consideration within the defense of loss of control, and the circumstances of DPP V Camplin and R V Clinton, murder following sexual infidelity can be considered.[9] In the case mentioned above, the appellate court ruled that where in a situation of sexual infidelity and other qualifying triggers to the murder, the defense of loss of control would be available to the defendant.[10]

Different to the defense of provocation that was a balancing act between the actions of the defendant and those of a reasonable man, the defense of loss of control puts no such burden on the defendant to prove. In this piece of legislation, only three requirements are set to prove that there was a loss of control on the part of the defendant. These three include: there must be a fear of serious violence; the situation must be extremely grave or the victim must have seriously wronged the defendant.[11] As such, the conduct of the defendant is not brought into consideration in this instance, as was seen in the above case laws.

Qualifying Triggers

The defense of loss of control largely depends on proving that there was a qualifying trigger. This would then come in handy to prove that a person of similar sex and age, and all the characteristics mentioned in section 54 (1) (c), would react in a similar way. Qualifying triggers were introduced to correct the attitude that the courts had towards provocation; where virtually any act could qualify as a provoking act. In some cases, even a crying baby passed for a provocation, and the provoking act did not have to be aimed at the defendant.[12]

Section 55 then outlines the circumstances under which there can be qualifying triggers, namely, situations of grave character, fear of violence from the victim and where the victim had wronged the defendant. The test of being in a state of grave character and where the defendant felt abused by the victim was decided in the case of R V Hatter.[13] In the case, the defendant entered into a relationship with a lady, who later began to see another man without telling the defendant that their relationship was over. One night the defendant climbed through the window and stabbed the lady on the chest and cut her wrist, but claimed that it had been an accident. He further stabbed himself but survived. The courts held that the defense for loss of control was not applicable in this case. The end of a relationship does not suffice as sufficient grounds to plead loss of control.[14]

The situation of justified wronging against the defendant was considered in the case of R V Bowyer.[15] Here, the defendant was a burglar entering the house of his friend to steal. Upon being discovered, the owner taunted the defendant that he had been having sexual relations with his girlfriend, who was also a prostitute. The defendant snapped and tied the victim with an electricity wire after beating him up. The victim was found dead the next afternoon. The defense of loss of control was not regarded. The court ruled that since the defendant was wrongfully in the house of the victim (to steal in order to feed his heroin addiction), there was no way that he could have been wronged, let alone seriously wronged by the victim. The conviction was upheld for murder.[16]


The defense for loss of control has added advantages to those who saw the defense of provocation as having some gender bias. However, it puts even higher standards for proving that one lost control of themselves when committing the crime.

[1] Law Resource UK, The Defense of Loss of Control – Voluntary Manslaughter. 2001, Retrieved on 19 August, 2015 from Law Resource UK:

[2] J. Dessler, Why keep the provocation defense: some refelctions on a difficult subject. Minnessota Law Review, 86, 2001, pp. 959.

[3] J. Horder, Provocation and responsibility. Oxford University Press, London, 1992.

[4] UK Parliament, Coroners and Justice Act. UK Parliament, London, 2009.

[5] Attorney General for Jersey V Holley, 2005.

[6] Law Resource UK, Attorney General for Jersey V Holley. 2005, Retrieved on August 19, 2015, from

[7] DPP V Camplin, 1978.

[8] Law Resource UK, DPP V Camplin. 1978, Retrieved August 19, 2015, from

[9] R V Clinton, 2012.

[10] Law Resource UK, R V Clinton. 2013, Retrieved August 19, 2015, from

[11] Law Resource UK, The Defense of Loss of Control – Voluntary Manslaughter. 2005, Retrieved from Law Resource UK:

[12]R V Doughty, 1986; R V Davies, 1975.

[13] R V Hatter, 2013.

[14] Law Resource UK, R V Hatter. 2013, Retrieved August 19, 2015, from

[15] R V Bowyer, 2013.

[16] Law Resources UK, R V Bowyer. 2013, Retrieved August 19, 2015, from

Nurse to Patient Ration and Its Effect on Patient Care



As a result of low number of nurses in comparison to the number of patients, they are subjected to a lot of workload. It further results in some patients leaving the hospital while they have not been fully treated. When the patient returns back to the hospital for the second time, they are fully suppressed with their illness more as compared to the first time. Most of them lack completely hope of getting any better because of how the attendance is low and slow When the nurses have got a lesser number of patients, they will get to unify medicinal services. After that, patients are more willing to figure out how to control their diseases when given clear instruction on how to take their medication. This is only for them to avoid extra ailment or maybe harm or maybe realize when to discover backing. When the therapeutic staff has got a lesser number of patients numerous individuals are more likely to take and turn away botches. Subsequently, a lesser number of patients will pass away. According my research, it is evidenced that less nurses lend to higher workload and as a results in attention from caring is low and poorly delivered (Nightingale, 2011).

Evidence–based intervention


Fewer nurses’ leads to poor patient care, there the first intervention will by adding or staffing more nurses. It can be done through an act of legislation. In India, for example, the ratio was changed from 2:1 to 1:5. This has brought a lot of change in the medical sector. In India, one patient is entitled to five nurses. The patient is well educated on his or her medication by difference personnel. The nurses also have much time with their patient and hence, they can study their weakness and strengths (James, 2012).

Secondly, adequate staffing can be achieved through good investment in the medical sector by the government. Research from the National Association of Nurses (NAN), clearly indicate that many young people shy away from taking nursing as the professional because they are poorly paid. Additionally, they are less equipped with the necessary tools to perform their workload effectively. If the government waives and changes this problem, a permanent change will be seen. More people of the young generation will have the feelings of wanting to become the nurse. This will increase the nurses’ ratio and, as a result, the patient care will improve too.

Last but not least, is by increasing the nurses pay roles and setting up a program like caring department whereby they spend adequate time with their patient rather than working on paperwork. Through this, a patient is able to be educated on his or her treatment program. Those patients undergoing through different therapy will be able to get hope and closer people to talk which while undergoing medication.

Databases used in this research


The excellent most of publications tend to be picked regarding MEDLINE using the professional recommendation of the Literature Selection Technical Review (LSTR). Some more journals and newsletters are chosen based on reviews and what they talk about. Due to it broadness and richness in journals and newsletters, one should be much specified in searching of information in MEDLINE database. Using terms like, “the effect of fewer nurses in relation to patient care” will help more in getting more information in this literature

Evidence found in the literature


From the research, it is true that short nurse staffing increases patient mortality, nursing dissatisfaction, and nursing burnout. Moreover, direct care of the nurse to the patient reduces the health complication and hospitalizations for nursing home patients. This evidence clearly shows that it is very important to have a quality patient care. It also brings out the fact that adequate staffed nurses with a good term of administration backup and good relations have more satisfied patients (Ireland & Ireland, 2010).

PICOT question


How does the nurse-to-patient ratio, in regards to adequate staffing in comparison to not staffing enough, affects patients care and increase quality patient care in a one-year time frame.



































Ireland., & Ireland. (2010). Inspection report: Designated centres for older people : St.

Conlon’s Community Nursing Unit. Dublin?: HIQA : SSI.

James, P. D. (2012). The private patient. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Nightingale, F. (2011). Notes on patient and nursing: What it is, and what it is not.

Philadelphia: Lippincott.

independent novel study project (k)

The Da Vinci Code

                                                             A Quick Overview

            The Da Vinci Code is an intelligent and utterly unpredictable thriller of a book in which Robert Langdon is the lead character. The Harvard Symbologist is involved in the investigation of an elderly curator whose life was cut short while inside a museum. The police investigating the case are baffled by a mysterious cipher lying next to the lifeless body. In his investigation of the enigmatic riddle, Langdon uncovers secrets that lead to a trail of clues embodied on the creations of Da Vinci. The Novel has 454 pages but for the purposes of this essay I am going to divide it into 5 sections each containing 90 pages.

In the Bloom’s sketch pyramid the knowledge level is positioned at the bottom while the evaluation level happens to be at the extreme top. As such, these sections are going to structure their questions in similar manner beginning with the knowledge questions and finalizing with those relating to evaluation. The essay shall then culminate in a comparison of the novel and the movie version of the text.

Section One

(1) Name the author of your novel of choice and list some of his/her other works

The author to the Da Vinci Code is Dan Brown an accomplished English best set selling author whose other works include the Deception Point and Angels and Demons.

(2) How do characters in the novel display a twisted side to religion?

This is displayed by the murder of Sister Sandrine Biel. She was a nun that favored the modernization of the church and as such she vehemently was opposed to the oppressive attitude the then regime held towards women. Unfortunately, she loses her life while serving under the priory of Sion to another of the book’s character known as Silas. Silas is an Albino devoted to catholic ways and consumed by the ideals of celibacy and self-punishment. Despite Silas’ religious standing he still took a life while supposedly working within the confines of the laws of the church.

(3) Demonstrate some factors that made reading the novel a pleasant experience

The intense manner in which the ideas of the novel are brought out coupled with the unpredictability of the whole story line made for quit a good read. The flow of the ideas is also very sublime and once you follow the rhythm you just cannot get enough and it makes you want to read on endlessly.

(4) Compare and contrast the personalities of two characters of your choice

My characters of choice are Manuel Aringarosa and Langdon. As Bishop, Aringarosa is passionately conservative to the Catholic ways. This makes him favor the strict rules that it upholds. He holds material things in high regard and has an obsession for power. Langdon, on the other hand, studies religion although he does not profess to any particular faith instead he prefers to operate as an outside observer.

(5) What conclusions can you infer from the old man’s mysterious death?

According to the novel, after the old man had been murdered, his body was made to pose in a manner similar to Da Vinci’s sketch of the Vitruvian Man with mystic messages engraved all over it. This makes me come to the conclusion that this was one of the things that inspired the author while naming his book after Leonardo Da Vinci.

(6) From your reading so far, what thoughts do you have of the book’s effect on religion?

In this text, the author has made reference to the catholic religion and this is evident in the naming of some of his characters and the roles that they assume. Up to this point however, he has not challenged religion and although this may generate mixed views, my thought on it is that it has no influence on one’s commitment towards his or her religion.

Section Two

(1) How would you classify your chosen novel?

The Da Vinci Code is a fictitious, investigative novel based on suspense and its roots are based on religion as well as contemporary thinking.

(2) In your own words explain facts about the novel that you had not discovered in the first section.

In this section, the novel explores deeper into religion and makes bold claims regarding its history key among which being the fact that Jesus had started a family with Mary Magdalene and their descendants settled in France after which they became the Merovingian kings.

(3) How is the Da Vinci Code illustrate un-originality?

The author of the book appears to have made reference to some prior publications for example the 1983 book known as the “Da Vinci Legacy” by Lewis Perdue and novel “Daughter of God” published in the year 2000 by the same author.

(4) Outline some of the criticisms if any that you have towards these texts

My biggest criticism is the fact that the book distorts long held beliefs embodied by Christians worldwide by making non-verifiable assertions based on questionable research.

(5) What impact do you predict that the book has had on its readers?

The book has been written in a captivating manner and the fact that it discusses controversial issues is sure to attract the attention of most people even those who do not fancy reading. The large masses of readers will be affected differently and, while some may choose to disregard the conspiracies created by the novel others may take the reading as gospel truth. However, most will be left with mixed perceptions regarding the claims of the book.

(6) What criteria would you use to assess the success of the book?

I would judge the success of the Da Vinci Code based on the influence that the book has had and the emotions that it has created both among its supporters and its critics. Some of this influence can be witnessed by the books that were released in response such as the “Da Vinci Code Decoded” or the “Truth behind the Da Vinci Code” both of which were published in 2004. The countless imitations and parodies released soon after also indicate that Dan Brown’s book was a resounding success.

Section Three

(1) What is the name of the police officer with whom Langdon investigates the mysteries behind the old man’s death?

Her name is Sophie Neveu who according to the text happens to be the victim’s estranged grand daughter and a descendant from the bloodline of Mary Magdalene and Jesus.

(2) Describe in your own words the reason behind this estrangement

Sophie, in her narrations to Langdon, explains that she once found her grandfather performing pagan rituals in the basement of their country estate home and this is one of the reasons that I associate with this estrangement.

(3) How is the Keystone significant in the concept of this text?

The keystone’s significance is witnessed in the role it plays in the determining of the location of the Holy Grail. According to Sir Leigh Teabing who is Langdon’s friend and an expert Holy Grail researcher, the Grail is a tomb that houses Mary Magdalene’s bones and not a cup as is the idea held by a majority of the Christians.

(4) Outline some of the writing style used by the author    

One of the writing styles used is descriptive writing for example in text “Looking at his surroundings he saw a plush Renaissance bedroom, with Louis XVI furniture, hand frescoed walls and. . .”(Lunn, 20). In addition to the persuasive style, the writer also uses the narrative style of writing virtually throughout the entire book whereby he narrates the story of how the characters went about trying to unravel the different mysteries.

(5) From your readings what are some of the traits you can attribute to Langdon?

His most revealing trait is that he happens to be very smart and this is displayed by the fact that he was able to decipher complex puzzles and he even discovered the location of the Grail though he choose not to share this information. He is also very brave, and this can be witnessed in the fact that besides the fact that he faced threats to his life he did not abandon the investigation.

(6) Do you agree with Sir Leigh Teabing opinion of the Holy Grail?

No I do not, Sir Teabing is quite similar to Langdon on the basis of his religious perceptions whereby he chooses not to commit to any specific religion and as such his bold accusations are based on this fact as opposed to even the slightest shred of evidence that he may possess.

Section Four

(1) In which year was the Da Vinci Code published?

It was published in the year 2003 whereby it was a major success and it sales were only bettered by the novel “Harry Potter and Order of the Phoenix” by J.K Rowling (Brown Dan, 45).

(2) Give an interpretation of how the novel embodies real life situations

The Da Vinci Code makes reference to some non-fictional groups. For example, the Priory of Sion is an actual secret society group created in Europe in the year 1099 and some of its members include Sir Isaac Newton and Leonardo da Vinci. The Opus Dei is also a real group devout to Catholic teachings

(3) How are these historical groups an example of controversy?

The fact that he Priory of Sion is a secret group in itself is controversial. Secret groups are usually associated with questionable practices. The Opus Dei group, on the other hand, has been associated with controversial issues such as allegations of brain-washing and “Corporal Mortification” (Brown Dan, 29).

(4) What are some of the similarities and differences between these two groups?

They hold similarities due to the fact that are both groups that profess to know the existence of Jesus. However, while the Opus Dei is keen on living in accordance to Jesus’ teaching, the Priory of Sion is more or less associated with pagan tendencies.

(5) What do you predict was the reason behind Langdon keeping information about the location of the Holy Grail a secret?

This is probably due to the negative repercussions that would occur if such information were to be made available to the public. Another reason was because he did not want the Priory of Sion to find out that he had access to such information because there was likelihood that they would make an attempt at his life.

(6) What is your opinion of these two groups as described by the novel?

I consider their association with secret mysterious practices quite chilling and amusing at the same time, and it makes me wonder what motivates them towards conducting their activities the way they do.

              Section Five

(1) Identify how the Da Vinci Code is a work of art

The reference that the novel makes to well-known artistic creations and, the manner in which it describes architectural buildings and structures makes the work a masterpiece

(2) In your own words describe what makes the book unique

The manner in which the author presents his ideas and, the diction he uses is second to none. The author also identifies groups that were previously thought not to exist such as the Priory of Sion something done by no other publication.

(3) Why are these findings significant?

Their importance is demonstrated by the fact that they can help historians in investigating new aspects of history that had previously been excluded. However, the findings have received their fair share of criticism from a section of the historians.

(4) Other than its captivating nature, what other features make the book popular?

The controversial issues addressed by the book such as claims of a bloodline that originated from Jesus is a major factor that led to the millions of sales that the book was able to amerce and this increased the books popularity.

(5) What ideas can you propose that would make the book more interesting?

The exquisite manner in which the book has been written makes it quite hard to improve on. However, I would propose the inclusion of pictures of the actual works of art in addition to the already elaborate descriptions made in the book. This would really improve the reading experience.

(6) What are your views towards the other publications done by the author?

Dan Brown maintains his high standards of imagery and diction. The works are just as creative as they are controversial and this aspect of his writing is a major factor that has propelled him to the success that he is currently experiencing.

     Compare and contrast the Da Vinci Code novel and the resulting film

The production of the Da Vinci Code film was inspired by successful novel under the same name. However, the movie released in 2006, was not able to replicate the entire theme as was captured in the book. For example, in the plot of the story of the novel, Sophie Neveu is said to have had a brother whom she meets at the Roslyn church. However, the movie does not make any reference to this fact. A more notable difference in the plot can be identified whereby the novel mentions that Langdon happened to be asleep in his hotel room when a police officer seeking his help calls him over the phone. In the movie version however, Langdon is approached by the police while signing autographs after he is done with a speech presentation.

The strategies adopted by the two are also different. For instance, while the novel focused on using precise diction and imagery to attract the attention of its readers, the film adopted the use of an elaborate modern setting that made the viewer attracted to the surroundings in the movie. This fact can be emphasized by the millions of dollars that were invested in shooting the movie in the locations such as England, Scotland and France. The characterization of Langdon is perceived differently by the novel as opposed to what is seen in the film. While the novel describes Langdon as smart, composed gentleman, the film portrays a violent person who does not shy away from an altercation and this is witnessed by the brawl he was engaged in with his friend turned foe Sir Leigh Teabing. In addition, the depth that the novel gave to the description of the architecture and works of art is missing in the movie which tends to focus more on the story line. Nonetheless, the rest of the movie retains its similarity to the text for example; the mood that they both create is one of suspense which leaves you wanting more. Further still, the moral of both stories creates mixed emotions and controversies to all its audience.


The Da Vinci Code is a novel about a Symbologist who is involved in the investigation of a mysterious death at a museum in Paris. In his investigation, he finds a trail of clues that implicate Jesus to establishing a family with Mary Magdalene. Further investigation lead to the discovery of the location of the grail which the lead character chooses not to reveal because of the negative consequences that may follow. The Da Vinci Code film contains several disparities to the original texts. However, the story line remains unaltered.

Work Cited

Brown,Dan, . The Da Vinci Code. Random House $c, n.d. 2010. Print.

Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. London: Corgi, 2010. Internet resource.

Lunn, Martin. Da Vinci Code Decoded. New York, NY: Disinformation, 2004. Print

LESSON 13 bias (k)

Part one

Though omission and selection is hard to detect in the following texts there are notable the article Birmingham news the journalists have already written about the ‘possible reinstatement’the word is used in that context to show dead sports of U.A.B.vThe word is very manipulative as it perceives the U.A.B as dead. The story was one of those making headlines. The text read follows “Local business man upbeat after possible sports reinstatement”

In the other article on Alaska Dispatch News front page this is exaggeration of the floods. The papers emphasizes so much on the floods by adding two pictures, one showing Dalton High way flooded and also a in the gates of one of the airport. Yet again the article writes scaring headlines in the Alaska Dispatch News “Never seen anything like it”. As to explanation of placement biasness explanation, everybody reading the paper will tend to focus most on the floods rather than the other stories in the paper.

The same paper exaggerate on the issue of floods in Dalton highway. The headline “Floods ravages Dalton highway as well as “Never Seen Anything Like It” is very as hyperbolic. This is because many people will go through the headline and not read the explanation .Nevertheless the explanation of the damages caused by the floods may be neutral but the headlines of the story has corrupted it all .

Photos and camera angles of the same newspaper the Alaska news dispatch, takes an aerial photo of the floods on Dalton highway. Though its goods to show the public of the extent of the damages. The aerial photo shows the area, nearby houses and roads are covered by the floods. Alternatively the journalist should have covered a section of the affected highway and it would splendidly work well instead.

The Birmingham news article on Ray Watts the president of U.A.B meeting with a local business man Jimmy Filler, the journalist goes ahead when explaining their meeting with the president, but the newspaper brands the local businessman as a prominent. The word prominent covered as bias since Jimmy Filler is not even known internationally .Those are the editorial biases on titles and prominence.

Biases through statistics is also evident in the in the Alaska Dispatch News. “When describing the World fire responders keep eye in interior dry condition.” The journalist who was covering that story states that the temperatures edged as high as 70s and low as 80s.Instead of the exaggeration the of the word edged up to 70 and creating his/her own figures ,it should has been reported as normal instead of many exaggeration .thus editorial bias of statistics

Lastly the choice and word tone either written or spoken can be manipulative and make news take a new angle. In Alaska Dispatch News the same article of world fire responders, the writer of that article employs a sad mood of the story making it seem like a desert way of life. The journalist gives a vivid description of the dry grass as well as how the trees has shed leaves high level of temperatures and low humidity. This explanation is very manipulative Again using of “insanely mass of dry air sitting on us” changes the mind of everybody.


                           KVUE criteria on which crime to report is very interesting .The criteria is not virtuous at all .Use of Media is one way of fighting crime ,it does so by reporting and condemning the incidences that are not humane. There to have some criteria on what to report and the incidences involves a human life is totally coldblooded. Yet again having the criteria is an entire disrespect to human life. Human life is very sacred and needs a lot of respect and care. Therefore any action done to it to disrespect should be condemned in the highest order possible

There should be no limitation on which case to be covered, as long as it involves human life. If at all I was to do add anything it should be that no criteria should be used as long as human life is involved. The exceptions should be those who died peacefully and those who passed away in hospitals and homes. Anything else in which involve death due to crime should be covered.

Most Local Television relies so much on crime covering rather than other stories .This is because the covering crimes attract more attention than any other story in the television. People are eager to read or watch the type of crime committed as well as perpetrators of the crimes. At the same time the fact crime is any act that violates the law of a state, Many people are eager to see the violators of law.

Sensationalized reporting always fuels fear, this statement is true. When people gets all information on all the crimes that’s happens they feel insecure. Again when all news about are negative many people will fear their safety. This is because when people gets more information on insecurity, they rate crime very high therefore instilling fear to themselves unknowingly. This will lead to the people fearing and believing the crime rate is exceptionally high for them to manage. Consequently this makes them feel inferior and powerless.

Viewers who has been asked to give an opinion on the crime reporting criteria in KVUE has been in against the methodology. For example one viewer of the show urged in a Fax that the world is violent and everybody should be left to know what is transpiring either good or bad. At the same time a pastor from one of the churches expressed his view that by hearing news we get connected to the victim. The K-eye a competitor with KVUE asks a question that shows that news should cover everywhere. Yet again another key competitor WCCO-TV in Minneapolis has been covering and airing all crimes committed without discrimination. Thereby suggesting all news should be covered.

On the other hand the executive producer KVUE has expressed the joy of not covering all crimes and airing them. At some point JoePhelps the pastor also explained that violent pictures should not be displayed but at least some news about all crimes be covered. The police officer in charge of community policing also expressed acknowledgement for KVUE not airing all crimes news. This is because people tend to think they are insecure. In addition to that Kim Barnes a reporter express the importance of not giving all crime news.

I agree with giving all news, because not airing all is a way of running away from reality which will never change.



First Male pregnancy

This is a hoax. There are many hormones and other essentials that are needed for implantation. Either naturally or technologically (RYT Hospital para. 1). The hormones and conditions needed for implantation cannot be found on a man.This a hoax.

Dihydrogen Monoxide in the Diary industry

This is a scholarly article on how to increase production of milk in a cow (Way para. 3). The chemical has been widely used and most cows had been injected or given the substance to increase milk production .However the chemical has many side effect to both cow and human.

Works Cited

RYT Hospital. The first male pregnancy. 2015. 23 May 2015 <;.

Way, Tom. Dihydrogen Monoxide in the Dairy Industry . 2015. 23 May 2015 <;.







sample midterm exam (k)

Section 1.

As with the foot’s journey, the life of a person starts out with endless possibilities. The carefree nature and attributes of children provide them the freedom to view the world the way they see fit. Same is the case with the foot as described in the poem. The foot does not know of the hardships that await it and begins its journey in a carefree manner.

As with the foot, through facing hardships and difficulties, the child realizes that life is not a bed of roses and gradually becomes aware of the harsh realities of life. As the foot learns from experiences and gets acquainted with life in its own way (Neruda 14), so does a person as they grow up. As the foot is unaware of the other foot’s presence (Neruda 15), people also become oblivious to others around them as they become busy with their lives. The poet then goes on to describe the changes that a foot goes through as it passes various phases in life. This can be compared to the development of humans as they go through life and the experiences shape their features.

A person keeps on coping with the difficulties of life relentlessly as long as they are alive and becomes so busy with life that actually forgets to live a little. This is beautifully stated in the poem as “one foot walked, both feet walked; until the whole man stopped” (Neruda 45, 46). As life’s journey ends and only then all the activity stops and all the aspirations of a person are buried with them, similarly, the foot rests after it is buried.

Section 2.

Both the stories are meant as a critique on parenting styles and both perform quite different views regarding the right kind of parenting. In the story “The Most Powerful Question a Parent can Ask” by Neil Millar , the main argument of the author Budge Wilson is that children must be given more responsibility while in the story “Be-ers and Doers”, the main point the author tries to make is that children must be provided more freedom.

Millar points out that by doing all the work on behalf of the children while allowing them complete freedom to pursue meaningless activities is bound to spoil them. He argues that what may be seen as nurturing and facilitating may actually lead to indulging children and encourage development of careless attitude and bad habits in them. The author states that children are certain to become irresponsible if they are not taught to care for themselves from the beginning. Placing responsibility on them is a sure shot way of developing healthy attributes in children such as respect, confidence and a well-rounded personality. On the basis of these reasons, the main goal of the author is to persuade parents to change the way they raise their children. He aims to dissuade pampering of children and preaches that they be made accountable and responsible for small activities and provided encouragement to help develop a positive attitude.

On the other hand, the Wilson believes that too much interference by parents is a negative influence. His aim is to discourage parents who nag their children too much. He states that children must be given freedom to enjoy life and work things out on their own in the way that suits them. He believes that forcing things on children is bound to discourage them from pursuing their own dreams and goals. In light of these views, the piece he has written aims to preach to parents to go easy on their children and encourage and support them in what they want to achieve and are truly interested in.

The goals are similar as they mean to enhance parenting and different as they seem to take opposite approaches.
Section 3.

I believe that the statement that the best gifts are the simplest ones to be absolutely true. There are numerous reason for this belief, but most importantly, I believe the main idea or concept behind a gift is supposed to be more of a gesture than its expensiveness, complexity and worldly value. For example, for a person going through tough times, a simple smile can prove the best gift and all the valuable and complex gifts cannot bring them happiness and satisfaction at that time.

Similarly, on a grassroots level, we have a lot of gifts to be thankful for in our daily lives. The one who understands this fact is sure to lead a content and satisfied life. On the other hand, a person who believes that expensive and intricate things bring joy can never truly appreciate anything. A person who has access to clean food, water, freedom and peaceful living conditions must consider them all gifts and cherish them. Kind words and a warm smile can also serve as the best gift when a person is feeling down. Appreciation of such gifts can truly be understood by people who have all sorts of worldly valuables but still feel depressed, lonely and sad. In this regard, I believe that the best gifts are the simplest ones as this has been the case in my personal experiences as well. As stated earlier, the gesture and feelings associated with the gift count much more than its intricacy and monetary value. For example, I cherish the simple wrist watch gifted to me by my father and prefer it over any other watch as it represents a simplicity, comfort and relation of love between us. It is meant as a token and its true value lies in the feelings that it represents.

The intricacy and monetary value of a gift thus hold little importance and what true matters are the feelings associated with the gesture. This is the reason that I believe that the best gifts are the simplest ones.