The paper evaluates same sex marriage, one of the leading contentious issues in the United States. Same-sex marriage in the United States has encountered a lot of controversies though the public view on the matter seems to be developing. For instance, Gallup an agency that undertakes annual study has been analyzing the public opinion on whether same-sex weddings should be legalized or not from the year 1968. The percentage of respondents who back up same-sex marriage set ups has increased from 27% to 53% with the span of time (Nathan, Enns & Williams, 2013). Though, the research outcome is not a huge majority, it indicates that the support for the same sex marriage in the United States is likely to increase significantly in the next few decades due to globalization. Despite this, there are political and religious groups which entirely oppose the idea of legalizing the gay marriage in the American constitution. The opposition has a religious orientation because according to many religions homosexuality is sin, though legally the viewpoint is irrelevant. Presently, homosexuality and same sex marriage is authorized in more than eight States within the United States of America.
Illinois and several other States planning to legalize same sex marriages. Besides this, the Supreme court in the United States is prepared to listen to the disputes and to establish whether the ban of same sex marriage in California is constitutional or not. According to New York Times, in May 2012 President Barack acknowledged his support for the same-sex marriage that had an impact on public view (McClain & Grossman, 2009). There are millions of Americans who are enthusiastically opposed to the opinion of same sex marriage as per the feminist, its principles and its activists. According to the newspaper some Republican Party members based their campaign strategies on implementing an amendment to the United States constitution and illegalize same sex marriage in all the States. However, the traditional viewpoint of the republicans always faces a huge opposition from the contemporaries who support globalization. On the contrary, the National organization for marriage (NOM) spends millions of dollars and a lot of energy in preventing homosexuals from marrying. Although pessimists argue that permitting same sex marriage would damage the traditional marriages, the nine States in the United States that have legalized same sex marriages have not reported reduction heterosexual marriages.
Indeed, the States have witnessed higher economic growths as compared to the States where homosexuality is illegal. For instance, same-sex marriage gathered $ 259 million in a single year (Mays, & Cochran, 2012) for the State of New York. Additionally, the independence declaration states that all Americans were created equally which hinders the efforts of promoters of feminist theory. According to the New York Times article, a research conducted by Williams Institute indicated that more than 9 million persons in the United States are gay, transgender or bisexual. Though the number makes them a minority the law is expected to protect them just like the heterosexuals and they should have equal rights if the globalization theory is adopted. The public opinion regarding same-sex matrimonial is gradually changing in favor of the homosexuals and may be legalized nationwide in the near future. The Barack Obama’s choice to defend gay marriage may influence the future of gay marriage in the United States while the objections against gay marriages are being disregarded. Notably, there is no agreement in the other Western nations on whether same sex marriage should be legalized or not but in the United States the issue has been greatly feminized.
In the United States, States like New York, Iowa, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont have authorized gay marriages while the other states have amended their constitutions to bar same sex marriage (Kimport, 2013). Recently North Carolina has banned gay marriages. Gay marriage is lawful in nations like Canada, Belgium, Iceland, Norway, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal and Sweden where globalization theory has taken effect but the contrasts in America are remarkable. Various U.S states are amongst the world’s formulating jurisdictions to recognize same-sex marriage and the rights of gays while the third world and other states would recommend the criminalization of same sex marriage altogether as they hold on feminism. Many social conservatives were appalled in 2003 when the Supreme Court ruled out that homosexual could not be illegalized. The 6 to 3 court’s decision regarded a law in Texas that was never implemented. The majority of the bench decided that the law was not constitutional and it overstepped on essential liberty and demonstrated stigma against the homosexuals (Olson, Cadge & Harrison, 2008). Remarkably, Justice Antonin Scalia revered by most Republicans as a model judge a drafted powerful disagreement. He theorized that illegalization of same sex marriage an authentic state affair. The claimed that most of Americans do not wish to have people who engage in homosexual openly to be scoutmasters for their kids, partner with them in businesses, work as tutors in their youngsters’ schools or live in their homes as a supporter of the feminist theory.
The arguments concerning marriage fall into three categories. The categories are gay homosexuality is a threat to tradition, a threat to children and the bible does not support it. The opponents argue the youngsters will absorb homosexuality in schools, become gay themselves or confuse the gender roles and it threatens the straight family set up- heterosexual family. The argument about tradition is close related to faith and is not an issue of much debate. For instance, if a person believes that God condemns same sex marriage, then it does not matter what the American Psychological Association states (Herek, 2008). However, since the argument is religious and personal, it is rarely used by the opponents of gay marriage in public debate. There are no quotes from the Bible that are read on the floor of the Senate. The argument regarding children mostly arises in highly heated political campaign times and usually has overwhelming effects. For example, in California during the Proposition campaign the opponents of same sex marriage frequently induced kids in the advertising campaign. The campaign held constitutional changes to bar men from marrying their fellow and marriages between women that aimed at protecting the children in schools from the moral decadency. Though, it was an indirect fight as no one had supported teaching 2rd graders about same-sex marriages according to the proponents of globalization theory and homosexuality. Remarkably, the both theories, the feminist and the globalization theory as related to the same-sex issue are facing equal hindrances.
Additionally, there is no proof that the kids of same sex parents are the worst nor is the confirmation that the children of same sex parents are likely to engage in homosexuality. The claim that homosexuality is a threat to heterosexual marriages is commonly pronounced in public debates (Fineman, Jackson & Romero, 2009). The argument is based on the idea that marriage is vital in maintaining straight couples together and is a singular institution in the society. President George W. Bush stated that the modification of the definition of the term marriage would destabilize the structure of the family. The American families are facing great stress with the cases of divorce rising and the majority of the American women are presently living alone. The women in America are raising the kids singly while the men have resorted marrying their fellow men. For instance, Michael was standing with his mother alone at the Olympics; his father was absent, negligible, nobody referred to him or identified his absence that approves the feminist theory and disqualifies the globalization theory. The probability that the entire new American males generation is being brought up by mothers without the fathers is a serious challenge to the church. There is a possibility of asserting some form of male authority over the current order of things. The church feels insecure with the rise of females and Pro-proposition 8 movement was stimulated by this insecurity.
The monotheistic religions feel endangered by the escalation of feminism and the persistence, in the communities, whereby the females play a greater role in the clerical. Additionally, the women are claiming more obligations for their spiritual life; they are turning away traditional responsibility as a wife and mother (Fassin, 2011). Remarkably, this is the reason why abortion is a threat to many religious persons because it represents a rejection of the customary role of a mother. There is a need to identify the association between homosexuality and feminism. The movements began, in a sense to realize visibility alongside each other. There are numerous black churches that count it as an offense when the gay activists claim that their movement is equivalent to the black civil rights engagements. There are is some connection between the oppression of the gays and the anti-miscegenation laws in the United States of America and the real analogy is to the women’s movement. The gays hold that they represent an alternative to the customary male-structured society. They believe that they can form themselves sexually and form their sense of the meaning of sex that sets them apart from the custom roles inherited from their fathers.
The feminist theory has recently gathered much attention in the sexuality field. The theory is based on sociology approaches and social education. The proponents of the theory claim that sexuality has a social construction and involves gender inequalities and power. The earlier theories have their roots on male sexuality that underrates the feminine experience. The feminist researchers trust that the research has been overhauled as it was historically based on middle-class, whites and heterosexual perspectives (Curran, 2008). The feminist theory stresses on the female’s pleasure and her ability to perform more than what the customary gender roles encourages or allows. According to globalization theory the same sex persons take gay marriages as a personal responsibility. In contrast, the feminist theory focuses on establishing a society that is upright and with high social morals while the globalization encourages liberty. The feminist theory supports equality between men and women. The theory has three perspectives; the socialist feminism and radical feminism though all the perspectives aim at achieving gender equality. The feminist is based on five fundamental principles.
The feminists believe that they should have equal rights and their ideas are linked to actions. The other principle is eradicating gender stratification as they oppose the laws and traditional norms that limit education, job opportunities and income (Cherlin, 2010). Other principles include terminating sexual violence and advancing the freedom of sex, in that women ought to have control over reproduction and their sexuality. Most of the conservatives in many of the other western nations have cultivated the contemporary tolerance norms regarding the gay rights, though most of the conservative Americans have strongly condemned the idea. Undoubtedly, the conservatives in the other western countries have traditional minds as compared to their counterparts who are liberal and most of them are against gay marriage. For example, the French president Nicholas Sarkozy a conservative president was against gay weddings but he never made it a public agenda. The disagreement over the rights of the gays forms an extension of the skirmish between the more democratic gender systems of contemporary times and the cultural patriarchy.
The patriarchy advocates for explicit gender obligations and roles. The women are anticipated to remain feminine and the male masculine. Therefore, same sex marriage jeopardizes the spiritual formation of family. The conservatives of the religion relate sexuality to procreation and count homosexuality as a taboo and same sex marriage as adventure to destroy the society. The opinion appears like a hyperbole but it true for the traditional patriarchy and the proponents of the feminist theory. On the other hand, the supporters of globalization theory and homosexual assert that lesbians and gays should be treated as their heterosexual colleagues and be allowed to marry as well (Barker & Palgrave, 2012). Apart from endorsing legal rules of nondiscrimination and equality of treatment the proponents claim that there are basic reasons behind the struggle for marriage equality. The homosexual couples lack the basic privileges enjoyed by their heterosexual counterparts despite having lived together for years. They do not have rights like pension and health benefits and visitation rights to hospitals. The opponents and social conservatives maintain that a heterosexual marriage is the foundation of a health society as it results in stable homes and eventually the children becomes dependable citizens. They presume that permitting lesbians and gays to marry will drastically change the family structure and disable it at a crucial time when divorces and births out of marriage are on the rise.
Furthermore, many forecast that allowing gays to marry to consequently lead to allowing people on other forms of marriages like polygamous and nontraditional relationships, a marriage right as well. The religious society is critically divided over the same sex marriage matter and evangelical and the catholic church have adopted major role in opposing the gay marriage in the United States. In addition, the protestant churches and other spiritual groups are in dilemma on whether to perform same sex marriage ceremonies and enact gay clergy. The marriage and ordination of gay individuals is an increasing wedge between conservative and the socially liberal wings of the Lutheran, Presbyterian and the Episcopal churches that has made some congregations and sometimes the whole dioceses to pull away from the national churches. In the western world, the religious factor behind opposing homosexual marriages is slowly fading away and the approaches to spirituality differ considerably. The modern European Christians are moderate in their faiths as compared to the evangelicals in the United States (Babst, Gill & Pierceson, 2009). The Catholic Church stands strong against same sex marriage and homosexuality though it has minimal influence in Europe apart from in few counties like Italy, Ireland and Poland. The European Catholics just like the American Catholics ignore the religious teachings and the questions about gay rights, abortion and contraception. In general, in absence or moderation of spiritual conservatism, the resistance to same sex marriage will be less intense.
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