Archive for September, 2015

The ERD Diagram showing the conceptual model is as shown below;

September 30, 2015

The ERD Diagram showing the conceptual model is as shown below;

The relational schema is as shown below;

Event(EventID,name, date, VenueID, time, No_ofathletes)

Primary key (pk): {EventID}, candidate keys (ck): {name}

Foreign key (fk): VenueID which uniquely identifies the  venue in which the event will be held

Team (TeamID, name, location, no_ofathletes)

Primary Key (pk): {TeamID}, candidate keys (ck):{name}

Athleteperfomance/medal(PerfomanceID,EventID, pointsearned, medalawarded,TeamID, AthleteID )

Primary key (pk): {PerfomanceID}, candidate keys (ck): {eventide, medalawarded, athleteID}

Foreign key (fk): VenueID which uniquely identifies the  venue in which the event will be held,  TeamID which shows which team has worn the  medal, and AthleteID which shows the athlete who has won the medal

Athlete(AthleteID,names, nationID, EventID, passport, age, dateregistered)

Primary key (pk): {AthleteID}, candidate keys (ck): {name,nationID}

Foreign key (fk): NationID which uniquely identifies the nation the athlete is from, and EventID which uniquely identifies the event in which the athlete participates.

Volunteers(VolunteerID,name, age,nationality, Passport, EventID)

Primary key (pk): {VolunteerID}, candidate keys (ck): {name}

Foreign key (fk): EventID which uniquely identifies the type of event being volunteered

Venue(VenueID,name, capacity, events, states)

Primary key (pk): {VenueID}, candidate keys (ck): {name}

Assumptions made when designing the above database are;

  • The awarding of medals will be based on the points gained regardless on the event type
  • When assigning points to a team of athletes participating on a particular game, the team will be regarded as an athlete.
  • One can only volunteer on one event while there are many volunteers that can volunteer on one event.
  • The word team and nation represent the same thing
  • One team or nation can have unlimited number of athletes who can participate on unlimited number of events.
  • A volunteer can volunteer in events that his or her nation or team is participating on without favoring either of the side.

References

Coronel,C.,  Morris, S.,& Rob,P.  (2011). Database Systems Design, Implementation and           Management. United States of America: Cengage Learning.

1

Winning by Jack Welch: A Book Review Name of Student Name of Institution

September 30, 2015

Winning by Jack Welch: A Book Review

Name of Student

Name of Institution

Winning by Jack Welch: A Book Review

Introduction: Thesis

The major lesson that Welch is trying to teach to his readers is about winning. He is experienced when it comes to winning in the business world. Welch worked at the General Electric for forty years. He regarded honesty as the best style of managing the company. The strategy saw him succeed amid brutal competition in the industry (Welch & Welch, 2005). Welch focused on people, teamwork, and profit margin. He retired in 2001 as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of GE. Since that time, he has spoken to more than 2500000 people regarding winning and other topics. Welch uses the book to pass his central lesson on winning to all organizations. In the book, he explains one of his best management methods. The approach teaches that a manager should lead others to achieve a vision that has already been articulated (Welch & Welch, 2005). Welch also emphasis a number of management aspects. For example, he argues that the manager should be less formal and do away with bureaucracy. He also encourages leaders to face reality and stop making assumptions. They should also realize that change is an opportunity. They should not regard it as a threat (Wren & Bedeian, 2008).

Central Pillars: An Analysis of Major Learning Outcomes

An analysis of the book leads to the development of various learning outcomes. The first entails winning and profitability. Welch believes that competing and profitability highlight some of the major responsibilities of a company (Welch & Welch, 2005).  He succeeded at GE by adopting a winning culture. At the beginning of his tenure as CEO, Welch laid off many employees. The move did not stop him from winning. He earned many awards as a result of his contributions to the business world. The awards include Manager of the Century and The Most Admired Company in 1996 and 1997 (Baldwin, Bommer & Rubin, 2007).

Another learning outcome is the fact that managers should lead, rather than manage. Welch discovered that managing kept people in the dark about major decisions. The move makes it hard for a firm to achieve its vision. Welch emphasizes on the need to make employees passionate about the vision of the company (Welch & Welch, 2005). He argues that every person has the potential to lead. Welch also encourages managers to be less formal. In most cases, he went to the office without a suit and a tie. Informality enhances creativity and innovativeness. Welch abolished bureaucracy. He believed that bureaucracy slows down the decision making process. It reduces the competitiveness of the company.  In Winning, Welch emphasizes that a manager should work with colleagues in order to reduce formality and streamline decision making (Baldwin et al., 2007).

Welch encourages people to face reality. At a time when GE was seen by many as a success, he saw many challenges. The market value of the company was falling and a bureaucratic system was making it archaic (Welch & Welch, 2005). He made efforts to turn things around by making major decisions. As such, he argues that managers should stop assuming that things will work out by themselves. Welch made things simple. He believes that managers should embrace simplicity to ensure that procedures are fast and efficient. He eliminated the use of memos, letters, and jargon.  He realized that change in an organization cannot be avoided during periods of competition. A good manager should initiate change and exploit it (Welch & Welch, 2005). Positive change means introducing new ideas, new products, or new businesses. A good manager should make the people around them realize that change may affect them.

Welch encourages managers to lead by energizing others, not by authority. The organization should be freed from bureaucracy and other things that prevent free flow of ideas and decisions. Managers should learn to appreciate their employees. They should make them feel that they add value to the organization. Leaders should not intimidate employees. On the contrary, they should motivate them to achieve the objectives of the company (Welch & Welch, 2005). Welch chose to defy tradition and seek new ways of doing things. He realized that the past is different from the future. To succeed, managers need to change the culture to beat competition (Baldwin et al., 2007).

Another learning outcome is that Welch encourages managers to replace hierarchy with intellectual rule (Welch & Welch, 2005). The move involves appreciating the intellectual capacity of employees. Welch emphasizes that employees should not obey their managers blindly. The organization must encourage the workers to articulate their ideas and suggest solutions. Under Welch, GE employees spent an hour per week learning what the competitors were doing. An organization should foster a culture of training and learning. Welch holds that in today’s world, managers should move fast due to competition. The employees should be encouraged to act fast to serve customers and exploit opportunities. In addition, Welch argues that managers should pay attention to need of value rather than numbers. Value includes pleasing customers, being open to ideas, and doing away with bureaucracy (Welch & Welch, 2005). A good manager should let value rule. Organizations should encourage employees to have their own ideas and opinions. They should be provided with tools and opportunities to train and learn (Baldwin et al., 2007).

A Reflection on the Book’s Impact on the Future Manager

For managers to get ahead, they need great ideas. To achieve this, managers should turn their organizations into idea machines. They can do this by creating a culture in which employees can freely exchange ideas and become innovative. Future managers should learn to reward employees according to their performance (Welch & Welch, 2005). If they are not performing according to the expectations of the company, they can be moved out because they will be happier somewhere else.

Welch lays down procedures relating to good leadership for the future manager.  The administrator should improve the capacity of their employees by evaluating, coaching, and building self confidence. Finally future managers should not be complacent. They should make sure that questions are answered with actions. In addition, the too should learn to inspire and carry out individual practical (Welch & Welch, 2005). The move motivates employees and allays any fears among them. Organizations should celebrate the achievements made by employees.

Reading Winning will help the future manager to deal with the issue of human resource and its role. The HR department should motivate and retain employees using money, training, and recognition. Effective managers should also confront issues related to employees (Welch & Welch, 2005). The future manager should spend half of their time evaluating and coaching 70 % of the middle level employees. Finally, Welch argues that future managers should have the capacity to manage crisis effectively. They should ensure that the company survives the crisis. During start-ups, future leaders should entrust the best employees with the resources needed to succeed. Then the manager should give them time to make decisions (Baldwin et al., 2007).  Future leaders should also employ the six-sigma quality improvement program to enhance the performance of their organization. The program is the best in improving efficiency. It lowers costs, minimizes defects, and promotes customer loyalty.

References

Baldwin, T., Bommer, B., & Rubin, R. (2007). Developing management skills: What great managers know and do. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Welch, J., & Welch, S. (2005). Winning. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.

Wren, D., & Bedeian, A. (2008). The evolution of management thought (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Consociational Democratic Regime and Majoritarian Democratic Regime

September 29, 2015

Consociational Democratic Regime and Majoritarian Democratic Regime

The economic performance, political structure, and stability, form the fundamental characteristics in analysing a countries performance. Decisions made by the government have a significant impact on the economic environment of a state. The role of providing suitable business operating environment falls upon the shoulders of the elected government (Gitman and Joehnk 19). In countries with high ownership of the countries business, may contribute to weakness in the economy of the nation. Limited operation autonomy brings the economy weakness to the enterprise (Thillairajah 109). The government has an obligation of ensuring mechanisms are set to ensure mutual accountability to the investors of the country. The government has the role of managing the economy. Through sustained economic stability, the country’s economic status would develop. The federal government banks to ensure control in money flow in a state. Fiscal policies set by the administration and the government’s expenditure should be monitored. If not checked they would have an impact on the economy of a country (Gitman and Joehnk 20).

Lebanon is a democratic republic in eastern Mediterranean shoe (Krieger 21). Lebanon is governed by a precise form of consociation democracy. In Lebanon, power sharing is organised in a formal and informal arrangement (Krieger 21). The offices of the executive body of the government are reserved for the Maronite Christians, Sunni Muslims, and Shiite Muslims. The speaker, Prime minister and president form part of the executive. The distribution of the parliamentary seats is even between the Christians and the Muslims (Krieger 21). The political situation in Lebanon has often been shaky. Lebanon has experienced both civil and international wars. However, the major cases of instability have declined over the period. The Doha agreement in 2008 has been vital in enhancing political stability in Lebanon. The agreement set the foundation for the parliamentary polls system in Lebanon. The stability of the Lebanese government is threatened by parties supporting Syria and the disarmament of the Hezbollah.

Since 2007, the economy of Lebanon has been growing by 2-3 annually. The economy has been stable regardless of the political stability of the country. The economic sustainability in Lebanon is attributed to remittances from the Lebanese citizens living abroad. Similarly, the good performance in the housing market contributed to the same. The lending policy in the country was vital in protecting the country during the international financial crisis (Krieger 22)

Previously, Taiwan was under an authoritarian one political party system. However, the political system in the country has changed to a democratic system. There have been numerous developments that have facilitated the massive and quick overhaul of Taiwan to a democratic state. The mobilisation of voters and competition between the political parties has become a common thing in Taiwan after the system deconstruction. The stability in the country is however threatened the sharp confrontations between the political parties. The battles have weakened the authoritative influence of the government (Taiwan: Foreign Policy and Government Guide 144). Moreover, delay of government duties and legislative functions has been standard in the country. Foreign trade significantly impacts the economic stability of Taiwan as a nation. The economic growth of Taiwan is majorly dependent on foreign trade. Economically Taiwan competes globally in terms of economic structure transformation (Taiwan: Foreign Policy and Government Guide 145).

The private sector is an important partner in a countries development strategy. Together with the public sector they handle the economic evolution of a nation. The private businesses create economic growth; also they pay for the revenues essential for national growth. If well organised and managed the public activities have a positive impact on the economy of the world. The private sector resources can be mobilised to use them provide vital public services. The services range from technical, managerial, and financial services. Private-public partnerships or links ensure there is a coordinated effort by both public and private sector to provide the essential public services. The partnership always results in an improvement economic growth (Izumi and Shaw 316).

The type of regime in a government has an impact on the economic state of a country. For most authoritarian regimes, there is often misappropriation of funds in the nation. The misappropriation often generates from bribes and lack of accountability (Wright 6). The consequence of this is often diminished foreign aid due to the lack of proper appropriation of the funds. The consequences are a drop in the economy of the country. Because, the expenditure of government is reduced (Wright 6). When the legislatures handle ensuring sound investment, they guarantee a positive impact on the economy. Supervision is essential to ensure the foreign aid is used to develop the country. Democracy offers an option of proper appropriation of government funds. The opposition does monitoring of the government expenditure. Dictatorships are attributed to increased government consumption and lack of accountability (Wright 7). Democratic countries are more economically stable compared to dictatorial regimes as there is transparency in the government operations.

Democracy puts emphasis on freedom of an individual in a political system. It is a system where the legal members of the state are allowed into participate in government policy management. The citizens in the system are equal under the law of the specific state (Flösser and Otto 42). The practice of political rights and liberties for everyone from the core and chief concepts of democracy. Democratic government is a government that permits public participation in elections. The system offers a platform for political involvement and contestation. Free, fair and competitive are the words used to describe the election process (Flösser and Otto 43). Democracy is divided into the following attributes; liberal democracy, modern democracy, and social justice. The characteristics highlight the different perspectives and responsibilities on democracy.

Various concepts of democracy have been designed to manage the system. The first concept is the representative political democracy (Flösser and Otto 45). The concept acknowledges that the citizen as a voter handles limiting and controlling and limiting the power of the government. The second concept known as the notion of participative democracy is aimed at strengthening democracy in social services (Flösser and Otto 46). Consumerism aims at presenting democracy in line with the social services. The concept of participatory democracy is intended to increase social services in social services. The last concept of democracy is the notion of the co-producer (Flösser and Otto 47).

There has a significant change of regimes over the past seven hundred years. Initially, monarchs were the most common forms of governments (Sisson and Mansfield 45). In the middle twentieth century, standard systems were there were Marxist-Leninist regimes. The early 1800s saw an increase in the number of democratic states. The primary growth of the democratic states was visible 1950. The rise in the states was evidence of how policies are generated in many countries (Sisson and Mansfield 45).

The main types of democracies are the direct and representative democracy. In the direct democracy, the citizens are allowed full participation in decision-making. The direct democracy system originated from Greece. In the representative democracy, an elected delegate is selected to represent the public. The people elect the representatives to the positions. The agents handle the checks and balances of the government operations. Representative democracy is the most traditional form of democracy. It is divided into the consociation and majoritarian democracy.

The paper aims at shedding light on the type of democracies that exist. The paper seeks to analyse further the impact of the regimes in the respective countries. At the same time, comparisons of the effects are to be made. Comparison between the consociation democratic regime and the majoritarian democratic regime in terms of framework, economic and political performance will be evaluated.

Consociation as a model of democracy is designed to help manage the historical conflicts of various regions. The model is derived from the Belgium and Switzerland past successes in managing the ethnic conflicts in their nations. The system uses consensus as a way of making national decisions. The aspect of majority rules is not adopted in the system. There is a general feeling that majority rule excludes the ethnic minority communities from decision-making. However in consociation the political interests of the ethnic minority communities are protected. The system ensures the presence of segmental autonomy, mutual sanction, proper coalition and proportionality. Joint sanction or veto accords each community power to sanction or blocks any form of legislation that is deemed unfair. The winner takes it proportionality prohibits all ideology. Segmentation autonomy gives all communities power to perform fully in law making.

Malaysia and Lebanon are part of the countries that embrace the consociation democracy in the world. In Malaysia, democracy was adopted after long decades of dictatorial leadership in the country (Khan 9). The political structure of Malaysia is that of a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. The United Malays National organization and some other parties from the ruling coalition in the country. There are various ethnic groups in the country. Malays form the largest portion of the ethnic communities in the country. Economic performance for Malaysia has been perfect since their independence (Khan 12). There has been a steady growth within the country at an average rate of 6.6 and 5.3 percent. Malaysia has enjoyed a high degree of political stability since the ethnic riots in 1969. The riots led to the creation of the New Economic Policy in 1971 which ensured even distribution of national resources. The government in Malaysia strives to provide a reduction of the economic disparities in the country (Khan 14).

Lebanon is a democratic republic in eastern Mediterranean shoe (Krieger 21). Lebanon is governed by a precise form of consociation democracy. In Lebanon, power sharing is organised in a formal and informal arrangement (Krieger 21). The offices of the executive body of the government are reserved for the Maronite Christians, Sunni Muslims, and Shiite Muslims. The president, prime minister, and the speaker of parliament form part of the executive. The distribution of the parliamentary seats is even between the Christians and the Muslims (Krieger 21). The political situation in Lebanon has often been shaky. Lebanon has experienced both civil and international wars. However, the major cases of instability have declined over the period. The Doha agreement in 2008 has been vital in enhancing political stability in Lebanon. The agreement set the foundation for the parliamentary polls system in Lebanon. The stability of the Lebanese government is threatened by parties supporting Syria and the disarmament of the Hezbollah.

Since 2007, the economy of Lebanon has been growing by 2-3 annually. The economy has been stable regardless of the political stability of the country. The economic sustainability in Lebanon is attributed to remittances from the Lebanese citizens living abroad. Similarly, the good performance in the housing market contributed to the same. The lending policy in the country was vital in protecting the country during the international financial crisis (Krieger 22).

In both the countries, the leading community comprises of leaders and active members who rose against the previous regimes. However, the main challenge facing both countries is the existence of political communities (Paquette 150). In Lebanon, the Muslims and the Druze form two-thirds of the general population. Malaysia, on the other hand, the Malays constitutes more than fifty percent of the population. The population distribution factor has been a strain on both systems of governance in the two countries (Paquette 110). Tension has built in the two nations. The civil war in Lebanon was attributed to population distribution among the ethnic sections. The main difference between the two countries is that division in Malaysia is ethnically based while Lebanon, the group is religiously formed (Sparks and Isaacs 133).

The notion of everything fair forms the fundamental principle of this model of democracy. The interpretation of the statement “government of the people” means, the majority people. The roles of the government are limited to the selected government by the majority of the people. The system depends on the popular election of government officials. The system expects people to be wise in choosing their leaders (Pangle 37). The choice is employed as a mechanism for controlling the leaders. Control is achieved by reflecting or voting out the public officials according to their performance. In the system, elections are used as ways of deciding the policies to be absorbed. In the majoritarian democracy, citizens can control their governments if they possess the suitable mechanisms (Pangle 37).the primary assumption is that citizens are aware of the government and politics. Additionally, it is assumed that the citizens are willing to participate in the political process. The decisions made by the citizens selected by their leaders is said to be rational (Pangle 37).

South Korea and Taiwan form part of the countries in Asia that have a majoritarian democracy. South Korea has a republic system of government. In this form of government, the president is the head of the state (“Political System of South Korea”). The government, on the other hand, is head by the prime minister. The powers in the system employed are divided among the executive, judiciary and the legislature. The president appoints the ministers in the cabinet. The appointments can only be done on the recommendation of the prime minister. Korea is a multiparty system government. Being a majoritarian democracy, the party with the most following enjoys command of the decision-making process in the government (“Political System of South Korea”).

The economy in South Korea is stable and well performing. The success is attributed to an interplay of an open economy (Kil and Moon 202). The government policies have facilitated the improvement of the South Korean economy. The private sector promotes entrepreneurship that brings in revenue to the country. The application of the basic economic principles has facilitated the proper performance of the South Korean economy (Kil and Moon 202).

The unusual economic growth in South Korea has promoted the existence of political stability within the country. The adoption of democracy into the nation has propelled the country to more stability. Reduction in poverty levels, decentralization of the resources and regional autonomy are as a result of persistent political stability in the nation (Kil and Moon 43).

Previously, Taiwan was under an authoritarian one political party system. However, the political system in the country has changed to a democratic system. There have been numerous developments that have facilitated the massive and quick overhaul of Taiwan to a democratic state. The mobilisation of voters and competition between the political parties has become a common thing in Taiwan after the system deconstruction. The stability in the country is however threatened the sharp confrontations between the political parties. The battles have weakened the authoritative influence of the government (Taiwan: Foreign Policy and Government Guide 144). Moreover, delay of government duties and legislative functions has been standard in the country. Foreign trade significantly impacts the economic stability of Taiwan as a nation. The economic growth of Taiwan is majorly dependent on foreign trade. Economically Taiwan competes globally in terms of economic structure transformation (Taiwan: Foreign Policy and Government Guide 145).

The two countries Taiwan and South Korea have adopted a similar model and role for the state. The BAIR model is used in the two nations. The model is characterised with, women exploitation, planning that is aimed over long periods, central coordination of government activities, and movement in industrial sectors is possible in the two countries. Additionally, small expenditures in social welfare are very common. The governments encourage the development of the private sectors that play a significant role in the two economies (Deyo 81). Both regimes put emphasis on the importance of proper education. Despite the equally highlighted levels of growth. The Taiwan economy seems to lead in terms of exports compared to the South Korean economy. The result is attributed to the higher variety in export among the two countries. The level of industrialization in South Korea is significant in government-controlled industries while Taiwan it is among the small-medium sized firms.

One can rightly say various factors have played a role in the development of democracy in these two countries. High levels of economic growth and a market-oriented capitalist economy from the fundamental grounds of the democratic development (Chen 5). Mass communication and urbanization and influence from allies like the United States of America have encouraged the growth of this two democracies (Chen 5).

The idea behind the consociation democracy is primarily addressed ethnic conflicts in any region. Conflict resolution among people of varied ethnic lines is the primary goal of consociation democracy (Jarstad and Sisk 110). Consociation democracy was viewed as a democratic form of conflict management in the affected areas. Majoritarian democracy, on the other hand, was aimed at shifting the majorities in parliament. The primary objective is to ensure the interests of other parties are not excluded from consideration (Jarstad and Sisk 110).

One can argue that both the consensus and majoritarian democracy come in pairs. They are polar types. The types of practised democracies often fall between the two democracies. However, the two democracies have dissimilarities (Bogaards 4). The majoritarian democracy is often characterised by one party government that dominate the parliament. An electrical system that is majoritarian in nature is often used in the electrical system. The majoritarian system is also characterised by a two party system, interest group pluralism, a unitary centralised, state and a flexible constitution. Additionally, the system is composed of a unicameral parliament (Bogaards 4). If the legislature is bicameral, only one chamber will dominate the duties to be performed by the parliamentary section. The system is also characterised with no judicial monitoring, and the central bank is under the control of the government.

Consociation democracies, on the other hand, are characterised with oversized cabinets, an executive-legislative balance, a decentralised state, and two chambers of parliament. The party system is a multiparty system with both sides equally powerful. The parliament is differently composed. The constitution unlike in the majoritarian system is rigid. The system allows for a judiciary review of the government (Bogaards 5). The central bank is not government controlled it is independent.

The major fundamental difference is that in majoritarian the political power is concentrated in a bare majority, while consensus tries to distribute evenly and limit the power.

Economically, Malaysia has strived to re-establish its dominance as an exporter of services and technology. The country is approaching one of the most significant periods of its economic growth. There have been concerns on the over-reliance on manufacturing as the primary financial source. The government aims to improve technology production as main source revenue to better the Malaysian economy. However, the exportation of electronics, oil, gas and rubber has had a vital impact on the Malaysian economy. Taiwan is also dependent on technological exports to support its governmental operations. The country depends on its more capital-intensive and technical intensive industries (Thorbecke and Wan 159).

The involvement of the Malaysian ruling party in the financial policy generation in the countries a negative impact on resource distribution in the country. There has been an increase in the ethnic disagreements in the country governing section. As a result, there are signs of political instability within the factions of the government (Hill, Tham, and Ragayah 61). The similarities are visible with the era of the KMT in Taiwan and the UMNO in Malaysia. The two are a representation of political movements that try to consolidate government resources. The resources are then not evenly distributed among the public. However, such action by political movements has often led to political instability in the countries. KMT in Taiwan is a perfect example. Majoritarian democracy in Taiwan offers a solution to such actions since the public has the power to control actions of the politicians (Hill, Tham, and Ragayah 61).

There is continued alienation of the ethnic minority clans in Malaysia. The rupture is attributed to the dominance of the Malay ethnic group. The effect has been greatly felt among the middle class of all ethnic groups (Gomez 21). The actions have had a negative impact on the democracy of Malaysia. The effects have been the destruction of trust and social cohesion among the people. The economy of Malaysia has not performed to its full potential due to factors attributed to the segregation. Likewise in Taiwan the influential people are known to channel the public funds. The main hindrance to economic development in both regimes is corruption (Gomez 21).

Consociation democracy lacks the values and structures that are necessary for development and stability. The attributes of segment autonomy, consensual problem resolution and equal consideration of the social segments brings equality among the ethnic groups (Karr117). However, there is a risk of social dominance that makes it weaker as seen in Malaysia. Social dominance has made the system not to work effectively in Malaysia and Lebanon (Karr 118). The lack of informality and transparency has been the primary cause of its failure. Consociation often falls out of its main ideologies. Mostly, the accepted needs are aligned with the majority members. Segmentation along territorial dimensions hinders the smooth operation of the system (Karr 120).

The majoritarian model consolidates power in a bare majority. The system is often comprised of one party that dominates the law making process. In decision making, the corporation often needs majority support from the unions and social demographic parties to influence policy making. Time and the circumstances govern its practice. The organisation of the system operations is controlled by political culture and political partnerships (Axtmann 64).

In the quality of democracy consociation, democracy is better compared to majoritarian democracies. In majoritarian decision making is based on political associations. However, Consociation democracy if well managed proves to be very effective to ensure political stability in the nation. The attribute such as segment autonomy, consensual problem resolution and equal consideration of the social divisions ensure there is fair representation among members of the government.

The primary concept of democracy is to ensure there is an adequate representation of all citizens. The officials must be held accountable by the decisions they make. The core principle is to provide the governing process must result in an efficient output of policies and regulation. The principles of government evaluation should be adopted to ensure the proper democratic system is employed. Accountability, representation and efficiency are the primary roles of leaders. Consociation regimes offer stable governing systems compared to majoritarian systems. The rules defined asset governs the action of the governments by the leaders. Consociation ensures proper accountability since everyone is involved. Representation and efficiency are guaranteed as every ethnic community has a say in decision making. However, there are risks involved in this system, and a power-sharing arrangement often tends to be short and unstable caused by group autonomy uncompromising attitudes.

Works Cited

Andeweg, R B, and Galen A. Irwin. Governance and Politics of the Netherlands. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Print.

Axtmann, Roland. Understanding Democratic Politics: An Introduction. London: SAGE, 2003. Print.

Bogaards, Matthijs. Democracy and Social Peace in Divided Societies: Exploring Consociational Parties. N.p., 2014. Print.

Chen, An. Restructuring Political Power in China: Alliances and Opposition, 1978-1998. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999. Print.

Deyo, Frederic C. The Political Economy of the New Asian Industrialism. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1987. Print.

“Facts & Figures – Holland.com.” Tourism in Holland – Holland.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Flösser, Gaby, and Hans-Uwe Otto. Towards More Democracy in Social Services: Models and Culture of Welfare. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1998. Print.

Gitman, Lawrence J, and Michael D. Joehnk. Personal Financial Planning. Mason: Thomson/South-Western, 2005. Print.

Gomez, Edmund T. Political Business in East Asia. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Hill, Hal, Siew Y. Tham, and Haji M. Z. Ragayah. Malaysia’s Development Challenges: Graduating from the Middle. Milton Park: Routledge, 2012. Print.

Izumi, Takako, and Rajib Shaw. Disaster Management and Private Sectors: Challenges and Potentials. N.p., 2015. Print.

Jarstad, Anna, and Timothy D. Sisk. From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

Karr, Karolina. Democracy and Lobbying in the European Union. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2007. Print.

Khan, Mahmood H. When Is Economic Growth Pro-Poor?: Experiences in Malaysia and Pakistan. Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2002. Print.

Kil, Sŭng-hŭm, and Chung-in Moon. Understanding Korean Politics: An Introduction. Albany: State U of New York P, 2001. Print.

Krieger, Joel. The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. New York: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.

Pangle, Thomas L. The Ennobling of Democracy: The Challenge of the Postmodern Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992. Print.

Paquette, Laure. Strategy and Ethnic Conflict: A Method, Theory, and Case Study. Westport: Praeger, 2002. Print.

“Political System of South Korea.” Independence Day Celebration | 123independenceday.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.

Sisson, Richard, and Edward D. Mansfield. The Evolution of Political Knowledge: [volume 2]. Baltimore: Project Muse, 2014. Print.

Sparks, Chris, and Stuart Isaacs. Political Theorists in Context. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.

Taiwan: Foreign Policy and Government Guide. Washington: International Business Publications, USA, 2009. Print.

Thillairajah, Sabapathy. Development of Rural Financial Markets to Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: World Bank, 1994. Print.

Thorbecke, Erik, and Henry Y. Wan. Taiwan’s Development Experience: Lessons on Roles of Government and Market. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. Print.

Wright, Joseph. Political Regimes and Foreign Aid: How Aid Affects Growth and Democratization. N.p., 2007. Print.

Final Project

September 29, 2015

Final Project

Name

Institution Affiliation

 

Final Project

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapy in contemporary medicine that is revolutionizing medical care through its efficacy and application. Developed by Francine Shapiro in the 80s, this therapy aids in the management and treatment of trauma related conditions. Originally developed as the primary therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), this therapy is now being used in other disorders like depression and phobias. The manner in which therapy works is complex. In summary, however, EMDR works by triggering the brain information processing activities. By using eye movements, the affected individuals are able to recall adverse past events. When this is done continuously, the individual learns to put the adverse events behind and focus on the future. However, psychotherapy, of which EMDR is a part, is a complex phenomenon to understand since brain functioning in itself is a complex tenet. It is a psychotherapeutic intervention and because of this, debate rages whether it is the best psychotherapy for PTSD victims. Despite this, it has proved to be an effective tool for these patients. The benefits of EMDR in adults and children affected by PTSD are well documented and researched. Due to its efficacy in treating PTSD, it has been recognized by the National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). The aim of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of EMDR in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and other related adverse outcomes.

EMDR is an effective psychotherapeutic Intervention

Many qualitative and quantitative studies, along with medical reports show have proved that EMDR is an effective intervention in the management of PTSD. There are many interventions for adverse outcomes like post-traumatic stress, and EMDR has been found to be among the most effective. Research by Kath Norgate (2012) reveals that the efficacy of EMDR is evidence based, gauging from the findings of multiple research studies and clinician reports. Norgate’s research article is peer reviewed and has been published in “The Nursing Times”. It gives useful insight into EMDR therapy by giving noteworthy background information about the intervention and two case studies that illustrate the efficacy. The researcher has also used numerous past research studies that have been done on the same in coming up with the conclusion. The researcher asserts that EMDR is effective against all forms of emotional and psychological problems. The case studies mentioned are derived from the researcher’s experience with young people with psychological disturbances as a result of adverse outcomes. The two teenagers presented with various behaviors as a result of past traumatic events, and from numerous EMDR sessions, the symptoms improved and they were able to lead a normal lifestyle. From the case studies and the literature reviewed, Norgate was able to establish the effectiveness of the therapy.

EMDR has been found to improve emotional and psychological outcomes in patients with PTSD. Many clients also report having improved relationships after multiple sessions. Clients not only have improved relationships, but also, they advance in their careers and advance in education (Norgate, 2012). Research by Bisson and Andrew (2007) shows that EMDDR along with trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TFCBT) offers better treatment  to stress management in treating PTSD when interventions are started early. The same research also concluded that these modalities are more effective than other modalities of managing PTSD. The other modalities include hypnotherapy, supportive therapy, psychodynamic therapy and non-directive counseling. The research by Bisson and Andrew was a review of randomized controlled trials of modalities used to treat PTSD.  A total of 29 studies were used in the review. The findings are further evidence of the efficacy of EMDR in managing PTSD. Another meta-analysis by Rodenburg et al., (2009) shows that PTSD has a wide range of therapies, but EMDR is one of the most effective in children. The same message on the efficacy of EMDR in the meta-analysis is superimposed by Seidler and Wagner (2006). This meta-analysis compares EMDR and TFCBT in treating PTSD. The authors acknowledge that these two methods are the most common approaches in managing PTSD. The meta-analysis is motivated by the fact that debate has been ongoing on the merits and demerits of each of the two psychotherapeutic modalities. Therefore, in their study, the researchers wanted to establish whether one is more superior to the other. 8 studies were used for the meta-analysis. However, unlike previous research, none of these modalities were found to be more efficacious than the other. TFCBT and EMDR are equal in clinical significance, but they are both effective modalities in managing post-traumatic stress in children and adults.

Many qualitative and quantitative research studies have been conducted on EMDR, and the advantage is, they add to the already existing knowledge about EMDR and its efficacy. The gaps in knowledge from past research are now being bridged through more meta-analyses. These analyses investigate many research studies and based on this, a similarity is always derived. Based on this, the findings are usually plausible and accurate. Qualitative research by Theodore Morrison of the Naval Center for Combat and Operational Stress Control (NCCOSC) further reveals that EMDR is evidence-based and that multiple research studies continue showing that it is an effective modality for managing stressful outcomes like PTSD. Theodore explains the mechanism of action in the initial pages of this article. The article then goes on to explain how various PTSD treatments compare with EMDR. Research by Bisson and Andrew (2007) is referred by Theodore. In the research, as mentioned above, the findings are that EMDR is slightly better than other therapies in treating PTSD. In the same study, no differences were found in the efficacy of EMDR and TFCBT.

Theodore then mentions research conducted by Davidson and Parker in the form of a meta-analysis. In this study, however, the researchers could not find the efficacy of EMDR over other modalities of treatment. However, as long as a control group is used, EMDR is an effective tool for PTSD. Theodore further mentions the research done by Seidler and Wagner above (2006). Just like the rest, this is a meta-analysis of 7 studies that compares the efficacy of EMDR with cognitive behavioral therapy. Similarly, like the meta-analysis by Davidson and Parker, the study could not establish whether one modality was more effective than the other. However, what is clear from the findings is that EMDR is an effective treatment option for PTSD. Another study mentioned in the article is that of Albright and Thyer (2010). This is a more recent research that focuses on the efficacy of EMDR in reducing PTSD in combat veterans. 9 studies were reviewed in this exercise. While 3 studies were able to show that EMDR causes improvement of conditions, 5 others showed that there was no improvement of symptoms and worsening condition with EMDR. While this study does not support the efficacy of EMDR in totality, it gives indications of the application of EMDR in combating post- traumatic stress. Analysis of this study shows that there were limitations that affected research outcomes. This includes and is not limited to: few reported treatment sessions, low statistical power, poor adherence to treatment and inadequate clinician treatment. All these must be taken into consideration before one can accurately assert that EMDR is not an effective intervention in adverse outcomes.

Francine Shapiro, the doctor credited with the theory surrounding EMDR, is one of the latest researchers to give overwhelming evidence on the application of EMDR in medicine. In a 2014 article, Shapiro superimposes the widespread agreement that widespread research has shown that EMDR is effective in treating trauma. Shapiro reviews recent and past studies on the application of EMDR in medicine and how it compares top other interventions. 24 randomized control trials assert that EMDR is effective in treating PTSD (Shapiro, 2014). In the same research, 7 studies revealed that EMDR is more effective than other interventions. While not all the studied articles prove that EMDR is effective, the conclusion by Shapiro is that clinicians need to embrace EMDR in managing PTSD. There is need to conduct more research just like Shapiro in order to conclusively come up with the findings.

There is limited evidence supporting the efficacy of EMDR

While many studies outline that EMDR is an effective treatment measure for patients with PTSD, other studies assert that the findings are not conclusive due to deficiencies in most studies and due to evidence basis. Factors like low statistical power and inadequate treatment interventions cannot be used to gauge efficacy of a therapy over the rest. The efficacy of a treatment measure needs to be compared with others in numerous studies before it can adequately be determined to be effective. Most meta-analyses employ less than 10 studies in concluding that EMDR is an effective psychotherapeutic intervention. The low statistical power of fewer studies used in meta-analyses makes the findings of the efficacy of EMDR questionable in some cases. For instance, research by Albright and Thyer (2010) did not emerge with the desired outcomes like most past studies. Employing 9 studies to analyze the efficacy of PTSD, the findings did not support the idea that EMDR is effective in treating PTSD. As mentioned above, only 3 of the studies proved this. The rest came up with opposite findings. For this reason, the authors concluded that the evidence to prove that EMDR is effective in PTSD is l based on many factors like the low statistical power of the analyzed studies.

Other studies assert that PTSD is akin to a placebo treatment in behavioral medicine (Theodore, 2014). In his study, Theodore refers to earlier works of McNally (1999) and Lohr et al., (1995). These two researchers conclude that the evidence that EMDR is effective clinically is limited. Rather than being an effective therapy, it is an exposure therapy. The researchers also do not see the importance of the eye movement in the therapy. Based on these findings, it cannot be conclusively stated that EMDR is an effective intervention for PTSD as compared to other interventions. Despite showing promise and success in some populations, it has also failed in some. It would take more and accurate research to conclusively state that EMDR is effective (Theodore, 2014).

However, the deficiencies in the findings in some studies seem to not only emanate from the low statistical power of the studies but also due to the inaccurate interventions. For instance, it would require well-trained personnel to offer EMDR services adequately. In the event that the personnel have some deficiencies, then the therapy will not be effective and the conclusions will not be plausible. Another challenge lies in the treatment. EMDR requires multiple sessions in order to bring out the best results. Some clients have low adherence to treatment; hence, the intervention will appear to be flawed. Another challenge picked in many studies is that of few reported treatment sessions. This brings the overall picture of low efficacy, but the clear picture is that; with low reported treatment sessions, one cannot accurately determine the efficacy of EMDR. These limitations need to be surmounted in order to determine the efficacy of EMDR accurately. For example, the research by Albright and Thyer (2010) hurriedly concludes that there is limited evidence to show the efficacy of EMDR. However, with these many limitations, it will not be easy to know whether it is the researchers who are inaccurate in their assertions or the many meta-analyses that conclusively state that EMDR is an effective intervention.

The efficacy of EMDR in treating PTSD has also been questioned by other researchers who see no difference between this research and other interventions like stress management and cognitive therapy. While most researchers have dwelled on the efficacy of EMDR, an equally significant number has dwelled on the efficacy as compared to the other therapies. The argument is that, if other therapies are more effective in treating PTSD as compared to EMDR, then the latter cannot be deemed effective. While most of these researchers have established that there is a slight efficacy when EMDR is compared to other therapies, others have not discovered any differences. This is a gap that needs to be bridged because it is not clear as to why there are differences between different research studies on the same issue. Theodore (2014) asserts that the studies showing the efficacy of EMDR have been showing contradicting results. Such outcomes do not instill confidence in the stakeholders of this subject. This calls for more research so that these controversies are well addressed and there is uniformity in the findings.

More research needs to be conducted to conclusively state that EMDR is an effective therapeutic intervention in the treatment of PTSD. Many studies have shown the efficacy, but many others have also poked holes in the findings. The limitations that are bringing about the contradicting results need to be bridged before stakeholders can accurately demonstrate the efficacy of EMDR. More meta-analyses need to be used so as to enhance the statistical power. The concerned bodies that offer treatment also need to enhance training so that the therapy I accurate to the affected people. Patients also need to be taught about the benefits of adherence. It is only after there is adherence to an accurate intervention that one can accurately investigate the efficacy. Research by Albright and Thyer (2010) shows that; while many studies continue, concluding that EMDR is effective, most of these are studies have limitations that first need to be addressed. There is a need for more studies on all PTSD therapies.

Nonetheless, many health bodies recognize that PTSD is an evidence-based approach that has proved to be effective in the management of PTSD. Further research would be needed to seal any loopholes in these conclusions (Theodore, 2014).

Conclusion

Developed in the 80s, EMDR is an intervention that has been widely reported to be effective in managing PTSD. EMDR is a complex mechanism that is difficult and complex. However, of importance is not the mechanism of action, but rather how effective it is in treating PTSD.  It has also been found to be slightly effective when compared with other equally effective interventions of PTTS like stress management and behavioral therapy. The efficacy is evidence-based since many studies and clinical outcomes have proven that it is indeed effective in managing PTSD. Many meta-analyses conclusively state that this therapy is effective generally; therefore, should be embraced by many. The research evidence on the effectiveness of EMDR has even ensured that it is included as part of the guidelines for health bodies worldwide.

Research on the efficacy of EMDR has been ongoing for the past three decades and still ongoing. This is because; the findings in some cases have deficiencies and are contradictory. For this reason, more research is needed to bridge this gap. While most research studies have shown that EMDR is more effective than other therapies in managing PTSD, other researchers have asserted that there is limited evidence to show for this widely reported efficacy. This is because, in some studies, patients have been seen not to recover from PTSD as compared to others. These studies assert that there is low statistical power in most meta-analyses; hence, the findings are currently not conclusive. It would take multiple research studies with the same findings to prove that EMDR is indeed effective. Most of the studies that hurriedly conclude that PTSD is effective use less than 10 studies, and this makes the finding not plausible. Other limitations like inadequate training and non-adherence to treatment further makes the findings not plausible. Other researchers have rubbished EMDR as being merely a placebo treatment in behavioral medicine. This is because the findings are not conclusive in all cases investigated.

While most research studies prove that EMDR is an effective intervention, including the latest by Shapiro in 2014, the challenge is bridging the gaps and contradictions that exist in past findings. Due to the contradicting findings on the efficacy of EMDR, it would be necessary for more research to be conducted. More research studies also need to be conducted on other therapies so that this can be compared to EMDR before conclusively stating that the latter is more effective.

However, despite these contradictions, the strong point in asserting that EMDR is effective is because this is evidence based. Many have proved in practice that EMDR is indeed effective. It is almost impossible to conduct perfect research. The limitations of research may be the ones leading to the contradictions. This is what needs to be addressed by researchers so that there is total agreement on EMDR and its use in psychotherapy.
References

American Psychiatric Association Work Group on ASD and PTSD. (2004). Practice guidelines

for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Bisson, A. M. (2007). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Cochraine Database Review System.

Bradley, R., Greene, J., Russ, E., Dutra, L., & Westen, D. (2005, February). A multi-dimensional meta-analysis of psychotherapy for PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 214-227.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder,

National Clinical Practice Guideline Number 26. London: NICE. nice.org.uk/CG26.

Norgate, K. (2012). EMDR for post-traumatic stress and other psychological trauma. Nursing Times; 108: 44, 24-26.

Rodenburg B et al., (2009) Efficacy of EMDR with children: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review; 29: 599-606.

Schnurr, P. (2008). Treatments for PTSD: Understanding the Evidence. PTSD Research

            Quarterly; 19: 3, 1050-1835.

Seidler, G. a. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focussed cognitive behaviorar therapy in the treatment of PTSD. Psychological Medicine; 36, 1515-1522.

Shapiro, F. (2014). The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and physical Symptoms Stemming From Adverse Life Experiences. the permanentejournal, 71-77.

Theodore, M. (2014). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Naval Center for Combat & Operational Stress Control, 1-5.

Thyer, A. a. (2010). Does EMDR reduce post-traumatic disorder in combat veterans? Behavioral Therapy; 25, 1-19.

Wanders F et al (2008) EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioural

problems: a randomized control trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research; 2: 180-189.

Data Communications [Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees] [Institutional Affiliation(s)]

September 29, 2015

Data Communications

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Author Note

[Include any grant/funding information and a complete correspondence address.]

Question one

Due to the increasing network traffic which has been brought about by the increased demand of the internet, there has been the need to develop standards for high speedspecifications. The 802.11 is used by the IEEE to refer to set of Physical Layer (PHL) and Media Access Control (MAC) specifications that are used to implement Wireless Local Network (WLAN)(Keshav, 2013).  The WiGig network Standard was developed to aid in carrying out research in the 802.11ad operations that operate in using the Giga Hertz frequency bandwidth. The factors which contribute WLAN market growth are:

  • Multimedia sharing and streaming
  • The increase in adoption of WLAN in Enterprises.
  • The Integration of WLAN into more consumer products such as smartphones, e-readers, gaming consoles and etc.
  • Increase in applications, i.e. the internet of things, such as home automation, smart meters, and etc.
  • Increase in the use of WLAN to offload data from cellular networks. (Keshav, 2013), Say that 65% of mobile data traffic can be offloaded to WIFI.
Network Technology Speed DSSS or OFDM Kinds and Number of antennas Bandwidth
802.11a 54 Mbps DSSS Has a total of 23 channels and 4 antennae’s 5.75 GHz
802.11b 11 Mbps DSSS Supports MIMO antennas where it supports 3 kinds of antennae 2.4-2.5 GHz
802.11g 54 Mbps Allows up to 4 different kinds of antenna to be supported. 20 MHz
802.11n 150 Mbps OFDM Multiple Input, Multiple Output antennae (MIMO). 4 antennae that can handle up to 4 simultaneous data streams. 20.40 MHz
802.11ac 866.7 Mbps 4.0/3.6us Multiple Input, Multiple Output antennae of up to 8 multi-user with a high density modulation 160MHz
802.11ad (WiGig) 6.75 Gbps DSSS Multiple Input, Multiple Output antennae that supports up to 4 users. The High gain antennae’s can be used for P2P wireless backhaul. 2.16 MHz
802.11ax 10Gbps OFDM Allows up to 4 special streams of MIMO 20, 40, 80, 160 MHz

802.11ac: it was designed to mitigate against interferences caused by overlapping frequencies in other classes in this category.

802.11n: This is the fastest standard that is currently available in the market. It can give maximum speeds of between 150 Mbps and 300 Mbps.

802.11ac

Question two

I would recommend that the family thinks on the second option which is to install one WIFI access point and put WIFI cards in the three laptops despite it being an expensive undertaking. This is because of the following reasons:

  • WLAN network is easy to configure than a cables LAN network(Keshav, 2013). This is because, for the WLAN network they will only need to set up the router and put the Network Interface Cards in the computers then thy will be good to go. In a cabled LAN, they will need to run cables through their houses to the locations where the computers are located and this can be tedious considering it’s a storied building.
  • A WLAN network would also be appropriate because in can support extra computers in case they decide to increase the number of computers in the building. This is because one can be able to access a WLAN network if they have the WIFI Cards.
  • A WLAN network can be secured by a WPA2 passwords thus restricting outsiders from accessing the network. A cabled LAN cannot be secured.
  • A WLAN network is easy to troubleshoot as compared to the cabled LAN, as the cables could contribute to some of the problems.
  • WLAN network allows voice and data services over the same medium.

Question three

  1. Core technology design

The core network design that I would recommend for the company’s network is a Wired Local Area Network with a mesh topology connecting the different servers in the company. A wired LAN supports high speed transmission of data in the organization. The transmission speeds are not affected by the number of connections. Despite the high speed network transmission capacities offered, it also guarantees network security.

In case of a WIFI network design, hackers would be tempted to hack into the company’s network because they can access it and be able to manipulate figures in an attempt to get the security keys of the company.

The reason I’d recommend for a meshed topography in the network design is because of the reason that it allows faster communications to take place due to point to dedicated point to point communications between the servers that will be allowed. A mashed network technology also allows transfer of big data, i.e. they support large data transfers to take place. This is due to the fact that the point to point connections between the servers will allow data transfers to take place without interferences. It would also allow privacy of data when sending and receiving data from another department as the channels are dedicated, thus no department will be able to read data intended for another department.

  1. Specific LAN technologies to be used in each department

The specific network technology that I would recommend to be used in each department is the Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDDI technology. This is because FDDI network technology combines the advantages of both the token ring technology and the Ethernet technology(Keshav, 2013). With the network traffic from the three departments, there is need to have a technology that will be able to address the needs of those departments and these can be solved by the FDDI network technology.

The FDDI technology can support speeds of up to 100 Mb. It is designed to use the same token ring technology that was designed by IBM, but its difference comes in the sense that it has two rings, i.e. the primary ring and the secondary ring.  The primary ring is used for transferring the data while the secondary ring is used for backup services in case the primary data gets lost on the way or collides with other data packets. The FDDI ring has two options of attaching different stations, i.e. the Single Attachment Station (SAS) or class A and the Dual Attachment Station (DAS) or class B.

Department X can be configured as a DAS because it reads and writes data from the department Y and Z. this will help to reduce the network traffic in the three departments because of the high speeds supported and the data transfer mechanisms supported. The mechanism supported by this technology of making sure that data does not get lost on the way and communication can take part from any direction.

The advantages that FDDI comes with are:

  • It supports high speeds in the network.
  1. Design solution to address the departmental traffic issues.

In order to address the departmental traffic issues, I would recommend the following strategies to be adopted as measures to reduce traffic on the network.

  1. Implement a start network topology in each department: A start network topology would assist in controlling traffic in then department as it would ensure that each individual in the department has an equal opportunity of sending and receiving data. The token ring mechanism allows the computer that has been assigned the ring to send and receive data without being interfered with data from other computer that might be sending data at that time. This mechanism will also ensure that data collision issues are avoided as the no computers will be allowed to send data at the same time.
  2. Introduce an Intelligent Hub to monitor traffic in each departments: Having an intelligent hub in each departments willnot only aid in managing the cables but also managing traffic issues which might result from high number of data sent through the network. An intelligent hub does network management such as redirecting the data packets to the destination computers and also regenerating data signals so that they can be able to reach their destination in the other departments.
  • Have a router connect the three departments together: A router is a networking device that connects more than two network signals and filters traffic between the networks so as to ensure that there is smooth flow of data. Having a router to connect the three departments will ensure that there is smooth flow of data as the router is able to direct redirect the packets to their destination.

The router that I’d recommend to be used in designing the company’s network is a dynamic router. This is because a dynamic router is able to update the routing table from the data it receives from the communicating devices. The routing table enables the router to direct data packets to the communicating computers thus ensure that data collision does not occur. This routing able will be useful in redirecting data packets that are sent from one department to another by using the routing algorithm that gets its data from the network addresses and the router addresses. The advantages that come with using a router are: It will be able to connect the departments even if different physical media are used, it can be able to choose the best data path for data packets to travel and lastly is that it will be able to reduce the network traffic by not forwarding data packets when there is traffic.

  1. Use fiber optic cables as the physical mediums to interconnect the departments: Fiber Optic cables offer high speed network speeds which thus thy will aid in addressing the issue on network traffic. Despite the fact that these cables are expensive, they offer better service as they are not affected by traffic issues(Keshav, 2013). This is because they have a high bandwidths which allows more data to flow through them. The fiber optic cables will also allow continuous flow of data which is not affected by electromagnetic waves.
  2. Have a network manager to manage network problems. Having a network manager in the company will help in managing the network issues as he/she will be able to deal with the problems that come along as people use the network.

References

Keshav, S., 2013. An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking: ATM Networks, the Internet, and the Telephone Network. illustrated ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley.

 

September 29, 2015
P A R T
P
T
P
R
T
P
P
R
R
A
T
T
Totals 4 1 3 4

PART Questionnaire

VART questionnaire

Question a category  b category c category d category
1 K A R V
2 V A R K
3 K V R A
4 K A V R
5 A V K R
6 K R V A
7 K A V R
8 R K A V
9 R A K V
10 K V R A
11 V R A K
12 A R V K
13 K A R V
14 K R A V
15 K A R V
16 V A R K
Totals V=5 A=3 R=9 K=5

Human Resource Development

September 29, 2015

Human Resource Development

Name:

Institution:

Individual characteristics and HRD

Human resource development is a function of the human resource management that focuses on improving the performance, career development, and personal growth through training. Organizations should ensure that the individual characteristics are well developed during the training to achieve the desired results. Therefore, the four stage model of training can help prepare the employees and the organization for training. The first stage focuses on identifying the training needs. The assessment of the needs help identify the specific job performance, skills needed, the trainees’ attitude and develop performance objectives based on the deficiency (Gold et al., 2013). The second stage focuses on designing the requirements. It involves coming up with the tools required to training the employees. The techniques of training are identified and the training environment. Once this is done, the delivering activity stage is emphasized. This is the actual training where the attitudes and skills are changed. The training activities are then evaluated to identify the effectiveness of the training. It is during this process that the individual characteristics are developed.

Self-efficacy is the belief of the trainees that their ability influences the training results. This is acquired during or before training and helps the trainee feel motivated to learn. Such people are eager and willing to participate in a training program that develop their skills and improve performance (Salas et.al, 2012). Another characteristic is the goal orientation. Trainees should have learning orientation that motivates then to seek new skills necessary for performance and career development. Motivation to learn is also an individual characteristic that improves the learning outcomes. The trainees will be willing to engage in learning, concentrate during training and change their attitudes and performance after the training.
Career, learning, and future plans

There has been increased need for learning in the current business environment. Competition has increased, and professionals are competing for high positions in the organizations or seek for high performance in their organizations. As a result, a continuous learning is crucial to gain necessary skills required for improved performance. In my career as a manager, I aspire to continue in career development through sets of the training programs and achievement of the set goals. I have engaged in various stages of career development and seek to continue with the process to become an outstanding performer in my organization. Since the early schooling, it has been my goal to attain skills that will help in the work environment as well as personal growth. I have been involved in a series of positions in the job market, and I am on the stage of career management where I need to make critical life choices and transitions. Goals setting theory is a major motivation in my career life. I set career goals and get motivated to learning new skills that will help achieve the goals. I also have the need for achievement. Mclelland’s need for achievement theory helps in achieving the set standards. I have the desire and need for excellence in my career (Noe & Winkler, 2012). This is a motivation to learn through different techniques such as formal education and e-learning. My future career goal is to become an excellent leader. I also seek ensure comprehensive growth as a leader and offer advice to upcoming leaders. In the career development stages, I have heard challenges like lack of motivation at one point. The other challenge is taking a high position job without enough skills. However, I have heard opportunities of learning new skills on the job, in school and even from on-line programs.

Learning styles

PART questionnaire. I believe that the scores reflect my actual life. I believe in trying out ideas and theories and put them into practice. Through this process, I learn and master the required skills to complete a particular task. I am comfortable with the pragmatist’s style. The advantage of this style is that one can become a fast learner because of searching for ideas and trying them out. It is also possible to solve problems as fast as possible. However, the disadvantage is that the style affects the trainer and becomes impatient with the slow learners. One tends to impose their decisions on others. The other training style I am comfortable with is the theorist style. The advantage is that it can lead to creativity and do things perfectly. The disadvantage is that one can do things at a slow pace that may pile up tasks.

VARK questionnaire. I believe that the results reflect my learning styles. I prefer read and write strategies because this is when ideas are sticking in my mind. If I read and write what I learn, I find it easy to understand concepts. I also do fairly well with the visuals and kinesthetic strategies. Using diagrams, I can translate concepts and understand them. I also prefer learning through experience and practice.

People have different learning styles. As a HR professional, I would ensure that the various learning styles are used to cater for the needs of the trainees. For example, in designing the media to use in training, there will be a combination of various methods such as instructional materials, visuals, and audio. Trainees will also be asked to share their experiences as a way of learning and also helping others.
Learning experience

I have discovered that experience is quite essential in effective learning. The experiences that an individual has can create knowledge that is quickly passed on to other people. Training another person is an opportunity to learn things that had not been clear when the information was not shared. I was once engaged in training a group of people in the workplace on the need for improved communication skills. The training was going for three days, and each group was trained on communication skills. When I started with the first group, my training was not quite effective as it did with group two and three. In the first training session, there were some questions about communication skills that I did not adequately answer. However, after the session, I had to study and focus on the questions so that the next day I would better address them. This was an opportunity to learn and master the concepts. The second and third sessions were effective. From the first session, I had learned the concepts to focus on during training, the training techniques and way to influence the attitudes of the trainees. According to Noe & Winker (2012), verbal information, and intellectual skills are necessary for learning. Understanding the concepts required by the employees to improve their performance is quite essential for managers. Experiencing a situation also helps improve learning of an individual. This was a successful opportunity for learning through sharing the knowledge and information I had on communication skills.
Learning theories

Social learning theory is quite essential to understanding the learning experience. The theory helps influence other people’s behavior and attitudes through reward and punishment. Modeling is also crucial in changing the behaviors of the individuals. The learning experience I had during the training was effective and influenced by social learning theory. I used the techniques of reward by complementing the trainees that took part in the discussion (Noe & Winkler, 2012). This encouraged concentration and at the same time was a learning experience because I improved my confidence and training skills. Also, I improved my communication skills and managed to persuade and encourage the trainees about the need for learning communication skills. During the training, I remembered my mentor who always mention about confidence and need to pass knowledge to trainees. As a result, I was encouraged to carry on with the training and share my knowledge with others. Therefore, I find social learning theory to have a positive effect on my life and my learning experiences. I learn from others and also aim at becoming a model to other learners.

Goal setting theory is also essential in my learning experience. Goal setting helps influence the person’s behavior and improves the learning outcome. In my training experience, I had set goals of informing the trainees of the relevant communication skills. As a result, I read books and gathered online information relating to communication skill. As a result, I delivered relevant information regarding communication skills. According to Locke & Latham (2006), goal setting theory and self-efficacy help increase confidence. Commitment to the goal leads to improved learning. As a result, of the two theories, I had a positive learning experience. My attitudes and knowledge about communication skills were tremendously improved.
Extent to which theories are useful

Goal setting theory is quite useful in understanding the learning experience. Every day there are goals set, and they help one accomplish the tasks given for that particular day. In my learning, when I set goals I am capable of accomplishing the learning activities (Locke, 1996). I get the motivation to engage in learning activities that are relevant to my career and job performance. For example, I have set goals that have been a motivation to go through higher education. I also work hard to improve performance both in school and at work. In future, I seek always to set specific and challenging but attainable that helps in improving my knowledge. For example, I will ensure that when on the job I engage in learning programs such as seminars and conferences to help achieve the goals set in my organization. Goal setting will also facilitate other’s learning because in my organization I will engage employees in goal-setting so that they can learn and feel motivated from the goal setting process. I will also facilitate learning by providing feedback relating to achievement of the performance goals. This will help improve learning and correcting or revising goals to facilitate efficient performance (Lunenberg, 2011).

The extent to which social learning theory is useful in learning is quite high. The theory emphasizes that people learn through observation from people that are knowledgeable and successful. Behavior is changed through experiencing and repeating the new skills. This theory has been useful in my life. I have observed models such as my teachers, parents and managers that have influenced my behavior and taught me new skills. For example, I admire my boss at work that makes me go back to school to acquire more knowledge and skills that can help in getting a promotion (Grusec, 1992). In future, I seek have a relationship with influential leaders that will be my mentors and models. As a result, I will learn leadership skills that will be effective in the organization. I will also help others learn by becoming a good leader and a mentor to my employees and pass on the skills of leadership to them (Smith & Berge, 2002).

References

Gold, J. et al. (2013) Human resource development: theory and practice. New York: Palgrave   Macmillan

Grusec, J. (1992). Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert            Sears and Albert Bandura. Developmental Psychology. Vol. 28, No. 5: 776-786

Locke, E. & Latham, G. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Association for    Psychological Science. Vol. 15. No. 5 pp. 265-268

Locke, E. (1996). Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied & Preventive Psychology            Vol. 5: 117-124

Lunenburg, F. (2011). Goal-setting theory of motivation. International Journal of Management.            Vol. 15. No. 1

Noe, R. & Winkler,L. (2012). Training & development: learning for sustainable management.    Sydney: McGraw-Hill

Salas, E. et al. (2012). The science of training and development in organizations: What matters in          practice. Psychological Science. 13(2):74-101

Smith, M. & Berge, Z. (2009). Social learning theory in second life. Journal of Online Learning            and teaching. Vol. 5. No. 2

Type 2 Diabetes in Australian Children and Adolescents

September 29, 2015

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Tutor:

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diabetes

Introduction

Diabetes is a terminal illness that interrupts with body processes of managing glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the body resists insulin effects or is unable to produce adequate insulin that maintains normal levels of glucose .Diabetes state organization in Australia (2012) describes it as mature onset diabetes related to other unstable conditions of the body such as high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. It is common in children depending on the rate of increase in childhood obesity (AIHW , 2014).

The difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is that type 2 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle habits and it is purely an autoimmune condition. It is common in adults of forty years and above

Questions

What is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Australia among children and adolescents?

What are the symptoms, risk factors, causes, effects, and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?

What are common barriers while addressing type 2 diabetes in indigenous Australia?

What are prevention measures of diabetes 2 in adolescents and young children?

Other studies on Australian type 2 diabetes among children and adults.

What treatment is offered to type 2 diabetes patients. What are the recommendations?

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in Australia

More than one million Australians have been diagnosed with Diabetes, with type 2 diabetes having a higher prevalence than type 1diabetes. The rates of diabetes 2 in children and adults are higher in Australian non-indigenous areas compared to indigenous areas.

Azzorpardi et al. ( 2012) comments that type 2 diabetes affects indigenous adolescents and children than non-indigenous areas. In Australia most children and young adults have a family history of type 2 diabetes and are asymptomatic during diagnosis. They are obese or overweight as well as having signs and symptoms of hyperinsulinism such as acanthosis nigricans, which initiates during adolescence (AIHW, 2014). The onset of type 2 diabetes in Australia indigenous is premature. A change in lifestyle from hunting and gathering in indigenous areas to sedentary lifestyles in urban areas has contributed to this difference. Non-indigenous children and adolescents are faced with a problem of sedentary lifestyles, which do not incorporate exercises. Fats accumulate around their waists leading to type 2 diabetes.

Prevalence

In Australia, Type 2 diabetes has increased 10-folds in children aged 6-12 years in the last 20 years. A rate of 0.2 per 100,000 patients per year was diagnosed in the year 1976 to 1980. This rate increased to 2.0 per 100,000 per year 1991 to 1995. Over the same period, the rates doubled among adolescents aged 13 to 15 years from 7.3 to 13.9 per 100,000 per year (Dr, Shaw, 2004).

A cohort study done to indigenous Australian children aged between 7 and 18 years was carried out in 1989 and 1994 (Marple-Brown, Sinha, & Davis, 2010). The result indicated a double increase of type 2 diabetes from 1.3% to 8.1%.further studies indicate that 18% of this population was obese and one-third had high cholesterol levels. National data from 1988 to 1994 of 3000 persons ranging from 12-19 years showed IFG prevalence of 1.8% ,elevated HbAic(>6%) was 0.4%. The prevalence for all types’ diabetes was 0.4% in 600000 adolescents. In Australia Sex specific BMI cut offs are equivalent to 25 and 30kg/m2 among eighteen year olds. Statistics indicate that 5% of children are obese and 16% are overweight. These rates have doubled over the last ten years.

Report

            Studies carried out in Princess Margaret Hospital for children below the age of 16 in Western Australia, demonstrated an increase in type 2 diabetes diagnosis in children and adolescents and frequent comorbidities. Database records from this hospital indicated an approximate of 99% referrals of children with type 1 and 2 diabetes. These records also contained data obtained from regular visits in 11 rural centers.

The analysis included children and adolescents below 17 years with type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 1990 and 2002. Examination findings, anthropometry that included mass indexes of weight and body, presence of acanthosis nigricans, c-peptide levels, family history of type 2 diabetes, and absence of autoantibodies differentiated data from type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes.

Diagnosis done on the patients included oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting urine levels, and glycohaemoglobin and C-peptide tests. Antibodies tests included autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kDaisoform (GAD65) antibodies and iset-cell antibodies (ICA). Demographic data offered information on birth dates, sex, dates of diagnosis, postcodes at diagnosis and ethnicity. Data containing weight and health, blood pressure, lipid, and HbAlc levels was obtained during clinic visits for all children. Hypertension levels were either systolic or diastolic. Hypercholesterolemia was > 5.2 mmol/L in greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl. HbAlc level was measured through inhibition of agglutination immunoassay (Ames DCA 2000, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus reference less than 6.2%).

BMIZ scores were obtained by subtracting the values of median reference of a certain population from the observed value and division of SD of reference population. The median (50 Th percentile) was equal to zero scores of AZ and 2.00 in Z scores is equal to the 97th percentile.

Results

A population of 43 children and adolescents below seventeen years proved positive to diabetes 2 tests done at Princess Margaret Hospital between 1990 and 2002. Among this population, 23(53%) of the patients were from indigenous areas, and 18(42%) came from rural areas (McMahon et al, 2004). 5% of these patients presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, 38% with polyuria and polydipisia symptoms, 57% were diagnosed incidentally. The mean scores for BMIZ at diagnosis were 1.94(0.59).The standard deviation for HbAlc levels at diagnosis were 10 %( 3.2%). They had common co morbidities where acanthosis nigricans was 26/36(72%), hyperlipidaemia was diagnosed in 9/38(24%) patients, and hypertension was 23/39(59%). The overall rates of type 2 diabetes were higher in indigenous population than in non-indigenous population.

Discussion

These results marked an increase in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents in the past seven years in Western Australia. 13 and 14 ages is the peak age at puberty, which disrupts the levels of insulin due to imbalance in hormonal levels. Clinical marker for type 2 diabetes was Acanthosis nigricans for hyperinsulinism (Box 1).

Development of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and children

Type 2 diabetes in adolescents begins with urine resistance, which indicates that the body is not functioning properly. In young adults, insulin produced increases the level of glucose in their blood, since the pancreas does not regulate the amount of insulin to overcome its resistance. Factors such as increase in hormonal levels during puberty increase resistance of insulin in their bodies.

Causes of Diabetes

Factors such as gene formation, extra weight, and metabolic syndrome, too much glucose from liver, bad cell communication, broken beta cells, and physical inactivity are among the causes of type 2 diabetes (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010).

            Genes

Different types of DNA bits affect the production of insulin in the body resulting in Diabetes 2.

            Extra weight

Overweight among children and adolescents come from changes in lifestyles in indigenous communities. These communities have changed from hunting and gathering to adoption of sedentary lifestyle and consuming western diets. These conditions have increased levels of obesity due to lack of exercises. Obese individuals especially those with greater weights around the middle part of their body, are at a higher risk of getting diabetes. Studies done indicate that type 2 diabetes affects children and adolescents because of their child hood obesity.

            Metabolic syndrome

Insulin resistance is a metabolic syndrome, demonstrated by high blood pressure, triglycerides, and high cholesterol.

            Excess glucose from liver

In type two diabetes, the liver not regulating its emission of sugar after eating. The level of blood sugar is usually low before eating and regulated by production of glucose by the liver. This production lowers after eating. However, type 2 diabetes individuals experience a condition in which their liver continues to produce glucose to the blood.

            Bad communication between cells

A chain reaction of some cells sending the wrong messages affects the working of cells in their production and manufacture of insulin. This leads to progression of type 2 diabetes.

            Broken beta cells

Broken beta cells are because of excess production of blood sugar by insulin, which damages these cells since there are wrong amounts of insulin in the blood at the wrong time.

Physical inactivity

Lack of exercise is the major contributor of overweight and obesity among children and young adults. There has been a decline in physical activity among young children who spend most of their time watching televisions. Cigarette smoking, higher BMI levels, pregnancy, and lower parental education are among the contributing factors to physical inactivity in Australian adolescents.

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors such as age, genes, and ethnicity are unavoidable while other factors such as pre-diabetes, heart and blood vessel disease, cholesterol levels, high triglycerides, obesity, overweight babies, high blood pressure, depression, stress, smoking and having little or excess sleep are great risks to Diabetes 2 (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010).

            Genetics: the risks of adolescents contracting type 2 diabetes increase through type 2 diabetes family history.

            Weight: the resistance of insulin is due to too much weight especially around the waist. Urine resistance causes too much sugar from liver to the blood stream causing diabetes 2.

            Ethnicity: different backgrounds affect the production and consumption of sugar in the body. People from indigenous backgrounds are at higher risks of contracting type 2 diabetes compared with other people.

            Levels of physical activity: lack of exercises and physical activities causes resistance to insulin, which leads to type two diabetes.

 

Symptoms

Type 2 diabetes symptoms are mild and can go unrecognized in both groups. They include extra thirst, extra peeling, blurred vision, irritability, hands and feet numbness, fatigue, and recurrent yeast infections. Other symptoms include, disrupted sleep, polycystic ovary syndrome, psychological and orthopaedic disorders and hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular diseases.

Synthesis and evaluation

Diagnosis

Doctors diagnose include medical assessments on risk factors and symptoms and other signs of insulin resistance. Doctors tests Type 2 diabetes through fasting plasma glucose and Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).             Plasma glucose test measures the level of blood sugar on an empty stomach. Individuals for diagnosis do not eat but drink water only for a period of eight hours. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) checks the level of blood glucose before and after taking sweet drinks at intervals of two hours. This monitors the response of the body to blood sugar.

 

 

Long-term effects

Untreated type 2 diabetes over a long period causes damage in eyes, kidneys, pregnancy, and liver (Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute, 2012.Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute(2012), indicates that type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. It has led to complications in eyes, feet, kidney, cardiovascular health, nerve damage and therefore ranked among the top most causes of death in Australia.

Management of type 2 diabetes

Management is a big challenge to Australian citizens due to their inadequate resources (Marple-Brown, Sinha, & Davis, 2010).

Model for implementation

Adaptation of health promotion theory such as behavioral change will lower the increased rates of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. This includes changes in their diets, living styles. The theory of planned behavior assists diabetic 2 patients to have regular exercises and physical activities to manage their weights. They will use Social cognitive theory to observe methods of diabetes management from credentialed diabetes educators and accredited physiologist and social workers.

Treatments

Type 2 diabetes is treated by using pharmaceutical agents such as insulin to treat acute metabolic decompenstaion, metformin as initial pharmacologic treatment in cases when there is no severe hyperglycemia, and sulfonylurea in patients with mutations in HNFIα and HNF4α. Thiazolidinediones reduce visceral fat, α-Glucose inhibitors, therapies to lower lipids, and hypertension detection (Diabetes Victoria, 2015).

Barriers to treatment

There are various barriers to addressing type 2 diabetes in Australians among adolescents and children. People located in remote and rural areas experience a problem of accessing health facilities. (Australian Indigenous Health Info Net, 2007) indicates that there are limited resources in indigenous areas in individual and health sectors. High concentration of the affected group in rural areas limits their access and provision of resources. Their social economic status is low which limits them to access best treatments (Azzorpadi et al., 2012).

Adolescents pose a challenge when under treatment. Adolescent stage is marked with risk-taking behaviors, non-compliance, inadequate long-term planning, and resistance to change to various lifestyles. Dysfunctions in family and ethnic origins affect adolescents. Poverty and isolation leads to depression and substance abuse (Maple-Brown et al., 2010). Heavy family burdens and illnesses add stress to adolescents thus making it difficult to treat them. The doctors are faced with a challenge of differentiating type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Recommendations

Doctors recommend a change in eating disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and Binge eating disorder. In addition a change to behaviors such as anabolic steroid use and human growth hormones reduces type 2 diabetes among adolescents. Involvement in exercises and physical activities manages type 2 diabetes in both groups. Dr Shaw (2015) proposes a study of population-based prevalence in at risk populations, to understand the outcomes gained. Standardization of study methods depending on classification, diagnostic criteria, and methods is important in health sectors (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010). Education programs on individual change in lifestyle, physical activity, promote healthy living. Breastfeeding and strategies avoid low birth weight babies as well as treating gestational diabetes if taught to women by clinicians.

Conclusion

Indigenous and non-indigenous Australians suffer from Type 2 diabetes. They are faced with economical difficulties and inadequate resources. Their risk factors include obesity, early onset of adolescence and inability to access health facilities due to poverty. Type 2 diabetic patients suffer from blurred vision, kidney and heart failures, physiological and emotional disorders as well as death.

The Australian government has spent huge amounts of money educating the parents and youth on how to manage type 2 diabetes. In addition, health promotion theories such as behavioral change have been proposed by doctors. They argue that changes in lifestyles, exercises and physical activities reduce obesity which is the leading cause of Diabetes.

References

AIHW .(2014).Type 2 diabetes in Australia’s children and young people: a working paper.            Australian institute of health and welfare,64,1-66. Retrieved from           http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129546361

AIHW(2014).leading types of ill health. Australia’s health. Retrieved from             http://www.aihw.gov.au/australias-health/2014/ill-health/

American Diabetes Association Consensus Statement (2000). Type 2 Diabetes in Children           and Adolescents. Diabetes Care 23:381-319, 2000

Australian Indigenous Health Info Net(2007).Review of diabetes among indigenous         peoples. Australian Indigenous Health Info Net, 1-10.

Australian institute of health and welfare.(2010). Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Australian          children 2000-2008. Diabetes series13,1-35.

Azzopardi, P., Brown, A., Zimmet, P., & Fahy, R.(2012).Type 2 diabetes in young indigenous     Australians in rural and remote areas: diagnosis, screening, management and     prevention. The medical journal of Australia,197(1),32-36.

Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute.(2012).Diabetes : the silent pandemic and its impact on      Australia. Diabetes management booklet. Norvo Nordisk,1-27.

Craig, M. E., Donaghue, K.C., Cheung, N.W., Cameron, F.J., Conn, J., Jenkins, A. J., Silink, M. (2011).National evidence-based clinical care guidelines for type 1 diabetes in children,        Adolescents and adults. Australian Diabetes society,1-288.

Diabetes territory/state organizations. (2012). Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.           Talking diabetes, (40), 1-4.

Diabetes Victoria.(2015).mastering diabetes on schools and early childhood settings. Diabetes      Australia vic. Retrieved from http://www.diabetesvic.org.au/how-we-help/programs-and-            services/type-1-programs-and-services/194-team-t1

Dr, Shaw, J. (2004), the international diabetes federation consensus workshop. Type 2 diabetes   in the young: The Evolving Epidemic. Diabetes care, 7 (27), 1798-1811.

Eppens,M.,Craig,M.,Cusumano,J.,Hing,S.,Chan,A.,Howard,N.,Silink,M.,& Donaghue,     K.(2006). Prevalence of diabetes complications in Adolescents with type 2 compared           with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care, 6(29),1300-1306.

Maple-Brown, l. J. , Sinha A. K., & Davis, E.A.(2010).Type 2 diabetes in indigenous Australian children and adolescents. Journal of pediatric health, 46(9), 1-4.

McMahon, S., Haynes, A., Ratnam, N., Grant, M., Carne, C., Jones, T., & Davis,   E. (2004).        Increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in Western Australia.    Medical journal of Australia, 180(9), 1-3.

Nationa health and medical research council.(2005).Clinical practice guidelines: type 1 diabetes    in children and adolescents. Common wealth of Australia,1-315.

Type 2 Diabetes in Australian Children and Adolescents

September 29, 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents

Name:

Institution:

Date:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diabetes

Diabetes is a terminal illness that interrupts with body processes of managing glucose. There is type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which there are abnormalities with glucose in the blood. In type 2 diabetes, the body resists insulin effects or is unable to produce adequate insulin that maintains normal levels of glucose .Diabetes state organization in Australia (2012) describes it as mature onset diabetes related to other unstable conditions of the body such as high blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Type 2 diabetes is a complicated illness that puts the body under risk of long-term diseases such as kidney and heart diseases. It is common in children depending on the rate of increase in childhood obesity (AIHW , 2014).. The difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is that type 2 diabetes is unrelated to lifestyle habits and it is purely an autoimmune condition. It is common to adults of forty years and above and children though anyone is at risk of contracting it. According to diabetes state organizations (2012), lifelong insulin injections and tablets manage Type 1 diabetes. Regular blood glucose checkups and proper eating habits as well as regular exercises manage type 2 diabetes.

Questions

This paper will answer questions such as;

What is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Australia among children and adolescents?

What are the symptoms, risk factors, causes, effects, and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes?

What are common barriers while addressing type 2 diabetes in indigenous Australia?

What are prevention measures of diabetes 2 in adolescents and young children?

Other studies on Australian type 2 diabetes among children and adults.

What treatment is offered to type 2 diabetes patients. What are the recommendations?

Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in Australia

More than one million Australians have been diagnosed with Diabetes with type 2 diabetes having a higher prevalence than type 1 diabetes. Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute(2012), indicates that type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. It has led to complications in eyes, feet, kidney, cardiovascular health, nerve damage and therefore ranked among the top most causes of death in Australia. The rates of diabetes 2 in children and adults are higher in Australian non-indigenous areas compared to indigenous areas.

Azzorpardi et al. ( 2012) comments that type 2 diabetes affects indigenous adolescents and children than non-indigenous areas. In Australia most children and young adults have a family history of type 2 diabetes and are asymptomatic during diagnosis. They are obese or overweight as well as having signs and symptoms of hyperinsulinism such as acanthosis nigricans, which initiates during adolescence (AIHW, 2014). The onset of type 2 diabetes in Australia indigenous is premature which adds stress to their families.

A change in lifestyle from hunting and gathering in indigenous areas to sedentary lifestyles in urban areas has contributed to this difference. Management of this type is a big challenge to Australian citizens due to their inadequate resources (Marple-Brown, Sinha, & Davis, 2010).However, with continued blood glucose monitoring, proper diets, exercises, and diabetes education programs, diabetes 2 is manageable.

Prevalence

In Australia, Type 2 diabetes has increased 10-folds in children aged 6-12 years in the last 20 years. A rate of 0.2 per 100,000 patients per year was diagnosed in the year 1976 to 1980. This rate increased to 2.0 per 100,000 per year 1991 to 1995.

Over the same period, the rates doubled among adolescents aged 13 to 15 years from 7.3 to 13.9 per 100,000 per year (Dr, Shaw, 2004).

A cohort study of indigenous Australian children aged between 7 and 18 years was carried out in 1989 and 1994 (Marple-Brown, Sinha, & Davis, 2010). The result indicated a double increase of type 2 diabetes from 1.3% to 8.1%.further studies indicate that 18% of this population was obese and one-third had high cholesterol levels. National data from 1988 to 1994 of 3000 persons ranging from 12-19 years showed IFG prevalence of 1.8% ,elevated HbAic(>6%) was 0.4%. The prevalence for all types’ diabetes was 0.4% in 600000 adolescents. In Australia Sex specific BMI cut offs are equivalent to 25 and 30kg/m2 among eighteen year olds. Statistics indicate that 5% of children are obese and 16% are overweight. These rates have doubled over the last ten years.

Literature review

            Studies carried out in Princess Margaret Hospital for children below the age of 16 in Western Australia, demonstrated an increase in type 2 diabetes diagnosis in children and adolescents and frequent comorbidities. Database records from this hospital were retrieved which indicated an approximate of 99% referrals of children with type 1 and 2 diabetes. These records also contained data obtained from regular visits in 11 rural centers.

The analysis included children and adolescents below 17 years with type 2 diabetes diagnosed between 1990 and 2002. Examination findings, anthropometry that included mass indexes of weight and body, presence of acanthosis nigricans, c-peptide levels, family history of type 2 diabetes, and absence of autoantibodies differentiated data from type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes.

Diagnosis done on the patients included oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting urine levels, and glycohaemoglobin and C-peptide tests. Antibodies tests included autoantibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65kDaisoform (GAD65) antibodies and iset-cell antibodies (ICA). Demographic data, which offered information on birth dates, sex, dates of diagnosis, postcodes at diagnosis and ethnicity, was obtained from databases. Data containing weight and health, blood pressure, lipid, and HbAlc levels was obtained during clinic visits for all children. Hypertension levels were either systolic or diastolic. Hypercholesterolemia was defined greater than or equal to 5.2 mmol/L in greater than or equal to 200 mg/dl. HbAlc level was measured through inhibition of agglutination immunoassay (Ames DCA 2000, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus reference less than 6.2%).

BMIZ scores were obtained by subtracting the values of median reference of a certain population from the observed value and division of SD of reference population. The median (50 Th percentile) was equal to zero scores of AZ and 2.00 in Z scores is equal to the 97th percentile.

Analysis

The statistics from the population were sourced from Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Epidemiology branch of the WA department of Health carried out estimates of 5.6 from the indigenous population based on census counts in 20011 and annual birth and death adjustments. Poison regression calculated incidence ratios. Epi Info 7 calculated BMIZ scores in 2000 centers for disease and Control and Prevention growth (Craig et al., 2006)

Results

The results showed that a total of 43 children and adolescents below seventeen years were diagnosed and proved positive to diabetes 2 tests done at Princess Margaret Hospital between 1990 and 2002. Among this population 23(53%) of the patients were from indigenous areas, and 18(42%) came from rural areas (McMahon et al, 2004). 5% of these patients presented with diabetic ketoacidosis, 38% with polyuria and polydipisia symptoms, 57% were diagnosed incidentally. The mean scores for BMIZ at diagnosis were 1.94(0.59).The standard deviation for HbAlc levels at diagnosis were 10 %( 3.2%). They had common co morbidities where acanthosis nigricans was 26/36(72%), hyperlipidaemia was diagnosed in 9/38(24%) patients, and hypertension was 23/39(59%). The overall rates of type 2 diabetes were higher in indigenous population than in non-indigenous population.

Discussion

These results indicate that there has been marked increase in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents in the past seven years in Western Australia. These results increase with the increase in obesity among children and adolescents. Explanations given are that at ages 13 and 14 is the peak age at puberty, which disrupts the levels of insulin due to imbalance in hormonal levels. Clinical marker for type 2 diabetes is Acanthosis nigricans for hyperinsulinism (Box 1).

Difficulties in detecting type 1 diabetes restrict patients to having this skin finding. This tool is useful in children and adolescents. Observations made from this study indicate that most type 2 diabetic patients had hypertension or hyperlipidaemia. As a result, there are public health implications in Australian hospitals (McMahon et al, 2004). Health institutions have therefore campaigned for increased physical activities, reduction in sedentary behavior and intake of balanced diets with an aim of decreasing obesity among children and youth. The health sectors have suggested achievable goal setting, completely family involvement, and use of developmental methods, offering education on nutrition and incorporating physical activities in school hours.

Type 2 diabetes in Australian children

            Type 2 diabetes in children is associated with poor eating habits, lack of exercises, obesity, diabetic family history and ethnic backgrounds (American Diabetes Association consensus statement, 2000). According to American Diabetes Consensus statement (2000), type 2 diabetes is a serious condition in children since prolonged periods of under treatment leads to long-term complications such as heart and kidney disease at younger ages.

Children manage type 2 diabetes by eating healthy, engaging in physical activities and exercises as well as frequent testing and monitoring of blood glucose. Preparation of tablets and insulin injections is necessary. In addition, type 2 diabetes is treatable through proper living styles and diets.

Causes of Diabetes

Factors such as gene formation, extra weight, and metabolic syndrome, too much glucose from liver, bad cell communication, broken beta cells, and physical inactivity are among the causes of type 2 diabetes (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010).

            Genes

Different types of DNA bits affect the production of insulin in the body resulting in Diabetes 2.

            Extra weight

Overweight among children and adolescents come from changes in lifestyles in indigenous communities. These communities have changed from hunting and gathering to adoption of sedentary lifestyle and consuming western diets. These conditions have increased levels of obesity due to lack of exercises. Obese individuals especially those with greater weights around the middle part of their body, are at a higher risk of getting diabetes. Studies done indicate that type 2 diabetes affects children and adolescents because of their child hood obesity.

            Metabolic syndrome

Insulin resistance is a metabolic syndrome, demonstrated by high blood pressure, triglycerides, and high cholesterol.

            Excess glucose from liver

In type two diabetes, the liver not regulating its emission of sugar after eating. The level of blood sugar is usually low before eating and regulated by production of glucose by the liver. This production lowers after eating. However, type 2 diabetes individuals experience a condition in which their liver continues to produce glucose to the blood.

            Bad communication between cells

A chain reaction of some cells sending the wrong messages affects the working of cells in their production and manufacture of insulin. This leads to progression of type 2 diabetes.

            Broken beta cells

Broken beta cells are because of excess production of blood sugar by insulin, which damages these cells since there are wrong amounts of insulin in the blood at the wrong time.

Physical inactivity

Lack of exercise is the major contributor of overweight and obesity among children and young adults. There has been a decline in physical activity among young children who spend most of their time watching televisions. Cigarette smoking, higher BMI levels, pregnancy, and lower parental education are among the contributing factors to physical inactivity in Australian adolescents.

 

Risk factors and prevention

Risk factors such as age, genes, and ethnicity are unavoidable while other factors such as pre-diabetes, heart and blood vessel disease, cholesterol levels, high triglycerides, obesity, overweight babies, high blood pressure, depression, stress, smoking and having little or excess sleep are great risks to Diabetes 2 (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010).

            Genetics: the risks of adolescents contracting type 2 diabetes increase through type 2 diabetes family history.

            Weight: the resistance of insulin is due to too much weight especially around the waist. Urine resistance causes too much sugar from liver to the blood stream causing diabetes 2.

            Ethnicity: different backgrounds affect the production and consumption of sugar in the body. People from indigenous backgrounds are at higher risks of contracting type 2 diabetes compared with other people.

            Levels of physical activity: lack of exercises and physical activities causes resistance to insulin, which leads to type two diabetes.

Development of type 2 diabetes in adolescents

Type 2 diabetes in adolescents begins with urine resistance, which indicates that the body is not functioning properly. In young adults, insulin produced increases the level of glucose in their blood, since the pancreas does not regulate the amount of insulin to overcome its resistance. Factors such as increase in hormonal levels during puberty increase resistance of insulin in their bodies.

Symptoms

Type 2 diabetes symptoms are mild and can go unrecognized in both groups. They include extra thirst, extra peeling, blurred vision, irritability, hands and feet numbness, fatigue, and recurrent yeast infections. Presence of type 2 diabetes increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases in children and adolescents. Other factors associated with type 2 diabetes identified by this health sector include, disrupted sleep, polycystic ovary syndrome, psychological and orthopaedic disorders and hepatic steatosis. From the above results, obesity is the leading cause of type 2 diabetes among adolescents and children (Eppens et al., 2006).

Diagnosis

Doctors diagnose include medical assessments on risk factors and symptoms and other signs of insulin resistance. Doctors tests Type 2 diabetes using two different methods in children and adolescents. These are fasting plasma glucose and Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).       Plasma glucose test measures the level of blood sugar on an empty stomach. Individuals for diagnosis do not eat but drink water only for a period of eight hours.

Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) checks the level of blood glucose before and after taking sweet drinks at intervals of two hours. This monitors the response of the body to blood sugar.

Long-term effects

Untreated type 2 diabetes over a long period causes damage in eyes, kidneys, pregnancy, and liver (Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute, 2012.

Management of type 2 diabetes

Adolescents manage type 2 diabetes by eating healthy diets, having regular exercises and physical activities, regulating their weights to normal levels, monitoring their blood glucose regularly, taking diabetes drugs and insulin injections, and visiting the hospital for regular checkups. Adolescents take education programs on diabetes self-management (Diabetes state organizations, 2012). Regular reviews of diabetes self-management by credentialed diabetes educator, accredited exercise physiologist and social workers has positive results when managing diabetes.

Treatments

Type 2 diabetes is treated by using pharmaceutical agents such as insulin to treat acute metabolic decompenstaion, metformin as initial pharmacologic treatment in cases when there is no severe hyperglycemia, and sulfonylurea in patients with mutations in HNFIα and HNF4α. Thiazolidinediones reduce visceral fat, α-Glucose inhibitors, therapies to lower lipids, and hypertension detection (Diabetes Victoria, 2015) .

 

Barriers to treatment

There are various barriers to addressing type 2 diabetes in Australians among adolescents and children. People located in remote and rural areas experience a problem of accessing health facilities. (Australian Indigenous Health Info Net, 2007) indicates that there are limited resources in indigenous areas in individual and health sectors. High concentration of the affected group in rural areas limits their access and provision of resources. Their social economic status is low which limits them to access best treatments(Azzorpadi et al., 2012).

Adolescents pose a challenge when under treatment. Adolescent stage is marked with risk-taking behaviors, non-compliance, inadequate long-term planning, and resistance to change to various lifestyles. Dysfunctions in family and ethnic origins affect adolescents. Poverty and isolation leads to depression and substance abuse (Maple-Brown et al., 2010). Heavy family burdens and illnesses add stress to adolescents thus making it difficult to treat them. The doctors are faced with a challenge of differentiating type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

 

Recommendations

Because of high rates of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young children in Australia, Dr Shaw (2015) has issued various recommendations to manage this disease. A study of population-based prevalence in at risk populations is required, to understand the outcomes gained. Standardization of study methods depending on classification, diagnostic criteria, and methods is important in health sectors (Australian institute of health and welfare, 2010). Education programs on individual change in lifestyle, physical activity, promote healthy living. Breastfeeding and strategies avoid low birth weight babies as well as treating gestational diabetes if taught to women by clinicians.

References

AIHW .(2014).Type 2 diabetes in Australia’s children and young people: a working paper.            Australian institute of health and welfare,64,1-66. Retrieved from           http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129546361

AIHW(2014).leading types of ill health. Australia’s health. Retrieved from             http://www.aihw.gov.au/australias-health/2014/ill-health/

American Diabetes Association Consensus Statement (2000). Type 2 Diabetes in Children           and Adolescents. Diabetes Care 23:381-319, 2000

Australian Indigenous Health Info Net(2007).Review of diabetes among indigenous         peoples. Australian Indigenous Health Info Net, 1-10.

Australian institute of health and welfare.(2010). Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Australian          children 2000-2008. Diabetes series13,1-35.

Azzopardi, P., Brown, A., Zimmet, P., & Fahy, R.(2012).Type 2 diabetes in young indigenous     Australians in rural and remote areas: diagnosis, screening, management and     prevention. The medical journal of Australia,197(1),32-36.

Baker IDI heart and diabetes institute.(2012).Diabetes : the silent pandemic and its impact on      Australia. Diabetes management booklet. Norvo Nordisk,1-27.

Craig, M. E., Donaghue, K.C., Cheung, N.W., Cameron, F.J., Conn, J., Jenkins, A. J., Silink, M. (2011).National evidence-based clinical care guidelines for type 1 diabetes in children,        Adolescents and adults. Australian Diabetes society,1-288.

Diabetes territory/state organizations. (2012). Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.           Talking diabetes, (40), 1-4.

Diabetes Victoria.(2015).mastering diabetes on schools and early childhood settings. Diabetes      Australia vic. Retrieved from http://www.diabetesvic.org.au/how-we-help/programs-and-            services/type-1-programs-and-services/194-team-t1

Dr, Shaw, J. (2004), the international diabetes federation consensus workshop. Type 2 diabetes   in the young: The Evolving Epidemic. Diabetes care, 7 (27), 1798-1811.

Eppens,M.,Craig,M.,Cusumano,J.,Hing,S.,Chan,A.,Howard,N.,Silink,M.,& Donaghue,     K.(2006). Prevalence of diabetes complications in Adolescents with type 2 compared           with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes care, 6(29),1300-1306.

Maple-Brown, l. J. , Sinha A. K., & Davis, E.A.(2010).Type 2 diabetes in indigenous Australian children and adolescents. Journal of pediatric health, 46(9), 1-4.

McMahon, S., Haynes, A., Ratnam, N., Grant, M., Carne, C., Jones, T., & Davis,   E. (2004).        Increase in type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in Western Australia.    Medical journal of Australia, 180(9), 1-3.

Nationa health and medical research council.(2005).Clinical practice guidelines: type 1 diabetes    in children and adolescents. Common wealth of Australia,1-315.

Analysis of Interest Groups

September 28, 2015

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Analysis of Interest Groups

Introduction 

In every government, groups exist that link the citizens to their respective governments by acting as intermediaries, for instance, political parties and interest groups. The only difference between the two is that interest groups do not vie for elective positions. According to Ainsworth, 2002, such groups are referred to as interest groups, and present the group members’ demands to the government with an aim at influencing the policies to function in their favor. Generally, the influences may be in respect to; funding, loans, and laws, among others (Birnbaum, 1993). The groups can exist as either joint associations, single entities, or through individual membership, and can either fall under the category of economic, social, religious, academic or political interest groups. As indicated, the groups are very many, but seem to serve the same purpose of influencing the sitting President’s administration’s policies to function in their favor (Schlozman, 1986). This commonality can be used to argue that an analysis of a single interest group, may present similar characteristics to all existing interest groups. This paper presents a detailed analysis of Americans for Prosperity (AFP) interest group as well as what researchers present about all interest groups in general, hence presenting the descriptive aspect without basing on the prescriptive aspect.

Founded in the year 2004, Americans for Prosperity, formerly known as Citizens for a Sound Economy, is a non-profit economic and political advocacy interest group based in Virginia Arlington. The group has a membership of about 2.4 million people, with Phillips Tim as its President. The group is an establishment of the Koch Brothers; Charles and David, primarily viewed as a political operation, but currently as one among the influential groups in the United States. The group serves the purposes of citizen mobilization to act in public policy processes, and education of the citizens about the economic policy (American for Prosperity, 2015). Through its outlined purposes, the group aims at fighting the high rates of taxation, and most significantly is its fight to end the Obamacare.

One of the most recent events undertaken by the group is the Reform America 2015 Agenda that was launched on the 15th January 2015 press conference. According to the Agenda’s website, the reform is a continuation of the rebuke of President’s big-governmental agenda; Obamacare, that was started in back in November 2014 (ReformsAmerica, 2015). In addition, the 2015 Reforms Agenda aims at improving the lives of American citizens instead of dwelling on political victories, by advocating and developing policies that place the economic key on the hands of the individuals and their families. In the words of the group’s President Phillips Tim, the group aims at having an infrastructure on the ground that would give teeth to the policy pronouncements.

The Reforms Agenda that has currently been made available online is pillared on the proposed fixes to Obamacare. Analysts of the group argue that the ground attempts at tax reduction in all sectors affecting the lives of the American citizens. The call to fix Obamacare arises from the proposed taxing that would see the wealthy Americans taxed higher, to cater for medical expenses of the poor. The group, advocating reduction of taxation rate evidently would not embrace a policy or agenda that aims at contradicting their purpose. In addition, the launched reform agenda will aim at fixing the energy economy perceived by the advocates to be distorted, and Congress’ Complex Tax-and-Spend Budget. The American Reform Agenda 2015, in the words of its chief executive officer, Hilgemann Luke, ‘we (meaning Americans), need to access energy at lower costs, better healthcare systems, and putting a stop to over-spending in Washington, what AFP calls an out-of-control spending’ (ReformsAmerica, 2015). In summary, the Launched Reforms America 2015, aims at influencing President Obama’s administration to prioritize 3 key policies namely; healthcare, taxes, and energy through the use of activism physically and on media platforms. The AFP group does not only base on the launched Reforms Agenda, but also annual summits across the different states of America. 2015, in the month of August for instance, scheduled for Columbus.

In the sector of healthcare, the agenda aims at repealing the medical device tax, repealing the Obamacare, and restoration of the forty-hour week of work. On taxation, the group advocates returning to the regular budget order, repealing the death tax, and bringing home the American Profits. On Energy, the AFP aims at repealing the bans that the government has placed exportation of oil, fighting the regulations of EPA perceived to be burdensome, fighting the hiking taxation on gas, and approving Keystone XL Pipeline.

The United States’ federal gas tax sitting at a maintained rate of 18.4% from 1993 to date is used by the US to finance Highway Trust Fund that pays for bridges and roads. On 28th February, 2015, Americans for Prosperity together with other interest groups not in support of President Obama’s Administrative policies and government addressed a letter to the congress in opposition to the proposed raise of the gas tax.  The raise was seen by its proponents as a small price to give in exchange of a good highway, rated as best in the world. Several reactions arose in relation to the letter derived from perceptions of anti- and pro-government individuals, for instance, the view that the move is a blocking stone or barrier to public investments in the infrastructures of the nation by pro-governments, and the burden on the poor, by anti-governments (Ainsworth, 2002). In addition to blocking the gas tax, the initiative also called for ending of all funding on walking, public transit, and biking, under the claim that they were looking out for the interests of the poor. The claim as it appears on the letter is that, higher gas taxation rates will translate to higher prices on services and good throughout the economy and not the as alone. The letter was also written as a critic to Washington on the fact that it spent dollars on the projects which have nothing to do with roads like transits and bike paths (AFP Website, 2015). Composed of the billionaire individuals with the affordability to purchase cars, reactions have arisen that the letter was a service to personal interest of car owners disregarding the fact that the poor who they claim to represent, use such alternative means for transportation. The statement is just but an opinion of a group as everybody is entitled to their opinion.

The letter’s ability to influence President Obama’s policy was evident when the White House Press announced that the President’s budget plan would have nothing to do with a tax on gas. Alternatively, the budget plan would aim at raising money from a one-time taxation on profits that have been amassed by US corporations that are overseas, and then use it for funding transportation projects (AFP Website, 2015).

The above analysis on Americans for Prosperity presents a picture of Interest groups in America that can be well used to understand the operations, interactions with federal administrations and representatives, funding, ways through which they affect policies and policies change, law enactments, and enforcement of laws. According to the categories of interest groups, the AFP fall under the Public Interest Group that works for the common good concepts in their perceptions such as the family, human rights, and the consumers (Ainsworth, 2002). The AFP group meets the description because it claims to represent the poor people and the taxation on what they consume, hence representing the poor family and the gas consumers, for instance.

A major characteristic or operation mode of all interest group irrespective of the category is the lobbying aspect (Truman, 1971). Lobbyists in an interest group tend to influence the people through several means. Their influences are aimed at prompting people and the relevant authorities to actions aimed at change in the desired directions. The AFP meets the description or characteristic of all interest groups of lobbying in the letter addressed to the congress example above through which they were able to influence the government to develop different policies of seeking alternative funding sources for public transits other than increase in the gas tax. Due to technology and the rampant use of social media, the interest groups are calling for membership by presenting their ideologies and policies advocacies on their pages on the social media platforms. The membership is voluntary across several interest groups with relative qualifications. The AFP has a facebook page and a twitter handle to that effect.

The use of social media activism, summits and conferences is one of the characteristic through which the interest groups call for their desired enactments and enforcement of laws and regulations, or changes of government policies deemed undesired by them. Some interest groups also take to the streets to demonstrate against what the groups they represent view as undesired (Birnbaum, 1993). The AFP calls for the attendance of their summits and memberships, alongside following on facebook and twitter; platforms through which they reach and attract people.

Every lobby or interest group must have a funding source and a defined interaction with the federal administration and representatives. The AFP acquires its main source of funding through the billionaire brothers Charles and David Koch, in addition to others interested in funding the policies campaigned for by the group. Alternatively, they group may be influential by investing a large amount in politics. The groups have a tendency of funding political leaders who once elected into office will go and serve the interest of the group Salisbury, 1996). They, therefore, share a common characteristic of funding political leaders to office in exchange of serving their interests.

Conclusion

Interest groups act as intermediaries between citizens and the government differing from the political parties on the fact that they do not vie for elective positions. One example of an interest group is the Americans for Prosperity (AFP) that is a public interest group founded by the billionaire brothers Charles and David Koch. The group lobbies for three main things on behalf of the citizens; healthcare, taxation, and energy. The main current event of the group was the letter to the congress on 28th of February 2015, opposing an increase of tax on gas for improvement on infrastructure.  Like any other interest group, the group has means of lobbying, funding, operation, interaction with representatives and federal administrations, and means of affecting policy changes, enactment and enforcement of laws.

Works Cited

Ainsworth Scott H, Analyzing Interest Groups: Groups Influences on People and Policies, W. W. Norton, New York, 2002.

Salisbury Robert, Exchange Theory of Interest Groups, Midwest Journal of political Science, 1996, Vol. 13: pp. 1-32

Americans for Prosperity, Homepage, 2015, retrieved from, http://americansforprosperity.org/

Schlozman Lehman Kay, et al, Organized Interests and American Democracy, Harper and Row, New York, 1986

Birnbaum Jeffrey, Lobbyists: How the Influence Peddlers Work their Ways in Washington, Times Books, New York, 1993

Truman David, Governmental Process: The Political Interests and Public Opinions, 2nd edition, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1971.