Eye Tracking Research Using Single Axis Led Eye Tracker System


The aim of this research is to determine how the human eye reacts to light emitting diode (LED) light and the effects it causes to the human eye using the single axis led eye tracker system. The main aim is to examine how the eye reacts different levels of exposure to the LED light which come from different sources like mobile phones, computer monitors, television screens and other sources such as indoor and outdoor lights.


Eye tracking is a process used to measure the point of gaze and the motion of the eye relatively to the head position. The eye tracker is device used to measure the eye positions and movements. There are several categories of eye trackers varying according to the research objectives and include those measuring the movement of an object and they are attached to the eye, secondly we have optical trackers and these do not have direct to the eye and finally there those for measuring electric potentials using electrodes placed around the eyes.

Light emitting diode is a light source which uses a two lead semiconductor to emit light when activated. LEDs emits visible lights of low and high intensity which varies in wavelengths and brightness. Led lights sources are most commonly used in commercial environments as wells as many homes to as cheap and energy saving light source.

This experiment was set up to determine the reaction of the eye to different led lights of different frequencies and wavelengths. The main lesson of this experiment is to show the react to led light the caused by them to eye. It also examines the effects of different LED light to eye when it is exposed to them for a certain duration. Factors that cause the eye to react such as temperatures, light color, the intensity and frequency of these lights are also taken into account.


Single axis led tracking system Micromite.

This is a system for tracking the eye reaction when exposed to LED lights. The system is a 28 pin Micromite that consist of the PIC32 chip and a capacitor and uses special hardware devices to make the program easier to interact with the external world( Hansen, Hammoud,2007). They include infrared remote control receiver and transmitter, temperature sensor, battery backed clock LCD displays, numeric keypads and servos. This experiment uses different parameters like the duration of exposure to the LED light, the light intensity i.e. too much brightness, dim light. It also uses parameters like varying temperatures and the frequency of the light to observe how the eye react when exposed to such conditions. The micromite and the VPixx_software allows for change and modulation of different factors such as the colors, light intensity, the angle of exposure and picture patterns among other conditions used in this research. The eye reaction is observed once it is exposed to the LED light and the immediate effect they cause to eye.

Below are the diagrams of the fully set up Micromite and LCD display used in the research to track various eye reactions by varying conditions of the light.

It uses the following inputs:

IR devcode, Keycode,IR_int


<Body of program>



Print “received device =”Devcode””

The pins are used for differents during the experiment.

The basic circuit for the 28 pin Micromite.

LCD display

It is used to display different lights produced by LEDs and there range and frequency. The lights produced are tracked to monitor the human eye reaction to the lights. In this experiments the display are modulated using the command LCD INT to use different pins to display different lights.


The human eye reacts differently to different led lights depending on the intensity and duration the eye is exposed to the lights. The eye when exposed to high intensity light or too much brightness or hot it blinks, experiences some pain, there also natural aversion from the light source to avoid and the pupil also constricts (Curatu,Rolland, 2009). This eye reaction depends on the frequency of the light, the temperature and the duration of exposure. The body also reacts to these lights and takes the protective measures to protect the eye from damage.


Energy saving LED technology is one the best way of reducing electricity demands in commercial and residential lighting but has adverse effect to the human eye and the body in general. The exposure to LED light has numerous effects to the eye and can cause irreparable damages to it. Continuous and prolonged exposure to computer monitors, mobile phones and television screens can cause damage to retinas of the human eye which may lead to blindness.

The eye reacts differently to each condition to protect itself. High light intensity and brightness causes eye constriction to protect the retina (Curatu, Rolland, 2009). The eye also turns away from the direct source and sometimes irritation is experienced causing discomfort or the eye to close. Also when exposed to high brightness the eye constricts to protect the retina.

Also the exposure of light at night may also cause damage or discomfort to eye, especially the exposure to dim and colored LED lights emitted in disco clubs and other environment. Protective measures are required to ensure one is exposed to these lights so as to avoid the damage they can cause to the eye. This will reduce cases of the eye damage and other discomforts experienced when one is exposed to the lights.


Though LED sources of light are cost friendly and energy saving they may have adverse effects to the human eye which may damage the retina or can cause both partial and permanent blindness. Preventive measures should be taken to ensure one is well protected from the damages caused by the LED lights. One should avoid spending long hours to computer monitors, television screens and other LED light source to avoid the damage to the eyes. Also one should avoid too much brightness when using devices that generates these lights. One should protective devices like the shades when working in places where there is too much bright light or where they be exposed for long durations.

In addition to the eye damage LED lights have the adverse effects to the human body depending on the exposure. They include skin lash, cancer and other health effects. Those affected should avoid UV light emission sources and use other alternative sources of light energy to protect their eyes and body from the danger of these light.


Iannizzotto L. and La Rosa F., (2011) Competitive combination of Multiple Eye detection and Tracking Techniques, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,

Curatu, C. E., & Rolland, J. P. (2009). U.S. Patent No. 7,522,344. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  1. Introduction to avionics systems. Springer Science & Business Media.

Coutinho, F. L., & Morimoto, C. H. (2013). Improving head movement tolerance of cross-ratio based eye trackers. International journal of computer vision,101(3), 459-481.

Hansen, D. W., & Hammoud, R. I. (2007). An improved likelihood model for eye tracking. Computer Vision and Image Understanding106(2), 220-230.

Case Summary

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


It suffices to state that a series of events caused the fire that led to the death of one of the employees. It is evident that the fire tragedy and the man’s death arose from the fact that various professionals did not observe workplace safety measures. The summary highlights the different faults that led to the fire incident. For instance, the summary would review the engineering controls, the work practices, policies and procedures, administrative controls, hysteria practices, medical surveillance and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment).

Firstly, the engineering controls encompass the materials and design of the defective drums that led to the fire incident. For instance, manufacturers of the fruit concentrate could have noted that the content reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas. As a result, the sterile coating that was used to prevent direct contact between the drum’s metal and the concentrate could have been made effective. This can be achieved by ensuring that the coating has the recommended properties and thickness to prevent the reaction even after the drums have been abandoned for a long period of time. Furthermore, it is also appropriate to opine that less reactive metals could have been used to manufacture the drum rather than using reactive ones. By so doing, the failure in the sterile coating could not have led to the sequence of events that led to the catastrophe.

Regarding the work practices, it is certain that one employee did not observe the appropriate procedure before trying to open the drum. Apparently, the company exhibited failure with regard to training its employees on effective safety practices that governed their operation. The worker using the grinder did not exhibit the necessary safety skills while trying to open the drum. The supplier portrays responsibility when he recalls the drums. It is evident that the supplier understood that the fruit concentrate forms an acid that reacts with the drum’s metal to form hydrogen gas. Obviously, hydrogen gas is explosive and causes fire when ignited. Therefore, the organization could have ensured that employees do not use any procedures that lead to the generation of sparks to open the drums. Secondly, the grinder is not designed to work under environments that contain flammable gases.

In relation to administrative controls, it is evident that the company’s administration did not train the workers on safety practices regarding the exercise. The company should have notified the workers; with the help of the supervisor concerning the possibility of the existence of hydrogen gas in the drums that was responsible for the difficulty experienced in opening them. Therefore, it is mandatory that a company should always use trained administrators to monitor the activities of unskilled or semi-skilled employees in the organization.

Workplace training should also devolve to all employees in order to avert the occurrence of unexpected negative events. For instance, the use of PPE could have prevented the death of the employee. Apparently, if the employees had been notified concerning the possibility of an explosion, they could have used protective fire equipment during the exercise. The equipments encompass helmets and protective jackets that prevent direct contact between the fire and the body of an employee.

The company could have adopted proper hysteria practices. For instance, the operations manager could have ensured that the workplace is clean and organized. By so doing, the unseen three drums could not have been unaccounted for. Furthermore, supervisors and managers could be in a position of monitoring the activities of an employee from far distances. Lastly, medical surveillance is also mandatory in an organization. It ensures that proper medical practices are followed by employees at the workplace.

Toy Design/Children Development

Toy Design/Children Development

Student’s Name


Toy Design/Children Development

When designing a toy or a children’s game, it is essential to include features that increase the time children concentrate on it, its safety, education the children are likely to learn, and its affordability. Children are at an optimal stage of intellectual growth, and they need activities that facilitate the same. This study approves the appropriateness of a game designed for children aged between 5 and 7 years.

The Pucsticth Game serves the purpose of entertaining and educating children while ensuring safety. The game is programmed to be compatible with iOS and Android platforms. It aims at developing cognitive skills among children. A player can select one category among playground, classroom, home or nature, and then select a level of difficulty that ranges from 1 to 5, with 1 the easiest, and 5 the most challenging. It displays 3 clues based on category and level of difficulty. When a picture box appears, the player needs to state the correct answer by capturing the required object using the device’s camera. For instance, if the answer is required to be a banana, the child takes its picture and a fact such as that it is composed of 75% water appears. Points are recorded for each object identified, after which a fact relating to the object is provided to the child. The child’s progress is identifiable as the results are saved for the parent or guardian to review. The child can proceed to a higher level when he/she makes a significant progress.

The game invokes creativity and discovery hence learning. Children between 5 and 7 have play as the best way to learn. It arouses their cognitive ability, a feature that Rai & Mitchell (2006) explore in their empirical study. They wished to analyze children’s ability to attribute inference in their knowledge. They carried out different tests to test their hypotheses, the first being on 31 5-year-old children. The test showed that the children were sensitive to the access of the premises by another person, when predicting the concerned person’s ability to select a target after eliminating options among 3 cartoon characters. The second reaffirmed the finding by judging the thought of the other person on the target, and if the other person really knew what the target was. The last test deduced that children incorporated inference by elimination as compared to syllogistical inference. Children were concluded to be strongly discriminatory in the elimination process. Children at the age of 7 can even explicitly express the understanding of inference. The study asserts that the early insight into inference by elimination enhances the understanding that individuals can derive knowledge without necessarily having direct perceptual access.

The game is greatly supported by this study. To start with, the method used in the study greatly relates to what the children undergo during the game. Children have to identify an object in pictorial representation, and relate to a real object. This invokes both forms of inferences considered in the study. Secondly, the game advances with the child’s intellectual growth. This apparently relates to the study’s affirmation that although the same experiment was conducted on children of all ages five through seven, children aged seven could clearly express their knowledge of inference as compared to the 5-year olds, who just utilize it subconsciously. Therefore, the game is essential in both assessing and promoting cognitive ability among children.

One of the benefits of the game is that it is multi-gender. While girls are generally emotional even at a tender age, boys are easily influenced by their peers (Bartgis, Lilly, & Thomas, 2013). Moreover, girls are more attracted by colors like pink as compared with boys. This game does not disintegrate any group. It has several objects that could be required for the answer, thus insinuating a captivating feature to all boys and girls.

Attention span is also an aspect that the game considers. Children are certainly distracted, but at the age of 5, they can easily ignore minor distractors. Abraitis (2010) states the average attention span of a child aging between 5 and 7 is 10 to 15 minutes. However, this could depend on several factors as well. For instance, if the activity is collectively being done by a group of children, the attention can extend even up to 25 minutes. Abraitis also notes personal interests are the most vital in motivating children, since anything that conforms to their individual interests can double the attention span. The Pucsticth game is considerate of the span since it is comprehensive of other activities and objects.

The ease in playing the game is another merit. The child only needs to select the game on the device, and then start it. Children’s attention is diverted whenever they encounter difficulty in their activities. The game can additionally be played in any setting, and complemented by the portability of supporting devices, children can play it anytime. Ease in playing is also facilitated by the clarity of pictures and sensitivity to photos taken by the children. The game appreciates the low expertise in children cognitive ability, which is captured in the levels it provides, and also the limited skills in taking photographs, which is embraced in the considerate evaluation of photos. An additional appealing feature about the game is its safety. The game exclusively requires an iOS or Android supporting device. Once children are shown how to play, they can play on their own without any need for close supervision.

Moreover, the fact that children play the game on devises that can support iOS and Android implies intellectual development that is technologically facilitated. It is noteworthy that there is an incline into the use of technology across all aspects in life, contrary to the conventional manual operations. Children need to be prepared to undertake activities that are based on technology, including academic learning (Bartgis, Lilly & Thomas, 2003). Furthermore, the devices can be supportive of other games, and thus the parent or guardian does not need to buy more toys that operate on a similar platform. The game offers a significant steps towards the progress of embrace of technology among children.

However, the game needs to be incorporated with others that involve more movements. Since the Pucsticth Game is noticeably passive, which can lead to conditions such as unfit bodies among children at the tender age. Such conditions might intensify to overweight, which is hazardous to health. Therefore, the guardian or parent needs to control the amount of time spent on the game and any other less physically involving game. The drawback is contradicted by the attention spans among children, and may, therefore, be not a major issue. Conclusively, the Pucsticth Game is effective in entertaining, intellect developing, easy and safe for 5 to 7 year-old children.


Abraitis, M. (2010). Science for 5-7 Year Olds: Science for 5-7 Year Olds. Luton: Andrews UK Ltd.

Bartgis, J., Lilly, A. R., & Thomas, D. G. (2003). Event-related potential and behavioral measures of attention in 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds. The Journal of general psychology130(3), 311-335.

Rai, R., & Mitchell, P. (2006). Children’s Ability to Impute Inferentially Based Knowledge. Child Development77(4), 1081-1093.

International Marketing of British Airways

Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction. 2

1.1. British Airways Current Strategies. 2

1.2. Market Target and Positioning. 3

1.3. The External and Industry Environment of British Airways. 3

1.4. Internal Analysis of the British Airways. 6

1.5. Positioning Strategy. 8

1.6. British Airways Strategies for Growth through Marketing Mix. 8

1.7. British Airways Source of Competitive Advantage. 10

1.8. Promotion Strategy. 10

1.9. Conclusion. 11

1.10. Recommendations for British Airways. 11

1.11. Bibliography. 13







International Marketing of British Airways

1.0. Introduction

The British Airways has gone through different phases in its development. The airline was established in September 1974 in a both international and domestic air transport industry. In 2008, the airline was accommodating a total of 33 million passengers in its 300 destinations with a head count of over 42, 377 between 2007/2008 (British Airways, 2015). In 1987, the airline was privatized during a type the airline was almost getting bankrupt as directed by the Labor Government of London. Since then, the airline has experienced growth as it gained competitive advantage in the market (Kyrgidou & Hughes, 2010). In addition, it was declared recently as the airline that has reduced the greenhouse gases immensely as well as allowing the passengers to print their online boarding passes. Besides being affected by the Great Recession between 2008 and 2009, the airline has recovered and gained market control again. In addition, the airline is working on strategies to gain maximum profitability by reducing the unnecessary costs (Johnson & Scholes, 2002, p. 11).

1.1. British Airways Current Strategies

The British Airways has embarked on strategic formulation that is expected to earn the airline a competitive advantage in the market today (Michel, 2007, p. 12). Currently, the airline is integration the new technology in the airline industry in mobile and computer accessible databases. In addition, the airline is also expanding the business operations it engages in to take advantage of the recovering economy in the global environment as the number of passengers using the airline industry continuous to grow (Neil & John, 1999, p. 6). The main strategic approaches the organization is engaging in include (Snyman & Kruger, 2004, p. 7):

  1. Introduction of mobile applications for the business class users of the airline. In addition, the airline is structuring the ability to send and receive text messages during the on-flight hours to the business class customers.
  2. The modernization of the fleet in service and introducing new services
  3. Increasing the airline’s corporate social responsibility by promoting effective environmental performance and partnering with the environmental organizations in promoting safe global environment.

1.2. Market Target and Positioning

The industry has worked on strategic approach to the market analysis of the airline industry by identifying the target regions. In addition, the airline has structured a diverse buying preference, identification of the industrial structures and strategies to gain competitive advantage in the competitive business environment. These factors have been identified and analyzed broadly in the market mix (John, 2001, p. 23). The differentiated marketing strategy defines the process by which the organization targets varying segments of the market in developing the distinct products in the market or the services with differentiated marketing options for the customers. The growth strategies in the market refers to the paths the organization maximizes on in growth by focusing on new or existing product in the new or existing market (Christoph, 2008, p. 6).

1.3. The External and Industry Environment of British Airways

The British Airways is influenced by the external factors that are highlighted by the PESTEL analysis as shown below.

1.3.1. Political

The air control measures security concern has been the main political factor that influences the airline industry since the September 11 attack. In addition, the air industry is fragile when the issues such terrorism are concerned. In addition, there are a number of regulations that influences the schedule the airline is supposed to have in the running of its activities (John, 2001, p. 21). It is noted that, the oversea travels require permit and compliance to certain airline standards that the British Airways is subject to. In order to remain operational and profitable in the airline industry, the British Airways must comply with these conditions to exist in the market (Neil & John, 1999, p. 6). Furthermore, the security concern is not only important to the government authorities, but the customers require an airline they feel they are secure. This shows the need for compliance with the security standards. This assures the customers safe journeys hence promoting their confidence when using the airline (Kyrgidou & Hughes, 2010, p. 52).

1.3.2. Economic

The global economic crisis that hit the world between 2008 and 2009 had great effects on the airline industry. As the world is recovering from the shock, the economic growth has continued rising. The fluctuation in the oil prices has also affected the airline industry. In addition, there has been weaknesses in the pound against the Euro. However, the British Airways has encountered high growth even in the harsh economic environment (Nigel, et al., 2012, p. 12).

1.3.3. Social

The British Airways has social impact both the United Kingdom and other regions where the airline operates. With the population of the Britain being those who are aging, there has also high level of unemployment in the society that has not been experienced before during the Great Recession. The British airways has benefited from the aging population who are willing to travel in other countries for tourism after the retirement. With high unemployment rate, the competition in the market is high due to reduced number of customers. This indicates that the airline requires changes and strategic moves to ensure it remains competitive in the increasingly competitive environment (John, 2001, p. 17).

1.3.4. Technology

This is the most revolutionized sector in the airline industry. The airline has seen great growth where customers can do the booking through the online platform. In addition, it is a strategic marketing tool where the airline can formulate a structure of marketing through mobile applications and online. In addition, the online platform has enabled the consumers to compare flight prices in the leading airlines before making a decision on the airline to use. However, even though there is concern on online ticket booking and check in, the British Airways should note that the old in the society prefer making the traditional purchase of receipts (Johnson & Scholes, 2002, p. 11).

1.3.5. Environmental/ Ethical

According to Michel (2007, p. 15) here are a number of policies that have introduced in the airline industry that concerns the environmental protection through reduction in nose and pollution from the fossil fuels. The legislation are affecting the industry due to lack of the land to expand the airline that is nowadays overcrowded. The legislations and policies being introduced are increasing the operation cost of the British Airways hence the need to identify their impact on the airline cost. In addition, the airline has structured on a measure to reduce the environment concerns through the corporate social responsibilities by partnering with the environmental agencies. The increase of the operation cost translate the cost of tickets hence the airline should search for better cost reduction functions that will balance the current trend.

1.3.6. Legal

After the merge between the British Airways and the American Airlines, there has been huge legislation process that has increased the operation cost. In addition, there has been increased legal challenges in the airline like the recent cabin crew strikes which increased the cost of operation of the airline (Sweeney, 1994, p. 13).

1.4. Internal Analysis of the British Airways

The analysis of the British Airways is an effective form of assessment of the organization’s strengths, weaknesses and other factors crucial to the internal business environment. This form of analysis will analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the airline industry that helps the management in planning for the organization strategic approaches to gain the competitive advantage in the competitive market (Neil & John, 1999, p. 9).

1.4.1. Strengths

The British Airways has a brand name with good reputation in the aviation industry especially after privatization. The name of the airline has been in the market for long and with the reputation of punctuality and good customer relations. In addition, the airline has a strong partnership with the United Airlines especially in the formation of Oneworld airline that is considered the third world’s largest airline. Furthermore, the other strength of the British Airways is the most powerful airline in the United Kingdom region in terms of the financial size and the stability British Airways (2015). The completion of terminal 5 development will promote and improve the mobility in the Heathrow airport.

1.4.2. Weaknesses

The organization has a poor history on the treatment of employees and their compensation plan. This is due to a number of cabin crew strikes that has been witnessed in the recent days. The issues they raise take long before being implemented in the organization. The increased cases of terrorism has led to poor performance of the airline industry of which the British Airline is among. The change process and integration of technology is normally done at slow pace during the implementation process in the British Airways (British Airways, 2015).


The British Airways should take advantage of the low cost airline market through budget travelling. Secondly, the airline should advantage of slow and poor delivery of services by its competitors by ensuring that customer satisfaction in enriched in the airline. In addition, the struggle in the global economy and high competition in the industry has led to some of the airline closing their businesses that increases the market demand for the British Airways. The rise of the British Airways in the Skytrax quality system could be used as a marketing tool to ensure that the industry continues to experiences growth (British Airways, 2015).

1.4.3. Threats

With the signing of the Open skies agreement, the small airline industry have taken advantage of the low cost air services where they posing threat in competition with the British Airline industry. The removal of these barriers has led to evolution of small competitive airlines that are posing threat by increasing competition in the airline sector. Secondly, the global economy has not recovered fully affecting the British Airways which operates in the Europe region where the effects of global economic crisis was felt most. The profit margin of the British Airways is experiencing challenges as other airlines are working on measures to reduce the cost of operation. Finally, the changes in the environmental policies on pollution and energy conservation is another challenge that increases the cost of operation (British Airways, 2015).

1.5. Positioning Strategy

This involves the process of creating distinctive perception and attitude in the mind of the consumer about the advantages on using the service from the organization. This involve the introduction of special services that the competitors do not give. The main factors influencing the positioning of British Airways are the competitors and origin. From the British Airways quality service provision and customer treatment, the airline has a got a name and position in the mind the consumer that has made it competitive in times of high competition in the market with new entrants (British Airways, 2015).

1.6. British Airways Strategies for Growth through Marketing Mix

The British Airways Ansoff market matrix could be evaluated in four model cycle that is shown below. This model reflects on the assessment of the products along with market growth strategy. The model analyzes the virtue of the existing or new products with the new or existing market structure. Analyzing the four components critically will review the market form and strategy to apply in increasing the British Airways competitiveness in the market (Kyrgidou & Hughes, 2010, p. 57).

1.6.1. Market Penetration

This type of growth focuses on the existing product in the existing market through maintenance or increment of the current product market control also referred to as the competitive pricing strategies and the promotion approaches. Secondly, market penetration can be done by driving the competitors out the existing market through ways such as embarking on aggressive promotional campaigns. In addition, the market penetration could be through creation of customer loyalty schemes (Snyman & Kruger, 2004).

1.6.2. Market Development

This could be done through the process of selling the existing strategies to the new or freshly opened market. This means that the British Airways could embark on marketing the products in the new market, using different distribution channels in the industry or applying policies on different prices for trans-market customer pulling (Snyman & Kruger, 2004, p. 13).

1.6.3. Product Development

This strategic approach requires the British Airways pushing the new products into the market that is existing (Sweeney, 1994, p. 5). This includes branding new products in the existing market.

1.6.4. Diversification Strategy

This process involve the introduction of new products in the new market. This will allow the British Airways in dominate a market that did not exist in the initial setting hence expanding the market of the airline (French, 2009, p. 15).

Through the four models, the British Airways could embrace the market share that has not fully been utilized. Having an organizational culture that is well rooted, the organization can increase its market through the above processes hence increasing its chances for profitability and market control increasing the competitive advantage (Sweeney, 1994, p. 11).

1.7. British Airways Source of Competitive Advantage

Ensuring the organization has a sustainable competitive advantage over their competitors is an essential in ensuring that the organization remains profitable in all seasons. This can be done through embracing new technology to innovatively transform the service delivery and having a well-trained and experienced human resource department to ensure that the employees are motivated for effective productivity in the industry. The two main source of competitive advantage for the British Airways is the alliances with other airlines in the industry and direct express flights from London to other parts of the world nonstop (Brown, 2005, p. 218).

1.8. Promotion Strategy

These are approaches that influences the choice of the consumer of the airline industry. The promotion strategy in the British Airways include direct marketing, advertisement, good public relations, personal selling of the products and internet marketing. The most effective promotion strategy has been the internet marketing and the advertisement in the media. These two reaches a very high number of consumers and create awareness on the availability of a given product or service in the British Airways (Sweeney, 1994).

1.9. Conclusion

From the international marketing plan for the British Airway, it is clear that the airline is doing well in the industry. However, there are areas that have been identified crucial in promoting competitive advantage in the market. The British Airways has got a chance of marketing the airline and reaching out to the region that have not been served effectively (Kyrgidou & Hughes, 2010, p. 45).

1.10. Recommendations for British Airways

From the external and internal analysis of the British Airline industry, there are a number of lessons that could be learnt where the improvements would increase the performance of the airline in the market.

  1. The British Airways should embrace the technological advancement and innovation in marketing the airline through the online platform, mobile application and social media. This will create awareness on the type of services the airline offers (Kyrgidou & Hughes, 2010).
  2. The airline should focus on the weaknesses existing in the market improve on them to remain competitive in the market. In addition, this could help the airline in reducing the operation cost hence providing cheaper services (Sweeney, 1994, p. 14).
  3. Considering the changes in the environmental policies, the organization should embrace innovative ways of reducing the waste and other environmental unfriendly wastes (French, 2009, p. 12).
  4. The British Airways should diversify the current routes and possibly find new routes that have arisen due to globalization and the open air airline agreements. In so doing the airline will remain profitable and competitive in the market (Brown, 2005, p. 229).

1.11. Bibliography

British Airways, 2015. British Airways Affiliate Marketing programme. [Online]
Available at: http://www.britishairways.com/en-gb/information/about-ba/affiliate-programme
[Accessed 24 March 2015].

Brown, P., 2005. The evolving role of strategic management development. Journal of Management Development, 24(3), p. 209 – 222.

Christoph, L., 2008. Market Entry Strategies: Text, Cases and Readings in Market Entry Management. 2 ed. New York : Christoph Lymbersky.

French, S., 2009. Critiquing the language of strategic management. Journal of Management Development, 28(1), p. 6 – 17.

John, L. T., 2001. Understanding Corporate Strategy. 2 ed. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Johnson, G. & Scholes, K., 2002. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 2 ed. London: UK Prentice Hall.

Kyrgidou, L. & Hughes, M., 2010. Strategic entrepreneurship: origins, core elements and research directions. European Business Review, 22(1), p. 43 – 63.

Michel, S., 2007. Successful Strategy Execution: How to Keep Your Business Goals on Target. 2 ed. New York : John Wiley & Sons.

Neil, B. & John, M., 1999. Competitive Strategies for Service Organisations. 2 ed. London: Purdue University Press.

Nigel, E., George, S. & David, C., 2012. Strategic Management for Travel and Tourism. 4 ed. London : Routledge.

Snyman, R. & Kruger, C. J., 2004. The interdependency between strategic management and strategic knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(1), p. 5 – 19.

Sweeney, M., 1994. Benchmarking for Strategic Manufacturing Management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 14(9), p. 4 – 15.

Social Media Allows Users to Insult, Bully, and Threaten Others without Any Fear of Punishment

There is no clear definition of what social media really is. However, a combination of the factors that encompass this technology leads to the coining of a descriptive statement. Social media can be looked at as the set of the “Web-based broadcast technologies that enable the democratization of contents, giving people the ability to emerge from consumers of content to publishers” (Scott and Jacka 5-6). This definition gives a very concrete fact of what actually social media does that is not in the other networks. It has been stated that social media enables the democratization of contents.

Democratize means that there is control of an organization or a group by the majority of its members (Stevenson and Waite 821). This is a very unique characteristic of the social media sites. The content or the information that is published in the media is under the control of the person who is sending the information or the holder of the account. Another very special and unique characteristic of the social media is the ability to turn the people from consumers to publishers of information. This means that the sites enable people to publish any content that they wish to without having to ask for permission from any person. This quality acts in giving the owners of the social media accounts the freedom to express every statement that they feel they want to. This paper looks at the way social media has allowed the users to insult, bully, and threaten others without the fear of punishment.

The Scope of Social Media, Freedom of Speech in Social Media and Its Misuse

Social media networking sites have been able to reach a great majority of the people all over the world. This has been associated with the ability to access the social media sites through any gadget that can access the internet. Some of the social media sites such as Facebook and Instagram have been embedded on the phones and even have special dedicated keys for easier access. These sites have been formatted to desktop versions that works in the desktops and personal computers and mobile phone versions that are compatible with any phone model provided the phone has the ability of accessing the internet (Brunty and Helenek 11). This has made it easy for every age group to access the social networking sites since almost every youth and even the teenagers have access to mobile phones. This has helped to increase the popularity of the social media sites.

Another issue that have improved the popularity of the social media sites is the ability to send messages, chat instantly, send and tag photos and send other small sized documents at an instance. This made the social media sites so popular to yahoo mails and other information delivery sites (Brunty and Helenek 11). The ability of the people to form and join groups, share information with their friends, and meet with people who have similar goals in life also improves the popularity of the social media. However, this popularity and the features of the social networking sites are the ones that expose the people to been bullied and insulted.

There is a need to understand the features of the social networking sites if one has to understand how the sites are used in bullying, insulting, and threatening. The joining of the group is very open since it is not matched with any personal information from the user. A person who wants to join a social, networking site just needs to write a name, enter the email address, and the date of birth in the fields provided. Once an individual enters this information there is no system that is used to check of the information given is accurate. Therefore, people join the groups by using false information and false names and only the people who can understand them are their friends. This creates an anonymous state of the account owner (Graham, Dutton and Castells 352). This anonymous state gives insulters and bullies an assurance that even if they insult, bully or threaten others they cannot be identified and they cannot be associated with these accounts since they do not bear their personal information.

Another factor that has been exposing the user of social networking sites to insults, bullies and threats is the ability of a person to be included in a group without their will. For example, facebook allows the friends to a certain person to incorporate that person in a group even when the person is not aware that they are being incorporated. All that a person needs to know is the user name of the person they want to incorporate into their groups and then be connected with them. This is a strategy that has been employed by bullies in schools and has even led to the suicide of some students. When the bullies get the information about the person that they want to bully, they then seek to connect with them. Once they are in connection they have the ability now to insult them and threaten them. Since many children have the access to mobile phones and therefore access to social networking sites, bullying has been made simple. The process of bullying in the social media takes many dimensions. In some instances, bullying involves publishing of false information concerning a person, publicizing private information or images, or engaging in intimidation (Goldman 415). Youths have been mostly affected by bullying where the predatory adults pose as peers in these sites so as to facilitate meeting (Manassis 103). Bullying in schools also takes the form of parents or students publicizing defamatory information about the teachers on the social networking sites (Department of Education 1). This process is assisted by the fact that many schools have opened groups in the social media sites where they post information and is free to access them. This makes it simple to post these defamatory messages.

Studies on cyber bullying and its involvement with suicidal idealities has also assisted in identifying that cyber bullying is rampant everywhere (Goldblum 82). Bullying in the social networking sites does not only take the form of youths bullying each other or being bullied by adults. Even adults bully and threaten each other on the social media. This mostly takes place between employees employed in the same company. As these employees get into conflicts these conflicts are taken online where they insult each other over the social media. This is very easy because before these people got into conflict they were friends and they were even chatting in the social media sites. If one employee is on the wrong and they notice that they are about to be reported they use these social media sites to threaten their friends whom they are now in conflict with (Washington 21). This is simply because there is no satisfactory evidence to link these people with the accounts in the social media sites that are being used.

Another factor that facilitates the publishing of threats, insults, and bullying on the social media without fear is the fact that the social media sites are run by private institutions that are profit oriented (Tella and Issa 297). This means that there is very little or no inspection of the materials that are being posted on the sites. These sites provide a contract kind of relationship whereby when a user agrees to the terms of the social networking site the social networking site promises to maintain privacy of information. This means that the information published by a person can only be accessed by the friends and for it to be presented in a law court as an evidence of a criminal activity a long process has to be followed. This makes the people have a feeling of security of their data against being accessed by the law enforcement agents. Since many of the people who are threatened or insulted do not know the actual process of reporting these cases the bullies are not apprehended.

The people who have been bullied have assisted in increasing the confidence of the bullies in their acts. This is because very few people report these cases of bullying to the police (Congressional Quarterly, inc. 143). As a result, there are very few cases where bullies have been apprehended by law enforcement agents. Since they feel that even if they bully people they will not be reported the bullies get the courage to perform their evil activities. A deep look at the society reveals that people get to behave in a certain manner because they have seen the action being done by others in the society. For example, in a community where thieves are not apprehended or punished for their acts many people may end up joining these groups. This has been the case for cyber bullies who feel that they will not be held accountable for their actions. Many of the youths who are bullied prefer to commit suicide rather than report these incidences to the responsible people. This just serves to conceal bullying cases that should have been pursued.

Social media sites such as facebook make it possible for a person to add a comment or a picture and later remove them from their wall. When the information is removed it is deleted in the walls of all the people who were seeing it. Therefore, it is possible for a person to post an inflammatory image or message in the social networking site and then when the issue is raised remove the information before the investigations are done. This means that the evidence will be eliminated and for the investigator to get the information they have to go to the administrator of the social media site with a court warrant requiring for the same information. This complexity of the matter gives the bullies the confidence that they will not be caught in the act. The popularity of the social networking sites has also made the bullies have confidence of doing their acts. It is now a trend for the people to socialize in the social networking sites. People compete to have as many friends as possible. In this competition they connect with people that they do not even know. This therefore means that though the person is a friend on the site in the real sense they are strangers since they have never met. Many of the people who act as bullies take this status. The victims expose themselves to bullying by having anonymous friends. These anonymous friends who are bullies posed as friends then start their actions of bullying. The share personal information to the friends of that person, for example issues of extramarital relationships or images or comments that are meant and humiliating that person. When people see this information they comment on it further intensifying the case of bullying. Therefore, some people even bully others unawares. These people since they are not aware that they are bullying others will not fear punishment.

It is very eminent that social media has been a site that have perpetrated issuing of threats, bullying and insults without the culprits fearing punishment. One of the reasons for this is that the social media sites never verify the information of the account holders. This means that bullies can disguise themselves as other people and perform their evil activities. The popularity and the acceptance of the media by the community, coupled up with the fact that people do not report bullying cases has given the bullies courage that they will never be reported. The social media sites promise privacy of information. They also allow for the people to incorporate others in groups, add comments and delete them at will. All this serve to give the bullies’ courage that they will never be identified as they can remove the information before being investigated and for the victim to access again this information they have to undergo a complex court process. Thus, the bullies feel that they will not be identified. This has build courage in them to perpetrate the vice even more.

Works Cited

Brunty, Joshua and Katherine Helenek. Social Media Investigation For Law Enforcement. London: Routledge, 2014. Print

Congressional Quarterly, inc. (2012). Childhood and adolescence in society: Selections from CQ Researcher. Calif: SAGE. Print

Department of Education. “Cyberbullying: Advice For Headteachers And School Staff.” 2014. Accessed 25 April 2015 <https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/374850/Cyberbullying_Advice_for_Headteachers_and_School_Staff_121114.pdf&gt;.

Goldblum, Peter. Youth Suicide And Bullying : Challenges And Strategies For Prevention And Intervention. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. Print.

Goldman, Lauren, M. “Trending Now: The Use of Social Media Websites in Public Shaming Punishments.” American Criminal Law Review 52.415 (2015): 415-451.

Graham, M., W. H. Dutton and M. Castells. Society And The Internet : How Networks Of Information And Communication Are Changing Our Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Print

Manassis, Katharina. Case Formulation With Children And Adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press, 2014. Print

Scott, Peter R. and J. Mike Jacka. Auditing Social Media : A Governance And Risk Guide. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print

Stevenson, Angus and Maurice Waite. Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print

Tella, Adeyinka and A O Issa. Library And Information Science In Developing Countries : Contemporary Issues. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2012. Print.

Washington, Edwina, Thomas. “An Overview of Cyber bullying in Higher education.Adult Learning 26.1 (2015): 21-27.

Holiday Inn Express


In light of their latest victories, Holiday Inn Express is playing on an entire new playing field and has received another state of mind. They have customarily been known to offer standard items and were as of late requesting that customers come and investigate their customary Snowmass lodge which they have now made “retro-chic” with a broad redesign intended to make the cool mountain lodge Snowmass never had up to this point. Their Snowmass convenience offers numerous hip new rooms and interesting Holiday Inn Express Suites, transforming their recently remodeled mountain lodge into another Snowmass experience. They are doing this to stay aware of the times, pull in new customers while holding the current ones furthermore to stay aware of the times. Despite the fact that regardless they don the outside passageways, well disposed staff, and moderate DIY administrations from the conventional cabins of the past, that is the place “customary” closes at the new Holiday Inn Express.

Beginning in 1998, Holiday Inn Express began a promotion crusade called “Stay Smart” advertisements that highlighted common individuals accomplishing prevalent accomplishments, for example, deflecting an atomic fiasco or performing like rock stars. At the point when addressed on whether they are experts, they answer “No, yet I did stay at a Holiday Inn Express,” ascribing their aptitudes to their stay there. These promotions have gotten positive surveys, and have been so fruitful they have traversed into pop culture, being highlights in late night comic jokes and political satire shows.


Every hotel has to experience some form of competition from people who are on the same level laying field as they are. Standard service products attract many players meaning that competition is higer than the five star hotels. The primary point was to guarantee that the new era idea sat well in the commercial center against its rivals, for example, Premier Inn, Hampton by Hilton and Travelodge. The general room idea gives everything you need from a financial plan lodging brand, with vast beds, contemporary styled headboard with jog levered end tables, for simplicity of housekeeping, substantial working work area with a discretionary drawer, open board robe with roof soffit and long dress mirror with necessary hairdryer. All furniture completions are in a Tobacco Walnut.

Holiday Inn also has to compete with global players, like the Starwood Hotels & Resorts that is a its second most resilient rival, Marriott International, Choice Hotels International (CHH), Hyatt Corporation, the France-based ACCOR Group, and Intercontinental Hotels. Holiday Inn Express thrashed their rivals on two distinct phases: this was in simplicity of booking personal travel and also for their discounted corporate rate plan. But given how eager they are to work with corporate travel buyers, they try to offer a range of distribution modes from telephone calls to an online platform. They are now seeing an increasing number of business travelers call the 800 number from their car phone while already enroute.

So as to be on top of their rival, Holiday Inn is additionally progressively depending on the franchisee-based model for development. This empowers the organization to gain incomes without bringing about any extra expenses to buy land and build inns. This technique further empowers the organization to think its endeavors towards building a solid brand as opposed to purchasing land.







Organisational Change Management


Organisational change management (OCM) is a framework for managing the effects of dynamism of the various variables in a business environment and specifically the changing organisational structure. Successful organisational change management is based on creation of sound strategies (Senior, & Swailes, 2010). For instance, the strategies have to include an agreement on a common vision for the organisation, a program to educate the employees on how their roles and responsibilities in the company are about to change, a means of monitoring and evaluation as to whether the change process has been beneficial to the company or not and most importantly, rewards systems for employees that exhibit the best adaptability to the new changes.

Thus, it is right to infer that the most effectual application of organisational change involves changing the perceptions of the employees as they hold the key to a successful organisational change in any given firm.

Why and how middle managers resist and support?

Why middle managers support strategic change

As a result of rapid technological development, a workforce with growing abilities and the shifting of recognized work practices, change is gradually becoming an ever-present feature or characteristic of organisational life. Most changes in the organisational structure of a firm are based on the assumption that individual aims,wishes and needs are fully aligned with those of the organisation. Sometimes when this happens, there is internal acceptance of change and this rapidly translates into positive change (Senior, & Swailes, 2010).

A primary assumption underlying emergent theories is that in order to respond to change, managers must bear an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the firm, its structures, strategies, people as well as culture. This allows the managers to choose the most eefficient and appropriate approach to change and identify the factors that bear the potential to emerge as facilitators or barriers of the same (Beckhard, 2006)

The top two factors that make an organization effective at change management are support by middle management and stakeholder involvement in the initiative. This is because they make up the primary decision implementers in any firm and hold the best knowledge of the constantly changing business environment (Conway, & Monks, 2011).

The lack of sound senior leadership is the second biggest cause for organizational change failures. Thus it remains essential that senior management is up to the task of leading and managing middle managers through change. It remains of utter importance to involve employees effectively in organizational decision making and change program formulation. Consequently, during times of change, sound communication between middle management, lower ranking employees and the relevant stakeholders is more important than usual and can potentially play a significant role in the cost and outcome of change efforts.

Citing the observations above it is thus correct to make the inference that employee behaviour towards strategic change is strongly based on factors such as the organisation’s already established culture, rewards for high performing employees, the level of recognition that mid-level managers get for exemplary performance and the presence of appropriate incentives. This means that middle management involvement is crucial of paramount importance where change initiatives are concerned. The process of change management is a comprehensive and structured overture intended for transitioning persons, groups or organizations from a current to a future state with formulated and planned business or others gains. However, in the case of organizational change, it begins with organizational leaders formulating an organizational strategy and later the creation of an initiative that is aligned or parallel with that strategy. These strategic initiatives are formulated as a direct response to a change in the business environment. (Conway, & Monks,2011)

Reasons middle managers resist strategic change

Strategic initiatives, both projects and programs by their very nature drive change in an organization. (Oreg, 2006). It is important to note that any firm’s executives and employees view strategic change differently. For instance, senior managers usually take on change as an opportunity for both the firm as well as themselves. The employees on the other hand view change as disruptive, intrusive and likely to involve loss of comfort or much valued consistency. To gain a sound understanding of these varying perspectives and managing the change from both steads ensures a smoother and more successful transition for all persons involved. This is one of the stumbling blocks to effective change than makes middle managers resist strategic change.

The also exists the general assumption that people and especially middle managers have the desire to assimilate the firm’s organisational change into their lives, given all their priorities, the type of development or change the organisation deems appropriate for them may lack to coincide with their interests. This form of internal resistance ensures that there is no significant progress in the change process. Thus, the resources of the firm that are dedicated to the change are ultimately wasted. The managerial boards of any firm have to ensure that they appreciate and attain a thorough and clear understanding as to how change is managed in the organization. This recommends the managerial posts have the correct measures and information to challenge and recalibrate strategy implementation with their executives.

Another reason why change initiatives fail to succeed is the lack of clearly defined milestones for the organizational changes in the first place, a poor or inadequate commitment to the change process exhibited by senior management coupled with poor communication. It is thus important to note that the inability of senior management to effectively communicate the anticipated outcomes of these practices throughout the organization and especially to the middle managers is a source of failure. For instance, while outlining the milestones and metrics is an important initial step, communication of their impact to the whole organisation at large is essential. The creation of an effective communication plan, properly executing that plan and identifying, measuring as well as transmitting the intended gains of change are primal factors that boost an organizations ability to handle change.


Kotter, 1996 has a proposed and more emergent view to tackling employee resistance to change. They proceed to state that the circumstances of the change and the content of the change itself may differ divergently between various organisations. Thus go ahead to recommending that this knowledge should be employed when determining the appropriate response to the internal resistance. They outline a number of approaches from training to coercion, and further describing who and when to use them to reduce resistance. The research is very application friendly as it further details the advantages and drawbacks of each method.

Ultimately, this confirms that firms need to foster the culture of listening to their customers and gauge or judge the responses of their employees when implementing organisational change, since these factors are critical to a firm undergoing the change process.

Why do models of planned change not bring about cultural change?

Reasons models of planned change fail to bring about cultural change.

Fundamental to the success of organisational change is the acceptance of the change by employees. Within this context, the work of (Musson, & Duberley, 2007) who argued that all humans undergo 5 stages of ‘grief’ (denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance) when confronted with a loss or change is considered relevant and has been applied to the management of organisational change. (Wiggins, 2009) utilizes the model to help guide communication and support during the change period. The author then suggests that the model should be engineered to the stage of change that the employees have attained at any one time. For instance, after the news of change is delivered, employees need to be given a specific time period to tackle or take on their disaffirmations. Once the information has sunk in or taken effect and they experience anger and resistance, they require support to guide their misplaced energy otherwise undesired outcomes may befall the respective firm. Once workers have begun accepting the current and new situation, they require additional steering to help grasp the vision and gradually evoke commitment. It is thus correct to infer that the culture of an organisation cannot be changed seeing as how some cultures are inherent to the human condition. The above model may fail to work owing to the lack of interests that the employees of a firm may to respond to this type change.

According to (Smollan, & Sayers, 2009) modern societal conditions are exceptional in terms of change. Traditional industries have acknowledged that change is inevitable. The attainment of understanding and the management of change have developed into a virtual industry, that encompasses entire consultancy firms, the skills of reputable managers and leadership gurus, mass media, the business press, high-profile corporate executives, politicians and business schools, as well as management writings and management rhetoric and practice.

Contemporary ideas of change dictate that managers must be accustomed to working with planned organizational change while still being antiphonal to changes in the surrounding. The efforts made to change organizations take a lot of time as well as energy of many individuals in the leaderships ranks as well as other employees. If all parties involved are not interested in the paradigm of change being presented, this brews the lack of change in culture and ultimately there is no change in the culture of an organization (Harris, & Ogbonna, 2002). This can be classified under gross inadequacy of organizational commitment.

The absence of a sound plan despite the statement of the changes that are desired at the beginning of the planned change is a hindrance to change. When a change plan blueprint is brought about, sometimes it may be the work of an external auditor. Sometimes the plan may be formulated by a firm executives using perceived conditions and thereby fail to meet the requirements of the lower ranking employees. In turn this causes a total failure in the implementation because it does not hold much importance for the individuals for whom it was intended. Thus there should be a bottom-up approach to this issue rather than a top down approach in the formulation of sound plans for organisational change primarily because even if the changes are initiated, they are never take root in the organisation.

Organisational politics dictate the amount of trust employees in any given firm have in management. The trust levels have been found to effect a particularly strong impression on emotive, cognitive as well as behavioural resistance; an outcome that emphasises on the grandness of proficient management skills throughout a duration of change. This ensures that there is constructive criticism on both ends of the corporate hierarchy and thus a democracy or an illusion of it is created (Harris, & Ogbonna, 2002). This acts in reducing the resistance for change in employees mentioned many case studies of organizational change by actively involving the employees in the change or to empower them to make changes themselves.

Organisational change management involves the capability of an organisation to intricately design and transition change outcomes into the business. It remains the easiest element to understand and often the first area in which an organization can builds the capability for change. Developing capability in organisational change management starts with an understanding that the human resource side of projects need to be addressed with training and communications (Burnes, 2004). This then develops to achieve maximum returns where project change feedback and collaboration is leveraged towards accurately designing, initiating, directing and informing the approaches taken. For example, if an employer wishes to make changes that will affect what employees are expected to do for the organisation, like a change in working hours, it is implied that the organisation should also consider changing what they will offer to the employees to maintain a balance. Ultimately flexible organisational structures are created and these are more adaptable to change.

The executives of many organisations fail to match organisational effectiveness and planned change values. The most realistic objective to effective change is firmly based on the traditional notion that organisational structures are designed to achieve specific functions. This signifies that the strategic direction of any organisation in the past is never as important as it is in the present. Thus any change that will affect the structure of a business firm will ultimately affect the culture of a firm. However, the employees should understand that appropriate changes are meant to propel growth and development of the firm.

In conclusion, it is important to make the inference that the success of planned change in an organisation is based on how much attention is put to assessing the attitude and needs of the human resource first. Growth and change are expected occur through the evolution of skills and the abilities of the human resource in the firm. Targeting internal processes to effect change are the most effective ways to guarantee success in the case of a planned change. Changing the culture is a gradual process that is all-involving and should be conducted in an intricate fashion ensuring that all stakeholders are adequately involving.

How do leadership behaviours positively and negatively impact upon employee commitment to organisational change?

Effective organisational change management involves coming up with means to effectively reduce employee resistance and cost to the organisation while maximising the positive impact of this change on the firm (Senior, & Swailes, 2010). The business environment of this day calls for firms to undertake changes regularly so as to maintain the competitive edge. The competitive edge of a business may be lost if the firm is not responsive to changes like globalisation of markets and rapidly technological advancement.

Organisational change is most of the time brought about as an adaptive move to problems in the business environment. This calls for a management team that is quick in response to new or dormant potential strengths in the organisation. This discrepancy between current performance and optimum performance is called the performance gap. More often a change in the organisation will fail if it is resisted by the employees in the organisation. The failures can be primarily attributed to the manner in which the change is initiated, announced and implemented in the organisation. Employee resistance or acceptance to organisational change can be primarily attributed to the degree of contradiction of the employees’ interests with the change at hand (Thomas, & Hardy, 2011).

There are numerous approaches that have been employed to establish the role in which leadership plays in the commitment of employees to organisational change. Most of them are rooted in what many scholars consider change as a situational contingency that plays a vital role in the level of impact a given leadership style has. A Leaders’ character and behavior are vital traits especially during organizational change since the present a vision of the change, offer direct support to employees and model appropriate attitude (Furst, & Cable, 2008). On the other hand, employee’s then change initiatives as these initiatives are often found to be responded to negatively and resisted by the employees. Success or failure of any organization is therefore largely dependent upon the leaders’ capability to effectively handle endless changes being implemented in the organization’s dynamic environment as well as their ability influence employees and their committed to organizational towards the change process.

Transformational leadership is the style of leadership that leads to positive change by always being energetic, enthusiastic and encouraging followers to look for new ways to achieve their objectives (Beckhard, 2006). The original conceptualization of transformational leadership has its basis on the interaction of the three factors of charisma, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation.

Organisations have been frequently forced to come up with creative and innovative ways to cope with a rapidly changing environment by continuously adapting required changes. Thus, there exists the constant pressure on the leaders to be versatile in their decision making and leadership styles. This implies that businesses are required to be constantly morphing to keep up with competition in the marketplace. Transformational leadership ensure that the employees in the organisation approach the transitional periods of change with an objective mind. This is primarily because most organisational changes in a firm are viewed as stressful experiences. The transformational leader will ensure that feelings of loss of status, role conflicts and reduction in available resources are not felt. Transformational leadership style is a robust predictor of meliorated organizational performance as well as the employees’ emotive and normative dedication to change (Machin et al., 2009). Transformational leadership is perceived important during change periods due to the ability of transformational leaders to engage and involve followers as well as to avail motivation thus evoking support towards the leader’s chosen direction. Thus this is undeniably the best form of leadership to apply when looking for a best case scenario in creating a positive attitude of employees towards organizational change.

Other methods of leadership are either ineffective due to the lack of proper direction and coaching of the employees or inappropriate in the times of organizational changes in a firm. Poor leadership during a period of change for any firm can affect the employees in one of several ways. First, there is a general lack of synergy in the firm. Effective managers show the ability to promote idea sharing and discussion in the organization. The lack of synergy however, means that change is not going to be effected in the organization because of the general lack of mutual goals. Eventually there is more fragmentation in a firm and employees end up neglect their duties in the change process.

Secondly, a morale level dwindling is another consequence of poor leadership. Employees generally adopt a feeling of misdirection coupled with uncertainty about their future in the organization. Consequently the employees will be lost to competitor firms or even quit to avoid being fired whether it is a real threat or not (Lundy, & Morin, 2013). This plunges the organization into a downward spiral owing to the exodus of top performers in the field.

The best tangible tool to measure poor leadership in an organization that is experiencing change is poor profits or dwindling returns. The lack of commitment of the employees is a driver of poor sales and inefficiency in the organization. A drop in profits is a show that the employees are lacking in dedication and hence performance. In an ideal situation, optimal performance is something that is inspired by the leaders of the organization.

An ineffective leadership for a business sets a clear direction, and ensures that the subordinates align their primary objectives to a stipulated strategic plan. In the case of a poor leadership, this is not done and eventually low rates of success in   implementation of organizational change are experienced (Gill, 2003). Sponsors and stakeholder may be compelled to pull away from one such organization since the leaders are not steering the firm towards satisfying their own interests.


















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The Jew of Malta and Othello plays views on Religion and Criminality

The Jew of Malta and the Othello Plays views on Religion and Criminality

Question Three

In the Jew of Malta, there are three religions involved, they are Christianity, Jewish, and the Muslim Turks. The play begins with Barabbas, who is a Jewish merchant waiting for news about the arrival of his ships. After the confirmation that the ships had safely arrived at Malta from East, three men come to visit him with some news from the Maltese governor, Ferneze. The Turkish Sultan demands some tribute from Malta, which has accumulated for ten years. As a result, the governor orders all the Jews to give half of their estate to the governor to help him pay tribute to the Turks. All the three men accompanying Barabbas to the senate house are Jews. When Barabas considers and claims the action to be unfair, the governor confiscates all his ships in the Malta. Fernezes is a Christian and the religious language he uses against the Jews is not fair. He does not mention of Christians or Muslim Turks assisting him pay the tribute. As a result, Barabas declares revenge against the governor and all Christians. Barabas makes his decision about Christians basing his argument on the actions of only one Christian, Fernezes, and the Maltese governor (Eder, 2011).

The Othello play is displays some religious aspects and imagery. The play begins in the streets of Venice where two young men Roderigo and Lago shouts from outside the house of the Duke of Venice, Brabantio that his daughter, Desdemona had eloped with Othello, the Moor. Roderigo had failed in winning Desdemona hand in marriage and is accusing Othello of using witchcraft that is against the religion of Othello. Othello confesses that he won his wife in a clean and transparent way by sharing his adventure and true love with her. Othello had promoted Cassio in the workplace where Roderigo expected a promotion. The Duke of Venice, Brabantio is a Jew while Othello is a Christian, and he was very mad when he realized his daughter’s marriage to the Christian. After the case is presented to the officers of Venetian court and solved, Othello is set free to marry Desdemona. The religious imagery of the play is revealed when the Duke appoints Othello to the general in the defense against the Turks. He is a Jew, and he does not like the Muslim Turks. Othello is sent to Cyprus with his wife accompanying him in the next ship. The Christians, Muslim Turks, and Jews have enmity based on religious beliefs. Each of them receives religious teaching and morals to love and respect each other unfortunately, they do not observe the teachings (Shakespeare & Holste, 2002).

From the play the Jew of Malta, the governor also takes away, the Barabas house and converts it into a convent. This is a way of punishing the Jew for not cooperating in assisting the state in paying tribute to the Turks. Every Jew was supposed to give half of his estate to the governor, Fernezes, but Barabas refused. All his wealth was taken away and used by Christians which hurts him. To prove the religious conflict, he uses his daughter Abigal to revenge against the Maltese governor. According to (Kelsall, 2001) Abigail, is in a romantic relationship with Mathias, who is a friend to Lodowick, the Fernezes daughter. Coincidentally, Lodowick also had some interest in Abigail. With the help of Ithamore, the Turkish slave that Barabas bought from Fernezes, he creates a conflict between the two young men, and they end up killing each other. Ithamore is a Muslim Turk, who also hates Christians just like his boss Barabas. They are both criminals, and they work together in eliminating Christians from Malta. He makes them believe that his daughter is interested in them which is a lie. Abigal is very sad when he realizes that his father set a trap to kill Mathias. Barabas did not like the two Christians and did not want them anywhere close to his daughter, and hence he killed them. Barabas referred to Christians as thieves. This was an abusive language, whereas, he was a murderer. Barabas notes that he is just following Christian examples by quoting from the act in Catholic Christian teaching, “Faith is not to be kept with heretics”, where all the heretics are not Jews as McAdam, (2009) confirms. The Jew uses this to defend his evil actions against Christians.

Desdemona is accused of infidelity by Iago. Iago works to ensure divorce between Othello and his wife. He had been given some money by rich Rodinego to work for the divorce. Cassio got drunk after influence by Iago and Othello accused him of causing disturbance. Therefore, Desdemona, Othello’s wife promised Cassio that she would talk with her husband to ensure they reconciled and that he was not demoted. Iago, who is the husband to Emillia, a servant of Desdemona, accused Desdemona of infidelity. In the religious definition, infidelity was viewed as a severe offense in the Christian religious beliefs.As a result, Othello becomes very furious and orders Iago to kill Cassio. Othello goes ahead to kill his wife out of infidelity. The religious beliefs regarding infidelity does not allow the husbands to kill their wives. However, Othello goes ahead and does it. Therefore, the religious term infidel is revealed here. Othello, an African Christian does not follow on his Christian teachings and beliefs. He is unfaithful to his religious teachings. Therefore, in the act of redefining the religious term in the play, a Christian should follow the religious teachings and beliefs (Shakespeare, The tragedy of othello, the moor of venice, 2014). Othello is wrong and unreligious in the Christian faith by killing his wife and commanding Iago to kill Cassio. Killing is not taught in the Christian religion. Idolatry is also revealed where the Duke, believes that Othello used witchcraft to marry his daughter. Nevertheless, Desdemona confesses to love truly Othello.

An aspect of renegade is also revealed in the Jews of Malta. This refers to an act of moving from one religion to another that opposes it. After Abigal, Barabas daughter realized that his father caused the death of his love, Mathias, she joins convent where she becomes a Christian (Logan, 2013). The first time when she went to the convent in pretense to become a Christian, she wanted to get gold from his father’s house that was converted into the convent by the fernezes, the Maltese governor. She converted back to Jew after getting the gold. Abigal was serious for converting to Christianity for the second time after learning how evil her father was. Unfortunately, Barabas killed all the nuns and his daughter by poisoning them using rice porridge. Barabas had also confused the priests by promising them that he would convert to Christianity. Barabas did not to convert to Christianity but wanted to set a trap to the two priests. Due to greediness for money, the two priests started fighting for Barabas to join their church. Marlowe, Gill, & Rowland, The complete works / 4 The Jew of Malta., (2005) puts it clearly that the focus was not to preach the religious practices to Barabas but to benefit from his wealth. Unfortunately, they both lost their lives. Barabas kills the two Friars after inviting them into his house. Abigal had confessed of her father’s criminal offense to the two priests, Jacomo and Bernadine of killing Lodowick and Mathias before she died. Therefore, renegade, idolatry, and infidel are redefined as in the two plays as described (Marlowe & Ellis, 2003).

Malta, Venice, and Cyprus are figured as areas of religious identity, criminality, sexual and gender issues related to the two plays. Barabas commits all his crimes in Malta; he killed the nuns and his daughter in the convent that is located in Malta. Barabas is not happy with the Maltese governor and hence figure the place as an area of committing crimes for revenge. The two priests, Jacomo, and Bernadine, were also killed in Malta. When the prostitute whom Ithamore had fallen in love advised him to blackmail Barabas, she was also poisoned by Barabas. Barabas is a Jew, who is a criminal. By the end of the play, he also killed Ithamore after learning his plan with the prostitute to blackmail him of his gold. In the same way, all the religious conflicts take place in Malta. The Christians, Jews and Muslim Turks in Malta are enemies to each other. Towards the end of the play, Barabas wanted to kill Turkish sultan’s son Selim Calymath, who was sent to collect the tribute from the Malta governor. Fortunately, Fernezes stopped him.

In Venice, Othello is a male general who is sent to Cyprus to fight against Turks. The issue of gender and sexuality comes in. The duke selects a male defense general basing his argument on gender. The crimes also take place in Cyprus where Cassio and Desdemona are killed. All the crimes are based on religious rhetorical beliefs. Barabas kills his daughter for converting to Christianity, which is a rhetoric, religious belief. All the other nuns did not deserve to die. That was an issue between him and his daughter. According to Hall, (2009) the Duke is also seen to have some rhetoric, religious beliefs. He believes that Othello used witchcraft to win his daughter’s hand in marriage.

In conclusion, the two plays, The Jew of Malta and Othello involves religious beliefs and imagery. The characters like Barabas are Jews, and they hate Christians who have been revealed through the criminal acts of killing them. The governor is also not fair to Jews because, he takes the house of Barabas and convert it into a convent. Barabas defends his evil action from the fact that a Christian, Fernezes took away all his wealth. Infidel, Renegade and idolatry are religious terms redefined in the two plays. Malta, Venice, and Cyprus are viewed and defined by the characters with rhetoric, religious beliefs as the places for religious identity, sexuality and crime re-fashioning. The evils that revolve around the three areas are linked to rhetoric, religious beliefs. Barabas kills Christians as a result of rhetoric beliefs about Christianity. However, he is a criminal because he kills even Ithamore, a Muslim Turk, who was his servant. He also had intentions of killing Calymath, who is the son of Sultan; he comes to get tribute from Malta. However, Fernezes stops him from killing the innocent young man. Barabas is a criminal and a selfish man.


Eder, K. (2011). T. S. Eliot, The Jew of Malta: Farcical and symbolical elements, anti-Christian elements, anti-Muslim elements, dramatic technique. München : GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Hall, J. L. (2009). Othello: a guide to the play. Westport, Conn. [u.a] : Greenwood Press.

Kelsall, M. (2001). Christopher Marlowe. Leiden: Brill.

Logan, R. A. (2013). The Jew of Malta: a critical reader. London: Arden Shakespeare.

Marlowe, C., & Ellis, H. (2003). The Jew of Malta. New York: Dover Publications.

Marlowe, C., Gill, R., & Rowland, R. (2005). The complete works / 4 The Jew of Malta. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

McAdam, I. (2009). The irony of identity: self and imagination in the drama of Christopher Marlowe. Newark: University of Delaware Press; London: Associated University Presses, cop.

Shakespeare, W. (2014). The tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice. Minneapolis: First Avenue Editions.

Shakespeare, W., & Holste, G. (2002). Othello. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.

Explication and analysis of Emily Dickinson poetry


I like to see it lap the Miles is a short poem written by Emily Dickinson. This essay is going to discuss the Explication and the analysis of this poem. Emily correlates two forms of transportation of her time with a figurative and sound device. The imagery usage by Dickinson helps the reader to create intense images as well as sounds that are similar towards what the speaker of the poem is experiencing (Abad 89). The speaker is watching a train but describes it like a horse. The comparison seems to be apparent since the behavior of the “horse” only stops to feed. Besides one moment that it stops to refuel, the entire poem only talks about how the “Horse” is running nonstop. It is described being a “promoter than a star” meaning it is quick and efficient. The implication is that the train can transport goods or people readily like the horse used to do before the invention of the train. The train is the new invention during the time of the narrator.

The poem contains figurative language like hyperbole and personification. For example, the train is stopping in order to feed itself at the tank; it is licking the valleys up, and also making prodigious steps.. Emily uses hyperbole in “prompter than a star” in order for the audience to visualize the image of the speed of the train that is traveling fast like the star. The sound devices in the poem are the alliteration, onomatopoeia, and consonance. The onomatopoeia in the poem aids the reader in understanding the imaging of the shouting of the Boanerges. The consonance keeps the flow of the song and also emphasizing the words by repeating letter “s.” All this makes the poem more creative (Priddy and Bloom 185).

For the successful creation of the descriptive images, the poem uses figurative and sound devices. The continuous comparison between the train and the horse was auspiciously done with the persistent use of onomatopoeia and personification. Each literary device used in the poem was utilized very gainfully by effectively showing the readers that the train and the horse are being compared.

In analyzing about Dickinson’s “I like to see it lap the Miles,” first we ought to understand that the poem is in the form of a riddle. An essay about a poem like this would mostly start with an explication of what the poem “means”. Hence, it ought to be done following the line-by-line analysis. By so doing, the riddle in the poem is easily solved.

The starting line of the poem introduces a narrator “I” who is not known. The subject “it” is also introduced and is unidentified. Following the deeds of “it”, it is easy to ascertain its identity. In the first line, it “laps” the miles, which is a seemingly animalistic thing to do that is devouring or rather drinking the miles. The metaphor continues to manifest in the next line, as it will also “lick the Valleys up”. At this particular time, what seems to be proposed is the swift move of an animal. On surveying on line three through seven, the train is depicted making prodigious steps whereby it is stopping so that it can refuel itself to be enabled climb along the mountains which are piled. It is now clear that what is being revealed is something different from an animal. It is large; its movements not only do the “lapping” and “Lick” over very vast miles, but also can “step” around mountains. By now, we have an idea that Dickinson is presenting us with an imaginative view of a train, although one may wish to follow variant readings creative (Priddy and Bloom 185).

.           Following the actions of the train, one comes to an understanding that the subject of the poem is about the “iron horse” of the first railways. In stanza three, it appears that the train has pared a quarry “to fit its Ribs” which might be thought to be its tracks. As it tours between them, the train is “complaining all the while, In Horrid hooting stanza “. In this case, Dickinson suggests the great whistle of the train and the noise. The poem continues to journey along together with the train and increases its speed as it approaches its ending destination (Dickinson, Mesmer, and Wolff 57).

The narrator adores surveillance the train roaming from side to side of the state making her imagine that it is a type of a giant horse character, moving fast and far licking up the countryside. She believes that the train is feeding itself at thanks in an ostensibly way, by either filling with new passengers at the stations or being refueled.

There is a significance use of the riddle in this poem “I like to see it lap the Miles.” it emphasizes the disconnection between this enigmatic creature from the natural domain that it subsists combinable with emulates. Dickinson gives the train action in the poem whereby it laps, it crawls, it licks, it feeds alone, it shows emotions, it is supercilious, it complains. In so doing, she isn’t complicating the riddle, rather creates an implicit comparison between all creatures of the natural world that do feed on themselves, complain, crawl and this train. By doing the description by comparing it to the natural world language, she creates a striking connection between the world and that train (Eissinger 78).

On the analysis of the topics and strategies in this poem, Dickinson tries to address a new technology forthrightly. The obvious theme portrayed is the effect the new technology might have on the landscape, the animal, and the people it will supplant. The other less obvious theme is on how the senses ought to be used in order to understand something that is totally new (Dickinson, Mesmer, and Wolff 57). The reader has an obligation of understanding that the subject of the poem is a train by hearing and seeing it, rather than being told directly.

Works Cited

Abad, Gemino H. In Another Light: Poems and Essays. Quezon City: U of the Philippines P, 1976. Print.

Dickinson, Emily, Edric Mesmer, and Virginia E. Wolff. I’m Nobody! Who Are You?: Poems by Emily Dickinson. New York: Scholastic Inc., 2002. Print.

Eissinger, Richard A. Library Instruction for the 21st Century: A Special Loex-of-the-West Theme Issue ; Plus Library Instruction and Information Literacy 1997. Ann Arbor: Pierian Press, 1998. Print.

Priddy, Anna, and Harold Bloom. Bloom’s How to Write About Emily Dickinson. New York: Bloom’s Literary Criticism, 2008. Print.

Solotaroff, Ted, and Nessa Rapoport. The Schocken Book of Contemporary Jewish Fiction. New York: Schocken Books, 1996. Print.

How Perceptual processes affect The Elderly

My analysis is based on the elders persona or elderly market segment (Age 60 and above).I will explain how the key concepts or keywords listed below affect the elderly personas.



Hedonic Consumption

Audio- watermarking




Actual Self

Pleasure principles

Identity marketing


This is a German word which means whole or complete. Gestalt refers to an overall pattern that guides principles of perceptual organization. According to Gestalt psychology, the whole is more significant or greater than the sum of its parts (p. 195)

The elderly, due to long buying experience and many years of continued consumption of products, have become familiar with particular brands. The elders have also become accustomed to certain messages regarding their preferred brands, as such they are receptive to messages from manufacturers of these brands that use closure principle. For example many males among the elders have used Gillette shaving blades for years and can identify with any message from Proctor & Gamble on Gillette shavers such that at the mention of Gillette they can finish the message with the slogan “The best a man can get”.

The elderly, like other consumers, tend to group together objects that share similar physical characteristics. For example, all washing detergents are grouped together because they have similar packaging and share similar colored liquid character. Most of these detergents have pictures of washing machines or laundry on their package covers. Based on the similarities, all household detergents are grouped together and during shopping an elder can pick any from the supermarket shelf, since one will serve the same purpose just as the next one on the shelf.

Hedonic Consumption

Hedonic consumption focuses on a consumer’s emotional experience of a product. The elderly have over time observed manufacturing costs going down and consumption going up, they gradually want to buy things that provide additional experiences. This suggests that the elderly have a preference for products that appeal to their needs or to the emotional aspects of consumer’s interaction with products. The elders’ tendency have a preference for a microwave oven that can cook, defrost, grill, bake and make popcorn is a case in point , to show how the elders demand a product that delivers hedonic value. The elderly also spur demand for products that they derive satisfaction from, like pure ground coffee which always stimulates them and makes them alert. This is because the sensations we experience are context effects that subtly influence how we think about products we encounter. Some encounters can lead to consumers detesting the product or feeling positively predisposed to it depending on the level of positive sensations experienced from using the product.

Audio- Watermarking

A well-known trick used by producers and musicians to weave a sound motif into a piece of music (p. 180). This is based on the psychological fact that music and sounds affect people’s feelings and behaviors. It is a form of sensory marketing which emphasizes on the link between our senses and product experiences. Radio and T.V commercials commonly make use of this form of marketing.

The elders especially have a tendency to remember sounds associated with particular events especially those that left a pleasant feeling. If a product is associated with a positive memory, the elderly are more likely to opt for it than any other product which has no memory attached to it. Creators of sensory marketing campaigns emphasize on the sensory characteristics of products that sticks with the customers, helping them remember the product in a positive and unique way. This strategy works well with children and the elderly and they are the main target group of radio and T.V advertisements that use jingles and similar sounds, because they are easy to remember and are associated with products that appeal to them. The audio messages are in the form of jingles or songs that usually trigger memories of the past. This gives the product a unique sensory quality, separate from the competition.


Halo-effect refers to the reaction of people to other similar stimuli, the same way they responded to the original stimulus. This happens when the consumers assume that the similar product or the imitation, shares the same characteristics with the original product (p. 210). The elderly are sometimes duped into thinking that imitation or copy products are the original products that are widely known. In the market ,there are many “look-alike” products made in China and Taiwan. They range from motor-vehicle and motor-cycle spare parts, consumer electronics , cosmetics and beauty products. The elderly have often confused imitation or copy “Nikke”, “sonny”, “Phillips”and “everyday” for the original brands of Nike shoes, SONY electronics, Philips electronics & eveready batteries. When the quality of the copy is compromised as it is in most instances, the consumers are more positively predisposed towards the original. In rare cases ,the elderly discover the quality of the original and copy are equal and in such instances they conclude that the price they pay for the original is not worth it and opt for the imitation which is usually of a lower price.


This is the action of adding gaming elements to everyday tasks. Applying basic principles of gaming like winning, losing, challenges, rewards and penalties to motivate consumers and employees. The elderly have been incorporated into the idea of gamification which was previously not practiced in the mainstream business environment. Organizations are now borrowing from gaming by involving customers in various challenges with motivation to progress to the next level with a system of rewards and penalties. Successful candidates get to enjoy benefits ranging from cash to discounted prices and complimentary goodies. Gaming is important for the elderly as for everybody else as it has benefits and important elements like creating a dynamic digital environment, promoting rapid feedback and enhancing healthy competition in a low risk environment.

Popular gaming names include Aherk! That promotes negative reinforcement, Gympact which encourages workout and penalizes inconsistency and work or die which is a remedy for writer’s block. Fitocracy is a weight-loss game that the elderly can engage in because it encourages achievement of physical fitness (p. 217 ) . Gamification incorporates many aspects of business and life in general with a common need to motivate and reward people to achieve excellence. These include repeat business, brand loyalty, social marketing, employee performance and bulk purchasing.


To measure memory for product information, either recognition or recall technique is used. Consumers will more easily remember an advert or product message if it is presented to them than to recall one without being given any clues. The elderly bear memories from the past and even if they might not recall messages, they will easily recollect an advert from the past if prompted with an image or sound clip. The elderly also tend to keep in their memory, adverts that stuck in their minds because they were positively disposed towards the product. For the elderly, any product they recall because it has always been in their minds, Is a product they can readily purchase again. Recognition as well as recall methods play a vital role in purchase decisions by the elderly. Recognition is more important to the elderly since there are a multitude of options to choose from which can cause confusion if one does not have enough data on all the products available. In the battle of recall versus recognition, I think recognition is better because the results are more reliable in that they are more durable. The results from recall tests expire after a very short period and are therefore not very reliable. Apart from reliability, recognition is a simpler process and the consumer has more retrieval cues source from. Elders are more likely to recognize as they need prompting to recall, many of them recall products because of long-term consumption in the past.

Actual Self

This refers to our own realistic appraisal of qualities we possess or do not possess, based on a genuine personal evaluation. We buy products that help us to reach the ideal standard we have set for ourselves based on this personal appraisal. We also purchase products that are in conformity to the actual self. The elderly make purchase decisions based on how they perceive themselves and buy products that represent that image. For instance, when purchasing clothing items, the elderly shop in places where they can find the right items and purchase those that appear to create an image they would want to portray to others. This is impression management where we work hard to manage what others think of us. The elderly are also influenced by societal expectations and strive to conform to what society finds acceptable. In the market for clothing items for instance, there is segmentation based on gender, sex and age, and as such you find sections for ladies wear, children’s wear, gents wear and even within these, there is further demarcation like teens wear. It is unacceptable therefore for the elderly to purchase and put on attire meant for teenagers.

Pleasure principle

This refers to a basic desire to maximize pleasure an avoid pain. It is a desire that guides our behavior and the id operates on this principle, according to Sigmund Freud (p. 260). The id is illogical and selfish and directs the individual’s psychic energy towards pleasurable exploits without regard to consequences. The opposite of the id is the superego and it counters the id. The superego is the person’s conscience, using societal rules to counter the id’s selfish gratification.

The ego is the mediator between the id and the superego and tries to strike a balance between the opposing forces using the reality principle. The pleasure principle underlines consumer behavior by bringing out the importance of unconscious motives that guide our purchases. This means elderly make purchase decisions based on guidance from the pleasure principle even without their knowledge. Because the pleasure principle operates in the subconscious mind, it works covertly and hence the customer cannot point out accurately the basis for their decision or their true motivation when they choose a product. According to Freud, there is the possibility that the ego relies on symbolism in products to reach a compromise between the demands of the id and prohibition of the superego (p. 260).

Identity Marketing

Identity marketing is a promotional strategy whereby consumers alter some aspects of their selves to advertise for a branded product (p. 276).

This is done so that the product can identify and be in touch with the market. For a product to be acceptable in the market especially among the elderly, they must identify with it and trust that the product will meet their needs. Identity marketing gives the product validation and empowers a product to be accepted based on the fact that people are receptive to products that have an identity that they can recognize. Just like they trust people they know, consumers develop trust for products that portray a human side. This point is especially poignant for the elderly because they are not receptive to new ideas and products. They view any new product with aloofness and mistrust and so identity marketing is the right strategy to reach the elderly.


Solomon, M.R. (2015). Consumer Behavior: buying, having and being (11Th ed.). Pentrice Hall.