Bwalya, K. J., & Zulu, S. (2012). Handbook of research on e-government in emerging economies: Adoption, e-participation, and legal frameworks. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference
E-waste is defined as the waste as a waste of electronic and electrical Equipments(WEEE).Also the term E-waste comprises consumer such as electronic such as fridges ,computers and their peripherals that have been disposed by the first hand consumers. However the term is also used usually to describe all wastes contained electrically power-driven components which are valuable but perilous and may require exceptional handling and recycling methods. Some other definitions renders to products that are fully useful but no longer serve the desires of the original purchaser as e-waste. Disposal of products of previous products should be termed as e-waste if it will be useful and safely used by the secondly user at any time its life time. Considering the opportunity to re-use the product again
CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Downfield, D. A., & Linke, B. S. (2012). Leveraging technology for a sustainable world: Proceedings of the 19th CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, USA, May 23-25, 2012. Heidelberg: Springer
Electronic and electrical equipment are popular in recent world and have large effects on environment. For instance in Japan there legislations that require users to return back selected products to recycling facilities. The ratio of recycled material out of the collected volume of the products is higher than the collected amount to the production amount which is not sufficient. Evaluating the waste for example e home appliances composition rates nearly 70 percent today. For laptops, pcs it ranges about 10 percent while other small medium size electronics such mobile phone covers smaller percentage. The outflow of electronic wastes possesses a greater danger to environment and human health.
Friis, R. H. (2012). The Praeger handbook of environmental health. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Polychlorinated biphenyls are extensive environmental contaminants and persist for years because their resistance to photolytic, biological and chemical degradation. According half lives of PCB congeners varies from months to years. For instance the PCB 153 congener was found in the highest concentration in human adipose tissue, where the same levels of cogner were found to be very low in environmental and commercial samples. Human liver micromes was found not to metabolize PCB 155 under different conditions resulting in a very long half life PCBs are lipophilic compounds and they tend to biomagnified and bio-accumulate in the food chain. From the research done they are found in large amounts in avian predators and sport caught fish, especially those near the top of ecosystems food chains. Chemical composition of the PCBs include one of the top ten chlorinated biphenyls.the possible 209 compounds are known as congeners PCBs
Hester, R. E., & Harrison, R. M. (2009). Electronic waste management. Cambridge, UK: RSC Pub.
The chapter tries to introduce the topic off electronic waste and its management in the relation to our universal need to act in a more sustainable manner. There also attempts to set the scene for more detailed coverage of specific subjects in the chapter. It is definite that while the world population increasing access to ever growing types and quantities of electrical and electronics equipments has numerous benefits but associated with serious issues need to be addressed, not just the end of the product life but throughout the products lifecycle. Challenge is to design further processes, procedures and materials that will enable greater use to be made of WEEE. it also be important that new environmentally related legislation are appropriately designed, wherever it is implemented does not differ heavily in scope from other similar legislations if implemented in the coming years.
Pauli, G. A. (2010). The blue economy: 10 years, 100 innovations, 100 million jobs. Taos, NM: Paradigm Publications.
The ideas of tormenting science and realizing resource-efficient, competitive economy and low carbon production in the 21st century. It remarkable that some the greatest opportunities for jobs will come from replicating the waste free efficiency of ecosystems. If humans could only unravel the fascinating processes, structures, and designs of production and manufacturing of electronic and electrical. Then we would have new and transformational solutions to the many challenges faced by the a planet of six million people prospected to raise by nine billion by 2050
The blue economy gives an opportunity to this fresh and forward looking field.varous pioneering advances will convince institutions, and government’s leaders to explore and develop sustainable sciences at their foundation of these developments. Technology demonstrates that we can find methods of using renewable and environmental friendly materials to minimize wastes in our homes and landfills.